International Journal of Business Innovation and Research (103 papers in press)
The value of long-term co-innovation relationships: experiential approach
by Tuula Lehtimäki, Hanna Komulainen, Minna Oinonen, Jari Salo
Abstract: Co-innovation often occurs in trustful long-term relationships when a fruitful match is found. Evaluating the value of those relationships is difficult but necessary for their management. Discussions of business-to-business relationship value have been revolving more around utilitarian elements even though experiential value aspects have gained increasing research interest. Here, the concept of experiential value is applied to understand the value of long-term co-innovation relationships. An exploratory case study of such a relationship between a supplier, its customer, and a university was built on in-depth interviews with key informants from each party. The study provides a multi-level framework of experiential value in the context of co-innovation relationships that encompasses the subjective, temporal, and contextual aspects of value as well as personal relationships and projects as devices that transfer individuals value experiences between individuals and organisations, and through time. This study contributes to relationship value and co-innovation research by elaborating on the experiential aspects of relationship value.
Keywords: Business relationship; case study; co-innovation relationship; collaborative innovation; experiential value; explorative case; long-term relationship; project business; relationship value; triadic relationship.
Analysis of the competitive gains in the Local Productive Arrangement of Milk from S
by Ernane Martins, Silvio Batista, Solange Silva
Abstract: This work sought to identify the gains resulting from the cooperation of the Local Productive Arrangement (LPA) of Dairy, in the city of. In Goi
Keywords: Local clusters; competitive gains; corporate earnings; Interorganizational Cooperation Networks.
An integrated approach to analyze requisites of product innovation management
by Sanjay Kumar, Sunil Luthra, Abid Haleem, Dixit Garg, Sultan Singh, Sachin K. Mangla
Abstract: Innovation may be recognized as a key driver towards business success and winning over tough globalized competition existing in the market. Effective and efficient management of innovation process may be observed as one of the important requirements to sustain existing position of an organization and to attract new customers for gaining competitive advantage over other competitors and supply chains international and domestic markets. Product innovativeness, in terms of significantly improved/new features, functions, usage, properties and aesthetics etc., may be appreciated as an increasingly important research area in Indian context for attaining business sustainability nationally and internationally. This paper attempts to identify, understand and analyze key requisites for product innovation management in Indian firms. Literature review approach has been utilized for identifying requisites and benefits of product innovation management. Interpretive Structural Modeling technique is utilized to understand and analyze contextual relations and hierarchical levels of requisites of product innovation management. Further, Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory methodology is employed to understand and segregate requisites for product innovation management in to cause and effect groups. This paper may also help practicing innovation managers of various Indian firms and multinational firms seeking business in/from India towards identifying, developing an understanding and analyzing strengths and weaknesses of their firms in managing activities and resources involved in product innovation management processes.
Keywords: Innovation management; Literature review; Product innovativeness; Requisties for product innovation management; Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM); Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL).
Innovation Project Tool for outlining innovation projects
by Zornitsa Yordanova
Abstract: The paper presents the Innovation Project Tool (IPT) which aims at outlining common characteristics of innovation projects in terms of project management and using these specifics for creating a tool for categorization of innovation projects. The IPT might be useful for researchers and practitioners alike in their management in order to prevent them from making mistakes, to decrease unpredictability and ambiguity of such projects and to improve innovation projects performance and success. The IPT can be also used as a checklist for categorization of innovation projects; as a pre-defined watch list during project work; a risk management tool for better analyzing and assessing project risks and integration management supporting tool for better scoping all possible ingredients in innovation projects.
The IPT provided 51 specifics of innovation projects with ranking of their specificity and impact on innovation projects. The research is based on two iteration interviews with 60 highly experienced project managers from different industries.
Keywords: innovation management; innovation project; project management; innovation project management; innovation categorization.
A Framework for Innovation Outsourcing
by Christopher Turner, Ashutosh Tiwari, Shahwar Rehman, Leon Williams
Abstract: This paper proposes a framework for the facilitation of organisational capability for outsourcing innovation, enabling firms to take advantage of its many benefits, (e.g., reduced costs, increased ﬂexibility, access to better expertise and increased business focus), whilst mitigating its risks. In this framework a generic holistic model is developed to aid firms to successfully outsource innovation. The model is realised in two stages using a qualitative theory-building research design. The initial stage develops a preliminary model which is subsequently validated and refined during the second stage. The propositions which form the preliminary model are deductively explored to identify whether they also exist in a second data set. A semi-structured interview survey is executed with the aid of a rich picture survey instrument to gather data for this purpose.
The model developed by this study describes innovation outsourcing as an open system of interrelated activities that takes established company strategy, (in terms of people, organisational structures, environment, and technology), and transforms it into improved firm performance through innovation. The model achieves this through a three-stage process which enables the alignment of capability to outsourced innovation activity, and makes actual performance outcomes, rather than expected benefits, the focus of innovation outsourcing aims.
Keywords: Innovation Outsourcing; Business Strategy; Open Innovation,.
REFLECTIONS ON CO-AUTHORING IN BRAZILIAN ARTICLES
by Renata V. Klafke, Claudia Tania Picinin, Jessyca Moraes
Abstract: In a recent issue of Science and Engineering Ethics, the article written by Bozeman and Youtie (2015) focused on the collaboration of co-authors in publications. They addressed some of the problems found in this type of collaboration, and they also proposed a preliminary model to assign the credit for co-authoring. rnIn light of what was presented above, this current short paper aims to consider the professor evaluation model in Brazilian universities, as the Brazilian educational institutions are increasingly requiring authorship (or co-authorship) of research publications for favourable career advancement decisions.
