International Journal of Electronic Marketing and Retailing (41 papers in press)
Profiling Consumers of Private Label Brands in Virtual Retail Environment- A Cluster Analytic Approach
by Sumit Kumar, Bibhas Chandra
Abstract: Private Label Brands (PLB) unlike generic offerings of the past are now viewed as brands in their own right. Mounting evidences suggest the growing acceptance of PLB among the aspiring consumers in the current milieu. The diminishing gap between national brands vis-a-vis their PLB counterparts call for new imperatives for retailers to sharpen the focus on store brands and garner loyalty both on offline and on online mode. However, PLB in the virtual retail environment is a novel concept entailing new insights on unexplored dimensions of markets and consumer behaviour. The present study
attempts to develop a profile of consumers of PLB in the virtual retail
environment, especially the emerging markets like India. Using an extended
understanding of socio-demographic and psychographic factors constituting
consumer shopping behaviour, a cluster analysis on a national sample of Indian
online shoppers was performed. Three distinct market segment possessing
unique socio-demographics and psychographic characteristics emerged viz.
classical, economical and innovative consumers. The size and structure of each
identified segment have significant implications for marketing theory and
making strategic choices for marketers.
Keywords: consumer behaviour; online-retailers; private label brands (PLB); market segment; cluster analysis.
An Exploration of E-Impulse Buying
by Hemraj Verma, Shalini Singh
Abstract: Purpose E-tailing is expanding its horizon throughout the globe. Although it is at nascent stage in India but it is already creating a difference in the manner consumers are behaving. So, in this internet era, there is a need to study this relevant phenomenon like e-impulse buying and understand the online consumer behaviour more deeply. Since e-impulse buying is not an old phenomenon in Indian context therefore a qualitative approach has been adopted to explore it.
Design/methodology/approach A preliminary online survey was done to identify the online impulsive shoppers. Out of 56 respondents identified from the online survey in-depth interviews of 30 respondents were conducted to explore this phenomenon and identify various stimuli of e-impulse buying in Indian context. Coding was done and themes of e-impulse buying were identified by analysing the qualitative data.
Findings This research reveals several stimuli of e-impulse buying in Indian context and develops a platform for studying the phenomenon comprehensively. The stimuli, on the basis of their relevance in e-impulse buying, are further classified into two categories intrinsic stimuli and extrinsic stimuli.
Research limitations/implications This study explored the phenomenon of e-impulse buying and also uncovered its relevant stimuli thus it will benefit the market researchers, strategists and online retailers for understanding the nitty-gritty of the phenomenon. As this study is confined to Indian context only, therefore the generalization of the study can be checked with respect to other countries.
Originality/value This study is completely based on the exploratory approach that reveals several significant insights related to stimuli of e-impulse buying in a comprehensive way. It provides knowledge value to the researchers, academicians and online strategist to optimize their strategies in a better way.
Keywords: E-Impulse Buying; Stimuli; Online Shopping and Indian Online Shoppers.
Factors Influencing Consumers Purchase Intention Towards Online Group Buying in Malaysia
by Yean Sien Liew, Falahat Mohammad
Abstract: Online group buying (OGB) is growing rapidly and it has become popular in many countries. Due to the lack of research and early stage of development in the developing and emerging market, we aim to examine the factors influencing consumers purchase intention towards online group buying in the Malaysian context. Through intensive literature review on consumers purchase intention and online group buying, a set of factors are proposed as leading influencers. This paper reveals that perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), price, electronic word of mouth (e-WOM), trust and perceived risk (PR) are the main determinants of online group buying. The three major factors, PU, price and e-WOM, demonstrated relatively strong impact on consumers purchase intention towards OGB whilst trust and perceived risk shown significant impact and moderate impact respectively on consumers participation in OGB. Contrarily, PEOU was found to have no influence in Malaysian consumers.
Keywords: e-WOM; online group buying; perceived usefulness; PEOU; trust; perceived risk.
Using a multicriteria approach to identify factors that influence e-tailing service quality
by André Luís Policani Freitas, Ana Carla De Souza Gomes Dos Santos
Abstract: Offering a quality service in an online environment that encompasses all operations from the customer's funding to after-sales service has been a major challenge for many companies. Although e-tailing covers various product categories such as appliances, electronics, fashion and accessories, no instrument has been developed or implemented to identify the most important factors for e-tailing concerning the perception of consumers of the different product categories. In this context, supported on the use of the AHP method, this paper presents a methodological approach to identify the criteria that influence e-tailing service quality. Five dimensions were considered and a 31-item questionnaire was designed. By conducting an experimental analysis with Brazilian consumers, Cronbachs α and item-total correlation were used to verify the reliability of the questionnaire. As a result, the most important items are related to the reliability of the company and the security of transactions.
Keywords: Service quality; E-commerce; E-tailing; Consumer behavior; Retailing; AHP method.
Exploring the behaviour of Indian consumers towards online discounts
by S.K. Suman, Pallavi Srivastava, Shaili Vadera
Abstract: Online shopping has grown significantly in recent years, but is yet to reach its full potential. Online shopping fears discourage consumers to shop online. Click only companies are providing heavy discounts to attract the consumers to shop online. Customers expect an integrated buying process including e-coupon, daily deals and loyalty programs. The purpose of the study is to analyse various factors, which influence the consumer while purchasing online discounted products. The study was conducted among 207 online shoppers who purchase discounted products in selected Tier II and Tier III cities of a large and prominent state of India. The data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16.0). Using factor analysis (Principal Axis Factoring with Varimax Rotation), factors were extracted. These factors can be essential in understanding the behaviour of online consumers towards online discounts and can significantly contribute in converting non-online buyer into online buyer.
