International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy (42 papers in press)
A Fuzzy MCDM-Based Approach for Renewable Energy Technologies Prioritization
by Maryam Ebrahimi
Abstract: The main objective of this study is to build a decision model adapted to prioritize renewable energy technologies by applying fuzzy multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods. A comprehensive set of criteria is presented based on sustainability due to its importance in the long-term, particularly in the field of energy which is a key element of sustainable development. They are classified into five categories such as technical, economic, environmental, social, and political criteria. This model is then operationalized in the scope of solar energy technologies in Iran. This paper examines and compares the results of fuzzy TOPSIS, and fuzzy PROMETHEE based on a single decision maker. The results show that rather than the two technologies, others in both methods have moderate differences in ranking. However, technological decisions are preferred to be made based on FTOPSIS results because it is considered to be more realistic.
Keywords: renewable energy; technology prioritization; Iran; multi-criteria decision making; fuzzy logic.
A Framework to Identify and Overcome Barriers in Launching Sustainable Energy Projects in the Iranian Industrial Sector
by Reza Sirous, Rui Borges Lopes
Abstract: Iranian Resistance Economy policy embodies a strong focus on sustainable development and, respectively, in energy sustainability. A major issue in implementing the policy is how to facilitate the deployment of sustainability initiatives and eliminate existing barriers. This paper presents a framework for identifying and attempting overcoming these barriers using Soft Systems Methodology (SSM). The proposed framework also integrates other methods and is called Compound Sustainable Energy Launching (CSEL). This multi-methodology framework aims not only eliminating energy sustainability barriers but also an efficient assignment of capital investment on such initiatives. Applicability of the framework is analyzed on three Iranian companies of the industrial sector, for which main conclusions are presented and discussed.
Keywords: Energy; Energy sustainability; Multi-methodology; Barriers in sustainability; Capital investment; Iran.
Implementation of photovoltaic energy generation to reduce the cost of electricity in the water sector in Jordan
by Mohammed Al-Soud
Abstract: Water companies in Jordan pay approximately 150 million JOD per year for electricity, which represents, as of 2013, approximately 50% of the total operating expenses of the companies(1 USD=0.71JOD). Following the changes in the electricity tariff system occurred in 2013, electricity prices for the water sector will increase annually from 76 fils in 2013 to 133 fils in 2017 which will take the total electricity expenses to 250 million JOD per year (1JOD=1000 fils) .This study assessed and evaluated options to generate renewable energy (RE) as a means to reduce the cost of electricity in the water sector, the RE technology selected for this assessment has been the solar photovoltaic technology (PV). For this purpose, five water facilities were selected based on the available data. Energy yield assessments have taken into account the local irradiation conditions at each of the sites based on irradiation databases available. The two supporting mechanisms applicable to the present study are the net-metering and the power wheeling mechanisms .The proposed possible solutions for the implementation of PV projects including their economic sustainability and technical feasibility, with the possibility to be connected the RE systems to the grid. The results of our simulations show that, considering typical CAPEX and OPEX for PV projects in Jordan and the current electricity prices for end-users, the initiative is economically sustainable and might bring sensible benefits for the water companies.
Keywords: water pumping; photovoltaic; net-metering; power wheeling; CAPEX; OPEX.
A critical review of research trends for wind energy in Egypt: Recent progress and promising opportunities
by Mohammed Moness, Ahmed Moustafa
Abstract: Energy is a cornerstone for achieving industrial development and prosperous economy. Wind energy have the biggest share of renewable energy sector in many countries leading the way for replacing fossil fuels. Egypt, as one of the developing countries, is heading towards increasing penetration levels of wind power to face energy challenges. This strategy takes advantage of the investigated high potential of wind energy in several locations across Egypt. In order to gain most benefits and economical revenues from wind energy, a national research and development policies have to be deployed. Effective research policies enhance the capabilities of local industry for wind power technology. This review characterizes current progress and categorizes areas of interest for recent research of wind energy in Egypt. Accordingly, a vision for existing gaps, futuristic directions and promising areas for research is formulated.
Keywords: Renewable energy; Wind energy; Wind energy potential; Wind power technology; Egypt.
Optimal design of stand-alone hybrid power system using wind and solar energy sources
by Mouna LAMNADI
Abstract: Stand-alone hybrid renewable energy systems are more reliable than one-energy source systems. However, their design is crucial. For this reason, a new methodology with simulation having as aim to design an autonomous hybrid PV-wind-battery system is proposed. Based on a triple multi-objective, the present methodology combines life cycle cost (LCC), embodied energy (EE) and loss of power supply probability (LPSP). For a location, meteorological and load data have been collected and assessed. Afterwards, components of the system and optimization objectives have been modelled. Finally, an optimal configuration has been put in place using a dynamic model and applying a controlled elitist genetic algorithm for multi-objective optimization. This methodology has been applied successfully for the sizing of a PV-wind-battery system to supply at least 95% of yearly total electric demand of a residential house.
