International Journal of Electronic Marketing and Retailing (34 papers in press)
Switching Behavior Model in the Jordanian Internet Sector: An Integration of the TPB and Customer Loyalty
by Husam Al Naimi, Mohammad Al Khasawneh
Abstract: While consideration has been given to the traditional model of relationship marketing, the current research is concerned with advancing our understanding of customer switching behavior by exploring the influence of customer loyalty on customer switching behavior. In order to provide a more comprehensive clarification of the switching behavior of Jordanian internet users, a more in-depth study of the switching behavior model was conducted by including customer loyalty as the main outcome of the relationship marketing model. The current research is designed to explore the TPB and investigate the influence of including customer loyalty in switching behavior model in order to present a more comprehensive model of switching behavior in Jordan. As such, a conceptual model along with four hypotheses are tested with a sample of 464 internet users, and then analysed quantitatively using Structural Equation Modeling Partial Least Squares (SEM-PLS) method.. The findings of the current research provided support for the research model as well as for most of the hypotheses regarding the relationship among the model variables. Particularly, in this paper, the research model presented is distinctive in that it synergistically combines the TPB variables along with customer loyalty in evaluating the switching behavior of the Jordanian internet users.
Keywords: Switching Behaviour; TPB; Customer Loyalty
Measuring web site quality: theoretical framework and practical implications for the agro-food sector in the European Alpine area
by Andrea Moretti, Michela Cesarina Mason, Davide Di Fatta
Abstract: Currently online shopping has become a widespread phenomenon around the world and the Internet has become a new outlet for the commercialization of products usually sold through traditional channels. This paper focuses on the agro-food sector and on the European Alpine area with respect to sheep and goat production in order to develop a context-specific framework for e-commerce website quality.rnIn other words, this paper aims to provide, on the one hand, a comprehensive theoretical framework for measure web quality; on the other hand managerial implications for practitioners of the agro-food sector in order to promote these businesses improving the quality of their e-commerce websites. rnWe declined these aims in two research questions: the first is about which are the key factors of website quality in the agro-food sector, analyzing simultaneously system (or functional) quality and information (or technical) quality; the second research question is about how to measure these factors.rnThis paper uses a quantitative methodology that mix an objective and a subjective approach. The result is a pioneering approach able to capture website quality and to provide useful insights for managers and professionals in the agro-food sector.
Keywords: web quality, system quality, information quality, e-commerce
Managing Quality and Customer Trust in the E-Retailing Servicescape
by Patrick Bateman, Emre Ulusoy, Bruce Keillor
Abstract: As online consumer shopping continues to grow, so does the importance of a website in a retailers strategy. In this increasingly competitive environment, building customer loyalty and retaining customers is integral to achieving sustained profitability. While one stream of literature has suggested that e-retailers should concentrate on improving quality, another has recommended the focus should be on building trust with customers. The objective of this study is to synthesize these streams, investigating how the interplay between three forms of quality (information, system, and service) and trust help retain customers in a virtual servicescape. Integrating information systems and marketing research, the results suggest trust mediates the relationship between each type of quality and both satisfaction and repurchase intentions. Furthermore, of the three types of quality, service quality engenders the greatest impact on trust, followed by information then system quality. The paper concludes with a discussion of this model for managers and researchers.
Keywords: trust; servicescape; e-commerce; e-marketing; e-retailing; information quality; system quality; service quality
Impacts of multimodal information on smartphones
by Dimitris Drossos, George Lekakos, Stamatoula Voulgari
Abstract: The present research examines the impact of presentation modalities (combinations of text, video, image, animation) on the effectiveness of information provided in mobile entertainment guides. Our approach is founded upon the Stimuli-Organism-Response model, the media naturalness theory as well as the Persuasive Hierarchy Framework, which suggests that a certain order of effects (cognitive and emotional) occur before the final behavioral outcome (e.g. selection or purchase). Also, following the suggestions of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), users involvement with the content is investigated as a factor that affects information processing and decision making. The findings demonstrate that not only there is a direct effect of multimedia presentation on cognitive/emotional response and behavioral outcome but also users involvement with the content moderates the above relationships.
Keywords: mobile information effectiveness; mobile multimedia content; Elaboration Likelihood Model; mobile entertainment guides.
