International Journal of Electronic Marketing and Retailing (37 papers in press)
Social Tie Strength and Virtual Goods Purchase Decisions of Online Game Players
by Ping Zhao, Chun Qiu
Abstract: This paper investigates how social ties among online game players can influence their in-game purchase of virtual goods that are representative of the personalities and status of the players. Using the data provided by the operator of an online game, this paper finds that a player is more likely to purchase such a product if more of her peers (with either a strong tie or a weak tie) possess that same or similar product, with the strong-tie peers having a bigger influence on the purchase than that of the weak-tie ones. This paper also finds that, due to the product-sharing activities among strong-tie friends, a player is less likely to purchase a more expensive virtual good if more of his strong-tie friends already own a similar one. In terms of methodology, this paper uses generalized linear mixed models to identify strong and weak ties, and models customer purchase behaviors. This paper contributes to the literature of social connections and purchase decisions, and offers managerial implications on how to utilize social media that builds on the different strengths of social ties to promote consumer purchase.
Keywords: Social ties; online games; social connection; virtual goods; pricing.
Consumers perceptions on Green and Smart Furniture Innovation
by Ioannis Papadopoulos, Marios Trigkas, Glykeria Karagouni
Abstract: Ecological and intelligent furniture appears to gain popularity since both smart multi-functionality and eco-sensitivity seem to grow. On the other hand, an emergent stream of the entrepreneurship literature regards the involvement of customers in the definition and creation of value to new products and services as vital; value creation strategies focus actually on the location and exploitation of the various dimensions along which customers perceive value. The study investigates the perceptions of consumers of the third age regarding the attractiveness of Green Smart Furniture (GSF) products. The research contains data from a random sample of 399 consumers from different regions of Greece during 2013. The data were recorded, processed and analyzed via the statistical package SPSSWIN ver 20.0.
According to the findings, third age consumers everyday living and its difficulties regarding the use of furniture seem to play the most significant role, along with health improvement support and environmental protection. However, price plays also a crucial role.
Keywords: Value Creation; Green Innovation; Smart Innovation; Furniture; Consumers.
The value of a network in the digital era: insights about Doctor Chat case study
by Davide Di Fatta, Francesco Cupido, Gandolfo Dominici
Abstract: Networks are ubiquitous in our lives in their social, physical, and digital forms. A growing number of firms today rely entirely on networking and lack a physical location or material infrastructure; they are, so to speak, liquid.
Through a theoretical analysis and its application to the case of Doctor Chat mobile app, this paper aims to analyze the fundamental laws of networks and to answer to the following questions: (1) Are the traditional methods to estimate the network value still valid in the current digital age and in particular for mobile applications? (2) How do the laws of networks work when networks expand?
We conclude with some suggestions for a research agenda in order to inspire further researches on the topic.
Keywords: Network theory; mobile app; Sarnoff’s Law; Metcalfe’s Law; Reed’s Law; Odlyzko and Tilly’s Law.
MODERATING ROLE OF PRODUCT TYPE IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN E-RETAILER SERVICE ATTRIBUTES AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
by Yanfen You, Amit Bhatnagar, Sanjoy Ghose
Abstract: This paper examines how product type (i.e., utilitarian vs. hedonic) moderates the relationship between e-retailer service attributes (i.e., customer support and product met expectations) and customer satisfaction. Using hierarchical linear regression analysis, this paper finds that customer support exerts a stronger impact on customer overall satisfaction for utilitarian goods than for hedonic goods. In contrast, product met expectations exerts a greater impact on customer overall satisfaction for hedonic goods than for utilitarian goods. Managerially, it is of strategic importance for e-retailers to account for their product types when allocating resources to service attributes. Theoretically, this is the first study to explore the moderating role of product type (i.e., utilitarian vs. hedonic) in the relationships between e-retailer service attributes and customer overall satisfaction.
Keywords: Customer satisfaction; E-retailer service attributes; Hedonic/utilitarian goods; Customer support; Product met expectations.
Effectiveness of Female Nudity in e-Advertising
by Jacques Digout, Charbel Salloum, Leah Hajjar, Nahed Taha
Abstract: This paper attempts to study the effectiveness of female nudity in advertising, specifically among Lebanese youth in universities. To validate our hypotheses, we carried out a self-administered survey in four different universities, exposing 189 students to an experimental smartphone advertisement showing either a models face or her partially nude body. Our results suggest that better attention toward the ad, brand recall, and favorable attitude toward the ad are dependent on the presence of nudity in the ad. The theoretical implication of our study is that the use of sexual appeal and sexual information is positively affecting the attention and attitude toward the ad, the brand recall, the consumers buying decision, and consequently the sales rate.
Keywords: Advertising; Consumer Behavior; Nudity; Female.
