International Journal of Electronic Marketing and Retailing (34 papers in press)
Shopping on the Go: How Walking Influences Mobile Shopping Performance
by Sarah Stanley, Cassandra Elrod, Nathan Twyman, Cui Zou
Abstract: Given the growth in use and capabilities of mobile devices, the mobile commerce (m-commerce) market is also continuing to grow and become more sophisticated. Studies have been conducted exploring the results of m-commerce and the use of mobile devices, however, most past studies on the topic are done in a stationary setting. This is an exploratory study seeking to examine how m-commerce is impacted by the use of mobile devices in a stationary, or walking, setting. Treadmill desks were used to replicate mobile shopping while using mobile devices and then compared the results with the same task completed on mobile devices in a stationary manner. Results indicate that shopping while walking increases the time it takes to compete the shopping task but not the price spent for the product in question.
Keywords: M-Commerce; mobile commerce; mobility; walking; shopping; treadmill desk; shopping task.
The State of Flow in Social Commerce: The Importance of Flow Consciousness
by Carolina Herrando, Julio Jiménez-Martínez, María José Martín-De Hoyos
Abstract: Flow has been widely studied in different disciplines and contexts; but there is a lack of consensus about its dimensionality, measurement and structure. This research theorizes that flow is a second-order multidimensional factor composed of three dimensions: concentration, enjoyment and temporal distortion. This investigation studies whether users who have reached the state of flow in social commerce have really been aware of it, studying users flow consciousness. The empirical results confirm the three-dimensionality of the concept, through the rival models technique, corroborate the second-order reflective structure and show that the more intense the experience of flow when surfing, the more conscious the users are of having reached the state of flow. This study contributes to setting up the basis for measuring flow, defining its structure, and enabling future investigations to focus on how flow consciousness influences the commercial success of a social commerce platform.
Keywords: Flow theory; social commerce; flow consciousness; second-order factor model; unidimensional versus multidimensional.
Examining Telegram users motivations, technical characteristics, trust, attitudes, and positive word-of-mouth: Evidence from Iran
by Davood Ghorbanzadeh, Hamid Reza Saeednia
Abstract: Telegram is a mobile instant text and voice messaging communication service and has become an important social media platform in Iran. The objectives of this research are to examine the effects of psychological motivations (entertainment, sociality), technical characteristics (ease of use and convenience), perceived usefulness and trust on telegram users attitudes and to assess the influence of users attitudes and their trust on positive word-of-mouth. The research model was tested using data randomly collected from Students of College of Administrative Science and Research and North Tehran Azad Universities in Tehran city. The numbers of valid observations were 300. Structure equation modeling was used to verify and validate the research model. The results revealed that the psychological motivations entertainment, sociality has a positive and significant impact on telegram users attitudes. In addition, perceived usefulness and trust has a positive and significant impact on telegram users attitudes. Convenience as a technical characteristic through perceived usefulness has a positive and significant impact on telegram users attitudes. Finally, telegram users attitudes and their trust has a positive and significant impact on positive word of mouth. The research results provide insight into how telegram can motivate users and build their trust to improve their attitudes which in turn will increase telegram users willingness in making positive comments on products and services.
Keywords: Psychological motivations; Technical Characteristics; Perceived usefulness; trust; attitudes; positive word of mouth.
Conversion rate determinants in e-commerce websites. What about moderation effects?
by Davide Di Fatta, David Diwei Lu
Abstract: Online retailers invest significant resource to improve conversion rates, defined as the proportion of website visitors that make a purchase. Using 1184 observations from 6 e-commerce websites, this paper aims to analyze conversion rate determinants, also considering moderation effects of seasonality and webpage speed of load. Results show that free shipping and discounts policy have a positive effect on the conversion rate, moderated by seasonality and load speed. These finding could be useful guidelines for e-commerce managers in order to allocate their limited resources to the most relevant factor to increase online sales.
Keywords: conversion rate; e-commerce; pricing policy; discount; free shipping; ordinary least squares.