Keywords: Hybrid power systemr
Role of Public R&D funding in Fuel Cell; Analysis on Iranian Universities
by Javad Soltanzadeh, Reza Salami
Abstract: Achieving Sustainable Development (SD), environmental protection and security of energy supply are two main challenges of government in developed or developing countries. Energy experts believe that fuel cell and hydrogen energy technologies as a green technology will play a significant role in the portfolio for a future energy. In developed countries, technological regimes and its actors have self-willingness to track advanced technologies and new knowledge (such as Fuel Cell)due to poor innovative capabilities and lack of absorptive capacities, developing countries need to insert R&D expenditure in particular for public universities. What concerns should be considered in the public R&D funding? Or can governments promote Fuel Cell (FC) technology only by increasing R&D funding?
Based on the case of Iran, this paper discusses government intervention and R&D investment about knowledge creation in FC to achieve sustainable development. Having surveyed 900 papers published by Iranian researchers from 2000 to 2014, it can be shown that:1. Iran is 21th countries of published papers in Fuel Cell field; 2.Most of these papers focus on Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC); 3.More than eighty percent of total papers have been published by 23 public universities. It is argued that policymakers must create R&D network in national boundaries to improve funding efficiency and design effective policy to commercialize new created knowledge that encourages the demand side.
Keywords: Sustainable Development; Renewable Energy; Public R&D Funding; Fuel Cell; Iranian Universities.
Do Time Phase and Income Influence the Convergence in Energy Intensity? A Cross-Country Analysis
by Yu Sang Chang, Seongmin Jeon, NeiHei Park
Abstract: Countries energy intensity levels are known to converge at both global and regional levels. We test the convergence in energy intensity using a large recent data set: a 151-country sample during the period of 19802010. In addition, time phase and income are examined to identify the factors that influence a countrys aggregate level of energy intensity. With income time-phased analysis, we discovered a pronounced convergence during the period between 1980 and 1990 and then a moderate convergence later during the period. With the subgroup analysis, middle income yields the most rapid convergence. Furthermore, high incomes negative role is so pervasive that non-convergence or divergence may take place.
Keywords: Energy Intensity; Convergence; Time phased; Income; Distribution Dynamics.
Factors influencing grid interactive wind power industry in India
by Manjushree Banerjee, Gautam Dutta
Abstract: Increasing wind power capacities demand increased private sector participation while states are responsible for the renewable projects as well as for achieving their renewable targets. The paper aims at identifying the influencing factors in scaling up of grid interactive wind power through the lens of entrepreneurs and state policies. Adequate tariff, savings on power expenditure in industries, Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) targets, long-term Power Purchase Agreements, liberal energy banking and favourable open access policies are found to be encouraging while insufficient tariff, delayed payments, policy uncertainties, limitations in energy banking and difficult land processes are counted as barriers. Country level analysis reveals that presently the installed capacities are unable to respond to the state wind tariff though it strongly responds to the power tariff for industries. Suggestions to develop a policy scenario wherein the installed capacities respond to the state tariff are proposed. The scope of wind power is to be enhanced through favourable open access policies and high RPO targets.
Keywords: Grid interactive wind power; State policies; Entrepreneurs; Barriers; Influencing factors; India.
Trend appraisal of Nigeria's Energy Sector and its Implication on Living Standards
by Chukwunonso Nwoye
Abstract: Utility capacity and energy consumption in Nigeria over a 10 year period 2005-2014 were analyzed. Improvement was recorded from 2010 through 2014 for yearly and monthly peak load demand and energy consumption. The coming on stream of some national integrated power project (NIPP) plants, reduction in vandalism of gas infrastructure following the presidential amnesty to Niger delta militant in august 2009, the launching of power sector road map in 2010 which saw to the eventual privatization of power generation and distribution and mean monthly reservoir inflow for kainji dam respectively were seen to influence the yearly and monthly energy distribution. By regression technique, per capita electricity consumption (EC/capita) was used to predict to a reasonable degree of accuracy the living standard indicators- infrastructure availability and purchasing power parity. The implication of this therefore is that for there to be a positive shift in the economic and social well-being of the populace attention must be given to the provision of functional energy infrastructure.
Keywords: Energy consumption. Utility capacity. Normal distribution. Regression technique.
Sizing and optimization of a photovoltaic pumping system
by Abdelhamid Ksentini, Elbahi Azzag, Ahmed Bensalem
Abstract: The geographical location of Algeria promotes the development and growth of the use of solar energy. Indeed given the importance of the intensity of the radiation received and the duration of sunshine that exceeds ten hours a day for several months, our country can cover some of the needs in solar energy, these advantages could be beneficial in the most remote regions especially in applications of photovoltaic pumping. Many people in rural areas of developing countries face major water problems. These problems are especially pronounced in desert and semi-desert. The water shortage in arid and semi-arid areas is a vital issue for people. Improving living conditions in these areas is linked to the search for adequate solutions to the problem. The solar photovoltaic pump is the ideal solution for water supply where traditional power is not available. Presented in this work the modeling and the dimensioning of a photovoltaic pumping system constituted by an asynchronous motor with cage coupled to a centrifugal pump. We will then opt to use a system adopting MPPT optimization method, namely the fuzzy logic control. The set is powered by a Photovoltaic Generator (PVG) through two static converters (chopper DC / DC, PWM inverter) controlled independently.
Keywords: Photovoltaic conversion system; MPPT; Chopper; Multi-levels inverter NPC; asynchronous machine; Water pumping.
