International Journal of Diplomacy and Economy (13 papers in press)
Enhancing International Dispute Settlement: the Role of Sports Diplomacy
by Sava Jankovic
Abstract: Not only the ancient Olympic truce practice but also the rules of modern football game demonstrate that sports can work as a supplementary means in international dispute settlement. Sports diplomacy is a tool which expresses political attitudes and can improve the national image. Sports diplomacy sets a foundation for further public opinion direction and also it can cultivate a good atmosphere between the countries to help resolve disputes. "Ping-pong diplomacy" proved to be a useful tool in Sino-US reconciliation in the late 1960s, which also showed the unique charm of sports diplomacy. Based on the historical experience of the Sino-US ping-pong diplomacy, the aim of this study is to analyze the applicability of Sports Diplomacy in the current global environment, while offering a mechanism for the relevant international disputes, global problems and practical legal issues.
Keywords: Sports diplomacy; public diplomacy; Ping-pong diplomacy; International disputes; international law
Greater legitimacy of Small Island Developing States (SIDS): A statistical perspective on its definition
by Allister Mounsey, Asha Singh
Abstract: Small Island Developing States (SIDS) has been inserted into much of the inter-governmental discourse in areas such as climate change, environmental protection, vulnerabilities and socio-economic development. However, concerns remain about the groups legitimacy, leading to questions about the attainability of its geopolitical objectives. These concerns emanate in part, from the lack of an explicit and defined classification criteria for the group. This paper represents an attempt at resolving this problem and add to the work on this area. Its main contribution is an easily implemented statistical procedure that endogenously generates these criteria for conceptually relevant indicators. This procedure accords each self-identified SIDS a presumption of innocence- only being found guilty of pretence if it violates the selection criteria that the self-identified group in a statistical methodology created. This is applied to a set of indicators based on relevant concepts to propose strict and relaxed definitions of SIDS.
Keywords: Small Island Developing States; Alliances; Statistical Methodology; Legitimacy.
Organising Greek commercial diplomacy: oscillating between integrated and fragmented models of organisation
by Elena Georgiadou
Abstract: In a growing number of countries, national diplomatic systems are in a process of prioritising commercial diplomacy in their international agendas. In order to pursue this priority effectively, developed economies have integrated commercial diplomacy to their national diplomatic systems by re-arranging their foreign ministries, centralising commercial diplomacy or in some cases merging their foreign ministries and trade/economic ministries. And although literature on commercial diplomacy of competitive economies has found its way into the mainstream of diplomatic studies, there is lack of smaller country based studies with regard to how they choose to organise their commercial diplomacy. Such national accounts of changing diplomatic structures, processes and practices inform well the study of contemporary diplomacy. In this light, this article aims to explore the structures and processes of Greek commercial diplomacy and to investigate whether the Greek case is aligned with mainstream developments in the said area of diplomacy.
Keywords: commercial diplomacy; economic diplomacy; integrated diplomacy; foreign ministry; business and export support.
Special Issue on: Emerging Topics in Governance, Law, Economy and Diplomacy for the EMENA Region
Education in the UAE: the Relevance of International Human Rights Law and Social Welfare for a Sustainable Economy
by Tenia Kyriazi
Abstract: Taking into account the strategic importance of education for the economic and social welfare as well as the origins and meaning of the right to education in international human rights law, this paper examines the relevance of the right to the UAE and analyses the education elements that emerge in the UAEs engagement with international human rights law and the UN treaty bodies and special procedures, specifically, the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women and the Special Rapporteurs on racism and on the sale of children. Moreover, outlining the meaning of the dialogue undertaken by UN human rights bodies, its significance for promoting the role of the UAE in the International community and its relevance for advancing UAE education in a range of spheres, this paper examines their recommendations and suggests pathways towards increased dialogue and a rights-based approach to education in the UAE.
Keywords: Right to Education; UAE; International Human Rights Law; Social Welfare; Sustainable Economy; UN Treaty Bodies; UN Special Procedures; UN Monitoring Bodies; UN Human Rights Conventions.
The UAE-Tunisia diplomatic relations: a subtle balance between economy and security?
by William Gueraiche
Abstract: This article examines the relations between the United Arab Emirates and Tunisia and how the Arab identity interferes in diplomatic relations. These countries have a history of cordial relations that quietly evolved toward reciprocal economic benefits and security under the implicit paradigm of what may be called a patronage. Under the administration of the Tunisian president Ben Ali, the interests of the two parties, states as well as non-state actors such as the emirate of Dubai, converged. The UAE and Tunisia nurtured a hierarchical relationship that reinforced economic and political ties but that also inevitably endured several setbacks on the path to revolution and the rise of the Islamist movements in Tunisia. Ultimately, both the financial crisis of 2008 and the global security crises with the rise of Daesh tested the principle of brotherhood entrenched in the Middle East.