Keywords: Ethics; Brazil; Co-authorship.
Impact of Knowledge Creation and Organizational Learning on Organizational Innovation: An Empirical Investigation
by Ali Rezaei, Seyyed Mohsen Allame, Reza Ansari
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between knowledge creation, organizational learning and organizational innovation. Organizational innovation was evaluated by Damanpour model in the form of technological and administrative innovation. A descriptive (non-trial) and correlational methodology using structural equations modelling was used for the study. Participants included top and middle managers of knowledge-based, start-up and industrial knowledge-based companies. These companies were divided into 14 groups. A number of 200 questionnaires were distributed among top and middle managers of these companies. Out of these, 141 questionnaires were returned. Of the questionnaires returned, 8 questionnaires were partially completed; thus, they were excluded from the analysis. Finally, 133 questionnaires were analyzed. This study used a correlational methodology by structural equations modeling in the form of partial least squares to test the measurement model and hypotheses. For data analysis, SMARTPLS was used to test the model. The results indicate a positive direct relationship between knowledge creation and technological and administrative innovation. Moreover, knowledge creation has a positive effect on organizational learning. The results also found a positive direct relationship between organizational learning and technological and administrative innovation; organizational learning mediates the relationship between knowledge creation and technological and administrative innovation.
Keywords: knowledge creation; organizational learning; technological innovation; administrative innovation.
Masculine and Feminine Traits and Career Satisfaction: moderation effect of Glass Ceiling Belief
by Pathmu Blessie, M.V. Supriya
Abstract: This article examines the impact of Glass Ceiling Belief on the relationship between personality and career satisfaction. This domain of research, despite being crucial in understanding behavior at work has not received much attention. Gender bias continues to limit career satisfaction experiences. Personality is a key individual difference that can help negate Glass Ceiling beliefs. Hence, understanding personality becomes relevant today in the context of glass ceilings. Personality is viewed in two aspects, Masculine traits and Feminine traits (Wirth, 2001). Data were collected from 150 participants. Regression moderation technique was used to analyse the primary data collected across both the genders. The result supports the existence of a moderation effect of the glass ceiling belief. The Glass ceiling belief partially moderates the masculine traits career satisfaction relationship. While significant moderation effect is observed in the case of feminine traits career satisfaction relationship. Individuals with masculine and feminine traits cope differently with glass ceiling. Personality therefore impacts their career satisfaction. This study is instrumental in understanding glass ceiling belief and career satisfaction. This study is perhaps a first one in understanding masculine and feminine personality traits in the context of glass ceiling belief.
Keywords: Glass ceiling belief; Career satisfaction; Personality traits; Regression Moderation.
MANAGERIAL DECISIONS FOR INNOVATION STRATEGY OF FIRMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNTRY LEVEL INNOVATION
by Keya Sengupta
Abstract: There is an integral relationship between economic growth, competitiveness and innovation undertaken by a nation. Innovation lies at the root of growth and competitiveness of a nation. The study with the help of simple and multiple regression models, highlights the importance of managerial decision making in determining which management activities should be concentrated upon for bringing the highest level of innovation by the firms. The findings reveal that it is not only the R&D investment but equally important is the product process sophistication and the professional management of the firms for determining the innovation. These motivating determinants of managerial decisions determines how innovative the country is in the global scenario.
Keywords: economic growth; management decisions; innovation; Research & Development; product process sophistication; professional management.
Mom I want it: Impact of Anthropomorphism on Pester Power among children
by Vandana ., Vinod Kumar
Abstract: The present research investigated the impact of anthropomorphized product and animal on pester power among children. To achieve this objective, a scale on anthropomorphism is developed and two independent studies have been carried out to test the reliability and validity of the developed scale taking children and parents as respondents. Findings of the study revealed a significant impact of anthropomorphism on pester power. However, anthropomorphic animals are found to be more impactful than anthropomorphic products in influencing pester behavior among children. Moreover, parent respondents revealed that anthropomorphic stimuli create significant impact in generating pester behavior among children. On the contrary, child respondents did not disclose their impact on their behavior in similar way. The study thus provides implications for marketers, academician and Government.
Keywords: Anthropomorphism; Children; Cognitive theory of Piaget; Consumer socialization theory; Parents; Pester power; Resource theory; Theory of mind.
Brazilian industrialization: The influence of technological levels on the Gross Domestic Product and Human Development Index
by Renata Klafke, Claudia Picinin, Augusta Pelinski, Luiz Pilatti
Abstract: This study aims to investigate which technological levels of industry contributed most to the formation and development of the gross domestic product (GDP) and the Human Development Index (HDI) in Brazil from 2000 to 2010. The HDI and the GDP were the dependent variables selected for the study. The independent variables were selected from the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) base: they included employees, salaries and manufacturing establishments from 23 industries that were separated into technological levels according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Multiple regressions were used to indicate the relationship of dependency and explanatory power between dependent and explanatory variables. The results showed that the industries with mid-low and low technological levels have greater impact on the formation of GDP and HDI in Brazil. These two technological levels were primarily developed with the arrival of multinationals in the 1990s and 2000s, as found in the theory background. An empirical research spanning a longer time period and based on other sources would possibly give more strength to the econometric study. This study has implications for academicians and entrepreneurs willing to understand the Brazilian market and industry history.
Keywords: Brazil; Industry; Technology; Economic Growth.