Project Finance and Investment in the Oil and Gas Industry in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Ghana
by Efiba Kwarteng, Yarhands Dissou Arthur, John Ayer
Abstract: Indigenous entrepreneurs within the oil and gas industry in developing countries are usually unable to raise start-up and working capital. The absences of sufficient collateral and clearly written business plans, among others are the major setbacks in accessing funds from banks. Meanwhile, high interest rates and bank charges affect loan repayment in developing countries such as Ghana. The study was to identify possible avenues for funding oil and gas projects and challenges indigenous firms (SMEs) within the oil and gas value chain encounter in accessing funds. A questionnaire survey was performed involving some banks and oil and gas companies in Ghana. The results in this study indicate that small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have lower success rate in accessing bank loans than Large Enterprises due to repayment risk. However, it was observed that banks and other financial institutions could resort to the project finance method to reduce such risk for projects within the oil and gas industry. Our finding indicate that indigenous entrepreneurs who venture into projects in the Ghanaian oil and gas industry face challenges in raising start-up capital. Project finance is a viable avenue for SMEs to finance oil and gas projects in developing countries despite the associated bottlenecks.
Keywords: Project Finance; Developing Countries; funds; Oil and Gas industry.
Carbon emissions, energy consumption and economic growth: A causality evidence
by Festus Victor Bekun, Seyi Saint Akadiri, Elham Taheri, Ada Chigozie Akadiri
Abstract: Recently, there has been a growing interest on environmental issues, due to climatic-based problems associated with escalated levels of pollution and degradation of the environmental quality. This is widely believed to be caused by increased economic and human activities. The primary focus of this paper is to examine the causal and long-run relationship between carbon emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for Iraq. We apply the bounds test for cointegration and Toda-Yamamoto for a Granger causality test using annual data for the period from 1972 to 2013. The sample coverage is restricted by data unavailability. Empirical results propose unidirectional causality running from economic growth to energy consumption and from carbon emissions to energy consumption in the long-run. Findings reveal that there is no feedback relationships between economic growth, carbon emissions and energy consumption of Iraq.
Keywords: Carbon emissions; energy consumption; economic growth; Granger causality: Iraq.
Assessment and validation of the offshore wind resource using WRF-derived and CCMP L3.0 ocean winds: South Coast of South Africa
by Zaccheus Olaofe
Abstract: The offshore wind resource maps assessed from the WRF-derived and CCMP L3.0 ocean winds of RMESS off the south coast of South Africa are presented. As the costs of erecting high-quality observation masts on the coasts are inhibitive, the assessment of offshore wind resource relies on the mesoscale modeling or/and satellite ocean winds. Hence, the wind resource maps at 10 m amsl off the south coast were assessed from a regional climate model based on 3-km mesoscale wind simulations of 6-hourly resolution for the period of October 2006 to December 2011. Due to terrain inhomogeneity, the boundary layer winds were refined by accounting for how the mesoscale model description of topography impacts the ocean wind at 28 offshore stations. To assess the ability of the mesoscale model in simulating the near-surface ocean winds off the south coast as a basis for high-resolution wind resource assessment, the CCMP L3.0 ocean winds derived from combination of cross calibrated satellite observations at 10 m amsl were utilized. The mean deviations of the WRF wind speed and power density range between -0.29 and 0.35 m/s; -33 and 60 W/m2, respectively when validated against the CCMP ocean winds after correction (downscaling), representing a significant improvement of the boundary layer wind speed and direction after terrain effect corrections. Furthermore, the statistical downscaled winds were compared with the station measured winds at 60 m height over the land. The existence of large-scale wind resource at 10 m amsl height was recorded off the south coast. It is presented that the WRF modeling based on knowledge of the spatial and temporal scales of the atmospheric phenomena at a proposed site can be fully utilized for assessing the wind resource potentials at coastal region and over the land.
Keywords: Offshore wind resource; WRF modeling; CCMP L3.0 winds; Weibull method of moment; maximum likelihood method; South Africa.
Neural Network with Genetic Algorithm for Forecasting Short-Term Electricity Load Demand
by Chawalit Jeenanunta, Kuruge Darshana Abeyrathna
Abstract: Short-term load forecasting is to forecast the next day electricity demand for 48 periods and it is important to make decisions related to the electricity generation and distribution. Neural Network (NN) is selected for forecasting the future electricity consumption since its ability of recognizing and learning non-linear patterns of data. This research proposes the combination usage of Genetic Algorithm (GA) to train the Neural Network and results are compared with the results from backpropagation. Data from the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) is used in this research to demonstrate the performance of the proposed technique. The data set contains weekday (excluding Mondays) load demand from 1st of October to 30th of November, 2013. November load is forecasted using an NN with 192 inputs and 48 outputs. Even though GA takes more time for training neural networks, it gives better results compared to backpropagation.
Keywords: Genetic algorithm; Encoding; Neural network; Optimize Neural Network’s Weights; Forecasting; Short-term load forecasting;.
Alternative Projection of the 2040 Nuclear Power for Eight Countries
by Yu Sang Chang, Jinyoung Jinnie Yoo
Abstract: This study projected nuclear electricity intensity for eight countries China, U.S., India, South Korea, Japan, Canada and Brazil - which in turn is used to estimate net nuclear electricity generation for year 2020, 2030, and 2040. The net nuclear electricity generation projected by this study then was compared to those projected in the 2013 International Energy Outlook published by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The 2040 projection from this study is 57.7% higher than Energy Information Administrations projection for China and also 54% higher for the U.S. For four other countries, Energy Information Administrations projections are higher than those from this study, but by a smaller margin. Implications from the findings will be discussed.
