International Journal of Digital Culture and Electronic Tourism (8 papers in press)
The Relationship between the Dimensions of Lovemarks and Commitment and their Impact on Sport Fan Behaviour
by Avichai Shuv-Ami
Abstract: The current research tested the relationship between the dimensions
of Lovemarks and commitment and their impact on the behaviour of football
and basketball fans. The results are based on a representative sample of 1330
Israeli sport fans. Using structural equation modelling, the findings suggest that
the love component of the Lovemarks model, that is the involvement
component that represents the engagement attachment of commitment and
sport spectator identity, may represent important constructs that affect actual
fan behaviour. Fans love and identify with their team, a result of their
involvement and engagement with the team games and activities, especially
through emotional and symbolic activities. Such behaviour exposes sport
spectators to the club promotions during team games and other team activities.
Consequently, in order to strengthen fan relationship with the club and increase
the positive impact of the sport club on the cycle of love-involvement-identitygame
watching, sport clubs should plan effective promotions during the teams
games. Such promotion may include symbolic giveaways that will help fans
recall the good time they had at the game. Sport clubs may also use social
media to promote their brands and build fans relationships. Developing online
social communities, indicate emotional relationships that, cultivated by the
intimacy of love and identity, can lead to an emotionally-based attachment and
bond to the sport club brand.
Keywords: Sport Club; Lovemarks; love; respect; commitment; satisfaction; loyalty; involvement; performance; sport spectator identity; recommendations; purchase intentions; watching games.
Humour in Firm-initiated Social Media Conversations
by Jing Ge, Ulrike Gretzel, Yunxia Zhu
Abstract: Humour plays an important role in driving firm-consumer
conversations on social media, yet the examination of humour from a rhetorical
perspective remains unheeded in marketing and tourism literature. Drawing on
the linguistic concepts of moves, speech acts, humour and rhetorical appeals,
this research aims to develop a conceptual model for applying humour as a
rhetorical device to initiate social media conversations. Based on this
conceptual model, implications for future research are discussed. This research
opens up new paths for exploring humour on social media from a rhetorical
perspective and enriches the persuasion literature. It also offers tourism
marketers a deep understanding of how to initiate conversations by fully
leveraging the technological basis of social media. In addition, it informs the
orchestration of conversations on social media through particular humour types
and specific rhetorical appeals.
Keywords: humour; firm-consumer conversations; rhetoric; persuasion; social media; tourism; conceptual model.
The influence of consumer cosmopolitanism and ethnocentrism tendencies on the purchase and visit intentions towards a foreign country
by Ana Sousa, Helena Nobre, Minoo Farhangmehr
Abstract: A successful integrated strategy across national borders helps companies to target potential consumers in the global market. The purpose of this paper is to understand the role of cosmopolitanism and ethnocentrism on consumers preferences for domestic versus foreign products and their visiting intentions. A questionnaire assessing the influence of consumer cosmopolitanism and consumer ethnocentrism on the intention to buy domestic versus foreign products and intention to visit Portugal was issued to a sample of 386 international consumers. The findings reveal that cosmopolitan consumers show a higher predisposition to buy foreign products and visit the country. On the other hand, ethnocentrism seems to act as a barrier to visiting foreign countries.
Keywords: consumer cosmopolitanism; consumer ethnocentrism; consumer behaviour; international marketing.
Israel's foreign tourist industry: Potential growth and constraints
by Andrew J. Schein
Abstract: The growth rate of the number of foreign tourists coming to Israel
has slowed considerably in the period from 1980 to 2016 as compared to the
period from 1950 to 1980. Israel has many tourist attractions, but its foreign
tourist industry faces two main constraints. These constraints are the fear of
terrorist attacks and the high prices for tourists. A major reason for the high
prices for tourists is the high price of hotels in Israel. While the hoteliers claim
that their high prices are due to their high costs, more likely the high prices are
due to the pricing strategy of the hotels to focus on consumers whose demand
is inelastic. This group of consumers includes modern day pilgrims who come
to Israel, some domestic consumers and business travellers. The paper
concludes with some recommendations as to how the Israeli government can
help the Israeli foreign tourist industry grow.