Keywords: Consumer behaviour; online shopping; online discounts; sale.
A Brand View on the User Acceptance of Mobile Apps: An Evidence from India in the Multi-Channel Context
by Nithya Murugan, Jayanth Jacob
Abstract: Despite rapid growth in the number of mobile internet users who shop using mobile applications, there has been very little research on mobile channels, in particular with mobile apps in the context of multi-channel retailing. While extant research focus on mobile touch points as single channel, the present study highlights the need for multi and omni-channel management that stress on the creation of retail branding for the acceptance of mobile apps. This study investigates the structural relationship between attitude towards the online retail brand, perceived tie, perceived ease of use, attitude and user behaviour towards mobile apps from pure online retailers who sell products through e-commerce site and mobile app. Based on the theory of planned behaviour, a research model and hypotheses depicting direct and indirect effects are proposed. An online survey was conducted among 221 respondents and the results of the Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) showed that there is a strong support for the effect of brand attitude, perceived tie and perceived ease of use on the acceptance of mobile app.
Keywords: Online brand attitude; perceived tie; perceived ease of use; mobile app; multi-channel; perceived similarity.
SUCCESS AND FAILURE FACTORS OF SOCIAL MEDIA INTEGRATION INSIGHTS FROM BUSINESS EXPERIENCE
by Maha Al Essa, Imene Ben Yahia
Abstract: This research investigates how companies are coping with the integration of various social media platforms in their marketing strategy. It relies on companies experience with social media to answer to the following questions: What are the success and failure factors of social media integration within a marketing strategy? Which factors to keep common and which ones require adaptation across social media platforms? Qualitative data was collected from 92 companies involved in social media. Content was analyzed manually. First, results draw attention to eleven critical factors of success. Seven factors are internal related to the social media management team and to the company strategy and four factors are external linked to the platform tools and usage. Second, seven most reoccurring factors of failure are identified. Results highlight the factors that require adaptation across social media platforms.
Keywords: Social media; Success factors; Failure factors; Qualitative study.
A Two-stage SEM- Neural Network Analysis to Predict Drivers of M-commerce in India
by Khushbu Madan, Rajan Yadav
Abstract: The rapid developments in the field of mobile technologies and deep penetration of smartphones have created tremendous opportunities for m-commerce worldwide. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors that predict consumers intention to adopt m-commerce. The study identifies variables relevant for m-commerce environment and empirically establishes their influence on m-commerce Adoption Intention. A Two- stage analysis comprising of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) and Neural Network (NN) Technique is employed to test the proposed model. The results obtained from SEM analysis observed that Perceived Risk is the strongest predictor of m-commerce adoption decision, followed by Performance Expectancy, Variety of Services and Perceived Critical Mass. Effort Expectancy is found to be statistically insignificant. The significant factors from SEM were used as input to NN model, and the results established Performance Expectancy to be the most important input variable in predicting m-commerce Adoption Intention followed by Variety of Services, Perceived Risk and Perceived Critical Mass. The findings of this study are useful for m-commerce marketers and service providers, in developing suitable marketing strategies to scale up their business. This study is one of the few empirical studies conducted in India to examine the Adoption Intention of m-commerce.
Keywords: M-commerce; Perceived Risk; Variety of Services; Perceived Critical Mass; Structural Equation Modelling; Neural Network.
Building Brand Advocacy on Social Media to Improve Brand Equity
by Manisha Mathur
Abstract: Social media is all about consumer networks and consumer relations that challenge marketers to leverage social media as a means to develop and improve their connections with consumers. Though tremendous opportunities via social media are alluring, businesses are still finding it hard to penetrate the clique of consumer interactions that are largely personal in nature. Despite the opportunities available through social media marketing activities, understanding customers and their behavior, and incorporating that information in marketing strategy formulation is critical to successful strategy implementation. Thus, this study focuses attention in this direction and advances both the academic as well the practitioner literature. Theoretically grounded in two different fields-the field of sociology in combination with the field of relationship marketing, this study develops a conceptual model of driving brand advocacy and reciprocity to improve customer-based brand equity. This study uses seemingly unrelated regression technique to empirically validate our conceptual model. This paper concludes with important implications for both marketing theory and practice.
Keywords: Social media engagement; reciprocity; trust; review helpfulness; advocacy; brand equity.
Determinants of Online Journey and its influence on Online Customer Satisfaction Associated with Online Customer Loyalty
by Siti Nurlaela, Ujang Sumarwan, Mukhamad Najib
Abstract: The purpose of this study are to identify the determinants of online journey and investigate its influence to online customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in the Indonesian online shop context. We develop the online journey model by Mangiaracina et al. (2009): site landing, product discovery, product presentation, cart management, and check out. The delivery stages added to complete the journey. Sampling was carried out by purposive sampling method and empirically test the model to 136 respondents. Validity and reliability assessment made by using SPSS. The data processing show that all indicators had corrected item-total correlation value more than 0.1684 and has a cronbachhs alpha value more than 0.6, so the all of variables are valid and reliable for next analysis. SEM analysis was used to identify the positive influence of online journey to online customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. The results showed that four of six stages of online journey had a significant positive effect on online customer satisfaction, i.e. product discovery, product presentation, cart management, and delivery. Moreover, online customer satisfactions influence the online customer loyalty significantly. It indicates that online journey be important to consider in evaluating the online customer satisfaction and online customer loyalty. This study can be used to evaluate the service quality of online shopping sites based on the customer perceptions. The detail of sequence of online journey allows the online shop management to gain valuable insight to develop the effective strategies. The magnitude of the effect is visible from each determination can be used as an indicator to determine the priority of improvement on every stage of the online journey traversed by the customer.
