Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy


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International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy (37 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • Turkeys Shale Gas Potential and Comparison of its Success Factors with US and European Developments   Order a copy of this article
    by Sırrı Uyanık 
    Abstract: Recent shale gas developments has been transforming the US with repercussions on world economy in general; as well as having great impact on the formation of short and mid-term global energy future. It is even dubbed as the unexpected energy revolution of 21st century. The fact that the US has so far had an outstanding success in shale gas development, deserves close attention and therefore, the study of how the same fact could be applicable and replicable in other shale resourceful countries and to what extent the factors leading to this success are utilizable in other countries is very relevant. In this respect, Europe and Turkey are also known to have some considerable shale resources. Due to high dependence on gas imports, the issue gains even more significance for Turkey. In the light of the above considerations, such a comparison between US and Europe Turkey, with regards to shale gas developments, might be interesting and necessary. rnIn this paper, it is aimed to analyze US shale revolution and more importantly to make a comparison between US and European implementations so far and especially Turkish potential and prospects in that regard.rn
    Keywords: Shale gas; Shale gas reservoirs Turkey; Renewable energy; Economics and policy; Shale gas revolution.

  • Comparative analysis of sustainable electric energy generation technologies using a multi-criteria decision methodology   Order a copy of this article
    by Mauricio Dester, Alberto L. Francato 
    Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to determine the technological options for electricity production based on available electric energy sources in Brazil. The results from this study can be used as a reference for the elaboration of guidelines and public policies that are needed to support plans for electric energy supply expansion. Furthermore, these results can provide input on the construction of energy mix that can meet Brazilian demands and help achieve sustainability in the generation expansion process. The study is based on a multi-criteria analysis methodology that ranks the best alternatives for electric energy production based on criteria linked to sustainability and environmental, technical and economic dimensions.
    Keywords: energy mix; electric energy sources; generation expansion planning; sustainability; multi-criteria analysis.

  • Scheduling and optimisation of refinery operations under fluctuating bitumen demand   Order a copy of this article
    by Mahesh S Kumar, Anbuudayasankar S.P, Sreeniketh variyer 
    Abstract: This study presents a new planning algorithm for petroleum products with fluctuating demand. The proposed algorithm is tested with analysing and forecasting bitumen sales of a refinery. The algorithm presented in this study utilises decomposition forecasting with scenario analysis and optimisation. We introduced a risk measure factor in the objective function that would help to forecast the sales with more accuracy. Scenario analysis is conducted to analyse the bitumen sales and production at different conditions. The proposed algorithm would generate an optimal refinery operation schedule that would enable the production and sales with more refinery margin. The planning algorithm is validated with a case study.
    Keywords: Petroleum supply chain, Forecast, Scheduling, Decomposition model

  • Multi-method approach for the comparative analysis of solar and wind energy industry structures in Germany and Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Maryam Ebrahimi 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is comparing solar and wind energy industry structures in Germany and Iran through applying four industry analysis techniques known as strategy tools in technological issues including five forces model, diamond model, triple helix model, and sectoral innovation system in a comprehensive model. Regarding the purpose of the study, four research questions are specified which emphasis on understanding and analyzing the current competition conditions, competitive advantage in the global market, main institutional players, and conditions of functions of innovation system. In order to answer the questions, a field interview using a questionnaire was conducted which includes indicators derived from literature review. Respondents are thirty experts who are aware of the solar and wind energy industry in Iran and Germany and are selected by purposive sampling. In order to further justify the answers provided by the participants, various world statistical data is used and presented.
    Keywords: comparative analysis; renewable energy; industry structure; Germany; Iran.

    by Anatoliy G. Goncharuk, Valeriy Havrysh, V.S. Nitsenko 
    Abstract: World progress of society and the use of power resources trends have been shown. Modern economic factors which influence on a production and applications of alternative fuels have been shown. Basic national features have been revealed.
    Keywords: biofuel, alternative motor fuels, production, stimulation, efficiency

  • Intra-regional accessibility and take-up of grid extended electricity among rural households: Case of Meru-South Sub-County in Kenya   Order a copy of this article
    by Charity Mbaka 
    Abstract: Electricity services are crucial for human well-being and to a countrys socio-economic development. Lagging development has been attributed among others factors to the lack of modern energy sources among rural households. At present, Kenya government is committed to extending the grid to the rural areas. This article reviews emerging trends of grid-based rural electrification and empirically examines the short-term effects of electricity at the household level. The result revealed minimal electricity take up by the rural households. Conversely, it is established that electricity coverage improved over years. There is a distinctive disparity in spatial distribution in adoption, non-adoption and access. Electricity take up had brought substantial benefits to households especially in improving the quality of life however, electricity is minimally used for income generating services. The government should be committed to periodically and exclusively review the progress of rural electrification in each region to identify the setbacks which assist in policy review and reformulation.
    Keywords: Adoption; Electricity; Grid; Benefits; Rural households.