Classifying Customer Wow, Aha, and Cool affect through Arousal: A Study on Mobile Users.
by Prince Dubey, Naval Bajpai, Sanjay Guha
Abstract: The elegance of marketing is administered through fluctuating customer arousal from outrage to delight. Present study classifies the customer arousal responses in three categories of delight a positive affect into Wow (high delight), Aha (moderate delight) and Cool (low delight). Customer arousal is measured by ten predictor variables. Multiple discriminant analysis is used to classify customer delight. Present study identified that Wow customer influenced by need for benefit and customer expertise. The Aha and Cool are uncertain from Wow customers on rest of predictor variables. As perceptual map of categories is created on the basis of vector analysis, the analysis may vary in product category and affect dimension giving opportunity to fellow researchers to explore and redefine. The segmentation of market on behavioral dimension (delight) is pioneer in reflecting the diverse consumer behavior helping marketers in policy formulation. The work is an attempt to motivate customer classification on behavioral dimension on the basis of social parameter for forthcoming researchers as well. The vigor assessment of delight is the novelty of present research classifying customer on arousal level along with nature and scope of customer profile.
Keywords: Delight; Arousal; Atmospherics; Advertisement; Diverse Stimuli; Selective Attention; Mood State; Discriminant Analysis; Perceptual Map.
The role of communication channel in delivering service recovery in online shopping environment
by Na Young Jung, Yoo-Kyoung Seock
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the effects the communication channels, which deliver service recovery on consumer satisfaction, word-of-mouth and loyalty intention, mediated through perceived quality of service recovery. In addition, this study examines the effect of service failure severity on perceived quality of service recovery. The results reveal that the type of communication channel has no significant effect on perceived quality of service recovery, whereas service recovery quality significantly affects consumer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. In addition, customers perceived severity of service failure significantly influences the quality of service recovery. The findings provide a considerable clue for managers to reduce expenditure and improve the effectiveness of service recovery activities, enabling companies to focus on the apology message rather than the communication channels. Furthermore, service providers should find a way to assess the degree of customers perception of service failure severity to enhance the quality of service recovery activities.
Keywords: communication channel; service recovery; service failure severity; online shopping mall.
Online Sales Promotion in Hedonic versus Utilitarian Product Categories
by Ravi Narayanaswamy, Richard Heiens
Abstract: The current study examines the relationship between hedonic versus utilitarian product categories and the use of sales promotion among online retailers. Results indicate that the online sales promotion mechanisms heavily favored by hedonic marketers and less common among marketers of utilitarian products include price promotions, free gift promotions, and sweepstakes and contests. The only sales promotion mechanism that appears to be equally favored by hedonic and utilitarian product marketers alike is the limited hour special. Online sales promotions for hedonic product categories may be more popular because they are more likely to lead to consumer brand buzz and electronic word-of-mouth. The exception, however, may occur when the value of the marketing message is determined by time and immediacy. Therefore, online retailers have learned to utilize the limited hour special sales promotion format not only for hedonic products, but for utilitarian products as well.
Keywords: Hedonic; utilitarian; sales promotion; online retailing.
UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF WEB-BENEFITS IN CROSS-BUYING
by Vishal Vyas, Sonika Raitani
Abstract: This study seeks to develop and test a framework for understanding the direct and indirect effect of web-benefits derived from bank on cross-buying of financial services. The purpose of this paper further includes exploring the mediating role of switching costs on the inter-relationships between web-benefits, relationship quality, and cross-buying intentions. The theoretical framework is developed on the logic of prior research that technology affects the customer-firm relationships and relationships influence the purchasing intentions of customers. Research data were collected from banking customers in Rajasthan state. Using bank intercept technique, 347 questionnaires were collected. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine the relationships among the constructs. Findings suggest that web-benefits provided by the bank have only indirect effect on the cross-buying intentions through switching costs. Results also revealed that the higher the perceived switching costs and relationship quality, the higher the cross-buying intentions.
Keywords: cross-buying; relationship quality; web-benefits; banking industry.
The determinants and consequences of website credibility in e-retailing: examining the roles of ethical issues
by Yam B. Limbu, Ricard Jensen
Abstract: In the e-tailing context, little is known about ethical determinants of consumers perceptions of the credibility of a retailers website (i.e., website credibility). Thus, this study examines the impact of ethical issues (i.e., privacy, security, fulfillment, and non-deception) on website credibility and its subsequent influence on consumers attitudes toward site and behavioral intentions. Results show that fulfillment and non-deception are related positively to website credibility, which ultimately influences consumers attitudes toward retailers website. However, security and privacy were not significant predictors of website credibility. Attitude toward the website is significantly related to purchase intent, revisit intent, and positive word-of-mouth.
Keywords: online retailing; website credibility; online retailing ethics; privacy; security; fulfillment; nondeception; attitude toward the website; purchase intent; revisit intent; positive word-of-mouth.
Influence of User Generated Content in Online Shopping: Impact of Gender on Purchase Behaviour, Trust, and Intention to Purchase
by Beheruz N. Sethna, Sunil Hazari, Blaise Bergiel
Abstract: Purpose: To investigate differences in gender in the influence of User Generated Content (UGC) on purchase behavior, trust, and intention to purchase. UGC refers to online comments/opinions which can influence other users purchase decisions.