Social Tie Strength and Virtual Goods Purchase Decisions of Online Game Players
by Ping Zhao, Chun Qiu
Abstract: This paper investigates how social ties among online game players can influence their in-game purchase of virtual goods that are representative of the personalities and status of the players. Using the data provided by the operator of an online game, this paper finds that a player is more likely to purchase such a product if more of her peers (with either a strong tie or a weak tie) possess that same or similar product, with the strong-tie peers having a bigger influence on the purchase than that of the weak-tie ones. This paper also finds that, due to the product-sharing activities among strong-tie friends, a player is less likely to purchase a more expensive virtual good if more of his strong-tie friends already own a similar one. In terms of methodology, this paper uses generalized linear mixed models to identify strong and weak ties, and models customer purchase behaviors. This paper contributes to the literature of social connections and purchase decisions, and offers managerial implications on how to utilize social media that builds on the different strengths of social ties to promote consumer purchase.
Keywords: Social ties; online games; social connection; virtual goods; pricing.
Consumers perceptions on Green and Smart Furniture Innovation
by Ioannis Papadopoulos, Marios Trigkas, Glykeria Karagouni
Abstract: Ecological and intelligent furniture appears to gain popularity since both smart multi-functionality and eco-sensitivity seem to grow. On the other hand, an emergent stream of the entrepreneurship literature regards the involvement of customers in the definition and creation of value to new products and services as vital; value creation strategies focus actually on the location and exploitation of the various dimensions along which customers perceive value. The study investigates the perceptions of consumers of the third age regarding the attractiveness of Green Smart Furniture (GSF) products. The research contains data from a random sample of 399 consumers from different regions of Greece during 2013. The data were recorded, processed and analyzed via the statistical package SPSSWIN ver 20.0.
According to the findings, third age consumers everyday living and its difficulties regarding the use of furniture seem to play the most significant role, along with health improvement support and environmental protection. However, price plays also a crucial role.
Keywords: Value Creation; Green Innovation; Smart Innovation; Furniture; Consumers.
The value of a network in the digital era: insights about Doctor Chat case study
by Davide Di Fatta, Francesco Cupido, Gandolfo Dominici
Abstract: Networks are ubiquitous in our lives in their social, physical, and digital forms. A growing number of firms today rely entirely on networking and lack a physical location or material infrastructure; they are, so to speak, liquid.
Through a theoretical analysis and its application to the case of Doctor Chat mobile app, this paper aims to analyze the fundamental laws of networks and to answer to the following questions: (1) Are the traditional methods to estimate the network value still valid in the current digital age and in particular for mobile applications? (2) How do the laws of networks work when networks expand?
We conclude with some suggestions for a research agenda in order to inspire further researches on the topic.
Keywords: Network theory; mobile app; Sarnoff’s Law; Metcalfe’s Law; Reed’s Law; Odlyzko and Tilly’s Law.
MODERATING ROLE OF PRODUCT TYPE IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN E-RETAILER SERVICE ATTRIBUTES AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
by Yanfen You, Amit Bhatnagar, Sanjoy Ghose
Abstract: This paper examines how product type (i.e., utilitarian vs. hedonic) moderates the relationship between e-retailer service attributes (i.e., customer support and product met expectations) and customer satisfaction. Using hierarchical linear regression analysis, this paper finds that customer support exerts a stronger impact on customer overall satisfaction for utilitarian goods than for hedonic goods. In contrast, product met expectations exerts a greater impact on customer overall satisfaction for hedonic goods than for utilitarian goods. Managerially, it is of strategic importance for e-retailers to account for their product types when allocating resources to service attributes. Theoretically, this is the first study to explore the moderating role of product type (i.e., utilitarian vs. hedonic) in the relationships between e-retailer service attributes and customer overall satisfaction.
Keywords: Customer satisfaction; E-retailer service attributes; Hedonic/utilitarian goods; Customer support; Product met expectations.
Effectiveness of Female Nudity in e-Advertising
by Jacques Digout, Charbel Salloum, Leah Hajjar, Nahed Taha
Abstract: This paper attempts to study the effectiveness of female nudity in advertising, specifically among Lebanese youth in universities. To validate our hypotheses, we carried out a self-administered survey in four different universities, exposing 189 students to an experimental smartphone advertisement showing either a models face or her partially nude body. Our results suggest that better attention toward the ad, brand recall, and favorable attitude toward the ad are dependent on the presence of nudity in the ad. The theoretical implication of our study is that the use of sexual appeal and sexual information is positively affecting the attention and attitude toward the ad, the brand recall, the consumers buying decision, and consequently the sales rate.
Keywords: Advertising; Consumer Behavior; Nudity; Female.