Keywords: Nuclear electricity intensity; Net nuclear electricity generation; Experience curve; Kinked experience curve; Progress ratio.
Evaluating the Operational Flexibility for Wind Energy Integration in Nigeria using a Security Constraint Unit Commitment Model
by Richardson Omorodje Eni, John-Felix Kayode Akinbami
Abstract: The study evaluated the flexible techno-economic operations of thermal plants for sustainable wind power integration into the Nigerian Electricity Industry using security constraint unit commitment approach. This provides empirical evidence on the thermal power plants capability to back-up variable generation from wind energy. Relative to the current generation mix, 10 and 20% wind energy penetration increased the system spinning reserve per day from 702.5 to 1507.5 and 2107.5 MW respectively. Thermal plants total numbers of start-up per day decreased from 23 to 14 and 18, and shutdown hours per day decreased from 52 to 44 and 49 hrs in 10 and 20% wind energy integrated system, respectively. Greenhouse emission reduction per day were 1746.6 and 3254.4 lb, and thermal plants operational revenue reduced by 3.7 and 7.0% daily in 10 and 20% wind energy integrated system, respectively.
Keywords: Energy Integration; Flexible Operations; Thermal Power; Unit Commitment Model; Wind energy.
Renewable Energy based Hybrid Model for Rural Electrification
by Priyanka Anand, Sarbjeet Kaur Bath, Mohammad Rizwan
Abstract: The distributed power generation is playing an important role for the rural electrification in developing countries like India. In this work, a hybrid model based on renewable energy sources has been developed on the basis of availability of the resources at the proposed site. This paper present the hybrid model based on biomass-biogas-solar PV to supply the electric power in rural areas of Sonipat, Haryana, India where grid supply is not available or rarely available. The hybrid system is modeled by considering various parameters associated with each system component. Different models are developed on the basis of available resources and optimized for total annualized cost (TAC) using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) approach. Obtained results shows that the TAC of the optimal configuration at 0% unmet load is $ 64109 and the cost of energy is $ 0.065 per kWh. The results at various unmet loads are also presented and found satisfactory. The results of the proposed approach are compared with harmony search (HS) algorithm and found in the desired limits.
Keywords: biomass; hybrid modeling; renewable energy; solar energy; total annualized cost; unmet load.
Multi-criteria optimization of a cane flexi-factory
by Abdel Khoodaruth
Abstract: The sugar cane industry is at stake due to the fall in prices of sugar. The industry has to re-engineer itself to a cane flexi-factory for its survival. A cane flexi-factory consists of a sugar mills, cogeneration power plant, bio-ethanol distillery, value-added sugars refinery and a bio-fertilizer manufacturing plant. Although one such refinery is in operation in Mauritius, the area of land area under sugar cultivation is decreasing. The outputs of the flexi-factory can be increased through implementation of higher pressure boiler; higher fibre cane; energy cane; cane tops and leaves; addition of a falling thin film evaporator and use drip irrigation technique. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the possible options to optimize the performance of a flexi-factory through the multi-criteria assessment approach. The outcome of the assessment will help policy makers to prioritize the implementation of these alternatives in the short, medium and long term.
Keywords: Sugar cane; electricity; cogeneration; multi-criteria assessment; small islands development states.
Novel hydroelectricity data envelopment analysis model
by Kenneth David Strang
Abstract: Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a nonparametric technique in the operations research field for the estimation of efficiency rates in policy decision making models. DEA has been applied in the electric utilities sector, such as hydroelectricity policy making decisions, but the problem is that there are no published case studies using an actual clean renewable electricity generation facility. DEA applies a simple concept of making the inputs balance with the outputs as an overall efficiency rate. In this paper a DEA model is developed using a spreadsheet to inform policy decision making for a clean renewable hydroelectricity plant located in a natural park preserve. The objective function of the model was to make the minimum changes to the proposed policy rates for hydroelectricity generation subject to the known capabilities and risks. A unique aspect of the model was that risk was calculated based on water reservoir depth historical average using a beta distribution. The decision variables were the proposed changes to the policy rates for each month. The simplex linear programming technique was used and implemented in a spreadsheet. Screen shots were included to illustrate how to setup the spreadsheet. The results of this paper should generalize to policy makers, practitioners, analysts and researchers in the public utility and specifically in the clean renewable hydroelectricity community.
Keywords: Data envelopment analysis; operations research; hydroelectricity; clean renewable energy; park; risk; beta distribution; spreadsheet office automation software models.
Renewable energy demand in the Lebanese economy
by Hanadi Taher
Abstract: This paper studies the renewable energy development in Lebanon. We formulate a model for testing the energy demand based on electricity consumption as proxy for renewable energy usage and other independent variables and develop a set of recommendations regarding the renewable energy development. We test model using a simple regression data set for Lebanon from 1990 to 2013. The results indicate that energy demand is influenced negatively by electricity consumption, which reflect the renewable energy development in Lebanon. The renewable energy in Lebanon is still in its early stages although it varies from one sector to another thus development here could be leaded through public and private institutions. Our research findings focus on the role of private and public policies for leading innovation in the renewable energy system as the new energy future for Lebanon and well for the region.
Keywords: Renewable Energy; Energy Demand; Energy in Lebanon.