A scale proposal for higher education creativity in the classroom
by Leandro Souza, Ana Luisa Leão, Viviane Carmona, Roberto Ruas, Julio Carneiro-da-Cunha
Abstract: Education with creativity is one that uses approaches to make the learning process more interesting. Considering the existence of scales designed to measure creativity in the classroom, our concern was to identify the reliability and validity of a proposed scale called the Perceived Creativity Scale in the Classroom (PCSC). We conducted a survey with Tourism students in a private, higher education institution in Brazil. The responses were submitted for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and calculation with Cronbachs Alpha. The new scale emerged with three constructs: a teacher's ability to teach creatively, the student's attitude towards the creative teaching-learning process and the creative students self-evaluation. The reliability test of the constructs indicated satisfactory levels in the teacher's ability to teach creatively and the creative students self-evaluation. However, the construct about the students attitude to the creative teaching-learning process presented the unsatisfactory index. Nevertheless, the scale can be considered adequate to measure the perceived creativity in the classroom.
Keywords: Creativity in the classroom; Creativity Measurement Scale in the Classroom; Exploratory Factor Analysis.
Risk Management Tool to maximize the Performance of Technology Accelerators
by Jarunee Wonglimpiyarat
Abstract: The central argument of this paper is that policy makers around the world use technology accelerators as mechanisms to drive economic development and national innovative capacity. In the innovation economy, incubators and science parks are technology accelerators that support innovative companies and start-ups. This paper discusses the application of risk management and auditing to technology accelerators. The proposed audit plan focuses on the risk assessment using the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) framework. The risk-based audit plan and performance analysis tool can help perform risk assessments across the aspects of entrepreneurial development, product/process innovations, production, marketing, management as well as finance and investments. These dynamic tools are innovation enabler that can help achieve effective and efficient goal of incubator operation to maximize the success of emerging businesses.
Keywords: technology accelerators; technology auditing; Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO); technology incubators; science parks.
An Empirical Examination of the Influence of Corporate Social
Responsibility (CSR) on the Small and Medium Enterprise (SMEs)
Performance in Northern Malaysia
by Lucky Ossai-Igwe Esuh
Abstract: The movement of Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) is no longer just the concern of the large scale multinational company (MNC) but also of the small and medium enterprise (SME)However, the practices of CSR activities among SMEs are still not as effective as MNCs. To examine this, a cross-sectional study of quantitative questionnaire survey approach was conducted using a purposive convenience sampling technique drawn from29 SMEs in Kedah, Malaysia. A questionnaire was distributed via self-administered procedure and the data was analyzed using the PLS analysis. Overall, the study found support for the influence of CSR on the SMEs performance. The findings further show that internal factors and knowledge level factor rather han the external factors have significant influence on the SMEs performance. The study concludes that CSR practices help SMEs to build corporate image and goodwill thereby enhancing the firm performance. Unfortunately, not all SMEs actually execute and practice CSR even though they might have CSR policies.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; SMEs; MNCs; Economic factor; Performance; Malaysia.
Brand Literacy and Knowledge Transfer Process: Analysis of Purchase Intentions among Consumers in Mexico
by Rajagopal , Ananya Rajagopal
Abstract: Consumer knowledge on brands affect the consumer perceptions and purchase intentions. Companies are actively engaged today in transferring the brand knowledge to consumers through ethnic, social, family, and digital channels to create sustainable brand literacy and empowering consumers with substantial information to support their decision making process. This study analyzes empirical data from consumers in Mexico with the principal objective of exploring the role of brand literacy in educating consumers and reinforcing consumer purchase intentions towards specific brands of the companies. The study reveals that the brand literacy generates cognitive strengths and perceptional stimuli among consumers towards buying behavior in reference to competitively differentiated products and services, and price advantages, and breaks the attitudinal stigmas towards brand attributes like-brand etymology, ethnicity, family practice, and disruptive psycho-dynamics.
Keywords: Brand literacy; knowledge transfer; purchase intentions; consumer behavior.
The entrance mode for small and medium enterprises in the Indonesian fashion industry to international market
by Wawan Dhewanto, Donald Lantu, Sri Herliana, Salma Azzahra
Abstract: The Indonesian fashion industry has recently grown rapidly and has become one of the main contributors to the countrys economy in terms of added values, employments, and a growing number of enterprises. In addition, Indonesian fashion products are known to have good quality in the international market. International markets demand for Indonesian fashion products is progressively increasing. Unfortunately, nowadays, there are many fashion entrepreneurs, especially SMEs in Indonesia who still do not know how to enter the international market. Meanwhile, it is a good opportunity for the SMEs to develop. By using the quadruple-helix approach, this research aims at generating strategies for an entrance mode of the fashion industry to be observed by the international market. This study proposes insights from Indonesian fashion entrepreneurs who have successfully penetrated the international market. The insights include the motivation and possible types of entrance mode, barrier, and supporting factors and potential programs that may help other SMEs in the Indonesian fashion industry to enter the international market.
Keywords: Entrance mode; international market; quadruple-helix; SMEs; fashion industry; barrier and supporting factors.