Keywords: Tourist attractions in Israel; hotels in Israel; prices in Israel; tourist arrivals; Eilat.
Cemetery Gates. Souvenir collection and archiving. Leisure activities in dark places
by Neil Robinson, Crispin Dale
Abstract: Whilst legitimate leisure consumption has long been documented
within the existing literature, a lesser researched area is that of deviant leisure
pass times. Some individuals actively seek out and engage in deviant forms of
leisure. An area of leisure consumption that is under researched is that of
souvenir collection at sites that have witnessed great catastrophe and loss of
life. This paper explores the manner by which visitors to dark sites go about
corroborating their visit with the collection of souvenirs and their subsequent
archiving. The empirical data relates to four interviews with individuals who
have visited sites that are dark in nature, the data was collected using
qualitative methods, primarily employing a laddering technique, a qualitative
methodological tool, employing a semi-structured one on one interview style.
In relation to souvenir collection, the research suggests differing motivations
for visiting lighter and darker sites.
Keywords: Dark tourism; Deviant leisure; Souvenirs.
Beyond the Digital Divide: Tourism, ICTs and Culture
by Thomas Herdin, Roman Egger
Abstract: In times of globalisation the field of tourism is witnessing increasing
challenges. Technologies like the information and communication technologies
(ICT), social media and social network sites (SNS), Big Data, GeoMedia/
LocativeMedia and phenomena like Filter Bubbles and Echo Chambers have a
massive impact on the tourism industry. But the use of these new technologies
often leads to a techno-deterministic reduction. To ensure economic growth for
all parties concerned, especially less developed countries, the dialectical
interplay between technology and culture has to be pushed into the foreground.
The solution for a sustainable and healthy development lies in the integrative
approach of culture.
Keywords: tourism; culture; ICTs; social media; digital divides; globalization; techno-determinism; development; challenges; sustainability; social network sites.
SPORTS FAN RELATIONSHIPS WITH SOCCER TEAMS
by Tiago Marques, Helena Nobre, David Gordon
Abstract: This paper investigates the relationships sports fans establish with teams. Specifically, it studies the Sporting Clube de Portugal (Sporting CP) case. The purpose of this study is to analyse whether the efforts that Sporting CP managers are investing in marketing strategies and initiatives, grounded on new communication channels and services (for instance, social media presence) impact the bonds that Sporting CP's fans establish with the club. Results indicated, in general, correspondence between club leaders' expectations (gathered through in-depth semi-structured interviews) and fans perceptions (collected through questionnaires). Most of the marketing strategies and initiatives are well received by fans. It seems that Sporting CP brand still has space to grow. The establishment of strategic partnerships, and sport marketing innovative strategies, in line with innovative communication channels, are proposed as recommendations. The study also emphasises the importance of social networks to sports management.
Keywords: Sports Fan; Relationships with Teams; Sport Marketing; Sports Marketing; Team Sport Industry; Sports Club; European Soccer Teams.
An Analysis of the Transformations of Leadership and Direction-Setting in Place Marketing: A United Kingdom Contextual View and Case-Study.
by Peter Scott, Phil Higson, Tom Fletcher, Peter Stokes
Abstract: The marketing of places has experienced challenges in recent years. Prolonged and severe financial constraints have led to a considerable reduction in the public sector funding of initiatives. This is presenting new leadership imperatives. This paper elaborates place marketing and its changing identity and considers the nature and increasing need for effective leadership in the marketing of places. The study adopts an inductive approach and employs semi-structured interviews with senior executives from a range of destination marketing organisations. The research is contextualised within the UK and it uses places in North-West England to provide its focal setting developing two case studies with which to complement the wider data. The study identifies that the complexity of place marketing intertwined with financial pressures, creates a particular dynamic and a need for leadership to clarify, decode and respond to the resulting situations. The evidence presented points to a compelling need for leaders in the sector to accept and embrace the new realities and to provide a clear vision for the future.
Keywords: Place Marketing; Destination Marketing; DMO; Leadership; Cheshire; Warrington; Liverpool.