Energy Efficiency and Company Performance in Japanese Listed Companies
by Rayenda Brahmana, Hiroya Ono
Abstract: This research empirically investigates the relationship between energy efficiency and company performance for a pooled sample of 177 listed companies in Japan over 2005-2014. We find that energy efficiency plays a significant role in company performance in Japan, thereby debunking the energy efficiency paradox. Our research further indicates that this energy efficiency not only affects the market-based performance (Tobins Q), but it also significantly impacts the accounting-book performance (Return on Assets). The findings present significant contributions to both the academic body of knowledge and the industry. The findings can also provide a basis for the Japanese government to encourage companies to enact more energy efficient practices.
Keywords: Energy Efficiency; Company Performance; Tobin’s Q; ROA; Japan.
Energy Consumption and Economic Growth Modelling in SADC Countries: An Application of the VAR Granger Causality Analysis
by Tafirenyika Sunde
Abstract: The study investigated the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in 10 SADC countries using the VAR model over the period 1971 to 2015. The variables used were first converted to growth rates before they were used in the model estimated. The results indicate unidirectional causality running from real economic growth to energy consumption in Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mauritius, Namibia, bidirectional causality between energy consumption and economic growth in Botswana and Mauritius and no causality in Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. In countries where real economic growth Granger causes energy consumption the conservation hypothesis is confirmed. In countries where no causality was found the neutrality hypothesis is confirmed which implies that energy conservation will not lead to decreased economic growth and energy consumption will not be stimulated by economic growth. The feedback hypothesis confirmed in Botswana and Mauritius implies that an increase in the economic output will increase the level of energy consumption while an energy conservation policy will adversely affect economic output.
Keywords: Economic growth; energy consumption; VAR model; Granger causality; SADC countries.
An Empirical Analysis of the Role of Rural Population Growth in Electricity Consumption in Sub-Saharan Africa
by Nyakundi Michieka
Abstract: The objective of this study is to provide empirical evidence on the relationship between rural and urban population on electricity consumption in 5 Sub-Saharan countries between 1971 and 2013. Results from the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL)-Bounds testing approach indicate that rural population plays a larger role in electricity consumption than the urban population in C
Keywords: Rural and Urban Population; Electricity consumption; Sub-Saharan Africa.
A system dynamics approach to analyzing bioethanol and biodiesel supply chains: Increasing bioethanol and biodiesel market shares in the United States
by Hamid Ghaderi, Hossein Gitinavard, Mir Saman Pishvaee
Abstract: This paper proposes a system dynamics model to study and analyze bioethanol and biodiesel supply chains. The proposed model is a powerful tool for investigating the interactions among different variables of bioethanol and biodiesel supply chains. In this study, it is used for constructing scenarios to investigate appropriate policy options and their possible future effects on the market share of bioethanol and biodiesel in the United States. Inasmuch as the main objective of this study is to increase the market share of both bioethanol and biodiesel, and a reasonable balance is required to be created between bioethanol and biodiesel market shares, a scenario-based sensitivity analysis is conducted to this end. The results of sensitivity analysis demonstrate that causing an increase in oil plant and biodiesel production and a decrease in corn and bioethanol production results in an increase in both bioethanol and biodiesel market shares as well as a fair balance between them. In addtion to sensitivity analysis of the model, policy implications assoicated with increasing biofuel production in the United States are provided. For validating the proposed model, behavior reproduction test is done. Also, adding the other alternative fuel supply chains to the model; considering more detailed components; and incorporating environmental and social indicators besides an economic indicator are presented as the future research directions.
Keywords: Corn; Oil plants; Bioethanol; Biodiesel; Supply chain management; System dynamics; Scenario-based analysis.
Hybridization study of renewable multi-source systems based on environmental economic and technical indicators
by Habib CHERIF, Jamel Belhadj
Abstract: In this paper the authors investigate the interest in hybridization of autonomous renewable multi-source systems under economic environmental and technical indicators of a hybrid photovoltaic-wind system with battery storage of a residential house. A parametric sensitivity algorithm is developed to find the best compromise between four objectives. The LCA indicators (objectives) are embodied energy, GHG emissions, life cycle cost and loss of power probability. During a life cycle period of 25 years, nine models of embodied energy, GHG emission and life cycle cost of a hybrid photovoltaic-wind system are developed. A dynamic simulator is developed under annual data of weather conditions and electric load data (residential house) for one year with a sampling step of half an hour. An energy management strategy has been integrated in this simulator in order to manage power during the system operation. Parametric sensitivity algorithm allows us to find the best configuration between the PV array area, the wind turbine swept area and the battery bank. As results, it is found that the hybrid WT/Battery is the environmentally better choice for producing electrical power than hybrid systems. The hybrid PV/Battery is the economically better choice for producing electrical power than hybrid systems. But, the hybrid PV/WT/Battery system is designed to meet both the economic and environmental requirements.
Keywords: Hybrid systems; dynamic simulator; life cycle assessment; parametric sensitivity; environmental impacts; hybridization.