Consumers' Buying Decision Process toward Halal Product: A study in Bangladesh
by Md. Monirul Islam, Ashraful Ferdous Chowdhury
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine understanding consumers buying decision process toward halal products. This study, employing the Dewey (1910) five stages buying model, analyzed how the factors of Need Recognition, Information Search, Evaluation of alternatives and post-purchase experiences affect the purchase decision. To conduct this study, data were collected from 204 Muslim students of Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh in a convenient way. Factor analyses were used to test the reliability and validity. Regression analyses were used to test the hypotheses. Findings revealed that Need recognition and evaluation of alternative were influenced significantly on the buying decision of halal product, but information search and post-purchase experiences were not influenced significantly. From the theoretical and managerial point of view it has implications, theoretically, this study is one of the first attempts to use five stages model empirically and managerially the research results can be helpful to designed marketing strategy related to Muslim consumers.
Keywords: Consumer Buying process; Halal Products; Bangladesh; Religious; Muslim.
Sustainable Innovation in Supplier Networks: An Empirical Study with South African Steel and Engineering Sector
by Surajit Bag
Abstract: The purpose of the current study is to identify the factors influencing sustainable innovation in supplier networks. Firstly, literature review was conducted to identify the leading dimensions and further exploratory factor analysis was applied to reduce the dimensions to fourteen factors. The EFA output was used as an input in the regression analysis and the functional relationship was tested.As a result of data analysis, the key aspects of sustainable innovation in supplier networks are identified and further discussed. The linear multiple regression analysis output shows that only two factors i.e. effectiveness of new product development team and leadership skills are strong determinants of sustainable innovation in supplier networks and found to be statistically significant. Therefore, South African steel and engineering sector need to focus strictly both on Effectiveness of new product development team and Leadership skills.The study is unique in terms of identifying the critical factors influencing sustainable innovation in supplier networks and further broadens the knowledge base.
Keywords: Sustainable Innovation; Supplier Networks; Leadership Skills; Effectiveness of New Product Development team; Exploratory Factor Analysis; Regression analysis.
Factors influencing consumers decision making towards selecting credit cards: An exploratory Study
by Md. Nur Alam Siddik, Sajal Kabiraj
Abstract: Credit cards begin to use in financial markets and play important role in businesses which make the process of payment easier. Nowadays, there are increasing of value and volume of consumers who spend their money via using credit card. Despite this, there is relative dearth of studies examining the factors influencing consumers decision making in selecting credit cards. Therefore, this research examines the behavior, demographic characteristics and attitude of consumer in selecting credit cards. To serve the study purpose, a structured questionnaire was distributed to 412 respondents during April-June 2016. Empirical results showed that demographic characteristic and product-specific variables were correlated with consumers behavior in term of credit card selecting. This research is expected to be beneficial for banks and card issuers on that they can study and understand more about their consumer characteristics and behavior which lead to create attractive products and services to grasp their attention.
Keywords: Consumers’ decision making; demographic factors; product-specifics variables; brand; Thailand.
OPEN SOURCE INNOVATION: WHAT MAKES IT MOVE?
by Cecília Burtet, Jorge Verschoore, Anelise Bittencourt
Abstract: The way organizations conduct their innovation processes has advanced in recent years, evidencing open innovation as an object of study. Notable works are Von Hippels (1988) on "the sources of innovation" and Chesbroughs (2003) on "open innovation". More recently, Von Hippel (2005a) introduced an even more radical innovation concept called "open source innovation" (OSI), characterized by an opening of not only the innovation process but also its results, which are free of any intellectual property rights. In the present scenario, we explore the adoption of this model by several organizations, not only restricted to the software industry and pose the question: What moves open source innovation initiatives? To answer this question, we conducted field research with international companies that used the OSI model. Empirical evidence enabled us to address the research question by a) confirming the presence of motivations that were previously reported in the literature, integrating them into two newly identified backgrounds and b) unveiling a highly strategic aspect of the adoption of OSI as a business model, enabling a new understanding of the open approach, and breaking from some traditional principles of management. Our main contribution is the analysis of open strategies beyond the software industry, paving the way for significant progress and the development of new theories on this topic.
Keywords: Open Source; Innovation; Open Innovation; Strategy; Open Strategy.
Analysis of the relationship between assimilation capabilities and organizational performance
by Alexander Zuñiga-Collazos, Geovanny Perdomo-Charry, Nelson Lozada
Abstract: There is limited empirical evidence about the relationship between innovation and organizational performance in developing countries like Colombia. While this country has had an important growth in the last years in its innovation levels of within enterprises, innovation based on the assimilation capacity of companies has been key to this growth. This empirical study analyzed the relation between assimilation capacity and organizational performance using a sample of 227 companies located in Medellin, Colombia. The findings show that enterprises that develop assimilation capabilities may have better probabilities to improve their organizational performance. This study suggests that companies where managers promote problem solving between areas of a company may have better probabilities to improve their profit growth.
Keywords: Assimilation Capabilities; Organizational Performance; SEM; Colombia.
The Networks- Innovation- Firm performance relationship: Does it hold good in Indian Pharmaceutical Industry?
by ABHISHEK NIRJAR, MANASWINI ACHARYA, Aniruddha
Abstract: This research is set in the Indian pharmaceutical industry and presents the impact of networks both social and business on innovation and further its impact of both these parameters on the firms performance. The study also considered the impact of firm age on the networks and innovation capability of the firm. Data for 140 firms was captures from the Capitaline database. The results have shown positive association between business networks and the impacts it has on innovation capabilities of the firm. Networks- both social and business have a positive association with firm performance while R&D expenditure was found to have a positive impact on firm performance. The impact of patents however has been found to be insignificant which is in line with the characteristics of the Indian Pharmaceutical industry which is focussed on developing the generic drugs. Similarly, firm age has been found to have a positive impact on networks while it is not significant for R&D expenditure which seems so because of the increasing number of strategic alliances for R&D. The paper aims at combining the current research in the field of networks and innovation in the backdrop of the industries in the fast developing and emerging economies, thus likely to create further attraction in these emerging markets for further research.