Methodology: Quantitative data gathered through a survey of 232 undergraduates at an American university.
Selected findings: UGCs have a greater influence on purchase intentions and trust for females. No gender differences were found in terms of UGCs influence for a gender-neutral product, propensity to read UGCs, frequency of purchase and authoring reviews.
Implications: Insights are provided for managers interested in consumers use of UGC. It is not only important to monitor what is being written, but also who is writing it. A better understanding of the target audience can serve only to enhance an organizations marketing efficiency.
Value/Contribution: This research attempts to address a relatively unmet need for research specifically addressing gender differences relating to UGC.
Keywords: Online shopping; user generated content; UGC; gender effects on purchase behaviour; trust; and intention to purchase.
Impact of Social media and customer centric technology on performance outcomes: The mediating role of social CRM capabilities
by Shampy Kamboj, Mayank Yadav, Zillur Rahman
Abstract: With the emergence of social media technology, the concept of customer relationship management (CRM) have totally changed, as majority of the firms are now incorporate the usage of social media into their established CRM system, which facilitate the evolution of term social CRM. This article investigates the influence of social media and customer centric technology on social CRM capabilities. The paper presents empirical evidence for the argument that social CRM capabilities lead to firm performance outcomes; customer based profit performance and new product development performance. The developed hypothesis and proposed model were tested through structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that both social media technology and customer centric technology have significant influence on social CRM capabilities. Similarly, these social CRM capabilities also found to have positive effect on customer based and product based performance outcomes. This paper will be useful for both academicians and managers, as it presents several theoretical and practical insights.
Keywords: Capabilities; Customer relationship management; Performance; Social CRM; Social media; Technology.
Attract, captivate, and make them return: Processing fluency effect on estimated shopping time and loyalty intention
by Hyunjoo Im, Young Ha
Abstract: In an online environment where consumers multi-task, engaging casual shoppers remains to be a challenge. The current study identified online shoppers time perception as an important element in engagement, and tested effects of processing fluency in the context. Based on the processing fluency and time perception literature, a conceptual model describing how casual online shoppers subjective experience of processing ease leads to an engaging shopping experience was developed and empirically tested (N=1207). The results from an online experiment provided support for the hypotheses. The study filled the gap in the literature by investigating online shoppers time perception in the context of browsing without a shopping goal. Importantly, the study used both self-rated perception data and objective data to provide strong evidence for inaccurate time perception in online engagement. Theoretical and practical implications as well as future study suggestions are discussed.
Keywords: Processing fluency; online engagement; shopping time perception; low-involvement shopping; attention focus; shopping time estimation; loyalty intention.
To click or to buy over the counter drugs: exploring the behaviour of Slovenian customers
by Vasja Roblek, Mirjana Pejic Bach, Maja Mesko, Andrej Bertoncelj
Abstract: The supply and demand of the information and availability of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs online has increased substantially. Customers express three typical online behaviors regarding OTC drugs: browsing information about OTC drugs without any particular purpose, searching for particular information or product, and buying OTC drugs. This study investigates the determinants of online behavior regarding OTC drugs. The data was acquired using a random sample of Slovenian citizens. Logistic regression method was used to determine which factors influence browsing, searching, and/or buying of OTC drugs online for two age groups: younger and older than 40. The findings suggest that intensity of using the internet use, trust in buying OTC drugs online, as well as education, income and location influence on the online behavior of customers regarding OTC drugs. It has also been determined that age has a moderating effect, indicating motivation of younger and older customers by different determinants. The theoretical and practical contributions of this paper are highlighted in order to guide organizations and policy makers in terms of strategies to increase acceptance of internet marketing and its use among consumers of the OTC market. The core contribution is presenting the consumer behavior models by incorporating the effect of different socioeconomic factors/characteristics.
Keywords: Consumer behaviour; Internet; Online pharmacy; e-Health literacy; Logistic regression method.
Demand Hierarchy Model and its Measurement for Online Brand Community Participation
by Lihong Chen, Xinfeng Yan
Abstract: We report the development of demand hierarchy model and its measurement for online brand community participation (OBCP) and make online consumer demand more transparent. This research contributes to develop demand hierarchy model of online brand community participation (OBCP) that can match the novel network relationship between consumers and at the same time be measurable and management-effective in OBCP. Grounded theory was adopted to explore the demand contents and measurement items of online brand community participation (OBCP). A measuring scale for the model was developed by methods of open questionnaire, literature reference, brain storming and intensive interview and tested by small sample pretest. The reliability and validity analysis were tested as well to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the questionnaire. Five dimensions of demands were distinguished, each with specific connotation and behavioral motive towards the hierarchal demand structure model, which is demonstrated by the pre-investigation and reasonable adjustment to the questionnaire items through exploratory factor analysis. The reliability and validity of the measuring scale meet the standards for scale designing. The scale can be used to measurement instrument for online brand community participation demand and will be helpful for related empirical research. The study results recommend that practitioners carefully indentify information of demands of customers in online brand community and plan targeting online marketing strategies while consumer satisfaction could be enhanced.