  • Residential Electricity Use Effects of Population in Kazakhstan   Order a copy of this article
    by Ceyhun Mikayilov, Fakhri Hasanov, Sabuhi Yusifov 
    Abstract: We studied impacts of population groups of 15-64 and 65-above on residential electricity use in Kazakhstan in the STIRPAT framework. Unlike earlier studies for Kazakhstan in the STIRPAT framework, we applied time series cointegration and error correction methods. Results from the Autoregressive Distributed Lags Bounds Testing approach indicates a significant impact of the age group of 15-64 on the residential electricity use in long-run, however, the age group of 65-above has only short-run effects and affluence has no effect. Another finding is that, 21% of short-run disequilibrium can be corrected towards long-run equilibrium during a year. rnPolicymakers should consider the trend of the population group of 15-64 in their decision about the long-run stance of the residential electricity consumption. The trend suggests an implementation of energy conservative policy and increasing efficiency of its usage. Another policy implication is that households electricity consumption is not income dependent maybe due to cheap electricity prices subsidized by the government. In the short-run, policy makers should consider the age group of 65-above among other factors in their implementations. Moreover, they should be careful in making any policy shock to the residential electricity consumption system, because convergence towards long-run equilibrium path takes about five years.rn
    Keywords: Age groups, Residential electricity consumption, STIRPAT, Kazakhstan

  • Using Experience Curve to Project Net Hydroelectricity Generation: In comparison to EIAs projection   Order a copy of this article
    by Yu Sang Chang, Sung Jun Jo, Seongmin Jeon 
    Abstract: The U.S. Energy Intensity Administration in its 2013 International Energy Outlook has projected net hydroelectricity generation for the year of 2020, 2030 and 2040 for selected ten countries. In order to demonstrate the use of an alternative projection methodology, we use a simple experience curve to project hydroelectricity intensity which in turn is used to estimate future net hydroelectricity generation for the same year of 2020, 2030 and 2040. Our own projection results are higher for five countries and lower for remaining five countries, when compared to the EIA projections. However, for China, the largest producing country, our projection is significantly higher by 77%. Alternative projections made by other sources on China, however, appear to be support our own projection. Implications from our findings will be discussed.
    Keywords: Hydroelectricity intensity, Net hydroelectricity generation, Hydropower, Classical experience curve, Kinked experience curve

  • Analysis of OPEC Performance Regarding Oil Production and Declaration of Amount of Reserves   Order a copy of this article
    by Morteza Behrouzifar, Ali Emami Meibodi, Samieh Kokabi 
    Abstract: Crude oil reserves and Production play an important role in the world economy; it seems all OPEC members can perform artificial oil quantity to market through oil reserve tools. This study indicates that the mentioned behavior could create wrong data in the market and also increase the exposure in market. Part of oil crises in terms of oil market is related to such a behavior. Without the pressure of cooperating with OPEC, the government of an oil exporting country would face the standard problem of how to manage an exhaustible resource: i.e. choosing between current and future production. In this paper concluded that announcement of OPEC members oil reserves has a concurrence which may be in conflict with the actual volume of reserves.
    Keywords: OPEC; Energy Market; Oil Supply; Reserve.

  • How to Make Better Energy Policy Decisions? The Stock and Flow Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Hassan Qudrat-Ullah, Muhammad Ashiq, Naveed Subhani 
    Abstract: Energy policy issues and challenges abound. This paper addresses the energy policy as a complex, dynamic task whereby the planners and decision makers manage stocks of limited resources. The stock and flow perspective provides a unique and powerful set of tools to better equip the policy decision makers to take on these challenges. By making use of various tools and techniques of system dynamics methodology such as causal loop diagrams, stock and flow diagrams, mathematical formulations, and structure-behavior graphs of various energy system processes, it is shown how the stock and flow perspective can effectively address energy policy issues. With an understanding of the physics of underlying feedback loop structures of an energy system, and structure-behavior graphs of various energy system processes including energy demand, policy incentives and inter-fuel substitution mechanism, and energy supply, the energy policy decision makers are expected to develop insights and make better decisions.
    Keywords: Energy policy; stock and flow perspective; system dynamics; causal loop diagram; feedback loops; policy incentives.

  • Influence of Fiscal Regime Adjustment on Investment Climate of Marginal Oil Fields in Malaysia: A Scenario Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdulsalam Masud, Nor Aziah Abdul Manaf, Natrah Saad 
    Abstract: Since 1970s, oil and gas sector in Malaysia has been undergoing series of fiscal regime adjustments. The rationale of which was connected to the countrys desire to improve the investment climate of its remaining oil and gas fields. Recently in 2010, the fiscal changes were made for marginal fields. This new fiscal changes resulted in increase in tax incentives and change in fiscal arrangement from production sharing contract to risk service contract. In this study, a comparison of the marginal fields investment climate under old and new fiscal regimes was conducted using nine different scenarios relating to oil prices and reserve levels. The results using investors net present value and internal rate of return revealed that the new fiscal regime would likely render investment climate more favorable in the majority of the scenarios with the exception to those relating to high oil prices, which fiscal regime under the production sharing contract would likely be more favorable. The policy implication is that offering windfall incentive or increasing fields contractors remuneration would likely improve the attractiveness of the new fiscal regime under risk service contract. However, the caveat is that considerations should be given to the assumptions employed in the study while applying its findings for a decision.
    Keywords: fiscal regime; fiscal arrangement; production sharing contract; risk service contract; tax incentives.