Keywords: Networks; social networks; business networks; firm performance; Indian Pharma industry.
WLB MODEL AND PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT: EVIDENCE WITH PRIVATE HOSPITAL WOMEN NURSES IN GHANA MILEAU
by SUBBURETHINA BHARATHI P, MOHAMED JASIM K, SANTHANALAKSHMI K, DAVID BOOHENE
Abstract: The major intend of this research to examine demographic and biographic characteristics of nurses, identify the attitude towards different contextual variables that impact nursing staff, analyze the work environment and an organizational supports that impact on attitude towards work life balance among the nurses, identify the determinants of professional and personal satisfaction, identify the presence of different groups of nurses based on the professional pride and determine the appropriate hr intervention policies supporting work life balance in tertiary hospitals. The result of the study which indicates that, women nurses of private hospitals in Ghana Context are able to support their hobbies, household activities, study; care for self, however, shopping for necessaries and attending family functions is one of the key areas the respondents are missing. If attending a social function is also recognized as one of the work life balance variables, it will help better job satisfaction of nurses. The majority of the women nurses in the private hospitals in Ghana Context, Ghana is satisfied with different dimensions with respect to work logistics. It has been confirmed by the researcher while discussing with the nursing staff, they did express satisfaction over work logistics provided by hospitals. Skipping food and drug abuse are likely to be major lifestyle choice issues, which may impact health of nursing staff while other dimensions are not perceived as likely problems in future. Provision of canteen facilities with adequately stopped nutrition diet is likely to health
Keywords: Demographic Characteristics; Biographic Characteristics Professional and Personal Satisfaction.
Exploring how and why consumers create unintended uses of products
by Apiradee Wongkitrungrueng
Abstract: The use of products for unintended purposes is prevalent among consumers, and can generate ideas for product improvement and new product development for the firm. However, little is known about how and why people create novel uses outside the regular context. Based on consumer experiences, this study aims to discover patterns of creative reuse of existing products and to understand consumer motives and outcomes. The qualitative data revealed that creative reuse is based on knowledge about product attributes, categories and users as well as from individual preference. Respondents are motivated by economic benefits as well as knowledge-seeking and excitement. The findings reveal that creative reuse helps increase product value and consumer engagement with a product.
Keywords: Use Innovativeness; Reuse; Unintended uses; Post-purchase; Creativity.
SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT METHODS: PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT IN LARGE COMPANIES
by Maria João Machado, Joana Fortunato
Abstract: The general objective of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the performance evaluation methods used by large companies. As specific objectives we have the following: to identify the methods used and the importance attributed to them; to analyse their implementation process and the level of success given to it. The data collection method used was a survey to the financial managers of the largest companies in Portugal, which resulted in thirty-five valid responses. The main contributions of this study were the associations found between the following variables: the method used and the level of importance assigned to it; the person in charge of implementing the method and training provided to employees; the method used and the degree of success attributed to its implementation; the degree of resistance to change and the degree of success in implementing the performance evaluation method.
Keywords: performance evaluation methods; sustainable management; Balanced Scorecard; Tableau de Bord; resistance to change.
Road to Employee Commitment: The role of Empowerment, Leadership and Culture
by A.T. Resmi, Sandhya Pentareddy, L. Suganthi, Gemini V Joy, Anbuudayasankar SP
Abstract: This exploratory research seeks to identify the relationships between the leadership, empowerment and commitment within the integrated model of competing values framework (CVF) of organizational culture. A conceptual model which relates the constructs to commitment is developed. The study attempts to use a social constructionist approach and scenario planning. Hypothetical cases are used to develop two scenarios. The study proposes an integrated model of CVF, and also provides greater understanding of the competencies required in the organization to move from one competing value quadrant to another. The paper helps managers gain better understanding of managerial roles, their inter-relationships to each other and how to apply them more effectively. It further develops an understanding by providing a model of how to transform an organization to be a self sustained one. The study also brings forth a constructive approach in management
Keywords: Organizational Commitment; Employee Empowerment; Leadership; Organizational Culture.
Analysis of the Brazilian entrepreneurial ecosystem in the perception of business incubator professionals
by Mario Cesar Silva, Rosley Anholon, Izabela Simon Rampasso, Osvaldo Luiz Goncalves Quelhas, Walter Leal Filho, Dirceu Silva
Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the maturity of the Brazilian entrepreneurial ecosystem based on the opinions and insights from business incubator professionals. To this end, a survey was performed with 74 professionals who published at least one paper related to this topic in Brazil. The maturity analysis was based on a theoretical model with variables to be measured for the incubators in six major constructs: Support, Government, Finance, Human Capital, Culture and Market. Data was analyzed through Structural Equation Modeling, which allowed for a statistic validation of the model. With this validation, it was possible to analyze the maturity notes assigned to each variable and conclude that the Brazilian entrepreneurial ecosystem has an intermediate level of maturity, with some possible improvements. The originality of this study lies both in the assessment carried out and in the use of this particular statistical technique for this purpose.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Brazilian Entrepreneurial Ecosystem; Business Incubators; Business Incubators Professionals; Structural Equation Modeling; Partial Least Squares Method; Constructs; Smartpls.