Classifying Customer Wow, Aha, and Cool affect through Arousal: A Study on Mobile Users.
by Prince Dubey, Naval Bajpai, Sanjay Guha
Abstract: The elegance of marketing is administered through fluctuating customer arousal from outrage to delight. Present study classifies the customer arousal responses in three categories of delight a positive affect into Wow (high delight), Aha (moderate delight) and Cool (low delight). Customer arousal is measured by ten predictor variables. Multiple discriminant analysis is used to classify customer delight. Present study identified that Wow customer influenced by need for benefit and customer expertise. The Aha and Cool are uncertain from Wow customers on rest of predictor variables. As perceptual map of categories is created on the basis of vector analysis, the analysis may vary in product category and affect dimension giving opportunity to fellow researchers to explore and redefine. The segmentation of market on behavioral dimension (delight) is pioneer in reflecting the diverse consumer behavior helping marketers in policy formulation. The work is an attempt to motivate customer classification on behavioral dimension on the basis of social parameter for forthcoming researchers as well. The vigor assessment of delight is the novelty of present research classifying customer on arousal level along with nature and scope of customer profile.
Keywords: Delight; Arousal; Atmospherics; Advertisement; Diverse Stimuli; Selective Attention; Mood State; Discriminant Analysis; Perceptual Map.
The role of communication channel in delivering service recovery in online shopping environment
by Na Young Jung, Yoo-Kyoung Seock
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the effects the communication channels, which deliver service recovery on consumer satisfaction, word-of-mouth and loyalty intention, mediated through perceived quality of service recovery. In addition, this study examines the effect of service failure severity on perceived quality of service recovery. The results reveal that the type of communication channel has no significant effect on perceived quality of service recovery, whereas service recovery quality significantly affects consumer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. In addition, customers perceived severity of service failure significantly influences the quality of service recovery. The findings provide a considerable clue for managers to reduce expenditure and improve the effectiveness of service recovery activities, enabling companies to focus on the apology message rather than the communication channels. Furthermore, service providers should find a way to assess the degree of customers perception of service failure severity to enhance the quality of service recovery activities.
Keywords: communication channel; service recovery; service failure severity; online shopping mall.
Online Sales Promotion in Hedonic versus Utilitarian Product Categories
by Ravi Narayanaswamy, Richard Heiens
Abstract: The current study examines the relationship between hedonic versus utilitarian product categories and the use of sales promotion among online retailers. Results indicate that the online sales promotion mechanisms heavily favored by hedonic marketers and less common among marketers of utilitarian products include price promotions, free gift promotions, and sweepstakes and contests. The only sales promotion mechanism that appears to be equally favored by hedonic and utilitarian product marketers alike is the limited hour special. Online sales promotions for hedonic product categories may be more popular because they are more likely to lead to consumer brand buzz and electronic word-of-mouth. The exception, however, may occur when the value of the marketing message is determined by time and immediacy. Therefore, online retailers have learned to utilize the limited hour special sales promotion format not only for hedonic products, but for utilitarian products as well.
Keywords: Hedonic; utilitarian; sales promotion; online retailing.
UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF WEB-BENEFITS IN CROSS-BUYING
by Vishal Vyas, Sonika Raitani
Abstract: This study seeks to develop and test a framework for understanding the direct and indirect effect of web-benefits derived from bank on cross-buying of financial services. The purpose of this paper further includes exploring the mediating role of switching costs on the inter-relationships between web-benefits, relationship quality, and cross-buying intentions. The theoretical framework is developed on the logic of prior research that technology affects the customer-firm relationships and relationships influence the purchasing intentions of customers. Research data were collected from banking customers in Rajasthan state. Using bank intercept technique, 347 questionnaires were collected. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine the relationships among the constructs. Findings suggest that web-benefits provided by the bank have only indirect effect on the cross-buying intentions through switching costs. Results also revealed that the higher the perceived switching costs and relationship quality, the higher the cross-buying intentions.
Keywords: cross-buying; relationship quality; web-benefits; banking industry.
The determinants and consequences of website credibility in e-retailing: examining the roles of ethical issues
by Yam B. Limbu, Ricard Jensen
Abstract: In the e-tailing context, little is known about ethical determinants of consumers perceptions of the credibility of a retailers website (i.e., website credibility). Thus, this study examines the impact of ethical issues (i.e., privacy, security, fulfillment, and non-deception) on website credibility and its subsequent influence on consumers attitudes toward site and behavioral intentions. Results show that fulfillment and non-deception are related positively to website credibility, which ultimately influences consumers attitudes toward retailers website. However, security and privacy were not significant predictors of website credibility. Attitude toward the website is significantly related to purchase intent, revisit intent, and positive word-of-mouth.
Keywords: online retailing; website credibility; online retailing ethics; privacy; security; fulfillment; nondeception; attitude toward the website; purchase intent; revisit intent; positive word-of-mouth.