    by Sanjeev Kulkarni, T.R. Anil 
    Abstract: Energy used to be produced mostly from fossil fuels until the near past, and the use of these fuels has created many environmental problems. For this reason, renewable energy resources have become important for energy production. Worldwide, about 86.4% of energy is produced by fossil fuels. Renewable energy has become an important agenda of Indias energy planning process especially since climate change has taken center stage in the domestic and international policy arena. To demonstrate its commitment to renewable energy, the government has set aggressive targets for renewables and several incentives and policy initiatives at the Central and State levels have been put in place both for grid connected and off-grid renewable energy. An increasing tendency to use renewable energy resources in the world has revealed a need to study the current position of wind energy also and particularly the policies to increase the usage of wind energy. Wind energy provides a cost-effective and scalable alternative to conventional energies. The focus of this paper is on evaluating the effectiveness of policies with respect to deployment of renewable energy sources and in particular wind energy in India.
    Keywords: Energy; Renewable; Policy; Wind; Technical; Environment; Regulations; RPO.

  • Optimal Power Flow Solution Considering Wind Integration Using Dance Bee Colony With Dynamic Step   Order a copy of this article
    by Belkacem Mahdad, Kamel Srairi, Boubakeur Hadji 
    Abstract: This article investigates the adaptation and application of a flexible variant based Dance Bee Colony (DBC) with dynamic step size for solving the optimal power flow (OPF) in the presence of multi wind sources. The particularity of the proposed planning strategy is that the active and reactive power generated by the wind sources to be dynamically exchanged with the network are optimized individually and simultaneously in coordination with other control variables such as: voltage and reactive power of generating units, and tap transformers. Four objective functions have been considered, fuel cost, emission, power loss and voltage deviation. The effectiveness of the proposed OPF is validated on the IEEE 30-bus power system for different objective functions. Results found compared to recent techniques proves the ability of the proposed planning strategy based DBC for solving practical OPF problems considering the integration of wind sources.
    Keywords: Optimal power flow; Wind sources; PSO_TVAC; Dance Bee colony; Power loss; Cost; Emission; Voltage Deviation.

  • A Fuzzy MCDM-Based Approach for Renewable Energy Technologies Prioritization   Order a copy of this article
    by Maryam Ebrahimi 
    Abstract: The main objective of this study is to build a decision model adapted to prioritize renewable energy technologies by applying fuzzy multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods. A comprehensive set of criteria is presented based on sustainability due to its importance in the long-term, particularly in the field of energy which is a key element of sustainable development. They are classified into five categories such as technical, economic, environmental, social, and political criteria. This model is then operationalized in the scope of solar energy technologies in Iran. This paper examines and compares the results of fuzzy TOPSIS, and fuzzy PROMETHEE based on a single decision maker. The results show that rather than the two technologies, others in both methods have moderate differences in ranking. However, technological decisions are preferred to be made based on FTOPSIS results because it is considered to be more realistic.
    Keywords: renewable energy; technology prioritization; Iran; multi-criteria decision making; fuzzy logic.

  • A Framework to Identify and Overcome Barriers in Launching Sustainable Energy Projects in the Iranian Industrial Sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Reza Sirous, Rui Borges Lopes 
    Abstract: Iranian Resistance Economy policy embodies a strong focus on sustainable development and, respectively, in energy sustainability. A major issue in implementing the policy is how to facilitate the deployment of sustainability initiatives and eliminate existing barriers. This paper presents a framework for identifying and attempting overcoming these barriers using Soft Systems Methodology (SSM). The proposed framework also integrates other methods and is called Compound Sustainable Energy Launching (CSEL). This multi-methodology framework aims not only eliminating energy sustainability barriers but also an efficient assignment of capital investment on such initiatives. Applicability of the framework is analyzed on three Iranian companies of the industrial sector, for which main conclusions are presented and discussed.
    Keywords: Energy; Energy sustainability; Multi-methodology; Barriers in sustainability; Capital investment; Iran.

  • Implementation of photovoltaic energy generation to reduce the cost of electricity in the water sector in Jordan   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Al-Soud 
    Abstract: Water companies in Jordan pay approximately 150 million JOD per year for electricity, which represents, as of 2013, approximately 50% of the total operating expenses of the companies(1 USD=0.71JOD). Following the changes in the electricity tariff system occurred in 2013, electricity prices for the water sector will increase annually from 76 fils in 2013 to 133 fils in 2017 which will take the total electricity expenses to 250 million JOD per year (1JOD=1000 fils) .This study assessed and evaluated options to generate renewable energy (RE) as a means to reduce the cost of electricity in the water sector, the RE technology selected for this assessment has been the solar photovoltaic technology (PV). For this purpose, five water facilities were selected based on the available data. Energy yield assessments have taken into account the local irradiation conditions at each of the sites based on irradiation databases available. The two supporting mechanisms applicable to the present study are the net-metering and the power wheeling mechanisms .The proposed possible solutions for the implementation of PV projects including their economic sustainability and technical feasibility, with the possibility to be connected the RE systems to the grid. The results of our simulations show that, considering typical CAPEX and OPEX for PV projects in Jordan and the current electricity prices for end-users, the initiative is economically sustainable and might bring sensible benefits for the water companies.
    Keywords: water pumping; photovoltaic; net-metering; power wheeling; CAPEX; OPEX.