Profiling Consumers of Private Label Brands in Virtual Retail Environment- A Cluster Analytic Approach
by Sumit Kumar, Bibhas Chandra
Abstract: Private Label Brands (PLB) unlike generic offerings of the past are now viewed as brands in their own right. Mounting evidences suggest the growing acceptance of PLB among the aspiring consumers in the current milieu. The diminishing gap between national brands vis-a-vis their PLB counterparts call for new imperatives for retailers to sharpen the focus on store brands and garner loyalty both on offline and on online mode. However, PLB in the virtual retail environment is a novel concept entailing new insights on unexplored dimensions of markets and consumer behaviour. The present study
attempts to develop a profile of consumers of PLB in the virtual retail
environment, especially the emerging markets like India. Using an extended
understanding of socio-demographic and psychographic factors constituting
consumer shopping behaviour, a cluster analysis on a national sample of Indian
online shoppers was performed. Three distinct market segment possessing
unique socio-demographics and psychographic characteristics emerged viz.
classical, economical and innovative consumers. The size and structure of each
identified segment have significant implications for marketing theory and
making strategic choices for marketers.
Keywords: consumer behaviour; online-retailers; private label brands (PLB); market segment; cluster analysis.
Service quality of online transactions: The PayPal case
by Costas Assimakopoulos, Eugenia Papaioannou, Christos Sarmaniotis
Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to investigate users' expectation and perception levels towards service quality dimensions regarding PayPal. The discrepancy gap between buyers expectation and perception throughout those dimensions is studied. Additionally, determinants (factors) of PayPal service quality are extracted. By combining the above findings, the possible influence on user disconfirmation of expectations dimensions of these determinants (factors) of PayPal service quality is examined. The survey instrument was an e-SERVQUAL type questionnaire. 933 valid questionnaires were received. A research model is proposed, consisting of the determinants of PayPal service quality (four factors) as affected by the positive/negative disconfirmation of user expectation dimensions named Design of the Web, Payment-Privacy/Security, "Services Provided" and "Overall Satisfaction". The sellers perceptions and expectations to the PayPal remain untested and this could be considered as a limitation. The papers results contribute towards improving the provided services of PayPal and of other similar companies, as well.
Keywords: E-service quality; satisfaction; customer’s perception and expectation; gap analysis; PayPal.
An Exploration of E-Impulse Buying
by Hemraj Verma, Shalini Singh
Abstract: Purpose E-tailing is expanding its horizon throughout the globe. Although it is at nascent stage in India but it is already creating a difference in the manner consumers are behaving. So, in this internet era, there is a need to study this relevant phenomenon like e-impulse buying and understand the online consumer behaviour more deeply. Since e-impulse buying is not an old phenomenon in Indian context therefore a qualitative approach has been adopted to explore it.
Design/methodology/approach A preliminary online survey was done to identify the online impulsive shoppers. Out of 56 respondents identified from the online survey in-depth interviews of 30 respondents were conducted to explore this phenomenon and identify various stimuli of e-impulse buying in Indian context. Coding was done and themes of e-impulse buying were identified by analysing the qualitative data.
Findings This research reveals several stimuli of e-impulse buying in Indian context and develops a platform for studying the phenomenon comprehensively. The stimuli, on the basis of their relevance in e-impulse buying, are further classified into two categories intrinsic stimuli and extrinsic stimuli.
Research limitations/implications This study explored the phenomenon of e-impulse buying and also uncovered its relevant stimuli thus it will benefit the market researchers, strategists and online retailers for understanding the nitty-gritty of the phenomenon. As this study is confined to Indian context only, therefore the generalization of the study can be checked with respect to other countries.
Originality/value This study is completely based on the exploratory approach that reveals several significant insights related to stimuli of e-impulse buying in a comprehensive way. It provides knowledge value to the researchers, academicians and online strategist to optimize their strategies in a better way.
Keywords: E-Impulse Buying; Stimuli; Online Shopping and Indian Online Shoppers.
Factors Influencing Consumers Purchase Intention Towards Online Group Buying in Malaysia
by Yean Sien Liew, Falahat Mohammad
Abstract: Online group buying (OGB) is growing rapidly and it has become popular in many countries. Due to the lack of research and early stage of development in the developing and emerging market, we aim to examine the factors influencing consumers purchase intention towards online group buying in the Malaysian context. Through intensive literature review on consumers purchase intention and online group buying, a set of factors are proposed as leading influencers. This paper reveals that perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), price, electronic word of mouth (e-WOM), trust and perceived risk (PR) are the main determinants of online group buying. The three major factors, PU, price and e-WOM, demonstrated relatively strong impact on consumers purchase intention towards OGB whilst trust and perceived risk shown significant impact and moderate impact respectively on consumers participation in OGB. Contrarily, PEOU was found to have no influence in Malaysian consumers.
Keywords: e-WOM; online group buying; perceived usefulness; PEOU; trust; perceived risk.