Influence of User Generated Content in Online Shopping: Impact of Gender on Purchase Behaviour, Trust, and Intention to Purchase
by Beheruz N. Sethna, Sunil Hazari, Blaise Bergiel
Abstract: Purpose: To investigate differences in gender in the influence of User Generated Content (UGC) on purchase behavior, trust, and intention to purchase. UGC refers to online comments/opinions which can influence other users purchase decisions.
Methodology: Quantitative data gathered through a survey of 232 undergraduates at an American university.
Selected findings: UGCs have a greater influence on purchase intentions and trust for females. No gender differences were found in terms of UGCs influence for a gender-neutral product, propensity to read UGCs, frequency of purchase and authoring reviews.
Implications: Insights are provided for managers interested in consumers use of UGC. It is not only important to monitor what is being written, but also who is writing it. A better understanding of the target audience can serve only to enhance an organizations marketing efficiency.
Value/Contribution: This research attempts to address a relatively unmet need for research specifically addressing gender differences relating to UGC.
Keywords: Online shopping; user generated content; UGC; gender effects on purchase behaviour; trust; and intention to purchase.
Impact of Social media and customer centric technology on performance outcomes: The mediating role of social CRM capabilities
by Shampy Kamboj, Mayank Yadav, Zillur Rahman
Abstract: With the emergence of social media technology, the concept of customer relationship management (CRM) have totally changed, as majority of the firms are now incorporate the usage of social media into their established CRM system, which facilitate the evolution of term social CRM. This article investigates the influence of social media and customer centric technology on social CRM capabilities. The paper presents empirical evidence for the argument that social CRM capabilities lead to firm performance outcomes; customer based profit performance and new product development performance. The developed hypothesis and proposed model were tested through structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that both social media technology and customer centric technology have significant influence on social CRM capabilities. Similarly, these social CRM capabilities also found to have positive effect on customer based and product based performance outcomes. This paper will be useful for both academicians and managers, as it presents several theoretical and practical insights.
Keywords: Capabilities; Customer relationship management; Performance; Social CRM; Social media; Technology.
Attract, captivate, and make them return: Processing fluency effect on estimated shopping time and loyalty intention
by Hyunjoo Im, Young Ha
Abstract: In an online environment where consumers multi-task, engaging casual shoppers remains to be a challenge. The current study identified online shoppers time perception as an important element in engagement, and tested effects of processing fluency in the context. Based on the processing fluency and time perception literature, a conceptual model describing how casual online shoppers subjective experience of processing ease leads to an engaging shopping experience was developed and empirically tested (N=1207). The results from an online experiment provided support for the hypotheses. The study filled the gap in the literature by investigating online shoppers time perception in the context of browsing without a shopping goal. Importantly, the study used both self-rated perception data and objective data to provide strong evidence for inaccurate time perception in online engagement. Theoretical and practical implications as well as future study suggestions are discussed.
Keywords: Processing fluency; online engagement; shopping time perception; low-involvement shopping; attention focus; shopping time estimation; loyalty intention.
To click or to buy over the counter drugs: exploring the behaviour of Slovenian customers
by Vasja Roblek, Mirjana Pejic Bach, Maja Mesko, Andrej Bertoncelj
Abstract: The supply and demand of the information and availability of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs online has increased substantially. Customers express three typical online behaviors regarding OTC drugs: browsing information about OTC drugs without any particular purpose, searching for particular information or product, and buying OTC drugs. This study investigates the determinants of online behavior regarding OTC drugs. The data was acquired using a random sample of Slovenian citizens. Logistic regression method was used to determine which factors influence browsing, searching, and/or buying of OTC drugs online for two age groups: younger and older than 40. The findings suggest that intensity of using the internet use, trust in buying OTC drugs online, as well as education, income and location influence on the online behavior of customers regarding OTC drugs. It has also been determined that age has a moderating effect, indicating motivation of younger and older customers by different determinants. The theoretical and practical contributions of this paper are highlighted in order to guide organizations and policy makers in terms of strategies to increase acceptance of internet marketing and its use among consumers of the OTC market. The core contribution is presenting the consumer behavior models by incorporating the effect of different socioeconomic factors/characteristics.
Keywords: Consumer behaviour; Internet; Online pharmacy; e-Health literacy; Logistic regression method.