Keywords: Online brand community (OBC); Online brand community participation (OBCP); Hierarchy demand model; Scale; Grounded theory.
Apps shoppers behaviour and the moderating effect of product standardisation/brand recognition: A maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach
by Sajad Rezaei, Naser Valaei
Abstract: Despite the importance of understanding consumer attitude and behaviour, little empirical research has focused on shopping via Apps and the moderating effect of product classification (degree of standardisation/brand recognition). Grounded by the theory of reasoned action (TRA), the purpose of this study is to examine the structural relationship between subjective norm, attitude toward shopping via Apps, shopping intention via Apps, behaviour intention via Apps and the moderating effect of product standardisation/brand recognition. Confirmatory maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach, a covariance based-structural equation modelling (CB-SEM) technique was performed for assessment of the reflective measurements, structural relationship between latent constructs and moderation effect. A total of 340 online questionnaires (N=340) was collected and the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supports the structural relationship between the latent constructs and specifies a valid model fit (positive and direct effects). In addition, multigroup moderation SEM analysis (critical ratio values) reveal that the degree of standardisation/brand recognition (standard vs. non-standard) moderates the structural relationships. The positive effect of attitude toward shopping via Apps on shopping intention via Apps is stronger for standard products (group 1) than for non-standard products (group 2); and the positive effect of shopping intention via Apps on shopping behaviour via Apps is stronger for standard products (group 1) than for non-standard products (group 2). However, the positive effect of subjective norms on shopping intention via Apps is not stronger for standard products (group 1) than for non-standard products (group 2). This study provides a basic set of guidelines for the application of confirmatory MLE in the evaluation of direct effects (one tail hypotheses) and multigroup SEM analyses for moderation effects. Theoretical and managerial implications of the study are further discussed.
Keywords: Shopping intention via Apps; shopping behaviour via Apps; theory of reasoned action (TRA); subjective norm; attitude toward shopping via Apps; product classification; Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach.
COLLEGE STUDENTS ONLINE PURCHASE ATTITUDES AND INTENTIONS: GENDER, PRODUCT TYPE, AND RISK
by Jane McKay-Nesbitt, Chad Ryan
Abstract: This research explores the relationship between gender and hedonically-motivated shopping as well as the effects of product type (i.e. hedonic vs. utilitarian) and gender on online purchase attitudes and intentions. It also explores how consumers online shopping risk perceptions influence the effects of the relationship between product type and gender on online attitudes and intentions. Results show that US, college-age females are more likely than males to identify as hedonically- motivated consumers. Both males and females view hedonic products as riskier than utilitarian products and are more willing to purchase utilitarian than hedonic products online. Males are more willing than females to purchase hedonic products online. Gender differences in willingness to buy hedonic products online are mediated by online shopping risk perceptions. The results reveal that marketers need to continue to seek ways to convert females enjoyment of shopping into actual purchase behaviour. Online marketers need to seek ways to mitigate the risk associated with purchasing hedonic products online.
Keywords: e-commerce; online shopping; gender; risk perceptions; risk; hedonic; utilitarian; recreational shopping identity; RSI; consumer behaviour; electronic marketing; internet.
A TWO-STAGE APPROACH FOR A REFLECTIVE-FORMATIVE HIERARCHICAL LATENT VARIABLE MODEL FOR MEASURING CUSTOMER LOYALTY: SPECIAL CASE OF INDIAN E-CUSTOMERS
by Thomas John Paul, JAYANTH JACOB
Abstract: This study employs an integrated model, combining information system (IS) continuance studies and marketing theories, to examine the post-adoption attitudinal and behavioural loyalty of an e-customer shopping from an online webstore. Our research employs partial least squares (PLS-SEM) regression analysis to test the model. Hedonic value and Utilitarian value are proposed as first-order reflective indicators of second-order formative value construct. Gender is included as a moderator for testing the difference in effect for all the relationship paths in the model. Data collected from 403 online shopping customers present a sound support for the research model. The results show that value, trust, satisfaction and habit strongly augment customers loyalty. The results also indicate that the outcome of satisfaction on habit is significantly stronger for females.
Keywords: Loyalty; Habit; Value; Satisfaction; Trust; Information System Continuance; Latent Variable Score; Reflective Formative Construct; Gender; Moderator; Mediator; Two-Stage Approach; PLS-SEM.
Understanding customers expectations for delivering satisfactory and competitive services experience
by Andy Fred Wali, N. Gladson Nwokah
Abstract: This present study attempts to understand Nigeria Mobile Telecommunications [MT] consumers voice call and data services expectations for delivering satisfactory and competitive service experiences. The Multi-level qualitative research design with single face to face [F2F] interview and focus group [FG] approaches were employed. 22 samples were drawn from Nigeria MT sector heterogonous consumer population in Port Harcourt-Rivers State of Nigeria. One FG with 12 participants and ten single F2F interviews were held and data was analysis using content analysis technique with NVivo 11 software. Our result shows that some customers of selected firms are less satisfied with their offerings. This is because these firms lack knowledge of their customers expectations. Also, five positively rated factors: service quality, price bundling, complaints management, consumer right education and consumer market research are key thematic expectations that support the delivery of satisfactory services experience and competitiveness. This study contributes to the literature on consumer behaviour research by revealing customers expectation for MT voice and data services in Nigeria and how these expectations drive customer satisfaction [CSAT] and retention [CRT] as well as business competitiveness. However, continental MT operators and researchers should understand that factors of customers expectations are peculiar to specific country.