  • A critical review of research trends for wind energy in Egypt: Recent progress and promising opportunities   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Moness, Ahmed Moustafa 
    Abstract: Energy is a cornerstone for achieving industrial development and prosperous economy. Wind energy have the biggest share of renewable energy sector in many countries leading the way for replacing fossil fuels. Egypt, as one of the developing countries, is heading towards increasing penetration levels of wind power to face energy challenges. This strategy takes advantage of the investigated high potential of wind energy in several locations across Egypt. In order to gain most benefits and economical revenues from wind energy, a national research and development policies have to be deployed. Effective research policies enhance the capabilities of local industry for wind power technology. This review characterizes current progress and categorizes areas of interest for recent research of wind energy in Egypt. Accordingly, a vision for existing gaps, futuristic directions and promising areas for research is formulated.
    Keywords: Renewable energy; Wind energy; Wind energy potential; Wind power technology; Egypt.

    by Demsew Mitiku Teferra 
    Abstract: The main focus of this study is renewable energy resource assessment and feasibility study to generate electricity for the rural community from solar PV, wind turbine, biogas and biodiesel generator. To model and analyze the feasibility of the hybrid system HOMER was chosen. Grid comparison against the hybrid system was done for cost benefit analysis. The optimization result of the simulation demonstrates that the best optimal hybrid system consists of solar photo voltaic, wind turbine, biogas generator, biodiesel generator, converter and battery under load following system control strategy. This system has initial capital cost of $335,468, net present cost of $837,915, levelized cost of energy of $0.239/kWh. The total capital cost of grid extension was determined as $147,752, and its operation and maintenance cost is 267$/km/yr.
    Keywords: Break even distance; COE; Deferrable load; Hybrid system; Load forecast; Net present cost; Photo voltaic; primary load.

  • Optimal design of stand-alone hybrid power system using wind and solar energy sources   Order a copy of this article
    by Mouna LAMNADI 
    Abstract: Stand-alone hybrid renewable energy systems are more reliable than one-energy source systems. However, their design is crucial. For this reason, a new methodology with simulation having as aim to design an autonomous hybrid PV-wind-battery system is proposed. Based on a triple multi-objective, the present methodology combines life cycle cost (LCC), embodied energy (EE) and loss of power supply probability (LPSP). For a location, meteorological and load data have been collected and assessed. Afterwards, components of the system and optimization objectives have been modelled. Finally, an optimal configuration has been put in place using a dynamic model and applying a controlled elitist genetic algorithm for multi-objective optimization. This methodology has been applied successfully for the sizing of a PV-wind-battery system to supply at least 95% of yearly total electric demand of a residential house.
    Keywords: Hybrid power systemr Dynamic simulation Multi-objective design Optimization.

  • Role of Public R&D funding in Fuel Cell; Analysis on Iranian Universities   Order a copy of this article
    by Javad Soltanzadeh, Reza Salami 
    Abstract: Achieving Sustainable Development (SD), environmental protection and security of energy supply are two main challenges of government in developed or developing countries. Energy experts believe that fuel cell and hydrogen energy technologies as a green technology will play a significant role in the portfolio for a future energy. In developed countries, technological regimes and its actors have self-willingness to track advanced technologies and new knowledge (such as Fuel Cell)due to poor innovative capabilities and lack of absorptive capacities, developing countries need to insert R&D expenditure in particular for public universities. What concerns should be considered in the public R&D funding? Or can governments promote Fuel Cell (FC) technology only by increasing R&D funding? Based on the case of Iran, this paper discusses government intervention and R&D investment about knowledge creation in FC to achieve sustainable development. Having surveyed 900 papers published by Iranian researchers from 2000 to 2014, it can be shown that:1. Iran is 21th countries of published papers in Fuel Cell field; 2.Most of these papers focus on Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC); 3.More than eighty percent of total papers have been published by 23 public universities. It is argued that policymakers must create R&D network in national boundaries to improve funding efficiency and design effective policy to commercialize new created knowledge that encourages the demand side.
    Keywords: Sustainable Development; Renewable Energy; Public R&D Funding; Fuel Cell; Iranian Universities.