Demand Hierarchy Model and its Measurement for Online Brand Community Participation
by Lihong Chen, Xinfeng Yan
Abstract: We report the development of demand hierarchy model and its measurement for online brand community participation (OBCP) and make online consumer demand more transparent. This research contributes to develop demand hierarchy model of online brand community participation (OBCP) that can match the novel network relationship between consumers and at the same time be measurable and management-effective in OBCP. Grounded theory was adopted to explore the demand contents and measurement items of online brand community participation (OBCP). A measuring scale for the model was developed by methods of open questionnaire, literature reference, brain storming and intensive interview and tested by small sample pretest. The reliability and validity analysis were tested as well to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the questionnaire. Five dimensions of demands were distinguished, each with specific connotation and behavioral motive towards the hierarchal demand structure model, which is demonstrated by the pre-investigation and reasonable adjustment to the questionnaire items through exploratory factor analysis. The reliability and validity of the measuring scale meet the standards for scale designing. The scale can be used to measurement instrument for online brand community participation demand and will be helpful for related empirical research. The study results recommend that practitioners carefully indentify information of demands of customers in online brand community and plan targeting online marketing strategies while consumer satisfaction could be enhanced.
Keywords: Online brand community (OBC); Online brand community participation (OBCP); Hierarchy demand model; Scale; Grounded theory.
Apps shoppers behaviour and the moderating effect of product standardisation/brand recognition: A maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach
by Sajad Rezaei, Naser Valaei
Abstract: Despite the importance of understanding consumer attitude and behaviour, little empirical research has focused on shopping via Apps and the moderating effect of product classification (degree of standardisation/brand recognition). Grounded by the theory of reasoned action (TRA), the purpose of this study is to examine the structural relationship between subjective norm, attitude toward shopping via Apps, shopping intention via Apps, behaviour intention via Apps and the moderating effect of product standardisation/brand recognition. Confirmatory maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach, a covariance based-structural equation modelling (CB-SEM) technique was performed for assessment of the reflective measurements, structural relationship between latent constructs and moderation effect. A total of 340 online questionnaires (N=340) was collected and the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supports the structural relationship between the latent constructs and specifies a valid model fit (positive and direct effects). In addition, multigroup moderation SEM analysis (critical ratio values) reveal that the degree of standardisation/brand recognition (standard vs. non-standard) moderates the structural relationships. The positive effect of attitude toward shopping via Apps on shopping intention via Apps is stronger for standard products (group 1) than for non-standard products (group 2); and the positive effect of shopping intention via Apps on shopping behaviour via Apps is stronger for standard products (group 1) than for non-standard products (group 2). However, the positive effect of subjective norms on shopping intention via Apps is not stronger for standard products (group 1) than for non-standard products (group 2). This study provides a basic set of guidelines for the application of confirmatory MLE in the evaluation of direct effects (one tail hypotheses) and multigroup SEM analyses for moderation effects. Theoretical and managerial implications of the study are further discussed.
Keywords: Shopping intention via Apps; shopping behaviour via Apps; theory of reasoned action (TRA); subjective norm; attitude toward shopping via Apps; product classification; Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach.
COLLEGE STUDENTS ONLINE PURCHASE ATTITUDES AND INTENTIONS: GENDER, PRODUCT TYPE, AND RISK
by Jane McKay-Nesbitt, Chad Ryan
Abstract: This research explores the relationship between gender and hedonically-motivated shopping as well as the effects of product type (i.e. hedonic vs. utilitarian) and gender on online purchase attitudes and intentions. It also explores how consumers online shopping risk perceptions influence the effects of the relationship between product type and gender on online attitudes and intentions. Results show that US, college-age females are more likely than males to identify as hedonically- motivated consumers. Both males and females view hedonic products as riskier than utilitarian products and are more willing to purchase utilitarian than hedonic products online. Males are more willing than females to purchase hedonic products online. Gender differences in willingness to buy hedonic products online are mediated by online shopping risk perceptions. The results reveal that marketers need to continue to seek ways to convert females enjoyment of shopping into actual purchase behaviour. Online marketers need to seek ways to mitigate the risk associated with purchasing hedonic products online.
Keywords: e-commerce; online shopping; gender; risk perceptions; risk; hedonic; utilitarian; recreational shopping identity; RSI; consumer behaviour; electronic marketing; internet.
A TWO-STAGE APPROACH FOR A REFLECTIVE-FORMATIVE HIERARCHICAL LATENT VARIABLE MODEL FOR MEASURING CUSTOMER LOYALTY: SPECIAL CASE OF INDIAN E-CUSTOMERS
by Thomas John Paul, JAYANTH JACOB
Abstract: This study employs an integrated model, combining information system (IS) continuance studies and marketing theories, to examine the post-adoption attitudinal and behavioural loyalty of an e-customer shopping from an online webstore. Our research employs partial least squares (PLS-SEM) regression analysis to test the model. Hedonic value and Utilitarian value are proposed as first-order reflective indicators of second-order formative value construct. Gender is included as a moderator for testing the difference in effect for all the relationship paths in the model. Data collected from 403 online shopping customers present a sound support for the research model. The results show that value, trust, satisfaction and habit strongly augment customers loyalty. The results also indicate that the outcome of satisfaction on habit is significantly stronger for females.