Shipping Innovation Orientation and Capabilities in the Digital Era
by Maria A. Lambrou, Daniel Samson, Masaharu Ota
Abstract: In our paper, we develop a conceptual model that investigates the innovation orientation, capabilities and practices, in the shipping sector. We examine a number of intertwined shipping management components and innovation management perspectives, considering both the firm-level diversity and sectoral regularities, so as to survey shipping companies approach to innovation related business activities. We present a set of shipping innovation observations, articulated as hypotheses/propositions, comprising a combined perspective of strategic, organizational, institutional and technological determinant factors of the innovation process. The purpose of this paper is to develop a contemporary framework of innovation in shipping, addressing pertinent managerial and research implications.
Keywords: shipping innovation; dynamic capabilities; strategic-orientation; maritime cluster; business model innovation; organizational intelligence; leadership; technical innovation; digitalization; big data technology.
An empirical examination of knowledge management and organisational performance among Malaysian manufacturing SMEs
by Shiaw Tong Ha, May Chiun Lo
Abstract: Knowledge management has gained increased attention recently, as many researchers have revealed its significant roles on enhancing organisational performance. This study aims to examine the relationship between knowledge management and organisational performance in the context of Malaysia. Knowledge management was conceptualised as capabilities made up of knowledge acquisition, knowledge conversion, knowledge application, and knowledge protection. 116 respondents comprising of the top management from manufacturing SMEs had participated in this study. Smart PLS 2.0 (M3) was employed to examine the hypothesised relationships between knowledge management and organisational performance. The results revealed that among the four knowledge management capabilities, only knowledge acquisition and protection had a significant positive relationship with organisational performance, whereas knowledge conversion and application had not. Implications, limitations as well as directions for future research were further discussed.
Keywords: knowledge acquisition;knowledge conversion;knowledge application;knowledge protection;organisational performance.
Review of Lean-Green Manufacturing practices in SMEs for sustainable framework
by Anjali Negi, Mandar Sumant
Abstract: The concept of lean manufacturing aims at maximizing the resource utilization through minimization of waste, and was further evolved and modified in response to the fluctuating and competitive business environment, whereas GM concept addresses a various manufacturing matters, say recycling, conservation, waste management, environmental protection, regulatory compliance, pollution control, and a variety of other related issues. Previous research papers about Lean manufacturing and its integration with green manufacturing practices have been studied to understand how it is beneficial economically and ecologically for industries and society. The review paper has attempted to identify prime or important elements of lean and green manufacturing as well as also throws light on current scenario in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Paper begins with brief introduction about lean and green manufacturing concept. In section 2, literature review has been presented where we have identified elements of lean and green manufacturing practices and inference obtained from literature study. Section 3 is divided into two parts, where first part highlights principle of sustainability-oriented framework and second part shows significant features of MDCM models, to study their usefulness for such framework. Section 4 focuses on current scenario of Indian SMEs in context of sustainable lean-green manufacturing practices and its comparison with SMEs in other countries. Section 5 presents conclusion of the review paper along with future scope of the study.
Keywords: Small and medium enterprises (SMEs); lean manufacturing (LM); green manufacturing (GM); sustainable manufacturing; Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques; design for environment (dfE); Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); Green Design; Sustainable manufacturing practices (SMP); environmental sustainability (ES).
Empirical linkage between Sustainable HRM and Organizational Flexibility: A SEM Based Approach
by Nitin Vihari, M.K. Rao, Umaamaheswararao Jada
Abstract: Sustainability has been regarded as a panacea for organizational flexibility from the past few years of management research, but there remains considerable research gap in terms of the empirical linkage between the latent constructs of Sustainable HRM and Organizational Flexibility. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether the employee perceptions of Sustainable HRM practices affects the Organizational Flexibility via three intervening variables such as Employee Voice Behavior, Organizational Learning Culture and Employee Satisfaction. Drawing on the survey data from the pharmaceutical companies in India, the authors have used structural equation modeling and Hayes mediation analysis in order to test the direct and indirect effects respectively. The authors find a positive association between the sustainable HRM practices and organizational flexibility. The results also suggest that the three intervening variables act as partial mediators corresponding to the direct linkage. By highlighting association between sustainability & flexibility, the present study provides novel insights, essentially to the HR and Sustainability managers in the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry.This present study adds value because of the nascent stage of the Sustainable HRM construct and less number of empirical studies that have examined the linkage between sustainability and flexibility, not only in the Indian context but also in the advanced economies. rn
Keywords: Sustainable HRM; Organizational Flexibility; Employee Voice Behavior; Organizational Learning Culture; Employee Satisfaction and Structural Equation Modeling; Mediation Analysis.
Development, Refinement and Validation of a Lifestyle instrument in India: A Confirmatory Factor Analytic Approach
by Arham Adnan, Mohammed Naved Khan
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to develop, refine and validate a lifestyle instrument in Indian context. At present, marketers are struggling hard to unravel and understand the diverse and complex Indian lifestyles for various segmenting and targeting purposes. Moreover, the changing demographic profiles, increasing income levels, urbanization, technology, globalization and a free flow of ideas from within and outside the country, has brought about a dramatic shift in consumer taste, preferences and lifestyles. Furthermore, the rapid change in the Indian consumers attitudes and profiles, has made it difficult for organizations to cater to the consumer needs and the marketers face an uphill task of catering to the changing consumer perception and inclinations. Surprisingly, there is a dearth of appropriate scales for measuring such needs and requirements in the Indian research settings. The results of exploratory factor analysis (EFA), based on a sample of 200 respondents, led to a refined 6 dimension scale. The findings of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), from next stage sample of 150 from the same population, further validated the results of EFA. This study is a mere building block and a starting point in Indian lifestyle research and would add to the limited body of knowledge in this particular field. Beyond refining and validating the instrument, this study is expected to provide marketers with insights about how to integrate consumer lifestyles with marketing strategies. Altogether, the study is a significant beginning towards assembling a well-defined and more holistic image of factors influencing the lifestyles of Indians. The paper also discusses theoretical and managerial implications of the study.