  • Performance evaluation of solar dryer with a biomass stove to meet Indonesian National Standard (SNI) of ginger simplisia   Order a copy of this article
    by Pringgo Widyo Laksono, Retno Wulan Damayanti, Sukmaji Indro Cahyono, Benazir Imam Arif Muttaqin 
    Abstract: In Indonesia, ginger simplisia (dried form) quality standards regulated in SNI 01-7087-2005. Conventional drying methoddirect open sun drying has several weaknesses. It could reduce the quality of products that do not meet standards. Relating with these problems, one of the improvement efforts that can be done is by using the solar dryer technology. In this study, design and prototype of the mixed passive solar dryer has been made. Then, the solar dryer was tested to evaluated its performance. Tests done through simulation and direct (prototype) tests. Based on the results of simulation and prototype tests, the performance of solar dryer designed was quite satisfactory (temperature ranges between 40-60
    Keywords: solar dryer; ginger simplisia; Indonesian National Standard.

  • Do Time Phase and Income Influence the Convergence in Energy Intensity? A Cross-Country Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Yu Sang Chang, Seongmin Jeon, NeiHei Park 
    Abstract: Countries energy intensity levels are known to converge at both global and regional levels. We test the convergence in energy intensity using a large recent data set: a 151-country sample during the period of 19802010. In addition, time phase and income are examined to identify the factors that influence a countrys aggregate level of energy intensity. With income time-phased analysis, we discovered a pronounced convergence during the period between 1980 and 1990 and then a moderate convergence later during the period. With the subgroup analysis, middle income yields the most rapid convergence. Furthermore, high incomes negative role is so pervasive that non-convergence or divergence may take place.
    Keywords: Energy Intensity; Convergence; Time phased; Income; Distribution Dynamics.

  • Factors influencing grid interactive wind power industry in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Manjushree Banerjee, Gautam Dutta 
    Abstract: Increasing wind power capacities demand increased private sector participation while states are responsible for the renewable projects as well as for achieving their renewable targets. The paper aims at identifying the influencing factors in scaling up of grid interactive wind power through the lens of entrepreneurs and state policies. Adequate tariff, savings on power expenditure in industries, Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) targets, long-term Power Purchase Agreements, liberal energy banking and favourable open access policies are found to be encouraging while insufficient tariff, delayed payments, policy uncertainties, limitations in energy banking and difficult land processes are counted as barriers. Country level analysis reveals that presently the installed capacities are unable to respond to the state wind tariff though it strongly responds to the power tariff for industries. Suggestions to develop a policy scenario wherein the installed capacities respond to the state tariff are proposed. The scope of wind power is to be enhanced through favourable open access policies and high RPO targets.
    Keywords: Grid interactive wind power; State policies; Entrepreneurs; Barriers; Influencing factors; India.

  • Nexus of Energy Consumption, Co2 emission and Economic Growth in India: Evidene from Toda & Yamamoto Granger non-causality Approach   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The present study investigated the output, energy and pollution nexus hypothesis in the context of India. The study used the annual time series data from the period 1970-2010. The empirical findings of the study show that there is a high pairwise correlation exist between energy consumption and economic growth. The cointegration result suggests that there is a long run equilibrium relationship exist among the variables. The vector error correction result shows that there is a positive and significant impact of energy consumption on co2 emission. The result also suggests that economic growth has positive and significant impact on energy consumption. Due to 1% increase in economic growth it will increase the energy consumption 60% at the 5% level of significance. The Toda Yamamoto Granger causality result reveals that there is unidirectional causality running from energy consumption to carbon emission and economic growth to carbon emission.
    Keywords: Energy; cointegration; carbon emission; economic growth; India; error correction; causality.