Keywords: Loyalty; Habit; Value; Satisfaction; Trust; Information System Continuance; Latent Variable Score; Reflective Formative Construct; Gender; Moderator; Mediator; Two-Stage Approach; PLS-SEM.
Understanding customers expectations for delivering satisfactory and competitive services experience
by Andy Fred Wali, N. Gladson Nwokah
Abstract: This present study attempts to understand Nigeria Mobile Telecommunications [MT] consumers voice call and data services expectations for delivering satisfactory and competitive service experiences. The Multi-level qualitative research design with single face to face [F2F] interview and focus group [FG] approaches were employed. 22 samples were drawn from Nigeria MT sector heterogonous consumer population in Port Harcourt-Rivers State of Nigeria. One FG with 12 participants and ten single F2F interviews were held and data was analysis using content analysis technique with NVivo 11 software. Our result shows that some customers of selected firms are less satisfied with their offerings. This is because these firms lack knowledge of their customers expectations. Also, five positively rated factors: service quality, price bundling, complaints management, consumer right education and consumer market research are key thematic expectations that support the delivery of satisfactory services experience and competitiveness. This study contributes to the literature on consumer behaviour research by revealing customers expectation for MT voice and data services in Nigeria and how these expectations drive customer satisfaction [CSAT] and retention [CRT] as well as business competitiveness. However, continental MT operators and researchers should understand that factors of customers expectations are peculiar to specific country.
Keywords: Customers’ expectations; Customer satisfaction; Services experience; Qualitative methods; NVivo 11; Mobile telecommunications.
Smartphone Dependence among Students: Gender Based Analysis
by Wajeeha Aslam, Imtiaz Arif, Kashif Farhat
Abstract: The aim of the study is to explore smartphones dependence among students through social needs, social influence and convenience and impact of smartphones dependence on purchase behavior. Comparison of male and female dependence on smartphones and their purchasing behavior has also been assessed by the aforementioned variables. The data was gathered with the help of Likert scale questionnaire. For the data collection purposive sampling was employed and 337 usable responses were gathered. Principal component analysis and multiple regression analysis and independent sample t-test were used as statistical tests to uncover the findings of the study. The results drawn from the study provide evidence that social influence and convenience significantly affect students dependence on smartphones. A significant relation also appeared between students dependence on smartphone and purchase behavior. Responses of female participants of the study reveal that social influence and convenience have a significant affect whereas in males social need and social influence have a significant effect on dependence on smartphone. The study makes a significant contribution to smartphones producers in meeting customer needs to better develop smartphones that provide convenience and user friendly features. It will also help marketers to develop the appropriate strategies of marketing smartphones as the study provides the better understanding of usage behavior and purchase behavior. Also it provides an exclusive viewpoint of students dependence on smartphones and its effect on purchase behavior, not much researched in the context of Pakistan. The statistical evidence provided by this research can be used as a research tool for both exploratory and explanatory research on the subject of students use of personal gadgets.
Keywords: dependence; social need; social influence; convenience; smartphones; Karachi; regression.
Interpretive Structural Modeling for E-impulse Buying: An Indian Study
by Hemraj Verma, Shalini Singh
Abstract: E-tailing in India has become an indispensible activity in day to day routine of shoppers. Apart from numbers of planned shopping on the internet it is also reported that online shoppers are indulged in impulse buying too (Wells et al., 2011). This paper aims to identify the relevant factors that stimulate e-impulse buying and analyze their interaction by using interpretive structural modeling. Design/methodology/approach This study to identify factors took place in two phases i.e. from the extensive review of literature and by qualitative analysis of 30 interviews conducted. Interpretive structural modeling (ISM) has been applied on the identified factors to propose a model for e-impulse buying. Findings A model for all the relevant factors of e-impulse buying in India has been proposed showing hierarchical paradigm as well as interrelationships between relevant factors of e-impulse buying. Research limitations/implications This model can be utilized by online retailers, marketing researchers and decision-makers to understand the hierarchical paradigm of factors of e-impulse buying. Originality/value This study provides knowledge value to researchers, academicians and online retailers by revealing authentic insights related to the major factors stimulating e-impulse buying.
Keywords: : E-impulse buying; factors; interpretive structural modeling (ISM); online shoppers; India.