Developing an Integrated Approach for Optimum Prediction and Forecasting of Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Consumption in Iran
by Reza Babazadeh, Shima Pashapour, Abbas Keramati
Abstract: Energy planning for mid and long term periods needs forecasting the energy demands in the future. Therefore, suitable prediction tool will help energy policy makers and practitioners to take optimum decisions in energy supply management. The artificial neural network (ANN) is an efficient forecasting tool which have been widely applied in different fields. One of the weaknesses of the ANN method is appeared when the studied case has many input parameters affecting on the performance of output factor. Noteworthy, there is not reliable data in many applications of real world. The canonical correlation analysis (CCA) method is an efficient tool for data reduction purpose keeping useful information of the used data. The purpose of this paper is to estimate and predict the renewable and non-renewable energy consumption considering environmental and economic factors. To this aim, an integrated approach based on the CCA and ANN method is utilized. To show the applicability and superiority of the integrated CCA-ANN approach, monthly available data are collected for 11 years in Iran. The results show that the proposed approach reduces dimension of data without losing valuable information. Also, comparing the results of the CCA-ANN method with the pure ANN method justifies the superiority of the CCA-ANN approach.
Keywords: Renewable Energy; Non-renewable Energy; Canonical Correlation Analysis; Artificial Neural Network; Environmental and Economic Factors.
Energy Efficiency, Rebound Effect and Environmental Tax Reform in Indonesia
by Arif Rahman Sobri, Djoni Hartono, Nina Indriati Lestari
Abstract: Energy intensity level in Indonesia is decreasing, which is a sign of energy efficiency improvement. However, with the presence of rebound effect, energy consumption becomes challenging to reduce. With an application of a general equilibrium (CGE) model, this study analyses a rebound effect existence in Indonesia and wether the reduction of energy subsidy and income tax could lessen the reboud effect. While it confirms the presence of rebound effect, energy subsidy reduction policy could play an important part in determining its level. The policy is believed to reduce rebound effect on fuel oil while elevates it when it comes to electricity and gas. Furthermore, it leads to a positive effect on the economy. However, the other policy such as income tax reduction, indicates contrarily.
Keywords: energy efficiency; rebound effect; energy subsidy; income tax reduction; environmental tax reform.
Interaction between CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in the Middle East: Panel causality evidence
by Seyi Akadiri, Ada Akadiri
Abstract: The Middle East is one of the biggest suppliers of energy resources in the world. Through electricity production, transportation, oil and gas industries, industrial heating, the quality of air, environment and the whole economy at large is being affected. It is on this premise, this study examine the long-run equilibrium relationship and Granger causality interaction between CO2 emissions, income per capita and energy use caused by these traffics. We employ second generation panel approach that account for cross-sectional dependency, panel bootstrap cointegration testing as introduced by Westerlund and Edgerton (2007) and Granger causality testing procedure as proposed by Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012). This econometrics techniques are robust for panel cointegration and panel Granger causality analysis. From our empirical results, we found evidence in support of a long-run equilibrium relationship among the variables, a bidirectional causality running from CO2 to energy use, and unidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions to income per capita. However, between income per capita and CO2 emissions, income per capita to energy use and energy use to income per capita all without a feedback in the long-run. We propose significant policy implications based on our empirical results.
Keywords: CO2 emissions; economic growth; energy consumption; cointegration; causality; panel approach; Middle East.
Powerhouse British Isles
by Bent Sorensen
Abstract: The British Isles are blessed with one of the largest resources of offshore wind energy in the world. A scenario simulation is used to demonstrate that not only can each society within the British Island area in a matter of a few decades develop an energy system to satisfy all energy demands with 100% re-newable energy, but there are further export opportunities to cover more than the entire electricity needs of the continental European Union (EU). The political implication of this is that it would be very foolish of the European Union not to use the Brexit negotiations to establish a friendly relationship with the United Kingdom that can open for the electricity imports without which it will be nearly im-possible for the continental EU to reach an emission-free and sustainable energy system.
Keywords: Energy export; offshore windpower; energy scenarios; sustainability; European policy.
A Review on Smart Metering Infrastructure
by Augustus Ibhaze, Moses Akpabio
Abstract: Smart metering, a subset of the smart grid architecture has evolved over the years as power system infrastructure demand efficient energy management initiative. The basic challenge of inefficient energy utilization and energy wastage in consumer premise in an energy saving driven society has led to the development of smart metering solutions. This paper therefore provides a review on smart metering technology, its design requirements, protocols and challenges, policy issues.
Keywords: Energy Policy; Metering Infrastructure; Smart Meter; Internet of Things; Retrofit; Smart Grid; Energy; Policy.
How much wind-powered electricity may be generated in 2040 by China, the U.S. and four other countries?
by Yu Sang Chang, Hann Earl Kim, Seongmin Jeon, Yoo-Taek Lee
Abstract: Projections of long-term wind-powered electricity by the Energy Information Administration in the past may have been too conservative. We generate alternative projections for China, the United States, India, Canada, Japan and South Korea, and compare them against the projections made by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the years 2020, 2030 and 2040. Although our projections are much higher than the EIAs for five of the countries, the exception being Japan, our projections are supported by several projections made by other organizations. Implications from our findings will be discussed.
Keywords: Wind-powered electricity; Experience curve; Wind electricity intensity; Wind-powered net electricity generation.