Keywords: Online customer satisfaction; online customer loyalty; online journey; online shop; SEM.
AFFECT-BASED AND PERSONALITY-BASED TRUST AND RISK IN SOCIAL COMMERCE
by Emad Abou-Elgheit
Abstract: This paper examines the affect (emotional) and personality factors
that impact consumers trust, risk and intention to purchase in a social
electronic commerce context. It is the first part of a broader study which
examines the impact of different antecedents or types of trust and risk on
consumers intention to purchase online. The empirical findings discussed in
this study offer novel insights for academic researchers and businesses on how
trust is built and risk is perceived. The study argues that affect-based factors
have stronger impacts on trust and intention to buy than personality. The study
also shows that building trust and perceiving risk are different, yet interrelated
processes. The study relies on the findings of a survey that was sponsored by
three Egyptian electronic vendors. A sample of 599 online shoppers responded
to the survey. Egypt is a significant emerging market for electronic commerce,
which makes it representative for Middle East and North African markets.
Keywords: social commerce; trust; consumer behaviour; personality;
emotions; digital marketing; affect-based trust; personality-based trust;
Preference Criteria for Online Shopping among University Students
by Amiruddin Ahamat, Muhamad Sham Shahkat Ali
Abstract: We are now living in the era of technology and the use of
e-commerce is increasing every day, which has become increasingly more
important as most activities can be done by using e-commerce, thus aiding the
business industry. The younger generation especially students nowadays spend
hours on the internet. The aim of this research was to identify the preference
criteria among Malaysian university students. It also identified the relationship
between the independent variables (situational factors, trust and consumer trait)
which were the preference criteria and the dependent variable (online shopping)
among Malaysian university students. In this research, the preference criteria
that drove them to shop online was analysed using the survey method
distributed to 200 university students. The results of this research showed a
strong correlation between online shopping and situational factors, a weak
correlation between online shopping and trust, and a strong correlation between
online shopping and consumer trait.
Keywords: online shopping; situational factor; trust; consumer trait.
Online Purchasing: The Role of Web Experience Factors
by Noor Akma Mohd Salleh, Norbani Che Ha, Philip J. Kitchen,, Amrul Asraf Mohd-Any
Abstract: This paper examines the effect of Web experience factors such as usability, interactivity, trust and aesthetics derived from flow theory on purchasing intention. From 360 questionnaires distributed, 300 responses were gathered. Using logistic regression analysis, results indicate that usability, interactivity and trust are positively and significantly associated with purchasing intention whereas aesthetics is not. It seems that online retailers should adopt a targeted aesthetics approach in developing a Web store depending on the type of merchandise and the markets approached. As such, retailers can lure new customers, retain existing ones and improve their attitudes toward Web stores.
Keywords: online purchasing; consumer behavior; Web experience; electronic commerce.
The influence of online recommendation mechanisms in the smartphone market in the context of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM)
by Luis Hernan Contreras Pinochet, Evandro Luiz Lopes, Priscila Graziele Araujo, Ricardo Luiz Pereira Bueno
Abstract: The objective of this research is to analyse how online recommendation engines promote the transmission and reception of opinions in the Smartphone market through the electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) context. The model was adapted from Arenas-Gaitan et al. (2013) by adding two variables: reputation of online service and virtual shopping. This single cross-section survey research design consisted of a sample of 560 Smartphone users, whose data were analysed by structural equation modelling with estimation by means of partial least squares. The results indicate that the influence on consumer Smartphone purchase decision was not significant for the constructs 'virtual shopping' and 'social networking service' in relation to 'recommendation'. However, the 'reputation of online service' was the most influential construct on 'recommendation' in the context of eWOM. The results confirmed the significance of the structural paths, and demonstrated that the proposed model is consistent, given appropriate adjustment, and can be applied in future research.
Keywords: eWOM; social identidy; recommendation.
The Colombian Electronic Consumer: Analysis of the leading factors of e-commerce use
by Javier A. Sánchez-Torres, Francisco-Javier Arroyo-Cañada, Sandra Patricia Rojas-Berrio, Oscar Javier Robayo Pinzón, Winston Fontalvo Cerpa
Abstract: There are few studies describing the adoption of electronic B2C (business-to-consumer) commerce in poor and developing countries, in that vein the purpose of this article is to examine which factors lead to electronic purchasing in Colombia. This study was conducted on a national level using an online survey, with a total of 941 responses from electronic commerce users. The results validated UTAUT2 model, with only the expected variables of effort and hedonistic motivations not being significant; additionally, online trust is positively affected by perceived security, information quality and perceived privacy. Finally, this analysis confirms that the relationships proposed in the theory of the adoption of online shopping in an emerging country are met, offering a detailed analysis of each of the variables that the online shopper considers; additionally, this article has validated that in Colombia, online shopping affects the search for low prices.