Using a multicriteria approach to identify factors that influence e-tailing service quality
by André Luís Policani Freitas, Ana Carla De Souza Gomes Dos Santos
Abstract: Offering a quality service in an online environment that encompasses all operations from the customer's funding to after-sales service has been a major challenge for many companies. Although e-tailing covers various product categories such as appliances, electronics, fashion and accessories, no instrument has been developed or implemented to identify the most important factors for e-tailing concerning the perception of consumers of the different product categories. In this context, supported on the use of the AHP method, this paper presents a methodological approach to identify the criteria that influence e-tailing service quality. Five dimensions were considered and a 31-item questionnaire was designed. By conducting an experimental analysis with Brazilian consumers, Cronbachs α and item-total correlation were used to verify the reliability of the questionnaire. As a result, the most important items are related to the reliability of the company and the security of transactions.
Keywords: Service quality; E-commerce; E-tailing; Consumer behavior; Retailing; AHP method.
Exploring the behaviour of Indian consumers towards online discounts
by S.K. Suman, Pallavi Srivastava, Shaili Vadera
Abstract: Online shopping has grown significantly in recent years, but is yet to reach its full potential. Online shopping fears discourage consumers to shop online. Click only companies are providing heavy discounts to attract the consumers to shop online. Customers expect an integrated buying process including e-coupon, daily deals and loyalty programs. The purpose of the study is to analyse various factors, which influence the consumer while purchasing online discounted products. The study was conducted among 207 online shoppers who purchase discounted products in selected Tier II and Tier III cities of a large and prominent state of India. The data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16.0). Using factor analysis (Principal Axis Factoring with Varimax Rotation), factors were extracted. These factors can be essential in understanding the behaviour of online consumers towards online discounts and can significantly contribute in converting non-online buyer into online buyer.
Keywords: Consumer behaviour; online shopping; online discounts; sale.
A Brand View on the User Acceptance of Mobile Apps: An Evidence from India in the Multi-Channel Context
by Nithya Murugan, Jayanth Jacob
Abstract: Despite rapid growth in the number of mobile internet users who shop using mobile applications, there has been very little research on mobile channels, in particular with mobile apps in the context of multi-channel retailing. While extant research focus on mobile touch points as single channel, the present study highlights the need for multi and omni-channel management that stress on the creation of retail branding for the acceptance of mobile apps. This study investigates the structural relationship between attitude towards the online retail brand, perceived tie, perceived ease of use, attitude and user behaviour towards mobile apps from pure online retailers who sell products through e-commerce site and mobile app. Based on the theory of planned behaviour, a research model and hypotheses depicting direct and indirect effects are proposed. An online survey was conducted among 221 respondents and the results of the Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) showed that there is a strong support for the effect of brand attitude, perceived tie and perceived ease of use on the acceptance of mobile app.
Keywords: Online brand attitude; perceived tie; perceived ease of use; mobile app; multi-channel; perceived similarity.
SUCCESS AND FAILURE FACTORS OF SOCIAL MEDIA INTEGRATION INSIGHTS FROM BUSINESS EXPERIENCE
by Maha Al Essa, Imene Ben Yahia
Abstract: This research investigates how companies are coping with the integration of various social media platforms in their marketing strategy. It relies on companies experience with social media to answer to the following questions: What are the success and failure factors of social media integration within a marketing strategy? Which factors to keep common and which ones require adaptation across social media platforms? Qualitative data was collected from 92 companies involved in social media. Content was analyzed manually. First, results draw attention to eleven critical factors of success. Seven factors are internal related to the social media management team and to the company strategy and four factors are external linked to the platform tools and usage. Second, seven most reoccurring factors of failure are identified. Results highlight the factors that require adaptation across social media platforms.
Keywords: Social media; Success factors; Failure factors; Qualitative study.
A Two-stage SEM- Neural Network Analysis to Predict Drivers of M-commerce in India
by Khushbu Madan, Rajan Yadav
Abstract: The rapid developments in the field of mobile technologies and deep penetration of smartphones have created tremendous opportunities for m-commerce worldwide. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors that predict consumers intention to adopt m-commerce. The study identifies variables relevant for m-commerce environment and empirically establishes their influence on m-commerce Adoption Intention. A Two- stage analysis comprising of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) and Neural Network (NN) Technique is employed to test the proposed model. The results obtained from SEM analysis observed that Perceived Risk is the strongest predictor of m-commerce adoption decision, followed by Performance Expectancy, Variety of Services and Perceived Critical Mass. Effort Expectancy is found to be statistically insignificant. The significant factors from SEM were used as input to NN model, and the results established Performance Expectancy to be the most important input variable in predicting m-commerce Adoption Intention followed by Variety of Services, Perceived Risk and Perceived Critical Mass. The findings of this study are useful for m-commerce marketers and service providers, in developing suitable marketing strategies to scale up their business. This study is one of the few empirical studies conducted in India to examine the Adoption Intention of m-commerce.