Distributional Impacts of Gasoline Supply Constrained in Iran: Application of Input-Output Mixed Price Model
by Ali Faridzad
Abstract: Iran has always been the importer of gasoline over the last decade and international sanctions have made imports of this commodity difficult. This condition has potentially threatened Iran with gasoline supply constraint. Accordingly, potential supply constraint can damage the production of other economic sectors, which can directly be affected by experiencing a rise in the prices of goods and services. These changes will affect Iranian household welfare. Thus, a key question in this regard is how Iranian household expenditures will be affected in different consumer groups if the gasoline supply is constrained. To answer this question, the mixed-variable Input-Output price model and a symmetric Iran 38
Keywords: Gasoline Supply Constraint; Mixed-Variable Price Input-Output; Household Expenditure.
Special Issue on: Intellectual Energy Technologies Prospects and International Experience
A Novel Operating Strategy for Unscheduled Interchange Price Based Automatic Generation Control
by Murali V, Rama Sudha K
Abstract: In order to maintain grid discipline and bring about more responsibility and accountability among the participants in the system, the Availability Based Tariff (ABT) mechanism was introduced in Indian power sector. Though there is a considerable improvement, it is further required to maintain the system with greater frequency stability and reduced fuel cost for power generation. This paper presents a control scheme for Unscheduled Interchange (UI) price based Automatic Generation Control (AGC) to nullify the deviations in frequency following a disturbance in the system. This scheme gives the System Operator flexibility to schedule the generations in a desired manner on various units by which the merit order dispatch can be maintained. The proposed scheme is tested on a single area system with four generating units and is compared with an existing system and found effective. The results indicate that the frequency is maintained at normal value following a disturbance and the increased load can be shared among the generators in a desired manner.
Keywords: Availability based tariff (ABT); generation control error (GCE); marginal cost; merit order dispatch; unscheduled interchange (UI) prices.
Optimal sizing and placement of Dynamic Voltage Restorer in the Distribution System using Firefly Algorithm
by Padmavathi K, Rama Sudha K
Abstract: To enhance the power quality and reliability of electric power delivered to the end users, the electric distribution system is utilizing the Custom Power Devices. The power loss and voltage profile evaluates the performance of distribution system. In this paper a heuristic optimization technique known as Firefly Algorithm is applied for the optimal location and sizing of Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR). The steady state model of DVR is derived to use in forward/backward sweep load flow method. The performance of the proposed method is tested on IEEE 33 bus and 69 bus Radial Distribution systems by using Matlab software. The obtained results are compared with Immune Algorithm. The proposed method boost up the voltage profile, minimized the power loss and the installation cost of DVR.
Keywords: Backward/Forward sweep; Dynamic Voltage Restorer; Firefly Algorithm; Power Quality; Voltage Source Converter;.
Technical objects diagnostics systems organizing
by Oleg Davydov, Vladimir Voronin
Abstract: While operating, repair and reconstruction works, maintaining particular level of technical objects reliability, are carried out. Diagnostic systems are expected to be involved in these activities. As there are a great variety of technical objects available nowadays, diagnostic systems are based on wide variety of principles. Among them neural network technology and expert system technology are the most multi-purpose. A number of particular problems, expected to be solved in developing of diagnostic systems based on technologies mentioned above, is considered in these article; namely: rationing of diagnostic indicators, creating of general purpose functional framework for evaluating particular parameters, developing of neural functional network diagnostic system, developing of two fragments of conceptual diagnostic model, describing diagnostic context and diagnostic parameters in expert system database.
Keywords: technical object of diagnosis; diagnostic parameters; neural network technology; diagnostic system.
ENERGY-SAVING EFFICIENCY AND POTENTIAL IN EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS OF NERYUNGRINSKY REGION
by Evgenia Y. Sizganova, Dmitry V. Antonenkov, Denis B. Solovev
Abstract: A method of establishing the energy survey (energy audit) order for facilities with irrational energy consumption based on parametric rank distribution interval estimation was examined. The method will enable revealing and targeted dealing with the weakest infrastructure facilities of budget organizations and municipal-level establishments. The method is realized in MathCAD package and demonstrated on the example of the infrastructure of Neryungrinsky region educational establishments. The paper provides calculations of programs with comments that are used to form a rank parametric distribution matrix, a vector of ranks and a rank matrix for infrastructure facilities of Neryungrinsky region educational establishments designed for rank energy consumption analysis implementation; the paper also shows the consistency of movement of facilities over the rank surface during transition from one time interval to another.
Keywords: Irrational energy consumption; energy audit; interval estimation; rank analysis; energy-saving potential.
The Basic Principles of Increasing in Efficiency of Data Compressing in Information-Measuring Systems
by En Un Chye, Alexey Levenets, Viktor Ivanov
Abstract: This article gives a brief review of theoretical works in the field of the theory of information-measuring systems with data compression. It is shown that when developing the problems of compression of measurement data, digital methods are practically not considered. A critical analysis of the methods of compression of measurement data is carried out. The limitations of the modern approach to data compression are shown. A model of a compression subsystem for measuring data is proposed that allows describing the compression and recovery subsystems that implement the proposed basic principles of working with measurement data. Some of principles that allow developing effective methods for compressing measurement data are proposed.
Keywords: measurement data; data compressing; informational-measurement system; compression subsystem model.
