International Journal of Diplomacy and Economy (10 papers in press)
Greater legitimacy of Small Island Developing States (SIDS): A statistical perspective on its definition
by Allister Mounsey, Asha Singh
Abstract: Small Island Developing States (SIDS) has been inserted into much of the inter-governmental discourse in areas such as climate change, environmental protection, vulnerabilities and socio-economic development. However, concerns remain about the groups legitimacy, leading to questions about the attainability of its geopolitical objectives. These concerns emanate in part, from the lack of an explicit and defined classification criteria for the group. This paper represents an attempt at resolving this problem and add to the work on this area. Its main contribution is an easily implemented statistical procedure that endogenously generates these criteria for conceptually relevant indicators. This procedure accords each self-identified SIDS a presumption of innocence- only being found guilty of pretence if it violates the selection criteria that the self-identified group in a statistical methodology created. This is applied to a set of indicators based on relevant concepts to propose strict and relaxed definitions of SIDS.
Keywords: Small Island Developing States; Alliances; Statistical Methodology; Legitimacy.
Organising Greek commercial diplomacy: oscillating between integrated and fragmented models of organisation
by Elena Georgiadou
Abstract: In a growing number of countries, national diplomatic systems are in a process of prioritising commercial diplomacy in their international agendas. In order to pursue this priority effectively, developed economies have integrated commercial diplomacy to their national diplomatic systems by re-arranging their foreign ministries, centralising commercial diplomacy or in some cases merging their foreign ministries and trade/economic ministries. And although literature on commercial diplomacy of competitive economies has found its way into the mainstream of diplomatic studies, there is lack of smaller country based studies with regard to how they choose to organise their commercial diplomacy. Such national accounts of changing diplomatic structures, processes and practices inform well the study of contemporary diplomacy. In this light, this article aims to explore the structures and processes of Greek commercial diplomacy and to investigate whether the Greek case is aligned with mainstream developments in the said area of diplomacy.
Keywords: commercial diplomacy; economic diplomacy; integrated diplomacy; foreign ministry; business and export support.
Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards: A London Perspective
by Lughaidh Kerin, Anthony Cullen
Abstract: The virtues of international arbitration are well known. However, without the ability to enforce foreign arbitral awards, in the event of a party to arbitration failing, refusing or otherwise not honouring the award, international arbitration becomes a paper tiger. This is why the possibility of enforcement pursuant to the 1958 New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards is of cardinal importance. Mindful of the UKs treaty obligations under the New York Convention, this paper focuses on the enforcement of foreign arbitral awards from a London perspective. It will do so for two reasons: London has long standing and hard won reputation as one of the truly global centres of international arbitration. It is also recognised as a bellwether for international finance. In light of such recognition, this paper will examine the approach adopted by the English Judiciary to international arbitration awards and ultimately their enforcement or otherwise in the courts of England and Wales.
Keywords: Arbitration; Arbitral Awards; New York Convention; London; Commercial Law; International Commercial Arbitration; Law Reform; Enforcement; Dispute Resolution; Public Policy; Arbitrability; Private international law; Public international law.
SOFT POWER AND PLACE BRANDING IN THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES: EXAMPLES OF THE TOURISM AND FILM INDUSTRIES
by Donya Saberi, Cody Morris Paris, Belisa Marochi
Abstract: A state's global influence can be systematically and strategically developed through policies and planning of a carefully crafted national brand and soft power strategies. The United Arab Emirates has actively employed policies and strategies to create a positive brand image of the country to increase its regional and global standing as an emerging regional power. The country's progress strong international brand has attracted significant foreign investment, international tourists, and a reputation as a great place to work and live. The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between soft power, place branding, and diplomacy, and to illustrate this relationship through a description of the film and tourism industries in the UAE.
Keywords: Place Branding; Public Diplomacy; International Tourism; City Branding; Economic Diversification; Cultural Diplomacy.
Special Issue on: Emerging Topics in Governance, Law, Economy and Diplomacy for the EMENA Region
Education in the UAE: the Relevance of International Human Rights Law and Social Welfare for a Sustainable Economy
by Tenia Kyriazi
Abstract: Taking into account the strategic importance of education for the economic and social welfare as well as the origins and meaning of the right to education in international human rights law, this paper examines the relevance of the right to the UAE and analyses the education elements that emerge in the UAEs engagement with international human rights law and the UN treaty bodies and special procedures, specifically, the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women and the Special Rapporteurs on racism and on the sale of children. Moreover, outlining the meaning of the dialogue undertaken by UN human rights bodies, its significance for promoting the role of the UAE in the International community and its relevance for advancing UAE education in a range of spheres, this paper examines their recommendations and suggests pathways towards increased dialogue and a rights-based approach to education in the UAE.
Keywords: Right to Education; UAE; International Human Rights Law; Social Welfare; Sustainable Economy; UN Treaty Bodies; UN Special Procedures; UN Monitoring Bodies; UN Human Rights Conventions.