Keywords: The United Arab Emirates; Tunisia; Foreign Policy; Diplomacy; Patronage; Islamism; Radical Islam; Sheikh Zayed Al Nahyan; Zine Al Abidine Ben Ali; Nation Branding; Foreign Direct Investment.
The Ibrahim Index of African Governance: Grounding the Selection of its Conceptual Indicators into Theoretical Frameworks
by Adeelah Kodabux
Abstract: The Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG) is a structured mechanism measuring Africas governance quality. As a ranking mechanism that encompasses 93 indicators, it is commended for being a wide-ranging collection of data on African governance. Although its quantitative methodology is clearly explained, there is a lack of theoretical articulation as to why the conceptual indicators that are used in the measurements have been included. This paper embeds the conceptual indicators used into theoretical frameworks in order to inform the relationship between the variables used and their impact on governance. Rather than imposing a preconceived theory on the data, this paper seeks to strengthen the IIAGs methodology by using grounded theorys principles to explain the rationale for including the indicators in measuring governance. The conclusion reached is that the reasoning for the selection of the indicators used for representing governance should be theoretically defended because their relationship with governance is not self-explanatory.
Keywords: governance measurement; conceptual indicators; grounded theory; theoretical frameworks; African governance; governance quality; IIAG; Ibrahim Index of African Governance; Mo Ibrahim Foundation; selection criteria; governance ranking mechanisms; rationale; variables; methodology.
Understanding Dubais City Diplomacy: Actors and Drivers
by Kai Bruns
Abstract: Dubai is one of the few cities in the GCC region which stands as an example of successful diversification of a formerly resource‐based economy. Investments in infrastructure, strategic sectors abroad and liberal trade policies earned Dubai the reputation of a cosmopolitan, global city. Its recent success story, however, has attracted little academic research so far. Therefore, this study is a first approach to understanding the drivers and actors of Dubais international reach. Using parts of Kuznetsovs analytical framework borrowed from the paradiplomacy discourse, this study traces generic and specific aspects that motivated Dubais international actions. It looks at legal, social, and economic factors to understand the nature of Dubais entrepreneurial city diplomacy approach. Gaining insights from local leadership styles and Dubais political organisation, this paper concludes that Dubais de jure competencies are extensive in the fields of economic and social development. In contrast, Dubais activity at the multilateral city diplomacy level is reduced and substantially left to local competitors. To counter this trend, Dubai had to re‐evaluate policies and collaborate closely with the national government in Abu Dhabi.
Keywords: Dubai; city diplomacy; paradiplomacy; global city; United Arab Emirates; economic diplomacy; diplomacy; non-state actors; globalisation.
Tourism Development in Kuwait: Examining the Political-Economic Challenges in a Unique Rentier Economy
by Cody Morris Paris, Belisa Marochi, Simon Rubin
Abstract: This article explores the challenges Kuwait faces to develop tourism due to the particularly unique political-economic system of popular rentierism. Kuwaits tourism industry is relatively underdeveloped in comparison to other Gulf Cooperation Council countries and has not received much attention by tourists, policy-makers, and scholars. This study provides both a macro-level analysis of the political economic obstacles to tourism development in Kuwait and the more micro-level challenges that have resulted, particularly in relation to proposed mega-development projects. While insights from this study are useful for understanding the role of tourism in the rentier economies, this study also further theorises tourism within the field of international relations and political economy and shows how tourism development is of particular importance for public diplomacy in the current global arena.
Keywords: popular rentierism; Arabian Gulf; tourism development; oil-economy; political economy; diplomacy; diversification; tourism policy; oil-crisis; GCC.
Putting Culture in its Place in the Political Economy of Arab Higher Education: Civilisation Analysis as a Means of Accessing the Cultural Questions
by Clare Walsh
Abstract: Globally, interest has increased in the relationship and role of civil society, as a process of educational change, in national and subnational educational spaces (Mundy & Murphy, 2001). This conceptual paper lends itselfusing Robertson and Dales (2015) critical cultural political economy of education framework (CCPEE)to the overall aim of identifying if Arab civil societies have a role in the process of change within Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) higher education, with what power, and with what impact.