Keywords: e-Commerce; Online Purchase Intention; Trust; Consumer Behavior; UTAUT2.
Reference Group Influence on User Connections with Social Networking Sites (SNS):
A Study of Facebook
by Yujie (Jack) Wei, Feisal Murshed
Abstract: The increasing prevalence of social networking sites (SNS) and their interactive capability have been the subject to sustained interests for researchers and marketers alike. Yet few insights exist regarding whether online consumer engagement is prone to social influences from other users. Drawing from literature on reference group influence (e.g., Bearden and Etzel, 1982) and social identity (Tajfel and Turner, 1986), this research investigates self-SNS connection customers overall experience with the SNS and provides insights into a users susceptibility to reference group influence. Specifically, the focus is on three motivational influences: informational, value expressive and utilitarian. Employing data collected through a survey, authors find that informational influence and value expressive influence are positively associated with self-SNS connection, but contrary to conventional wisdom, utilitarian influence is not. Furthermore, males are more susceptible to value expressive influences than females, indicating that reference group influences exhibit some gender effect. The results offer insights into designing more effective dissemination of marketing communications through tapping into consumers informal communication network.
Keywords: Social networking site (SNS); Facebook; Reference group influence; Self-SNS connections; self-concept; gender effect.
Message Strategy of Promotional E-mails in India: A Content Analysis
by Utkarsh Utkarsh, Nimit Gupta
Abstract: This study analysed the message strategies used in promotional e-mails and explored differences between the e-mail messages of different goods and service marketers. A content analysis of 698 promotional e-mails offers insights on enhancing the effectiveness of e-mail marketing. The findings revealed a higher incidence of informational subject lines, text-only e-mail bodies, and emotional appeals in e-mail messages for services than for goods. This study is the first attempt to analyse the advertising content of promotional e-mails in India and subsequently offer marketing insights. The results can aid practitioners to design and customise an e-mail message strategy.
Keywords: email marketing; message strategy; services; appeal; subject line; service advertising.
Factors influencing the adoption of Online shopping in Lebanon: An empirical integration of Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology2 (UTAUT2) and DeLone-McLean model of IS success
by Ali Tarhini, Ali Alalwan, Raed Algharabat
Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the silent factors that may influence or hinder the adoption of online shopping in Lebanon. A conceptual framework was proposed based on the integration of Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology2 (UTAUT2) and DeLone-McLean model of IS success. Data were collected from 342 Lebanese online shopping users using a cross-sectional survey. The measurement and structural model were estimated and tested using structural equation modelling (AMOS 22.0). The results revealed that performance expectancy (PE), product guarantee (PG), service quality (SerQ), price value (PV), trust (TR), system quality (SymQ) and information quality (IQ); were found to be significant predictors in influencing users behavioural intention (BI) to adopt online shopping, and explained 72.7 % of its variance, with PE was found the strongest antecedent of BI. However, the relationship between effort expectancy (EE), social influence (SI), hedonic motivation (HM) and BI was insignificant. This is one of the few studies that integrate the unified theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology2 (UTAUT2) and DeLone-McLean model of IS success to study the adoption of online shopping, and the first to be tested in Lebanon. In light of these findings, implications for both theory and practice are discussed.
Keywords: UTAUT; online shopping; Lebanon; structural equation modelling; technology adoption; DeLone-McLean model.
Customer Satisfaction, Loyalty and Switching Intent in Retail Service Settings
by Aakash Kamble, Shubhangi Walvekar
Abstract: Customers switching from competitive brand to another companys brand is usually due to the efforts of the company. Similarly inducing the customers to repurchase the companys brands time and again is very important in their marketing activities. With regards to these, studies of customer variety-seeking orientation and their level of involvement in decision making play a vital role in explaining customers product selection activities. The purpose of the study to examine and analyse the interlinking relationships among customer satisfaction, loyalty and switching intent in online retailing and purchases made using multi-channels. The research also verifies the moderating effect of customer variety-seeking orientation across channels and purchase decision involvement. A total 427 patrons participated in the study who had made purchases in the preceding 3 months from electronic as well as brick and mortar retailers in electronic and accessories category. The results showed a positive relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty and also between customer loyalty and switching intent. The effect of moderating variables, variety seeking orientation and purchase decision was not significant.
Keywords: Switching intent; customer satisfaction; customer loyalty; variety seeking; purchase decision; e-commerce; retailing.
Buying Intention, Acceptability and Frequency of Purchase: Analyzing their Determinants using SEM
by Davide Di Fatta, Navneet Gera, Nishith Kumar Mishra
Abstract: Considering the growing relevance of Indian retail sector, this
research aims to study the consumer buying behaviour towards national brands
(NB). More in detail, this research shall explore the determinants of buying
intention, acceptability and frequency of purchase developing a model for
consumer buying behaviour toward NB. A structured questionnaire was
provided to the respondents across Delhi (National Capital Region). At the first
stage, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) has been used to test dimensionality of
the data with the aim to produce a set of items reflecting the meaning of
the relative construct. Then, structural equation modelling (SEM) has been
implemented using AMOS in order to test the validity of the overall model and
the relationships among the selected variables. Results revealed that consumer
buying intention, acceptability and frequency of purchase brands are influenced
by promotion, brand awareness and image. It is also interesting to note that
loyalty is directly influenced by value for money. This relation provides useful
implications: customer loyalty could be developed by managing reasonable
price and quality for NB.