  • The wind potential in the Brazilian scenario   Order a copy of this article
    by Amanda Maria Bizzinotto Ferreira, José Gustavo Coelho, Francisco Aurilo Azevedo Pinho 
    Abstract: The present paper presents an overview of the Brazilian wind potential based on data obtained from wind maps elaborated nationwide and statewide. The electricity generation potential and the available wind potential of the country are analysed for different heights and wind conditions. Both the onshore and offshore potential are considered in the estimates. An overview of the electricity consumption in the country and of the Brazilian electricity generation and demand are presented, analysing the role wind energy plays in this scenario. The analysis of the Brazilian wind potential together with the analysis of the existing wind technology revealed a growing and prospective wind market in the country, which has great potential still to be explored and is increasing its wind capacity over the years. All kinds of wind technology can find a suitable application in Brazil and the country can see a better integration of the wind energy to its energy matrix, allowing for a higher participation of renewables, higher electricity offer and smaller environmental impact.
    Keywords: Brazil; wind potential; onshore wind turbines; renewable energy; wind energy; wind power; electricity generation potential; offshore wind turbines; electricity consumption; energy demand; environmental impact.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETP.2017.10001365
  • Optimal design for gasoline supply chain planning in Iran: technical, economical, and environmental perspectives   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Sadegh Kachoee, Pooya Haghi, Akram Avami 
    Abstract: Taking into account the ever-increasing consumption of energy in the transportation sector in Iran, a supply chain model is here developed for gasoline as the main energy carrier. The model considers the satisfaction of demand as well as techno-economical constraints of all technologies while minimising the cost and the carbon footprint of the whole supply chain in order to reach sustainability in the Iranian transport sector. The model enables us to depict the optimal pathways from the wells to the end-users. The demand is here estimated using econometric approach in which the elasticity of gasoline price is the least and the GDP growth rate plays an active role. Six scenarios are defined to encompass different assumptions in the supply and demand sides. It has been concluded that the gasoline import will surge dramatically and the transportation vehicles will shift to economical vehicles in all scenarios for the next 30 years. In the current scenario, the vehicles with the lowest operating cost (class 5) are chosen. Taken into account the environmental considerations, more efficient vehicles (class 2) are preferred. The present work demonstrates how economical and environmental issues are interrelated in the Iranian gasoline supply chain planning.
    Keywords: supply chain management; SCM; gasoline supply chains; petrol supply chains; energy demand; sustainability; Iran; optimal design; supply chain planning; technical perspectives; economic perspectives; environmental perspectives; energy consumption; carbon footprint; petrol prices; price elasticity; econometrics; GDP growth rate; gross domestic product; vehicle fuel; sustainable development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETP.2017.10001378
  • Experimental investigation of downdraught wood gasifier on the performance characteristics of IC engine   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Sivakumar, S. Ragunathan 
    Abstract: This paper was focused towards successful gasification of wood and identification of optimum operating parameters like equivalence ratio for generation of quality gas for onward generation of power. The optimum parameter for wood had been estimated to 30%, the gas composition (CO, H2) and calorific value of wood is observed as CO = 17.8%, H2 = 11.8%, CV = 1,082 Kcal/nm3. Upon fixing the best operating point, attention was focused towards utilising this gas for generating power via dual fuel mode in IC engines. A consistent diesel replacement of about 62% was achieved by operating the engine on duel fuel mode with wood. Remarkable deviation in the engine performance in terms of indicated thermal efficiency, in cylinder peak pressure, indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), cumulative heat release rate and emission were observed.
    Keywords: wood gasification; downdraft gasifiers; equivalence ratio; IC engines; gas composition; calorific value; dual fuel; diesel replacement; thermal efficiency; cylinder peak pressure; indicated mean effective pressure; IMEP; cumulative heat release rate; engine emissions.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETP.2017.10001380
  • A case study of barriers and drivers for energy efficiency in an Indian city   Order a copy of this article
    by G. Jangali Satish, N. Nagesha 
    Abstract: Energy development is an indicator of economic growth. Countries pursuing economic progress are required to resort to increasing degrees of energy usage. Achieving these levels of energy output and utilisation through present technologies is not only difficult and expensive, but also environmentally unsustainable. Energy efficiency generates substantial financial savings while simultaneously improving environmental quality. Despite these benefits, developing countries like India are missing out energy efficiency opportunity and instead concentrating on increased energy production. This report deals with the identification of barriers which prevent implementation of energy efficiency standards, aside from studying drivers which promotes its adoption. The various barriers and drivers are discussed and identified for both residential and commercial sectors in Davangere City, Karnataka State, India. The factor analysis is carried out by principal component analysis (PCA) method to find the barriers which prevent from achieving energy efficiency.
    Keywords: barriers; commercial sector; drivers; energy efficiency standards; residential sector; case study; India; principal component analysis; PCA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETP.2017.10001381
  • Lithium battery recycling management and policy   Order a copy of this article
    by Ataur Rahman, Rafia Afroz 
    Abstract: Recycling of used lithium batteries has primarily focused on extracting active metal cobalt (Co) and lithium (Li). The price of cobalt is higher than the price of others metals. The price of Co and Li has increased due to production of electric and hybrid car. The used Li battery is the source of Li and Co and the optimal way of extract these metals from this waste are important. Hydrometallurgical method is used to recover Co and Li in laboratory scale with 48.8 Wh battery. Calcination on Co, Li and Cu extraction at 700°C was performed to remove organic compounds. Material after calcination was leached in different concentration of HCl and H2SO4 without and with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) reducing agent. Experiment was conducted on recycling of 48.8 Wh battery and found that the recycling cathode 41 wt% and 8.5 wt% of the cell cathode and anode, which are 48.8% and 23.4% of the cathode and anode cell material price, respectively.
    Keywords: Li-ion batteries; battery electro-chemistry; battery recycling; calcination; battery disposal; economic value; environmental value; used batteries; lithium batteries; cobalt recovery; lithium recovery; metal extraction; waste recovery; hydrometallurgy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETP.2017.10001405