Keywords: Customers’ expectations; Customer satisfaction; Services experience; Qualitative methods; NVivo 11; Mobile telecommunications.
Smartphone Dependence among Students: Gender Based Analysis
by Wajeeha Aslam, Imtiaz Arif, Kashif Farhat
Abstract: The aim of the study is to explore smartphones dependence among students through social needs, social influence and convenience and impact of smartphones dependence on purchase behavior. Comparison of male and female dependence on smartphones and their purchasing behavior has also been assessed by the aforementioned variables. The data was gathered with the help of Likert scale questionnaire. For the data collection purposive sampling was employed and 337 usable responses were gathered. Principal component analysis and multiple regression analysis and independent sample t-test were used as statistical tests to uncover the findings of the study. The results drawn from the study provide evidence that social influence and convenience significantly affect students dependence on smartphones. A significant relation also appeared between students dependence on smartphone and purchase behavior. Responses of female participants of the study reveal that social influence and convenience have a significant affect whereas in males social need and social influence have a significant effect on dependence on smartphone. The study makes a significant contribution to smartphones producers in meeting customer needs to better develop smartphones that provide convenience and user friendly features. It will also help marketers to develop the appropriate strategies of marketing smartphones as the study provides the better understanding of usage behavior and purchase behavior. Also it provides an exclusive viewpoint of students dependence on smartphones and its effect on purchase behavior, not much researched in the context of Pakistan. The statistical evidence provided by this research can be used as a research tool for both exploratory and explanatory research on the subject of students use of personal gadgets.
Keywords: dependence; social need; social influence; convenience; smartphones; Karachi; regression.
Interpretive Structural Modeling for E-impulse Buying: An Indian Study
by Hemraj Verma, Shalini Singh
Abstract: E-tailing in India has become an indispensible activity in day to day routine of shoppers. Apart from numbers of planned shopping on the internet it is also reported that online shoppers are indulged in impulse buying too (Wells et al., 2011). This paper aims to identify the relevant factors that stimulate e-impulse buying and analyze their interaction by using interpretive structural modeling. Design/methodology/approach This study to identify factors took place in two phases i.e. from the extensive review of literature and by qualitative analysis of 30 interviews conducted. Interpretive structural modeling (ISM) has been applied on the identified factors to propose a model for e-impulse buying. Findings A model for all the relevant factors of e-impulse buying in India has been proposed showing hierarchical paradigm as well as interrelationships between relevant factors of e-impulse buying. Research limitations/implications This model can be utilized by online retailers, marketing researchers and decision-makers to understand the hierarchical paradigm of factors of e-impulse buying. Originality/value This study provides knowledge value to researchers, academicians and online retailers by revealing authentic insights related to the major factors stimulating e-impulse buying.
Keywords: : E-impulse buying; factors; interpretive structural modeling (ISM); online shoppers; India.
Shopping on the Go: How Walking Influences Mobile Shopping Performance
by Sarah Stanley, Cassandra Elrod, Nathan Twyman, Cui Zou
Abstract: Given the growth in use and capabilities of mobile devices, the mobile commerce (m-commerce) market is also continuing to grow and become more sophisticated. Studies have been conducted exploring the results of m-commerce and the use of mobile devices, however, most past studies on the topic are done in a stationary setting. This is an exploratory study seeking to examine how m-commerce is impacted by the use of mobile devices in a stationary, or walking, setting. Treadmill desks were used to replicate mobile shopping while using mobile devices and then compared the results with the same task completed on mobile devices in a stationary manner. Results indicate that shopping while walking increases the time it takes to compete the shopping task but not the price spent for the product in question.
Keywords: M-Commerce; mobile commerce; mobility; walking; shopping; treadmill desk; shopping task.
The State of Flow in Social Commerce: The Importance of Flow Consciousness
by Carolina Herrando, Julio Jiménez-Martínez, María José Martín-De Hoyos
Abstract: Flow has been widely studied in different disciplines and contexts; but there is a lack of consensus about its dimensionality, measurement and structure. This research theorizes that flow is a second-order multidimensional factor composed of three dimensions: concentration, enjoyment and temporal distortion. This investigation studies whether users who have reached the state of flow in social commerce have really been aware of it, studying users flow consciousness. The empirical results confirm the three-dimensionality of the concept, through the rival models technique, corroborate the second-order reflective structure and show that the more intense the experience of flow when surfing, the more conscious the users are of having reached the state of flow. This study contributes to setting up the basis for measuring flow, defining its structure, and enabling future investigations to focus on how flow consciousness influences the commercial success of a social commerce platform.