Keywords: buying intention; frequency of purchase; brand awareness; loyalty;
consumer behaviour; structural equation modelling; SEM; acceptability.
Retail Service Quality, Satisfaction, and Trust: The Key to Shopper Loyalty in the Context of Indonesian Traditional Market
by Moh Farid Najib, Adila Sosianika
Abstract: This purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the influence of retail service quality toward on satisfaction and trust in the context of Indonesian traditional market. The proposed model also aims to examine the relationship among retail service quality, satisfaction, trust, and loyalty. A survey has been conducted toward 400 shoppers in 16 traditional markets around Bandung, Indonesia. Structural equation modeling procedure was used to test the proposed research model. The result of this research that retail service quality positively influences satisfaction and trust, however, it negatively affects loyalty. Furthermore, satisfaction and trust both positively influence loyalty. Similarly, satisfaction also positively influence trust. Satisfaction and trust mediate the relationship between retail service quality and loyalty.
Keywords: Retail Service Quality; Satisfaction; trust; and Loyalty.
Investigating the impact of atmospherics and online flow cues on visiting intentions: The Case of Jordan Virtual Tourist Centre.
by Tamather Shatnawi, Laila Ashour, Dana Kakeesh
Abstract: Abstract: Using the stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) framework, this study aims to investigate the impact of atmospherics and online flow cues of the Jordan Virtual Tourist Centre on visitors' affective and cognitive states, which are assumed to affect their visiting intentions. This is based on the fact that more tourists are getting information directly via the Internet to direct their choices of tourism destinations. In order to test our proposed model, an online survey was launched via different social networking means directed towards a convenience sample of non-Jordanians using a snowball technique. Non- Jordanians respondents who agreed to participate in the survey were asked to browse the Jordan Virtual Tourist Centre and to live a virtual experience before answering related questions measuring targeted constructs. Analysis of the results supports the research model and shows that both atmospherics and online flow cues experienced by visitors impact positively their affective and cognitive states, which in turn impact their visit intentions. Affective and cognitive states were impacted upon by atmospherics more than online flow; however, affective state tends to explain more variations in visiting intentions vis-
Keywords: atmospherics; online flow; S.O.R. model; cognitive state; affective state; visiting intentions.
An Exploration of Online Shopping Convenience Dimensions and Their Associations with Customer Satisfaction
by Sergio Palacios, Minjoon Jun
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to extend our understanding of shopping convenience and customer satisfaction in the context of online shopping. Employing the Critical Incident Technique, the authors content-analyze 1,134 customer-generated reviews regarding 31 US online retailers service performance. This study uncovers 51 original categories and further refines them into nine dimensions of online shopping convenience: access, search, evaluation/selection, configuration/customization, transaction, delivery, possession/in-use, service recovery, and postpurchase communication convenience. Our findings indicate that, of the nine service convenience dimensions, four dimensions, such as delivery, service recovery, transaction, and possession/in-use convenience, tend to be the main sources of customer satisfaction/dissatisfaction.
Keywords: online shopping convenience; customer satisfaction; qualitative research.
Attribution Modelling in an Omni-Channel Environment New Requirements and Specifications from a Practical Perspective
by Ole Nass, Klaus-Peter Schoeneberg, Jose Albors Garrigos, Hermenegildo Gil Gomez
Abstract: How much am I, the customer, currently worth to a company? The answer to this question is very important for the marketing team but difficult to obtain. In an omni-channel environment the degree of complexity for answering this question has reached a new level. Based on a structured literature research process, existing dynamic budget allocation approaches are identified and evaluated regarding their applicability in an omni-channel environment. For the evaluation process of these identified models, assessment criteria are needed. Structured interviews are conducted with experts in the field of attribution to formulate evaluation criteria, which are being used to evaluate the applicability of the defined models. This article describes why existing dynamic attribution models are not suitable for an omni-channel environment and what features need to be part of a new future-ensured omni-channel attribution model. The authors conclude by presenting questions for future research in the field of dynamic attribution.
Keywords: omni-channel attribution; practical requirements for omni-channel attribution; online advertising; dynamic attribution; dynamic attribution model; omni-channel attribution modelling; multi-touch attribution (MTA); budget allocation; data-driven attribution modelling; real-world attribution.
Differences between mobile and non-mobile buyers: Comparing attitudinal, motive-related, and media behaviour
by Michael Groß
Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the disparities between different types of consumers with respect to their mobile shopping (m-shopping) attitude, shopping motives, and media usage behaviour when practising online shopping. Thus, this study is the first to combine three different consumer viewpoints to provide an enhanced consumer picture. The findings are as follows. First, non-m-buyers attitude towards m-shopping is crucially formed by function-orientated aspects, and they prefer to engage more in exploring stores than in certain m-buying activities when they use smartphones. In contrast, m-buyers strive for more flexibility in meeting their recreational needs, since they have a hedonically compelled attitude towards m-shopping. Second, both groups regard m-shopping convenience as a basic requirement that must be fulfilled; otherwise, m-shopping is not useful to them at all. Moreover, contrary to non-m-buyers, the empirical outcomes suggest that m-buyers are multi-device shoppers because they engage heavily in online shopping and use portable media to a large degree, meaning that they are not restricted to a local environment.
Keywords: Mobile buying; mobile shopping; m-shopping; mobile buyer; non-mobile buyer; consumer discrepancy; digital natives; Generation Z; consumer attitude; shopping motive; media usage behaviour; mobile commerce.