Keywords: M-commerce; Perceived Risk; Variety of Services; Perceived Critical Mass; Structural Equation Modelling; Neural Network.
Building Brand Advocacy on Social Media to Improve Brand Equity
by Manisha Mathur
Abstract: Social media is all about consumer networks and consumer relations that challenge marketers to leverage social media as a means to develop and improve their connections with consumers. Though tremendous opportunities via social media are alluring, businesses are still finding it hard to penetrate the clique of consumer interactions that are largely personal in nature. Despite the opportunities available through social media marketing activities, understanding customers and their behavior, and incorporating that information in marketing strategy formulation is critical to successful strategy implementation. Thus, this study focuses attention in this direction and advances both the academic as well the practitioner literature. Theoretically grounded in two different fields-the field of sociology in combination with the field of relationship marketing, this study develops a conceptual model of driving brand advocacy and reciprocity to improve customer-based brand equity. This study uses seemingly unrelated regression technique to empirically validate our conceptual model. This paper concludes with important implications for both marketing theory and practice.
Keywords: Social media engagement; reciprocity; trust; review helpfulness; advocacy; brand equity.
Determinants of Online Journey and its influence on Online Customer Satisfaction Associated with Online Customer Loyalty
by Siti Nurlaela, Ujang Sumarwan, Mukhamad Najib
Abstract: The purpose of this study are to identify the determinants of online journey and investigate its influence to online customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in the Indonesian online shop context. We develop the online journey model by Mangiaracina et al. (2009): site landing, product discovery, product presentation, cart management, and check out. The delivery stages added to complete the journey. Sampling was carried out by purposive sampling method and empirically test the model to 136 respondents. Validity and reliability assessment made by using SPSS. The data processing show that all indicators had corrected item-total correlation value more than 0.1684 and has a cronbachhs alpha value more than 0.6, so the all of variables are valid and reliable for next analysis. SEM analysis was used to identify the positive influence of online journey to online customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. The results showed that four of six stages of online journey had a significant positive effect on online customer satisfaction, i.e. product discovery, product presentation, cart management, and delivery. Moreover, online customer satisfactions influence the online customer loyalty significantly. It indicates that online journey be important to consider in evaluating the online customer satisfaction and online customer loyalty. This study can be used to evaluate the service quality of online shopping sites based on the customer perceptions. The detail of sequence of online journey allows the online shop management to gain valuable insight to develop the effective strategies. The magnitude of the effect is visible from each determination can be used as an indicator to determine the priority of improvement on every stage of the online journey traversed by the customer.
Keywords: Online customer satisfaction; online customer loyalty; online journey; online shop; SEM.
AFFECT-BASED AND PERSONALITY-BASED TRUST AND RISK IN SOCIAL COMMERCE
by Emad Abou-Elgheit
Abstract: This paper examines the affect (emotional) and personality factors
that impact consumers trust, risk and intention to purchase in a social
electronic commerce context. It is the first part of a broader study which
examines the impact of different antecedents or types of trust and risk on
consumers intention to purchase online. The empirical findings discussed in
this study offer novel insights for academic researchers and businesses on how
trust is built and risk is perceived. The study argues that affect-based factors
have stronger impacts on trust and intention to buy than personality. The study
also shows that building trust and perceiving risk are different, yet interrelated
processes. The study relies on the findings of a survey that was sponsored by
three Egyptian electronic vendors. A sample of 599 online shoppers responded
to the survey. Egypt is a significant emerging market for electronic commerce,
which makes it representative for Middle East and North African markets.
Keywords: social commerce; trust; consumer behaviour; personality;
emotions; digital marketing; affect-based trust; personality-based trust;
Preference Criteria for Online Shopping among University Students
by Amiruddin Ahamat, Muhamad Sham Shahkat Ali
Abstract: We are now living in the era of technology and the use of
e-commerce is increasing every day, which has become increasingly more
important as most activities can be done by using e-commerce, thus aiding the
business industry. The younger generation especially students nowadays spend
hours on the internet. The aim of this research was to identify the preference
criteria among Malaysian university students. It also identified the relationship
between the independent variables (situational factors, trust and consumer trait)
which were the preference criteria and the dependent variable (online shopping)
among Malaysian university students. In this research, the preference criteria
that drove them to shop online was analysed using the survey method
distributed to 200 university students. The results of this research showed a
strong correlation between online shopping and situational factors, a weak
correlation between online shopping and trust, and a strong correlation between
online shopping and consumer trait.