Keywords: Flow theory; social commerce; flow consciousness; second-order factor model; unidimensional versus multidimensional.
Examining Telegram users motivations, technical characteristics, trust, attitudes, and positive word-of-mouth: Evidence from Iran
by Davood Ghorbanzadeh, Hamid Reza Saeednia
Abstract: Telegram is a mobile instant text and voice messaging communication service and has become an important social media platform in Iran. The objectives of this research are to examine the effects of psychological motivations (entertainment, sociality), technical characteristics (ease of use and convenience), perceived usefulness and trust on telegram users attitudes and to assess the influence of users attitudes and their trust on positive word-of-mouth. The research model was tested using data randomly collected from Students of College of Administrative Science and Research and North Tehran Azad Universities in Tehran city. The numbers of valid observations were 300. Structure equation modeling was used to verify and validate the research model. The results revealed that the psychological motivations entertainment, sociality has a positive and significant impact on telegram users attitudes. In addition, perceived usefulness and trust has a positive and significant impact on telegram users attitudes. Convenience as a technical characteristic through perceived usefulness has a positive and significant impact on telegram users attitudes. Finally, telegram users attitudes and their trust has a positive and significant impact on positive word of mouth. The research results provide insight into how telegram can motivate users and build their trust to improve their attitudes which in turn will increase telegram users willingness in making positive comments on products and services.
Keywords: Psychological motivations; Technical Characteristics; Perceived usefulness; trust; attitudes; positive word of mouth.
Conversion rate determinants in e-commerce websites. What about moderation effects?
by Davide Di Fatta, David Diwei Lu
Abstract: Online retailers invest significant resource to improve conversion rates, defined as the proportion of website visitors that make a purchase. Using 1184 observations from 6 e-commerce websites, this paper aims to analyze conversion rate determinants, also considering moderation effects of seasonality and webpage speed of load. Results show that free shipping and discounts policy have a positive effect on the conversion rate, moderated by seasonality and load speed. These finding could be useful guidelines for e-commerce managers in order to allocate their limited resources to the most relevant factor to increase online sales.
Keywords: conversion rate; e-commerce; pricing policy; discount; free shipping; ordinary least squares.
Profiling Consumers of Private Label Brands in Virtual Retail Environment- A Cluster Analytic Approach
by Sumit Kumar, Bibhas Chandra
Abstract: Private Label Brands (PLB) unlike generic offerings of the past are now viewed as brands in their own right. Mounting evidences suggest the growing acceptance of PLB among the aspiring consumers in the current milieu. The diminishing gap between National brands vis-
Keywords: consumer behaviour; online-retailers; private label brands (PLB); market segment; cluster analysis.
Service quality of online transactions: The PayPal case
by Costas Assimakopoulos, Eugenia Papaioannou, Christos Sarmaniotis
Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to investigate users' expectation and perception levels towards service quality dimensions regarding PayPal. The discrepancy gap between buyers expectation and perception throughout those dimensions is studied. Additionally, determinants (factors) of PayPal service quality are extracted. By combining the above findings, the possible influence on user disconfirmation of expectations dimensions of these determinants (factors) of PayPal service quality is examined. The survey instrument was an e-SERVQUAL type questionnaire. 933 valid questionnaires were received. A research model is proposed, consisting of the determinants of PayPal service quality (four factors) as affected by the positive/negative disconfirmation of user expectation dimensions named Design of the Web, Payment-Privacy/Security, "Services Provided" and "Overall Satisfaction". The sellers perceptions and expectations to the PayPal remain untested and this could be considered as a limitation. The papers results contribute towards improving the provided services of PayPal and of other similar companies, as well.
Keywords: E-service quality; satisfaction; customer’s perception and expectation; gap analysis; PayPal.
An Exploration of E-Impulse Buying
by Hemraj Verma, Shalini Singh
Abstract: Purpose E-tailing is expanding its horizon throughout the globe. Although it is at nascent stage in India but it is already creating a difference in the manner consumers are behaving. So, in this internet era, there is a need to study this relevant phenomenon like e-impulse buying and understand the online consumer behaviour more deeply. Since e-impulse buying is not an old phenomenon in Indian context therefore a qualitative approach has been adopted to explore it.
Design/methodology/approach A preliminary online survey was done to identify the online impulsive shoppers. Out of 56 respondents identified from the online survey in-depth interviews of 30 respondents were conducted to explore this phenomenon and identify various stimuli of e-impulse buying in Indian context. Coding was done and themes of e-impulse buying were identified by analysing the qualitative data.
Findings This research reveals several stimuli of e-impulse buying in Indian context and develops a platform for studying the phenomenon comprehensively. The stimuli, on the basis of their relevance in e-impulse buying, are further classified into two categories intrinsic stimuli and extrinsic stimuli.