Keywords: lifestyle;scale refinement;India;AIO;VALS.
Earnings Management under Public Offerings and Private Placements: Evidence from China
by Li Dang, Sijing Yang
Abstract: In this study, we compare earnings management behavior of Chinese public firms under public offerings and private placements. We find that, in the year before the issuance, public offerings firms exhibit more income-increasing earnings management than private placement firms. The result is opposite in the year after the issuance. We also find that, within private placements, firms that issued offerings to institutional investors exhibit higher income-increasing earnings management than firms that issued offerings only to non-institutional investors. These results suggest that firms manage earnings in response to regulatory requirements.
Keywords: Earnings Management; Public Offerings; Private Placements; Institutional Investors.
The risk of innovation: measuring drug clinical development in Brazil
by Michele De Medeiros Rocha, Danilo Garbazza Vieira, Gilson Brito Alves Lima, Emmanuel Paiva De Andrade, Osvaldo Luis Gonçalves Quelhas
Abstract: Although risk is inherent in innovation, the pharmaceutical sector still leads Research and Development (R&D) investments. Therefore, the awareness of potential risks is especially important for this sector that spends approximately 70% of the total cost of new drug development on clinical trials. The economic crisis in Europe and its reimbursement system has made emerging countries, like Brazil, potential strategic markets for the return of these high investments. Using a public database (ClinicalTrials.gov), this study estimated the probabilities of failure and success of clinical trials in Brazil up to approval by the regulatory authority. The results showed that the risk in conducting Phase 3 clinical trials, the most extensive and complex phase, is considered high (26.7%). On the other hand, regulatory approval represents a high success rate, since over 90% of the drugs with positive results in Phase 3 were approved by the Brazilian Agency.
Keywords: risk; innovation; pharmaceuticals; drug development; clinical trials.
A new Social Network Analysis-based approach to extracting knowledge patterns about research activities and hubs in a set of countries
by Paolo Lo Giudice, Paolo Russo, Domenico Ursino
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new Social Network Analysis-based approach to providing a multi-dimensional picture of the research scenarios of a set of countries of interest and to detecting possible hubs operating therein. This knowledge allows the understanding of the impact of different socio-economic conditions on research. Furthermore, it may help the design of policies for sustaining the accumulation of scientific and technological capabilities. We apply our approach to four North African countries (i.e., Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia) in such a way as to show its potential. We also investigate (both scientific and commercial) related approaches and specify the main novelties of our approach with respect to them.
Keywords: Bibliometrics; Social Network Analysis; Hubs; Hub Neighborhoods; Innovation Support.
Brand and Brand Origin Valuations: A Case of the Electrical Appliance Market in Thailand
by Chompunuch Pongjit, Yingyot Chiaravutthi
Abstract: The importance of branding has raised concerns among marketers about how to properly address a brand and its origin, particularly when the country of origin is at a disadvantage. This study relied on secondary data regarding electrical appliances published by one of the largest modern retail stores in Thailand to examine the effects of branding and brand origin on product price premiums. The findings from the hedonic price model confirm the power of brand origin on consumer willingness-to-pay as well as the brand name effects on price premiums. Nevertheless, the effects of brand origin on price premiums are, to a certain extent, category-specific.
Keywords: hedonic price model; brand name; brand origin; electrical appliance.
The Effect of Psychological Capital on Quality of Life, given the Mediating Role of Social Capital and Quality of Work Life
by Sayyed Mohsen Allameh, Seyed Hasan Hosseini, Mohammadreza Naderi Mahabadi, Ardalan Samadi
Abstract: Present research examines the relationship between psychological capital and quality of life, with (and without) mediation of social capital and quality of work life. The research statistical population included employees of a chosen state organization. The collected data through the questionnaire were used in the structural equation modeling for test of the research hypotheses and the assumed relationships between the variables. Validity of the questionnaires was examined and verified consulting the university professors and experts, and the questionnaires reliability was determined by calculating their Cronbachs alpha, that, indicating adequate reliability of them. According to the results, psychological capital (PsyCap) had a positive effect on quality of life (QOL), social capital (SC) and quality of work life (QWL). In addition, social capital positively influenced employees quality of work life and quality of life in the understudy organization. Finally, the variables social capital and quality of work life significantly mediated in the relationship between psychological capital and quality of life. All these relationships were significant at 95 percent confidence interval.
Keywords: psychological capital (PsyCap); social capital (SC); quality of life (QOL); quality of work life (QWL).
Dynamic Capabilities Development and Business Model Innovation: Evidences from IT Industry in an Emerging Country
by Afonso Ricardo Paloma Vicente, Marcos Ferasso
Abstract: This research has had as main objective to analyze how the development of DC improve BM innovation, in the context of IT high-techs in an emergent country. We performed multiple case studies with multiple data collection techniques. Main findings revealed that the process of developing DC depends on how knowledge and information are managed and acquired by the high-techs. Results evidenced that the more diverse is the set of elements of BM, the more a company develop their DC. The results corroborate to the literature of microfoundations of DC by influencing on how knowledge is managed by each company. As novelty, this research sheds some lights on the relation of DC development and BM innovation and suggests some highways for future researches.