Keywords: online shopping; situational factor; trust; consumer trait.
Online Purchasing: The Role of Web Experience Factors
by Noor Akma Mohd Salleh, Norbani Che Ha, Philip J. Kitchen,, Amrul Asraf Mohd-Any
Abstract: This paper examines the effect of Web experience factors such as usability, interactivity, trust and aesthetics derived from flow theory on purchasing intention. From 360 questionnaires distributed, 300 responses were gathered. Using logistic regression analysis, results indicate that usability, interactivity and trust are positively and significantly associated with purchasing intention whereas aesthetics is not. It seems that online retailers should adopt a targeted aesthetics approach in developing a Web store depending on the type of merchandise and the markets approached. As such, retailers can lure new customers, retain existing ones and improve their attitudes toward Web stores.
Keywords: online purchasing; consumer behavior; Web experience; electronic commerce.
The influence of online recommendation mechanisms in the smartphone market in the context of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM)
by Luis Hernan Contreras Pinochet, Evandro Luiz Lopes, Priscila Graziele Araujo, Ricardo Luiz Pereira Bueno
Abstract: The objective of this research is to analyse how online recommendation engines promote the transmission and reception of opinions in the Smartphone market through the electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) context. The model was adapted from Arenas-Gaitan et al. (2013) by adding two variables: reputation of online service and virtual shopping. This single cross-section survey research design consisted of a sample of 560 Smartphone users, whose data were analysed by structural equation modelling with estimation by means of partial least squares. The results indicate that the influence on consumer Smartphone purchase decision was not significant for the constructs 'virtual shopping' and 'social networking service' in relation to 'recommendation'. However, the 'reputation of online service' was the most influential construct on 'recommendation' in the context of eWOM. The results confirmed the significance of the structural paths, and demonstrated that the proposed model is consistent, given appropriate adjustment, and can be applied in future research.
Keywords: eWOM; social identidy; recommendation.
The Colombian Electronic Consumer: Analysis of the leading factors of e-commerce use
by Javier A. Sánchez-Torres, Francisco-Javier Arroyo-Cañada, Sandra Patricia Rojas-Berrio, Oscar Javier Robayo Pinzón, Winston Fontalvo Cerpa
Abstract: There are few studies describing the adoption of electronic B2C (business-to-consumer) commerce in poor and developing countries, in that vein the purpose of this article is to examine which factors lead to electronic purchasing in Colombia. This study was conducted on a national level using an online survey, with a total of 941 responses from electronic commerce users. The results validated UTAUT2 model, with only the expected variables of effort and hedonistic motivations not being significant; additionally, online trust is positively affected by perceived security, information quality and perceived privacy. Finally, this analysis confirms that the relationships proposed in the theory of the adoption of online shopping in an emerging country are met, offering a detailed analysis of each of the variables that the online shopper considers; additionally, this article has validated that in Colombia, online shopping affects the search for low prices.
Keywords: e-Commerce; Online Purchase Intention; Trust; Consumer Behavior; UTAUT2.
Reference Group Influence on User Connections with Social Networking Sites (SNS):
A Study of Facebook
by Yujie (Jack) Wei, Feisal Murshed
Abstract: The increasing prevalence of social networking sites (SNS) and their interactive capability have been the subject to sustained interests for researchers and marketers alike. Yet few insights exist regarding whether online consumer engagement is prone to social influences from other users. Drawing from literature on reference group influence (e.g., Bearden and Etzel, 1982) and social identity (Tajfel and Turner, 1986), this research investigates self-SNS connection customers overall experience with the SNS and provides insights into a users susceptibility to reference group influence. Specifically, the focus is on three motivational influences: informational, value expressive and utilitarian. Employing data collected through a survey, authors find that informational influence and value expressive influence are positively associated with self-SNS connection, but contrary to conventional wisdom, utilitarian influence is not. Furthermore, males are more susceptible to value expressive influences than females, indicating that reference group influences exhibit some gender effect. The results offer insights into designing more effective dissemination of marketing communications through tapping into consumers informal communication network.
Keywords: Social networking site (SNS); Facebook; Reference group influence; Self-SNS connections; self-concept; gender effect.