The UAE-Tunisia diplomatic relations: a subtle balance between economy and security?
by William Gueraiche
Abstract: This article examines the relations between the United Arab Emirates and Tunisia and how the Arab identity interferes in diplomatic relations. These countries have a history of cordial relations that quietly evolved toward reciprocal economic benefits and security under the implicit paradigm of what may be called a patronage. Under the administration of the Tunisian president Ben Ali, the interests of the two parties, states as well as non-state actors such as the emirate of Dubai, converged. The UAE and Tunisia nurtured a hierarchical relationship that reinforced economic and political ties but that also inevitably endured several setbacks on the path to revolution and the rise of the Islamist movements in Tunisia. Ultimately, both the financial crisis of 2008 and the global security crises with the rise of Daesh tested the principle of brotherhood entrenched in the Middle East.
Keywords: The United Arab Emirates; Tunisia; Foreign Policy; Diplomacy; Patronage; Islamism; Radical Islam; Sheikh Zayed Al Nahyan; Zine Al Abidine Ben Ali; Nation Branding; Foreign Direct Investment.
The Ibrahim Index of African Governance: Grounding the Selection of its Conceptual Indicators into Theoretical Frameworks
by Adeelah Kodabux
Abstract: The Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG) is a structured mechanism measuring Africas governance quality. As a ranking mechanism that encompasses 93 indicators, it is commended for being a wide-ranging collection of data on African governance. Although its quantitative methodology is clearly explained, there is a lack of theoretical articulation as to why the conceptual indicators that are used in the measurements have been included. This paper embeds the conceptual indicators used into theoretical frameworks in order to inform the relationship between the variables used and their impact on governance. Rather than imposing a preconceived theory on the data, this paper seeks to strengthen the IIAGs methodology by using grounded theorys principles to explain the rationale for including the indicators in measuring governance. The conclusion reached is that the reasoning for the selection of the indicators used for representing governance should be theoretically defended because their relationship with governance is not self-explanatory.
Keywords: governance measurement; conceptual indicators; grounded theory; theoretical frameworks; African governance; governance quality; IIAG; Ibrahim Index of African Governance; Mo Ibrahim Foundation; selection criteria; governance ranking mechanisms; rationale; variables; methodology.
Understanding Dubais City Diplomacy: Actors and Drivers
by Kai Bruns
Abstract: Dubai is one of the few cities in the GCC region which stands as an example of successful diversification of a formerly resource‐based economy. Investments in infrastructure, strategic sectors abroad and liberal trade policies earned Dubai the reputation of a cosmopolitan, global city. Its recent success story, however, has attracted little academic research so far. Therefore, this study is a first approach to understanding the drivers and actors of Dubais international reach. Using parts of Kuznetsovs analytical framework borrowed from the paradiplomacy discourse, this study traces generic and specific aspects that motivated Dubais international actions. It looks at legal, social, and economic factors to understand the nature of Dubais entrepreneurial city diplomacy approach. Gaining insights from local leadership styles and Dubais political organisation, this paper concludes that Dubais de jure competencies are extensive in the fields of economic and social development. In contrast, Dubais activity at the multilateral city diplomacy level is reduced and substantially left to local competitors. To counter this trend, Dubai had to re‐evaluate policies and collaborate closely with the national government in Abu Dhabi.
Keywords: Dubai; city diplomacy; paradiplomacy; global city; United Arab Emirates; economic diplomacy; diplomacy; non-state actors; globalisation.
Tourism Development in Kuwait: Examining the Political-Economic Challenges in a Unique Rentier Economy
by Cody Morris Paris, Belisa Marochi, Simon Rubin
Abstract: This article explores the challenges Kuwait faces to develop tourism due to the particularly unique political-economic system of popular rentierism. Kuwaits tourism industry is relatively underdeveloped in comparison to other Gulf Cooperation Council countries and has not received much attention by tourists, policy-makers, and scholars. This study provides both a macro-level analysis of the political economic obstacles to tourism development in Kuwait and the more micro-level challenges that have resulted, particularly in relation to proposed mega-development projects. While insights from this study are useful for understanding the role of tourism in the rentier economies, this study also further theorises tourism within the field of international relations and political economy and shows how tourism development is of particular importance for public diplomacy in the current global arena.
Keywords: popular rentierism; Arabian Gulf; tourism development; oil-economy; political economy; diplomacy; diversification; tourism policy; oil-crisis; GCC.
Putting Culture in its Place in the Political Economy of Arab Higher Education: Civilisation Analysis as a Means of Accessing the Cultural Questions
by Clare Walsh
Abstract: Globally, interest has increased in the relationship and role of civil society, as a process of educational change, in national and subnational educational spaces (Mundy & Murphy, 2001). This conceptual paper lends itselfusing Robertson and Dales (2015) critical cultural political economy of education framework (CCPEE)to the overall aim of identifying if Arab civil societies have a role in the process of change within Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) higher education, with what power, and with what impact.
The paper specifically considers how civilisation analysis (Arnason, 2003) can be used as a theoretical framework to investigate the culture in the CCPEE in general and civil society in particular. Analysing Arab modernity, culture and societies, using civilisation analysis (CA) as a theoretical framework, offers a means of accessing deeply entrenched sets of meanings and practices allowing for comparative interpretations of societal differences in education and a new way to understand similarity and differences, convergence and diversity in the modern world (Dale & Robertson, 2016).
Keywords: Arab Civil Society; Higher Education; Civilisation Analysis; Critical Cultural Political Economy of Education.