Research limitations/implications This study explored the phenomenon of e-impulse buying and also uncovered its relevant stimuli thus it will benefit the market researchers, strategists and online retailers for understanding the nitty-gritty of the phenomenon. As this study is confined to Indian context only, therefore the generalization of the study can be checked with respect to other countries.
Originality/value This study is completely based on the exploratory approach that reveals several significant insights related to stimuli of e-impulse buying in a comprehensive way. It provides knowledge value to the researchers, academicians and online strategist to optimize their strategies in a better way.
Keywords: E-Impulse Buying; Stimuli; Online Shopping and Indian Online Shoppers.
Factors Influencing Consumers Purchase Intention Towards Online Group Buying in Malaysia
by Yean Sien Liew, Falahat Mohammad
Abstract: Online group buying (OGB) is growing rapidly and it has become popular in many countries. Due to the lack of research and early stage of development in the developing and emerging market, we aim to examine the factors influencing consumers purchase intention towards online group buying in the Malaysian context. Through intensive literature review on consumers purchase intention and online group buying, a set of factors are proposed as leading influencers. This paper reveals that perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), price, electronic word of mouth (e-WOM), trust and perceived risk (PR) are the main determinants of online group buying. The three major factors, PU, price and e-WOM, demonstrated relatively strong impact on consumers purchase intention towards OGB whilst trust and perceived risk shown significant impact and moderate impact respectively on consumers participation in OGB. Contrarily, PEOU was found to have no influence in Malaysian consumers.
Keywords: e-WOM; online group buying; perceived usefulness; PEOU; trust; perceived risk.
Using a multicriteria approach to identify factors that influence e-tailing service quality
by André Luís Policani Freitas, Ana Carla De Souza Gomes Dos Santos
Abstract: Offering a quality service in an online environment that encompasses all operations from the customer's funding to after-sales service has been a major challenge for many companies. Although e-tailing covers various product categories such as appliances, electronics, fashion and accessories, no instrument has been developed or implemented to identify the most important factors for e-tailing concerning the perception of consumers of the different product categories. In this context, supported on the use of the AHP method, this paper presents a methodological approach to identify the criteria that influence e-tailing service quality. Five dimensions were considered and a 31-item questionnaire was designed. By conducting an experimental analysis with Brazilian consumers, Cronbachs α and item-total correlation were used to verify the reliability of the questionnaire. As a result, the most important items are related to the reliability of the company and the security of transactions.
Keywords: Service quality; E-commerce; E-tailing; Consumer behavior; Retailing; AHP method.
Exploring the behaviour of Indian consumers towards online discounts
by S.K. Suman, Pallavi Srivastava, Shaili Vadera
Abstract: Online shopping has grown significantly in recent years, but is yet to reach its full potential. Online shopping fears discourage consumers to shop online. Click only companies are providing heavy discounts to attract the consumers to shop online. Customers expect an integrated buying process including e-coupon, daily deals and loyalty programs. The purpose of the study is to analyse various factors, which influence the consumer while purchasing online discounted products. The study was conducted among 207 online shoppers who purchase discounted products in selected Tier II and Tier III cities of a large and prominent state of India. The data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16.0). Using factor analysis (Principal Axis Factoring with Varimax Rotation), factors were extracted. These factors can be essential in understanding the behaviour of online consumers towards online discounts and can significantly contribute in converting non-online buyer into online buyer.
Keywords: Consumer behaviour; online shopping; online discounts; sale.
A Brand View on the User Acceptance of Mobile Apps: An Evidence from India in the Multi-Channel Context
by Nithya Murugan, Jayanth Jacob
Abstract: Despite rapid growth in the number of mobile internet users who shop using mobile applications, there has been very little research on mobile channels, in particular with mobile apps in the context of multi-channel retailing. While extant research focus on mobile touch points as single channel, the present study highlights the need for multi and omni-channel management that stress on the creation of retail branding for the acceptance of mobile apps. This study investigates the structural relationship between attitude towards the online retail brand, perceived tie, perceived ease of use, attitude and user behaviour towards mobile apps from pure online retailers who sell products through e-commerce site and mobile app. Based on the theory of planned behaviour, a research model and hypotheses depicting direct and indirect effects are proposed. An online survey was conducted among 221 respondents and the results of the Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) showed that there is a strong support for the effect of brand attitude, perceived tie and perceived ease of use on the acceptance of mobile app.
Keywords: Online brand attitude; perceived tie; perceived ease of use; mobile app; multi-channel; perceived similarity.
SUCCESS AND FAILURE FACTORS OF SOCIAL MEDIA INTEGRATION INSIGHTS FROM BUSINESS EXPERIENCE
by Maha Al Essa, Imene Ben Yahia
Abstract: This research investigates how companies are coping with the integration of various social media platforms in their marketing strategy. It relies on companies experience with social media to answer to the following questions: What are the success and failure factors of social media integration within a marketing strategy? Which factors to keep common and which ones require adaptation across social media platforms? Qualitative data was collected from 92 companies involved in social media. Content was analyzed manually. First, results draw attention to eleven critical factors of success. Seven factors are internal related to the social media management team and to the company strategy and four factors are external linked to the platform tools and usage. Second, seven most reoccurring factors of failure are identified. Results highlight the factors that require adaptation across social media platforms.