The Effect of Customer Lifestyle Patterns on the Use of Mobile Banking Applications in Jordan
by Rand Al-Dmour, Emilia Al Haj Dawood, Hani Al-Dmour, Ra’ed Masa’deh
Abstract: In the last few years, a crucial business trend has been derived from the Information Systems (IS) discipline called mobile banking applications. This trend has focused upon conducting financial banking services with the help of smart mobile devices, and now has attained great importance. However, based on a review of the literature, it has been given little attention for such an important topic in Jordan. This study aimed to highlight the importance of mobile banking applications within the banking sector in Jordan. This study attempted to investigate the effect of customer lifestyle patterns on the use of mobile banking applications as well as the rate of their usage in Jordan. Data were collected using a self-administrated questionnaire from 300 participants from the largest and oldest banks in Jordan: Arab bank, Housing Bank for Trade and Finance, and Jordan Ahli Bank. The results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between the lifestyle patterns of mobile banking applications of users and non-users. However, the lifestyle patterns of users had some common themes; fashion consciousness, leadership traits, family concern, health consciousness, carefree, community conscious and practicality had significance impact on mobile applications users, but cost consciousness had no significance impact on the rate of usage of mobile banking applications by users. Based on the research findings, a number of recommendations are suggested. Most importantly, it is recommended that Jordanians banks create the awareness needed for their clients, to the benefits of using the mobile banking applications, such as time and money savings, as well as convenience. In order to build a long-term relationship with their users, further analysis is needed about client lifestyles, demographic characteristics and attitudes towards banking services, in order to categories the clients.
Keywords: Information systems; mobile banking applications; customer lifestyles; online banking; Jordan.
Factors Influencing the Acceptance of Smart Homes in Jordan
by Ibrahim Mashal, Ahmed Shuhaiber, Mohammad Daoud
Abstract: Smart home services are one of the recent Internet of Things applications that aims to improve residents quality of life. This study aims to investigate the factors that influence residents acceptance and usage of smart home services in Jordan. Theoretically, this study extends the Technology Acceptance Model. By following a quantitative method, responses were collected and statistically analyzed from 258 household using the SEM-PLS approach. Results show that user awareness, trust, perceived enjoyment, personalization, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use significantly influence attitude towards smart home services which, with social influence, impact the intention to use.
Keywords: Internet of Things; user acceptance; smart home services; Technology Acceptance Model.
Consumer Purchase Intention towards Private Label Brands of Virtual Retailers (PLBV): Evidence from a Developing Nation
by Sumit Kumar, Bibhas Chandra
Abstract: Despite an evolutionary growth in PLBV in the recent past, the study on PLBV is scarce. The present study is a novel attempt to gauge underlying purchase intention of consumers towards PLBV in developing nation like India. A PLBV purchase intention framework incorporating the online store image and consumers technology acceptance along with other pertinent factors has been designed and empirically validated. An online questionnaire was framed and administered to the identified survey pool followed by analysis of data using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to validate the proposed framework. The findings unveil store image, technology acceptance, consumer innovativeness and shoppers value consciousness as the building blocks of attitude towards PLBV. Additionally, the result unfolds that price consciousness does not influence shoppers attitude towards PLBV individually. However, when other factors act in unison, the purchase intention towards PLBV increases which is remarkable in contrast to the PLB purchase intention in offline mode.
Keywords: Online private label brands of virtual retailers (PLBV); Purchase intention; Online shopping; Internet shopping; Developing nation; Online retail.
The importance of electronic word-of-mouth on consumer perception of Content Marketing
by Benedikt Hirschfelder, Joel Chigada
Abstract: Content Marketing is a new trend that is highly recognisable in online marketing strategies. The nexus of commercial communication of content is to enable the brand to give something valuable and gain something valuable in return. Indeed, research on firm-generated content (FGC) and user-generated content (UGC) exists, but possible connections are left in the dark. This study explored the commercial value added chain of Content Marketing by focusing on possible coherences of commercially driven content generating constructs and their online communication channels, using Content Marketing as an umbrella term for any commercially generated content. This study provides insights into commercial B2C online content generation. After a data cleaning, elimination of incomplete questionnaires, the data was analysed with structural equation modelling. The results illustrate Content Marketings ability to impact UGC commercially and thus provide a solid base for future research.
Keywords: Content Marketing; Social Media; Electronic Word-of-Mouth.
Fashion portals and Indian consumers: An exploratory study on online apparel retail marketing
by Pradeep Kautish, Sushil Kumar Rai
Abstract: The rapid proliferation of fashion consciousness in India, and augmented internet usage facilitated online shopping trend, led to increase acceptance of fashion portals. The present research was focused on the online shopping determinants and adoption of fashion portals among Indian consumers. Plethora of researches indicates that now fashion consumers have online interface, quality services, varied and relevant information to assist them in shopping. The scale constructs relate to product assortment, shopping assistance, shopping efficiency, order fulfilment, order fulfilment reliability, perceived risk and trust. A primary research was conducted on Indian consumers frequently using the fashion portals for purchases. The study determines that the fashion customers are influenced by the service convenience paradigms of fashion portals. Conversely, the consumers stress less importance to perceived risk, and trust attributes of fashion portals. The quality of services convenience offered by fashion portals is improved along with relevant information display, the customers may get attract to visit the portals, encourage revisiting and using them for online shopping. The present research is an initial attempt to assess the level of satisfaction with using the fashion portals.