Message Strategy of Promotional E-mails in India: A Content Analysis
by Utkarsh Utkarsh, Nimit Gupta
Abstract: This study analysed the message strategies used in promotional e-mails and explored differences between the e-mail messages of different goods and service marketers. A content analysis of 698 promotional e-mails offers insights on enhancing the effectiveness of e-mail marketing. The findings revealed a higher incidence of informational subject lines, text-only e-mail bodies, and emotional appeals in e-mail messages for services than for goods. This study is the first attempt to analyse the advertising content of promotional e-mails in India and subsequently offer marketing insights. The results can aid practitioners to design and customise an e-mail message strategy.
Keywords: email marketing; message strategy; services; appeal; subject line; service advertising.
Factors influencing the adoption of Online shopping in Lebanon: An empirical integration of Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology2 (UTAUT2) and DeLone-McLean model of IS success
by Ali Tarhini, Ali Alalwan, Raed Algharabat
Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the silent factors that may influence or hinder the adoption of online shopping in Lebanon. A conceptual framework was proposed based on the integration of Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology2 (UTAUT2) and DeLone-McLean model of IS success. Data were collected from 342 Lebanese online shopping users using a cross-sectional survey. The measurement and structural model were estimated and tested using structural equation modelling (AMOS 22.0). The results revealed that performance expectancy (PE), product guarantee (PG), service quality (SerQ), price value (PV), trust (TR), system quality (SymQ) and information quality (IQ); were found to be significant predictors in influencing users behavioural intention (BI) to adopt online shopping, and explained 72.7 % of its variance, with PE was found the strongest antecedent of BI. However, the relationship between effort expectancy (EE), social influence (SI), hedonic motivation (HM) and BI was insignificant. This is one of the few studies that integrate the unified theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology2 (UTAUT2) and DeLone-McLean model of IS success to study the adoption of online shopping, and the first to be tested in Lebanon. In light of these findings, implications for both theory and practice are discussed.
Keywords: UTAUT; online shopping; Lebanon; structural equation modelling; technology adoption; DeLone-McLean model.
Customer Satisfaction, Loyalty and Switching Intent in Retail Service Settings
by Aakash Kamble, Shubhangi Walvekar
Abstract: Customers switching from competitive brand to another companys brand is usually due to the efforts of the company. Similarly inducing the customers to repurchase the companys brands time and again is very important in their marketing activities. With regards to these, studies of customer variety-seeking orientation and their level of involvement in decision making play a vital role in explaining customers product selection activities. The purpose of the study to examine and analyse the interlinking relationships among customer satisfaction, loyalty and switching intent in online retailing and purchases made using multi-channels. The research also verifies the moderating effect of customer variety-seeking orientation across channels and purchase decision involvement. A total 427 patrons participated in the study who had made purchases in the preceding 3 months from electronic as well as brick and mortar retailers in electronic and accessories category. The results showed a positive relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty and also between customer loyalty and switching intent. The effect of moderating variables, variety seeking orientation and purchase decision was not significant.
Keywords: Switching intent; customer satisfaction; customer loyalty; variety seeking; purchase decision; e-commerce; retailing.
Impact of social media and customer-centric technology on performance outcomes: the mediating role of social CRM capabilities
by Shampy Kamboj, Mayank Yadav, Zillur Rahman
Abstract: With the emergence of social media technology, the concept of customer relationship management (CRM) has drastically changed, as the majority of the firms are now incorporating social media into their established CRM system, which facilitate the evolution of term social CRM. This article investigates the influence of social media and customer-centric technology on social CRM capabilities. The paper presents empirical evidence for the argument that social CRM capabilities lead to firm performance outcomes; customer-based profit performance and new product development performance. The developed hypothesis and proposed model was tested through structural equation modelling (SEM). The results show that both social media technology and customer-centric technology have a significant influence on social CRM capabilities. Similarly, these social CRM capabilities also found to have a positive effect on customer-based and product-based performance outcomes. This paper will be useful for both academicians and managers, as it presents several theoretical and practical insights.
Keywords: capabilities; customer relationship management; CRM; performance; social CRM; social media; technology.
Attract, captivate, and make them return: processing fluency effect on estimated shopping time and loyalty intention
by Hyunjoo Im, Young Ha
Abstract: In an online environment where consumers multi-task, engaging casual shoppers remains to be a challenge. The current study identified online shoppers' time perception as an important element in engagement, and tested effects of processing fluency in the context. Based on the processing fluency and time perception literature, a conceptual model describing how casual online shoppers subjective experience of processing ease leads to an engaging shopping experience was developed and empirically tested (N = 1,207). The results from an online experiment provided support for the hypotheses. The study filled the gap in the literature by investigating online shoppers' time perception in the context of browsing without a shopping goal. Importantly, the study used both self-rated perception data and objective data to provide strong evidence for inaccurate time perception in online engagement. Theoretical and practical implications as well as future study suggestions are discussed.