Special Issue on: PICMET 2014 Technology Management in the Energy Sector

  • Cooking oil waste recycling experiences worldwide: a preliminary analysis of the emerging networks in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region, Brazil   Order a copy of this article
    by Mauro Silva Ruiz, Rosicler Barbosa De Oliveira, Aldo Struffaldi, Marcelo Luiz Dias Da Silva Gabriel, Evandro Bocatto 
    Abstract: The recycling of used cooking oil is gaining increasing attention as society begins to realise the environmental, economic and social benefits of this activity. This study aims to analyse how cooking oil recycling networks are formed to identify ongoing initiatives of collection and reuse, as well as to understand the processes of both formation and expansion of these networks. In a number of countries, initiatives are emerging in this area, each one with specific characteristics. In Brazil, several Civil Society Organizations of Public Interest (CSOPIs) and some non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are spreading this idea and forming networks among suppliers of used oil, collection points, processors and companies that use the recycled oil. This study examined two CSOPIs to obtain a preliminary overview of a number of existing initiatives for the collection and recycling of cooking oil in Brazil and the networks that are being formed around these initiatives.
    Keywords: cooking oil waste; oil waste recycling; recycling networks; reverse logistics; non-governmental organisations; NGOs; waste collection points; Brazil; supplier networks; oil waste collection; CSOPIs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETP.2017.10001362

Special Issue on: RESRB 2016 Renewable Energy Technology, Business and Policy

  • A service based business model for rapid diffusion of solar water heaters in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Auroshis Rout, Sudhansu Sahoo, Sanju Thomas, Shinu Varghese 
    Abstract: Commercialization of decentralized renewable energy products is a key challenge across the globe. This paper proposes an innovative business model to handle this issue. When this model was applied to a solar water heater along with porters five force approach, business opportunity was found. Though solar water heater is expensive, it is a technically and economically viable option. The unique selling proposition of this innovative business model is formation of a new service based company which will invest in installation and maintenance of solar water heaters and collect money from the end users on a monthly basis just like electricity bill. The service is being provided at 10% discount rate to electricity, in case used for heating water. So the main issue behind adoption of solar water heater, high capital cost has been resolved. This model can be considered as a platform for energy policy makers in developing countries like India.
    Keywords: Solar water heater; Business Model; Porter’s five force; Feasibility analysis; Energy Policy.

  • Renewable energy and sustainable economic growth of Rwanda: Energy policy implications   Order a copy of this article
    by Michel Rwema, Wojciech M. Budzianowski 
    Abstract: Over the last 10 years, about 70% of the people in Rwanda live without access to electricity. Currently, biomass is the dominant energy source contributing about 85% of Rwandas total energy supply. Consequently, around 90% of the rural population majorly rely on biomass for cooking and lighting among other uses. The use of renewable energy is at its infancy with geothermal and wind energy sources presently unexploited regardless of their significant potential. This paper assesses the renewable energy status and its contribution towards economic growth of Rwanda. It also stresses energy policy insights and implications for sustainability. It was noted that total renewable energy increased by 144% within the first period of the Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS I). This was due to several measures and strategies undertaken for development of the energy sector. Such measures included promoting the use of small and mini grids in power generation. The authors recommend the government to significantly allocate necessary resources to sustain the renewable energy strategies. This is likely to boost exploitation of renewable resources such as solar, biogas and untapped wind further promoting the countrys economic growth and development.
    Keywords: Renewable Energy; Economic Growth; Sustainability; Energy Policy; Rwanda.

  • Enhancing low-carbon economic growth by renewable energy uptake in countries with per capita gross domestic product between 10 and 20 kUSD   Order a copy of this article
    by Wojciech Budzianowski 
    Abstract: The study investigates how countries with per capita gross domestic@ product between 10 and 20 kUSD (further referred to as middle-income countries) should shape domestic economies to enhance low-carbon economic growth and how low-carbon transition can be eventually turned to opportunity. The research starts from comparing and analysing middle-income economies, especially their CO2 emissions indicators. Also relationships between CO2 emissions and income for 138 countries obtained by applying regression analysis are constructed and evaluated. Outcomes from these analyses are configured in the form of climate policy. The proposed climate policy involves a set of key low-carbon technologies and affordable assets fitting the needs of middle-income countries. Besides, the climate policy aims to create the enabling business environment relying on economic, societal, regulatory and political enablers. The resulting economic system facilitates clean renewable energy uptake and triggers sustainable economic development finally potentially leading to low-carbon economic growth. The study emphasises that by making effective technologies and assets choices and reducing system costs, middle-income countries might be able to deliver affordable energy, thus driving industrialisation and finally enhancing economic growth. The proposed economic instruments can ease investments in capital intensive renewable energy infrastructures primarily by increasing capital availability, managing risks and reducing interest rates which are all typically unfavourable in middle-income countries. While implementing the proposed climate policy in different middle-income countries local contexts need to be considered to account for differences in renewable energy uptake potential and economic environment. The rationale developed in the present study can be used in policymaking for creating climate friendly economic growth policies and in academia for extending models testing the effectiveness of different climate policy mixes.
    Keywords: Economic growth; enabling business environment; environmental Kuznets curve; low-carbon economy; middle-income country; renewable energy.