Keywords: Fashion portals; retail; online shopping; Indian consumers; retail services.
Analysis of the Effects of Ease of Use, Enjoyment, Perceived Risk on Perceived Value and Subsequent Satisfaction Created in the context of C2C online exchanges
by Mohammad Hamdi Al Khasawneh, Natalie Haddad
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors which have a significant impact on consumers perceived value in the context of consumer-to-consumer (C2C) online exchanges. The authors also examine the impact of consumers perceived value on consumer satisfaction.The proposed research model is empirically examined using a survey method, consisting of 131 C2C site users. The statistical analysis of the data was presented through the use of SEMPLS regression analysis.The results determined that ease of use and enjoyment have a significant positive impact on perceived value, with the exception of perceived risks which had no impact on perceived value. Also, perceived value has a significant positive impact on satisfaction.The present study is one of the few studies that examine the seven types of perceived risks, four types of perceived value, and the important relationship between perceived value and satisfaction
Keywords: Consumer-to-consumer (C2C); Perceived value; Satisfaction; Perceived risks; Ease of use; Enjoyment.
The Impact of Social Media on Consumer Awareness towards Buying Copy Brand
by Ahmad Al Adwan
Purpose: This study was based in Jordan to investigate the benefits that the social media offers and to explore how consumers access, process, and use the information of the social media, especially Facebook and YouTube.
Design/methodology/approach: the paper used a quantitative method and an SEM-PLS technique for validating the findings and testing the theorys constructs. Notably, the research was based on a behavioral model known as the Theory of Reasoned Action.
Findings: The main outcomes show that attitude and subjective norm have positive significant relationships with the consumers intention to use the social media search for information about a given brand.
Originality/value: The search creates brand awareness, which also significantly correlates to the intention to buy. In sum, the social media has enhanced socialization and social e-commerce.
Keywords: Keywords: Social media; Consumer awareness; Copy brand.
Shopping on the go: how walking influences mobile shopping performance
by Sarah M. Stanley, Cassandra C. Elrod, Nathan W. Twyman, Cui Zou
Abstract: Given the growth in use and capabilities of mobile devices, the mobile commerce (m-commerce) market is also continuing to grow and become more sophisticated. Studies exploring the results of m-commerce using mobile devices, however, have traditionally been done in a stationary setting. This exploratory study seeks to examine how m-commerce is impacted by the use of mobile devices in a stationary versus a walking setting. Treadmill desks were used to replicate mobile shopping while using mobile devices and then compared the results with the same task completed on mobile devices in a stationary manner. Results indicate that shopping while walking increases the time it takes to complete the shopping task but not the dollar amount spent for the product in question.
Keywords: m-commerce; mobile commerce; mobility; walking; shopping; treadmill desk; shopping task.
The state of flow in social commerce: the importance of flow consciousness
by Carolina Herrando, Julio Jiménez-Martínez, María José Martín-De Hoyos
Abstract: Flow has been widely studied in different disciplines and contexts; but there is a lack of consensus about its dimensionality, measurement and structure. This research theorises that flow is a second-order multidimensional factor composed of three dimensions: concentration, enjoyment and temporal distortion. This investigation studies whether users who have reached the state of flow in social commerce have really been aware of it, studying user's flow consciousness. The empirical results confirm the three-dimensionality of the concept, through the rival models technique, corroborate the second-order reflective structure and show that the more intense the experience of flow when surfing, the more conscious the users are of having reached the state of flow. This study contributes to setting up the basis for measuring flow, defining its structure and enabling future investigations to focus on how flow consciousness influences the commercial success of a social commerce platform.
Keywords: flow theory; social commerce; flow consciousness; second-order factor model; unidimensional versus multidimensional.
Examining telegram users' motivations, technical characteristics, trust, attitudes, and positive word-of-mouth: evidence from Iran
by Davood Ghorbanzadeh, Hamid Reza Saeednia
Abstract: The objectives of this research are to examine the effects of psychological motivations (entertainment, sociality), technical characteristics (ease of use and convenience), perceived usefulness and trust on telegram user's attitudes and to assess the influence of user's attitudes and their trust on positive word-of-mouth. The research model was tested using data randomly collected from students of Azad University in Tehran City. The numbers of valid observations were 300. Structure equation modelling was used to verify and validate the research model. The results revealed that the psychological motivations entertainment, sociality has a positive and significant impact on telegram user's attitudes. In addition, perceived usefulness and trust has a positive and significant impact on telegram user's attitudes. Convenience as a technical characteristic through perceived usefulness has a positive and significant impact on telegram user's attitudes. Finally, telegram user's attitudes and their trust have a positive and significant impact on positive word of mouth.
Keywords: psychological motivations; technical characteristics; perceived usefulness; trust; attitudes; positive word-of-mouth; PWOM; Iran.
Conversion rate determinants in e-commerce websites. What about moderation effects?
by Davide Di Fatta, David Diwei Lu
Abstract: Online retailers invest significant resource to improve conversion rates, defined as the proportion of website visitors that make a purchase. Using 1,184 observations from six e-commerce websites, this paper aims to analyse conversion rate determinants, also considering moderation effects of seasonality and webpage speed of load. Results show that free shipping and discounts policy have a positive effect on the conversion rate, moderated by seasonality and load speed. These finding could be useful guidelines for e-commerce managers in order to allocate their limited resources to the most relevant factor to increase online sales.