Keywords: processing fluency; online engagement; shopping time perception; low-involvement shopping; attention focus; shopping time estimation; loyalty intention.
To click or to buy over the counter drugs: exploring the behaviour of Slovenian customers
by Vasja Roblek, Mirjana Pejić Bach, Maja Meško, Andrej Bertoncelj
Abstract: The supply and demand of the information and availability of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs online has increased substantially. Customers express three typical online behaviours regarding OTC drugs: browsing information about OTC drugs without any particular purpose, searching for particular information or product, and buying OTC drugs. This study investigates the determinants of online behaviour regarding OTC drugs. The data was acquired using a random sample of Slovenian citizens. Logistic regression method was used to determine which factors influence browsing, searching, and/or buying of OTC drugs online for two age groups: younger and older than 40. The findings suggest that intensity of using the internet use, trust in buying OTC drugs online, as well as education, income and location influence on the online behaviour of customers regarding OTC drugs. It has also been determined that age has a moderating effect, indicating motivation of younger and older customers by different determinants.
Keywords: browsing; buying; consumer behaviour; internet; online pharmacy; e-health literacy; e-marketing; logistic regression method; mobile applications; searching; social media; Slovenia.
Demand hierarchy model and its measurement for online brand community participation
by Lihong Chen, Xinfeng Yan
Abstract: We report the development of demand hierarchy model and its measurement for online brand community participation (OBCP) and make online consumer demand more transparent. This research contributes to develop the model of OBCP that can match the novel network relationship between consumers and at the same time be measurable and management-effective in OBCP. Grounded theory was adopted to explore the demand contents and measurement items of OBCP. The reliability and validity analysis were tested as well to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the questionnaire. Five dimensions of demands were distinguished, each with specific connotation and behavioural motive towards the hierarchal demand structure model. The scale can be used as measurement instrument for OBCP demand and will be helpful for related empirical research. The study results recommend that practitioners carefully identify information of demands of customers in online brand community and plan targeting online marketing strategies while consumer satisfaction could be enhanced.
Keywords: online brand community; OBC; online brand community participation; OBCP; hierarchy demand model; scale; grounded theory.
Apps shoppers' behaviour and the moderating effect of product standardisation/brand recognition: a maximum likelihood estimation approach
by Sajad Rezaei, Naser Valaei
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the structural relationship between subjective norm, attitude, intention, and behaviour via Apps and the moderating effect of product standardisation/brand recognition. Confirmatory maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach, a covariance based-structural equation modelling (CB-SEM) technique, was performed for assessment of the reflective measurements, structural relationship between latent constructs and moderation effect. A total of 340 online questionnaires (N = 340) was collected and the results support the structural relationship between the latent constructs and specify a valid model fit (positive and direct effects). In addition, multigroup moderation SEM analysis (critical ratio values) reveal that the degree of standardisation/brand recognition (standard vs. non-standard) moderates the structural relationships. This study provides a basic set of guidelines for the application of confirmatory MLE in the evaluation of direct effects (one tail hypotheses) and multigroup SEM analyses for moderation effects. Theoretical and managerial implications of the study are further discussed.
Keywords: shopping intention via apps; shopping behaviour via apps; theory of reasoned action; TRA; subjective norm; attitude toward shopping via apps; product classification; maximum likelihood estimation approach.
College students' online purchase attitudes and intentions: gender, product type, and risk
by Jane McKay-Nesbitt, Chad Ryan, Sukki Yoon
Abstract: This research explores the relationship between gender and hedonically-motivated shopping as well as the effects of product type (i.e., hedonic vs. utilitarian) and gender on online purchase attitudes and intentions. It also explores how consumers' online shopping risk perceptions influence the effects of the relationship between product type and gender on online attitudes and intentions. Results show that female college students in the USA are more likely than male college students in the USA to identify as hedonically-motivated consumers but that these differences do not carry over to product type. Conversely, males are more willing than females to purchase hedonic products online. Gender differences in willingness to buy hedonic products online are mediated by online shopping risk perceptions. Both males and females however view hedonic products as riskier than utilitarian products and are more willing to purchase utilitarian than hedonic products online. The results suggest that marketers need to continue to seek ways to convert females' enjoyment of shopping into actual purchase behaviour. Online marketers need to seek ways to mitigate the risk associated with purchasing hedonic products online.