Keywords: Social media; Success factors; Failure factors; Qualitative study.
A Two-stage SEM- Neural Network Analysis to Predict Drivers of M-commerce in India
by Khushbu Madan, Rajan Yadav
Abstract: The rapid developments in the field of mobile technologies and deep penetration of smartphones have created tremendous opportunities for m-commerce worldwide. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors that predict consumers intention to adopt m-commerce. The study identifies variables relevant for m-commerce environment and empirically establishes their influence on m-commerce Adoption Intention. A Two- stage analysis comprising of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) and Neural Network (NN) Technique is employed to test the proposed model. The results obtained from SEM analysis observed that Perceived Risk is the strongest predictor of m-commerce adoption decision, followed by Performance Expectancy, Variety of Services and Perceived Critical Mass. Effort Expectancy is found to be statistically insignificant. The significant factors from SEM were used as input to NN model, and the results established Performance Expectancy to be the most important input variable in predicting m-commerce Adoption Intention followed by Variety of Services, Perceived Risk and Perceived Critical Mass. The findings of this study are useful for m-commerce marketers and service providers, in developing suitable marketing strategies to scale up their business. This study is one of the few empirical studies conducted in India to examine the Adoption Intention of m-commerce.
Keywords: M-commerce; Perceived Risk; Variety of Services; Perceived Critical Mass; Structural Equation Modelling; Neural Network.
Building Brand Advocacy on Social Media to Improve Brand Equity
by Manisha Mathur
Abstract: Social media is all about consumer networks and consumer relations that challenge marketers to leverage social media as a means to develop and improve their connections with consumers. Though tremendous opportunities via social media are alluring, businesses are still finding it hard to penetrate the clique of consumer interactions that are largely personal in nature. Despite the opportunities available through social media marketing activities, understanding customers and their behavior, and incorporating that information in marketing strategy formulation is critical to successful strategy implementation. Thus, this study focuses attention in this direction and advances both the academic as well the practitioner literature. Theoretically grounded in two different fields-the field of sociology in combination with the field of relationship marketing, this study develops a conceptual model of driving brand advocacy and reciprocity to improve customer-based brand equity. This study uses seemingly unrelated regression technique to empirically validate our conceptual model. This paper concludes with important implications for both marketing theory and practice.
Keywords: Social media engagement; reciprocity; trust; review helpfulness; advocacy; brand equity.
Determinants of Online Journey and its influence on Online Customer Satisfaction Associated with Online Customer Loyalty
by Siti Nurlaela, Ujang Sumarwan, Mukhamad Najib
Abstract: The purpose of this study are to identify the determinants of online journey and investigate its influence to online customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in the Indonesian online shop context. We develop the online journey model by Mangiaracina et al. (2009): site landing, product discovery, product presentation, cart management, and check out. The delivery stages added to complete the journey. Sampling was carried out by purposive sampling method and empirically test the model to 136 respondents. Validity and reliability assessment made by using SPSS. The data processing show that all indicators had corrected item-total correlation value more than 0.1684 and has a cronbachhs alpha value more than 0.6, so the all of variables are valid and reliable for next analysis. SEM analysis was used to identify the positive influence of online journey to online customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. The results showed that four of six stages of online journey had a significant positive effect on online customer satisfaction, i.e. product discovery, product presentation, cart management, and delivery. Moreover, online customer satisfactions influence the online customer loyalty significantly. It indicates that online journey be important to consider in evaluating the online customer satisfaction and online customer loyalty. This study can be used to evaluate the service quality of online shopping sites based on the customer perceptions. The detail of sequence of online journey allows the online shop management to gain valuable insight to develop the effective strategies. The magnitude of the effect is visible from each determination can be used as an indicator to determine the priority of improvement on every stage of the online journey traversed by the customer.
Keywords: Online customer satisfaction; online customer loyalty; online journey; online shop; SEM.
AFFECT-BASED AND PERSONALITY-BASED TRUST AND RISK IN SOCIAL COMMERCE
by Emad Abou-Elgheit
Abstract: This paper examines the affect (emotional) and personality factors that impact consumers trust, risk and intention to make a purchase in a social electronic commerce context. It is the first part of a broader study which examines the impact of different antecedents or types of trust and risk on consumers intention to purchase online. The empirical findings discussed in this study offer novel insights for academic researchers and businesses on how trust is built and risk is perceived. The study argues that affect-based factors have a stronger impact on trust and intention to buy from an electronic vendor than personality. The study also shows that building trust and perceiving risk are different, yet interrelated processes. The study relies on the findings of a survey that was sponsored by three Egyptian electronic vendor start-ups. A sample of 599 online customers in Egypt responded to the survey. Egypt is a significant emerging market for electronic commerce and its significant market share makes it representative for Middle East and North African markets.
Keywords: Social commerce; trust; consumer behaviour; personality; emotions; digital marketing.