The paper specifically considers how civilisation analysis (Arnason, 2003) can be used as a theoretical framework to investigate the culture in the CCPEE in general and civil society in particular. Analysing Arab modernity, culture and societies, using civilisation analysis (CA) as a theoretical framework, offers a means of accessing deeply entrenched sets of meanings and practices allowing for comparative interpretations of societal differences in education and a new way to understand similarity and differences, convergence and diversity in the modern world (Dale & Robertson, 2016).
Keywords: Arab Civil Society; Higher Education; Civilisation Analysis; Critical Cultural Political Economy of Education.
Special Issue on: Business Diplomacy
Grand Design of Indonesias Economic Diplomacy: Economic Diplomacy Index Approach
by Sulthon Sjahril
Abstract: The study attempts to formulate the blueprint of Indonesian economic diplomacy by formulating an Economic Diplomacy Index (IDE). The study reveals that countries with the highest IDE score falling in the category of strategic countries are the Peoples Republic of China, Singapore, Malaysia, USA, and Japan. There are many countries which are classified as the Indonesian non-traditional markets are also fall within the strategic countries category. The study also found that diplomatic relations with several countries that are classified as strategic countries for Indonesian economic diplomacy such as Mauritius, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Ghana, and Uganda are still served by Indonesian missions in other countries. On the other hand, the government of Indonesia has open and sent mission based on consideration such as political and socio-cultural factors (such as historical attachments, including Indonesian diaspora), for instance, Bosnia Herzegovina, Fiji, Suriname, the Vatican, and Noumea, and as a fellow ASEAN member in partner countries like Laos.
Keywords: Economic diplomacy index; Indonesian economic diplomacy; strategic partnership; traditional market; non-traditional market.
Black Gold: Corporate Diplomatic Ties of Maersk in Brazil
by Hans Kristian Hedetoft, Gilberto Sarfati
Abstract: During the last three decades, globalization has intensively pushed companies towards internationalization. Corporations have become more independent state-like with diplomatic relations with other foreign official government in order to accompany these business demands, create risk-mitigating strategies, and gain legitimacy. The aim of this article is to explore the perceived role of corporate diplomacy on the complex relationship between Maersk Group, the Brazilian Governments and stakeholders involved in the oil & gas market. In order to understand the process of corporate diplomacy of the company, semi-structured interviews were conducted with Brazilian government officials, Danish diplomats and Maersk employees. Findings reveal the strategic importance of corporate diplomacy for Maersk business in Brazil. Personal diplomatic ties forged with Maersks representatives and Brazilian and Danish authorities are key to boost their objectives. It also shows the importance of the Danish diplomatic mission helping the company to gain access to government authorities.
Keywords: corporate diplomacy; corporate diplomat; Maersk; oil sector.
Business diplomacy: Asymmetry and symmetry of power in negotiations between multi-nationals and governments in the case of Areva and Niger.
by Doudou Sidibe
Abstract: This article is a case study that examines the asymmetry of power between the government of Niger and Areva concerning the renewal of their partnership, which lasted 40 years. The weakness and instability of the state of Niger, and a deficit in terms of democracy and transparency are factors which long influenced negotiations between the two actors and determined the distribution of power between them. But results show that change because it is the first time that the country has made such a breakthrough in negotiations about its uranium deposits.rn
Keywords: Business diplomacy; tax; multinationals; States; asymmetry; symmetry; power; negotiation; Niger; Areva.
How do MNCs conduct business diplomacy? Exploratory study on business diplomacy instruments
by Jolanda Knobel
Abstract: Todays international business environment is very dynamic and volatile. Being rnable to deal with non-market parties such as foreign governments, international NGOs, local communities, and interest groups has become more important for MNCs than ever before. This requires an approach that goes beyond stakeholder management; it requires business diplomacy. MNCs nowadays acknowledge that to succeed, a solid business diplomacy strategy is essential. It thus becomes interesting to study how MNCs actually conduct business diplomacy to deal with their multiple external stakeholders. This study aims to gain an in-depth understanding of which business diplomacy instruments experienced MNCs use to respond to the unique parameters of the foreign economic and institutional environment to establish and maintain long-term relationships.rn
Keywords: Business diplomacy; corporate diplomacy; corporate political activities; corporate political strategy; subsidiaries; license to operate; legitimacy; MNCs; MNEs; NGOs; stakeholder theory; communication.