Keywords: e-commerce; online shopping; gender; risk perceptions; risk; hedonic; utilitarian; recreational shopping identity; RSI; consumer behaviour; electronic marketing; internet.
A two-stage approach for a reflective-formative hierarchical latent variable model for measuring customer loyalty: special case of Indian e-customers
by Thomas John Paul, Jayanth Jacob
Abstract: This study employs an integrated model, combining information system (IS) continuance studies and marketing theories, to examine the post-adoption attitudinal and behavioural loyalty of an e-customer shopping from an online web-store. Our research employs partial least squares (PLS-SEM) regression analysis to test the model. Hedonic value and utilitarian value are proposed as first-order reflective indicators of second-order formative value construct. Gender is included as a moderator for testing the difference in effect for all the relationship paths in the model. Data collected from 403 online shopping customers present a sound support for the research model. The results show that value, trust, satisfaction and habit strongly augment customer's loyalty. The results also indicate that the outcome of satisfaction on habit is significantly stronger for females.
Keywords: loyalty; habit; value; satisfaction; trust; information system continuance; latent variable score; reflective formative construct; gender; moderator; mediator; two-stage approach; PLS-SEM.
Understanding customers' expectations for delivering satisfactory and competitive services experience
by Andy Fred Wali, N. Gladson Nwokah
Abstract: This present study attempts to understand Nigeria mobile telecommunications (MT) consumers' voice call and data services expectations for delivering satisfactory and competitive service experiences. The multi-level qualitative research design with single face to face (F2F) interview and focus group (FG) approaches were employed. 22 samples were drawn from Nigeria MT sector heterogonous consumer population in Port Harcourt-Rivers State of Nigeria. One FG with 12 participants and ten single F2F interviews were held and data was analysed using content analysis technique with NVivo 11 software. Our result shows that some customers of selected firms are less satisfied with their offerings. This is because these firms lack knowledge of their customers' expectations. Also, five positively rated factors: service quality, price bundling, complaints management, consumer right education and consumer market research are key thematic expectations that support the delivery of satisfactory services experience and competitiveness. This study contributes to the literature on consumer behaviour research by revealing customers' expectation for MT voice and data services in Nigeria and how these expectations drive customer satisfaction (CSAT) and retention (CRT) as well as business competitiveness. However, continental MT operators and researchers should understand that factors of customers' expectations are peculiar to a specific country.
Keywords: customer satisfaction; CSAT; customer retention; services experience; qualitative methods; NVivo 11; mobile telecommunications; MT; customers' expectations.
Smartphone dependence among students: gender-based analysis
by Wajeeha Aslam, Imtiaz Arif, Kashif Farhat
Abstract: This study explores smartphones' dependence among students through social needs, social influence and convenience and its impact on purchase behaviour. In total, 337 usable responses were gathered with the help of Likert scale questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis and t-test were used to uncover the findings. Result reveals that social influence and convenience significantly affect student's dependence on smartphones. A significant relation also appeared between dependence on smartphone and purchase behaviour. Responses of female participants reveal that social influence and convenience have a significant affect whereas in males social need and social influence have a significant effect on dependence on smartphone. The study makes a significant contribution to smartphones producers in meeting customer needs to better develop smartphones that provide convenience and user friendly features. Also it help marketers to develop the appropriate strategies of marketing smartphones as the study provides the better understanding of usage behaviour and purchase behaviour.
Keywords: dependence; social need; social influence; convenience; smartphones; Karachi; regression.
Interpretive structural modelling for e-impulse buying: an Indian study
by Hemraj Verma, Shalini Singh
Abstract: E-tailing in India, today has become a widespread activity due to the rising cashless era. It is reported that apart from numbers of planned online purchases, several online shoppers are indulged in impulse buying too. This paper aims to identify the relevant factors that stimulate e-impulse buying and analyse their interaction by using interpretive structural modelling (ISM). For this, factors have been identified by extensive review of literature and by qualitative analysis of 30 in-depth interviews. ISM has been applied then to propose a model for e-impulse buying, showing hierarchical paradigm as well as contextual interrelationships between relevant factors of e-impulse buying. This model can be utilised by online retailers, market researchers and decision-makers to capture insights related to major factors stimulating e-impulse buying.
Keywords: e-impulse buying; factors; interpretive structural modelling; ISM; online shoppers; India.