Keywords: conversion rate; e-commerce; pricing policy; discount; free shipping; ordinary least squares; OLS.
Service quality of online transactions: the PayPal case
by Costas Assimakopoulos, Eugenia Papaioannou, Christos Sarmaniotis
Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to investigate users' expectation and perception levels towards service quality dimensions regarding PayPal. The discrepancy gap between buyers' expectation and perception throughout those dimensions is studied. The gaps, identified between expectations and perceived experience although positive, are short, meaning that perceived performance and expected performance are close to each other. This can be interpreted as a lack of impressive positive surprise by the website to the customers. On the other hand, customers really know what to expect from such a website which means that details make the difference. There is always room for improvement as customers' demands and competition are ever increasing. The seller's perceptions and expectations to the PayPal remain untested and this could be considered as a limitation. The paper's results contribute towards improving the provided services of PayPal and of other similar companies, as well.
Keywords: e-service quality; customer's satisfaction; customer's perceptions; customer's expectations; gap analysis; PayPal.
Special Issue on: ICES 2K17 Engineering Aspect Based Electronic Marketing and Retailing
Consumer Ethnocentrism: Validation of CETSCALE and Measurement among Saudi Citizens
by M.M. Sulphey, Mohammad Rishad Faridi
Abstract: Consumer ethnocentrism (CE) is the patriotic, nationalistic and sympathetic feelings among consumers. This behaviour of consumer has been subjected to intensive and repeated research around the globe. Attempts to study CE in Saudi Arabia seem to be scarce, despite the vastness and potentiality of the markets in the country. The study has succeeded in validating the popularly used CETSCALE in the Saudi context thorough rigorous statistical techniques. The study has also found out the patterns of CE among the Saudi consumers. Findings with respect to dimensionality of CE are more or less in lines with the results of research work in other parts of the world. Further, it was found that the CE that is prevalent in Saudi Arabia differs conceptually from those of other countries. Another significant finding was that the younger population, especially university students, had higher levels of CE higher than that of other countries.
Keywords: Consumer Ethnocentrism; CETSCALE; Saudi Arabia; Validation.
Does Spiritual Intelligence contribute to sales force effectiveness?
by Kalyani Vellingiri, Saravanan R
Abstract: The present world of digitalization had made the marketing environment more complex and volatile putting the sustainability of the sales organizations at stake. Although the changing scenario demands for more cognitive flexibility and adaptability from various sales organizations, they stumble as their sales force are not that competent to face this ever changing situation. Henceforth the rational attitude of the sales people will no longer be relevant in these turbulent times. So it is the right time for the sales organizations to recognize the importance of higher levels of intelligent quotient among their sales workforce which can drive an individual for success as it is highly associated with higher level of cognitive thinking, flexibility and adaptability. This can be achieved by infusing the Spiritual Intelligence (SI) construct. In recent times SI has achieved more popularity from the management perspective as it facilitates individual and organizational performance. Though SI is visualized as a psychological or a human resource phenomenon, this article applies this concept to the marketing scenario as it glues strongly with the requirements of the sales force. The reason behind this choice of area is that, sales happen to be the bloodline of any business and directly linked with the revenue generation. The sales domain demands for more patience, cognitive thinking, and adaptability along with the required sales skills. It is true that SI helps shape an individual holistically and it is pertinent to imbibe SI in the culture itself as it fetches maximum benefits to the organizations and individuals as well. This article presents how SI acts as a key source of increasing human capital and overcoming the major issues of career development. This perspective is depicted in the form of a conceptual framework and the article brings forth a new application perspective of the SI construct to the sales force utilizing various theoretical inferences.
Keywords: Sales force; cognitive thinking; adaptability; organizational performance.
Self-Congruity and Brand Loyalty An Innovation of Diffusion Approach
by Praveen Babu P, Prabakar S
Abstract: Brand loyalty is a much debated topic in marketing and the present challenge for marketers lies in understanding the self-image and product-image from the consumers perspective. Though awareness remains the first and foremost factor in the adoption process, the interest and desire stages are of prime importance because consumers relate themselves to the offerings during these two stages. This article aims at relating the concept of self-congruity to brand loyalty across various consumer adoption categories (Innovation of Diffusion, Rogers (1962)) and suggests strategies to increase brand loyalty of the various types of adopters. It theoretically brings forth the differences in self-congruity levels amongst various adoption categories of consumers and its related brand loyalty levels. The need for relating self attributes to brand attributes is of prime importance to marketers and therefore this article aims at discussing the various theoretical assumptions built on concrete constructs and theories which provide a new approach towards measuring brand loyalty.
Keywords: Consumer adoption categories; Self-image; Product-image; interest; desire to buy.
Generational Difference as Predictors of Financial Behaviour
by Sulphey M M, Shaha Faisal
Abstract: Behavioural differences among generationsare a fascinating area that has been studied across various topics and disciplines. However, no study is seen to have been undertaken to find out its relationship with financial behaviour. The present study attempts to bridge this gap in literature. Data for the study was collected randomly from 240 samples with the help of a validated tool the ORTOFIN scale. The analysis of data has presented some interesting results. The study has succeeded in presenting the complex relationship that intergenerational differences have on financial behaviour. It is expected that the study will add to the literature on intergenerational difference and financial behaviour, and stimulate further studies in this unchartered area of research.
Keywords: Financial behaviour; Orientation towards finances; Generational differences.