Special Issue on: ICESES 2014 Sustainable Energy Technology

  • Conversion of cotton residues to bio-oil and chemicals through flash pyrolysis in a fluidized bed reactor   Order a copy of this article
    by P. Madhu, H. Kanagasabapathy, I. Neethi Manickam 
    Abstract: Pyrolysis process offers solution to utilize huge quantity of biomass to produce fuel for energy needs. This paper describes the development of a new model for waste cotton shell pyrolysis. This model calculates the minimum fluidization velocity for various sand particles for better fluidization. Cotton shell wastes were subjected to pyrolysis at atmospheric pressure under inert gas atmosphere in a fluidized bed setup to determine the effect of operation parameters. The sand particle size 0.71 mm offered better fluidization and is more economical as it utilizes low hydrogen flow rate. The maximum yield of bio-oil 51 wt% can be obtained under the operation parameters of 450
    Keywords: Biomass; Cotton shell; Fluidized Bed; Flash pyrolysis; Chemical compounds.

  • Experimental study on triple pass solar air heater with thermal energy storage for drying mint leaves   Order a copy of this article
    by KESAVAN. S. , ARJUNAN. T.V.  
    Abstract: Solar dryer is used to preserve agricultural products, save energy consumption and reducing environmental impact. A new type of solar collector has been designed and tested. This study deals with the design of a modular drying system consisting of two functional units, namely a triple pass flat plate air collector with thermal storage and a drying chamber. The flat plate collector is 2m long, 1m wide and 0.1m deep, and incorporates absorber and thermal energy storage unit. Air flows between two glazing during first pass then in the opposite direction through the absorber during second pass and finally through the spaces between units of thermal energy storage and bottom plate into drying chamber. The experiments are conducted for drying mint leaves and the results show that considerable improvement in drying time and moisture removal. It is concluded that the design is compact, sufficiently simple and gives a high thermal performance.
    Keywords: solar dryer; triple pass; absorber; thermal energy storage; mint leaves; useful collector gain; thermal efficiency.

  • Production, Performance and Emission Analysis of Tamanu Oil Diesel Blends along with Biogas in a Diesel Engine in Dual Cycle Mode   Order a copy of this article
    by Tamilvanan Ayyasamy, Balamurugan Kulendaran, Saravanan Duraisamy 
    Abstract: Depleting mineral oil reserves and increasing cost of the petroleum products demands an intensive search for new alternative fuels. In recent years, there has been a considerable effort to develop and introduce alternative renewable fuels to replace conventional petroleum based fuels. Bio-fuels are proved to be very good substitutes for the existing petroleum fuels. Biodiesel is a mono-alkyl-ester of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable feedstock such as vegetable oils and animal fats. Biogas is generated from waste organic materials such as starch, biodegradable waste and some fatty substances. Transesterification is simply described as the chemical breaking of vegetable oils using alcohol to form alcohol esters and glycerol. The procedure involves a two -stage process, acid esterification and alkaline esterification based on FFA content of crude oil. After the transesterification process, Tamanu oil methyl ester has been blended with diesel fuel in various proportions to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder four stroke constant speed diesel engine. Blends of biodiesel extracted from Tamanu oil (B100, B80, B60, B40, and B20) are used in engine to study their performance and emission characteristics. Again the biodiesel blends along with induction of biogas with constant mass flow of 2.313*10-5 kg/s are used for conducting performance and emission analysis. The tests are carried out at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% load conditions. Among the blends B20, B40 and B100 have shown a better performance with respect to brake thermal efficiency, mechanical efficiency and specific fuel consumption. All blends show reduction in HC when compared to diesel. But NOx emission increases with increase in load. This is due to the higher cetane number and oxygen content in biodiesel. But, CO has slightly increased for the induction of biogas compared to the diesel at all load conditions. Experimental investigations show that blending of Tamanu oil methyl esters along with biogas can be used in diesel engine without any modification and also it reduces the harmful emissions.
    Keywords: Biodiesel; Biogas; Calophyllum Inophyllum; Tamanu oil; Dual fuel; Performance and Emission.

  • Experimental studies on the performance of dehumidifier using calcium chloride as a liquid desiccant   Order a copy of this article
    by Seenivasan D, Selladurai V, Arjunan T.V 
    Abstract: The performance of liquid desiccant air conditioning system (LDAS) mainly depends on dehumidifier of the system. In this study, the effects of inlet parameters on the performance of liquid desiccant dehumidifiers were studied with and without indirect evaporative cooler or inter cooler (IDEC) between the dehumidifier for single stage and double stage. The results show that (i) the dehumidification effectiveness decreases by 8.6 % for the all types considered here, with increase in air flow rate from 0.05 kg / s to 0.11 kg / s (ii) The dehumidifier effectiveness decreases due to decrease of moisture removal rate with increasing desiccant temperature in all stages (iii) The moisture condensation rate and dehumidifier effectiveness increases by 30 % and 22.67 % respectively with increase in desiccant flow rate and (iv) The moisture condensation rate is increased by 13 % in increasing desiccant concentration. It is concluded that double stage desiccant dehumidifier with indirect evaporative cooler performs better.
    Keywords: Liquid desiccant; Dehumidifier; Moisture condensation rate (MCR); Dehumidifier effectiveness; Indirect evaporative cooler (IEDC).