Shopping on the Go: How Walking Influences Mobile Shopping Performance
by Sarah Stanley, Cassandra Elrod, Nathan Twyman, Cui Zou
Abstract: Given the growth in use and capabilities of mobile devices, the mobile commerce (m-commerce) market is also continuing to grow and become more sophisticated. Studies have been conducted exploring the results of m-commerce and the use of mobile devices, however, most past studies on the topic are done in a stationary setting. This is an exploratory study seeking to examine how m-commerce is impacted by the use of mobile devices in a stationary, or walking, setting. Treadmill desks were used to replicate mobile shopping while using mobile devices and then compared the results with the same task completed on mobile devices in a stationary manner. Results indicate that shopping while walking increases the time it takes to compete the shopping task but not the price spent for the product in question.
Keywords: M-Commerce; mobile commerce; mobility; walking; shopping; treadmill desk; shopping task.
The State of Flow in Social Commerce: The Importance of Flow Consciousness
by Carolina Herrando, Julio Jiménez-Martínez, María José Martín-De Hoyos
Abstract: Flow has been widely studied in different disciplines and contexts; but there is a lack of consensus about its dimensionality, measurement and structure. This research theorizes that flow is a second-order multidimensional factor composed of three dimensions: concentration, enjoyment and temporal distortion. This investigation studies whether users who have reached the state of flow in social commerce have really been aware of it, studying users flow consciousness. The empirical results confirm the three-dimensionality of the concept, through the rival models technique, corroborate the second-order reflective structure and show that the more intense the experience of flow when surfing, the more conscious the users are of having reached the state of flow. This study contributes to setting up the basis for measuring flow, defining its structure, and enabling future investigations to focus on how flow consciousness influences the commercial success of a social commerce platform.
Keywords: Flow theory; social commerce; flow consciousness; second-order factor model; unidimensional versus multidimensional.
Examining Telegram users motivations, technical characteristics, trust, attitudes, and positive word-of-mouth: Evidence from Iran
by Davood Ghorbanzadeh, Hamid Reza Saeednia
Abstract: Telegram is a mobile instant text and voice messaging communication service and has become an important social media platform in Iran. The objectives of this research are to examine the effects of psychological motivations (entertainment, sociality), technical characteristics (ease of use and convenience), perceived usefulness and trust on telegram users attitudes and to assess the influence of users attitudes and their trust on positive word-of-mouth. The research model was tested using data randomly collected from Students of College of Administrative Science and Research and North Tehran Azad Universities in Tehran city. The numbers of valid observations were 300. Structure equation modeling was used to verify and validate the research model. The results revealed that the psychological motivations entertainment, sociality has a positive and significant impact on telegram users attitudes. In addition, perceived usefulness and trust has a positive and significant impact on telegram users attitudes. Convenience as a technical characteristic through perceived usefulness has a positive and significant impact on telegram users attitudes. Finally, telegram users attitudes and their trust has a positive and significant impact on positive word of mouth. The research results provide insight into how telegram can motivate users and build their trust to improve their attitudes which in turn will increase telegram users willingness in making positive comments on products and services.
Keywords: Psychological motivations; Technical Characteristics; Perceived usefulness; trust; attitudes; positive word of mouth.
Conversion rate determinants in e-commerce websites. What about moderation effects?
by Davide Di Fatta, David Diwei Lu
Abstract: Online retailers invest significant resource to improve conversion rates, defined as the proportion of website visitors that make a purchase. Using 1184 observations from 6 e-commerce websites, this paper aims to analyze conversion rate determinants, also considering moderation effects of seasonality and webpage speed of load. Results show that free shipping and discounts policy have a positive effect on the conversion rate, moderated by seasonality and load speed. These finding could be useful guidelines for e-commerce managers in order to allocate their limited resources to the most relevant factor to increase online sales.
Keywords: conversion rate; e-commerce; pricing policy; discount; free shipping; ordinary least squares.
Special Issue on: Advancements in Interactive Marketing and the Internet of Things
Impact of Social Relationships on Electronic Word of Mouth in Social Networking Sites: A Study of Indian Social Network Users
by Smita Sharma, Asad Rehman
Abstract: This study focused on the understanding of consumers use of social networking sites as a vehicle for electronic word of mouth. The hypotheses examined the impact of social relationship variables- social capital, tie strength, attitude homophily, background homophily, trust, normative influence, and informational influence on electronic word of mouth behavior in social networking sites. For testing the hypothesized relationships between the predictors and electronic word of mouth behavior variables, SEM (structural equation modeling) was applied on the data collected from social networks users. EFA (exploratory factor analysis) was carried out, followed by CFA (confirmatory factor analysis). It was concluded that social capital, background homophily, normative influence, informational influence emerged to be strong significant predictors of electronic word of mouth, and attitude homophily and trust were found to be partially significant. Only tie strength was not found to be a significant predictor.