System for automatic soil sampling by AUV equipped with multilink manipulator
by Vladimir Filaretov, Alexander Konoplin, Nikita Konoplin
Abstract: The development and research of the new synthesis method of the control system for an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) with a multilink manipulator is described in the paper. This system provides an automatic soil sampling and the taking of geological samples of a sea bottom surface. In automatic mode, the developed system defines the location of a bottom surface relative to the AUV by means of the onboard multibeam Doppler lag. During the vehicle immersion, the system evaluates the complexity of the bottom relief in the working area and makes decision on the suitability of the said relief for the trouble-free implementation of the specified manipulative tasks. Also, the proposed system realizes the formation algorithm for spatial trajectories of the multilink underwater manipulators working tool and defines the AUV spatial orientation and position at which the performing of manipulation operations occurs most efficiently and safely.
Keywords: control system; AUV; multilink manipulator; automatic mode; Doppler lag; underwater research; manipulation operations; soil sampling; trajectory planning; Deep-sea.
A Method to Minimize the Energy Consumption of an Industrial Robot
by Manmadha Chary Aiamunoori, Chanakya Chervith P.S.M
Abstract: Minimizing the energy consumption of industrial robots that are used in manufacturing systems has become a major focus in the development of green production systems. This paper presents an efficient methodology for minimizing the energy or power consumption of industrial robot arm, to do so, a popular industrial robot is taken as an example to do the analysis, the dimensions of this robot are used to find the joint angles through inverse kinematics, then the joint angles are used to form energy function. The energy function is dependent on joint angles of the arm, derived from the Inverse Kinematics, and control attributes like friction between joints, movement, settling time and forces acting on the joints. Optimizing the energy function will give a set of joint angles which consume minimal energy to perform the required task and also help to predict which optimization technique is suitable or gives better results for the desired need. In this paper deals a better method to minimize the robot energy consumption by using the different combination of optimization techniques, among GA, ANN and AHP. In this work the energy function value is reduced by 11% from the original base value.
Keywords: Industrial Robot; Energy Consumption; Inverse Kinematics; Genetic Algorithm; Analytical Hierarchy Process; Artificial Neural Networks.
SPECIFICS OF ASSESSING ENERGY SECURITY OF ISOLATED ENERGY SERVICE AREAS INTERRITORIES WITH HARSH CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
by Violetta Kiushkina, Dmitry Antonenkov
Abstract: The specifics of regional energy economies supports the need in excellent methodical approaches to diagnosing energy security of territorial formations, in general, and by internal components even on the same level. This emphasizes the relevance of refining and establishing top priorities for energy security state assessment indicators for isolated territories with long low-temperature periods. The paper formulates and defines energy security of the territories under consideration. Such territories include a part of the territory of the Russian Federation located mainly to the north of the Arctic Circle. The climate is extremely harsh, it is an arctic area. Comparative analysis showed similarity in terms of climatic conditions with territories of Circumpolar North countries arctic, subarctic and boreal regions of countries. One can name Canada, Sweden and Finland, the USA, Iceland, Denmark and Alaska among such countries.
We make an attempt of drawing an actual picture of territorial conditions and existing situations based on apparent factors in distinct directions of the formulated definition of energy security of decentralized energy supply areas. The paper offers results of expert assessment by ranking the relevance degree of indicators within the list of each energy security block of decentralized service areas in the northern territories. The analysis results were used to assess relevance of indicators of blocks that enable demonstrating the direction and degree of their impact on the decentralized service area energy security state. The given conclusions will be further used in individual assessment of each indicator while establishing its relevance that determines energy security level states.
Keywords: isolated autonomous power supply systems; specifics; energy security; indicators; rank.
Career Shifting Algorithm Creating Virtual Frequency Upsurge to Reduce Switching Losses in Multi-Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drives
by RANVIR KAUR, GURSEWAK SINGH BRAR
Abstract: Power electronics applications delve the induction motor drives posing a challenge for researchers to minimize the harmonic content thereby improving the power quality. In this paper, three level voltage is generated by cascading Dual Two-level Voltage Source Inverters (VSI) with phase shift in their carrier waves. Phase Shifted Dual Two-level Inverter is used for Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) reduction and shifting of side band harmonics. Multi Inverters, they can be used for high mega volt-ampere ratings. The proposed Dual Inverter circuit arrangement is tested for 5-hp induction motor. Prototype is designed in MATLAB/Simulink and is experimentally verified with TMS320F28377 DSP platform for wide range of speed control of induction motor.
Keywords: Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation; Total Harmonic Distortion; Side band Harmonics; Voltage source Inverter; Induction motor.
Special Issue on: Energy Policies and Standards for Large-scale Renewable Energy Integration with Utility Grids
Present status, energy policies and future perspective of solar photovoltaic in India
by Nirav Patel, Nitin Gupta, Arun Kumar Verma
Abstract: This paper aims at presenting state of art solar photovoltaic (SPV) in India and various initiatives and actions plans launched by Indian Government to augment the share of most promising and growing source of renewable energy SPV. A renewable and sustainable source of energy such as solar PV has been playing a vital role in curbing carbon emission. This paper presents a widespread review of the present status, various energy policies and future perspective of SPV considering the fact that India is having an abundant amount of solar energy potential. The intention of this review is to emphasise broadly on the major constraints hampering the growth of SPV energy in India. Efforts have been made to presents the selections guide, applicable standards and state-wise sanctioned solar parks. It is hoped that the information reported in this paper will be a worth of one-stop source of information for researchers.
Keywords: solar PV; renewable energy; solar potential; renewable public obligation; RPO; energy policies; grid interactive; off-grid; India.