Keywords: social networking sites; social relationships; electronic word of mouth communication; consumer engagement; marketing communication.
Applying Data Mining Method for Marketing Purpose in Social Networks: Case of Tebyan
by Hani Sharifian, Mohammad Meisam Danesh Ashtiani, Nastaran Hajiheydari
Abstract: Within a very short period of time, social networking sites are developed among different users all around the world. Social networks have high value to business intelligence. In these networks, there are so many advantages and demands on addressees and their interest recognition. How do we increase our social network users, posts, and effectiveness? How many consumers be segmented with respect to their reactions to social network? The creation of a target market strategy is integral to developing an effective business strategy. The purpose of this article is market segmentation and correctly identifying the target groups for social network using data mining techniques. As users in each segment have their own and specific interests, social networks can define them by their demographic profiles, they can also change their development strategies according to users and interests they want to engage in. In this research we deploy Data Mining methods for segmenting Tebyan social network users to see how this method could contribute toward marketing strategies and purposes. According to K-mean algorithm, we demonstrate 5 different customer categories based on their characteristics and behavior that deploying appropriate strategy for each category can help the marketing performance.
Keywords: Data Mining; Social Network; Marketing; Segmentation; Marketing Strategy; Electronic Marketing; Target Marketing; Two-Step; Kohnen; K-means.
Bragging About Online Purchases: Comparing Consumer Word-of-Mouth among Hispanics and Non-Hispanics Groups
by Sindy Chapa, Felipe Korzenny, Howard Rodriguez-Mori
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore to what extent consumers use word-of-mouth (WOM) to share information about their online purchases and to what extent WOM differ across segments and cultural groups. An online survey with a total sample of 2,850 was used to measure and model the impact of of WOM. The findings of the study support the premise that acculturation is a moderator of WOM, and confirms the predictive value of culture on consumer attitudes and behaviors. From a practical perspective, the results indicate that un-acculturated Hispanics (new immigrants and first generation) are more prone to use WOM than acculturated Hispanic consumers, who in turn, are more prone to use WOM to brag about their online shopping than Non-Hispanics/Whites in the U.S. Finally, a tested model reveals WOM plays a mediating role in increasing consumer preference for premium products.
Keywords: Word-of-mouth, WOM, acculturation, Hispanic, Latinos,
groups, reference group, influence, impact, culture, online, purchases,consumers, marketing, customers
CONSUMER RESEARCH, RETAILERS AND ROBOTS
by Don Schultz, Martin Block
Abstract: Today, there are persistent and ongoing questions about how technology will impact the future of the existing retail marketplace. In this paper, we argue that consumers, not manufacturers, retailers or even technologists will control that marketplace. In this exploratory study, we first review the various technologies under consideration. We follow that with an analysis of a big data set (n=16,228) of U.S. consumer responses to an online study on retail search and purchase. We find that no one technological solution appears to dominate consumer search or purchase patterns in ten major consumer retail product categories at the time of the study. We conclude that retail technological development is dependent on consumer acceptance and adoption of that technology. We speculate that voice-activated personal intelligent agents have the most likelihood of success in the U.S. retail marketplace in the next five to seven years.
Keywords: Consumer search, consumer purchase, retail technologies, retail robots, intelligent agents.
The Determinants of Website Purchases
The role of E-Customer Loyalty and Word-Of-Mouth
by Helia Pereira, Margarida Cardoso, Pedro Dionísio
Abstract: This paper investigates the influence of several variables on e-loyalty and e-WOM, in the context of Personal Lifestyle products and services (PLps). Two focus group were conducted and a questionnaire was applied to explore the attitudes and behavior regarding online shopping in this type of products. The most important results have shown that overall quality perception, buying experience, website image and personalization all have a positive impact on e-customers satisfaction. At the same time, e-satisfaction has a positive impact on trust and on keeping customers loyalty and this positively influences e-WOM. Results also note that customers can be loyal but, at the same time, are always looking for information and available to change to another brand, which is critical for organizations to understand and act proactively in order to guarantee a long time relationship.
Finally, we find that the PLps online consumers categorization into youngsters and matures relates to trust: in general the more mature customers feel more confident about online brands. In this sense, it is recommended companies to apply different strategies to young and mature clients, reinforcing the presence in the most credible sources of information for each of them.
These results allow a better understanding of customer specificities, with practical actions being aimed at their real needs and expectations.
Keywords: E-commerce; Consumer Behaviour; e-Satisfaction; e-Loyalty; e-WOM.