Keywords: Dynamic capabilities. Business model innovation. Information technology industry.
A Framework for the Selection of Organizational Empowerment Project Portfolio Based on the Human Resource Practices
by Hossein Mansoori, Ali Shaemi Barzoki, Mohammad Hossein Moshref Javadi, Masoud Kianpour
Abstract: This study provided a framework to select organizational empowerment (OE) project portfolio based on human resource practices utilizing a mixed methods approach. Participants consisted of senior managers, middle managers and HR experts of Hormozgan Electric Distribution Company (HEDC) in Iran. In qualitative phase, a grounded theory study was conducted to design an organizational empowerment model. A total of 25 senior managers, middle managers, and HR experts of surveyed company were selected through purposive sampling and snowball method. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and were analyzed through the constant comparative method. Improvement projects were extracted based on the designed model. Goal programming (GP) and fuzzy hierarchical analysis process (FAHP) were used in quantitative phase. The proposed framework was presented to help managers and planners of organization for strategic decision making and the improvement of organizational empowerment considering effective factors in either the success or failure of a project.
Keywords: Project; Improvement Project; Organizational Empowerment; Human Resource Practices; Grounded Theory; Goal Programming; Fuzzy Hierarchical Analysis Process.
The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Social Performance, Financial Performance and Customer Reactions in the Foods Industry
by Fereydoun Omidi, Majid Mohammad Shafiee
Abstract: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is among the most important factors affecting financial and social performance in companies and plays a key role in consumer reactions. This paper aims to model the impact of CSR on financial and social performance of firms as well as consumer reactions. The required data are gathered using random sampling and a questionnaire developed by the authors, enjoying a 97 percent reliability. The statistical population includes the managers and top customers of a select group of food companies in the City of Khuzestan (Iran). 540 individuals are selected as the sample. Both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses e.g. structural equations are carried out using SPSS and AMOS software packages. The results indicate that all hypotheses are supported with 95 percent confidence. Therefore, CSR affects financial performance both directly and by mediation through social responsibility and consumer reactions.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility; social performance; financial performance; consumer reactions; foods industry.
The University Innovation Model in a Unique Environment
by Sami Al Kharusi, Mahmoud Al Kindi
Abstract: National Governments have recognized the important role played by higher education institutions in the diversification of their economy through innovation. Universities and Colleges are playing a crucial role not only in their traditional mean of serving the country (teaching, research and community services) but also through innovation. Universities are playing critical role in the development of hi-tech products and services; generation of new knowledge and the spin-off of a new business venture. Universities innovation model should incorporate the national innovation framework, society, regulation, culture and business for a successful transformation of knowledge into a useful products and services that will give a nation an edge over competition.
Keywords: Innovation Model; Universities; Innovation Policy; Academic Innovation Programs.
The Chaotic Terminology of Non-incremental Innovation
by Shahab Ahmadi
Abstract: Non-incremental innovation terminology has always been disorganized. The problem is that researchers use several terms to describe a single concept (non-incremental innovation), including: disruptive innovation, radical innovation, non-linear innovation, discontinuous innovation, breakthrough innovation, paradigm-shifting innovation, revolutionary innovation, really new product, major innovation, boundary expanding innovation, strategic innovation and game changing innovation. The present paper clarifies the need for a lucid language in non-incremental innovation terminology to accumulate the findings of different innovation studies, to eliminate the managers' confusion while reading academic articles on innovation, and to ease the pedagogical purposes. In doing so, this article reviews papers discussing the seven most used terms in this area and identifies their definitions and features in order to compare them and to make a conclusion about their relationship. At last, this research proposes radical innovation as the best term to address the concept of non-incremental innovation.
Keywords: innovation; innovation typology; innovation terminology; non-incremental innovation; radical innovation; disruptive innovation; strategic innovation; incremental innovation; discontinuous innovation; breakthrough innovation.
Proposition of a systematics to qualify the cross-functional collaboration through the organizational communication for the development of services
by Lisiane Rodrigues Hermes, Gunnar Trindade, Cassiana Lima Cruz, Janine Fleith De Medeiros
Abstract: The interfunctional collaboration configures one of the success-driving factors for the innovation market. However, the collaboration between different areas of the organization is characterized by intangibility. Thus, coordination mechanisms between them must be formalized. In light of the exposed issue and considering the increasing competition in the higher education sector in Brazil, the present study seeks to comprehend how the service development occurs within a university, analyzing convergences and divergences in the managers speeches of the involved areas in order to, consequently, propose improvements. The research we conducted is explanatory and qualitative. The results allow us to affirm that the analyzed institution does not have a formalized service development, as well as interfunctional collaboration presents gaps for being informal. As the main contribution, a systematics is proposed to qualify interfunctional collaboration through organizational communication practices.
Keywords: Inter-functional collaboration. Development services. Organizational communication.
integration. Organization learning. Organizational culture. Leadership. structure.
Factors affecting trust towards online retailers in India: An empirical study
by Plavini Punyatoya
Co-Innovation: A Review and Conceptual Framework
by Harriman Saragih, Jacob Tan
Abstract: This paper investigates the previous conceptual and empirical studies regarding the current understandings of co-innovation and subsequently suggests a conceptual framework that exhibits the analytical pillars and the possible outputs of this notion. The analysis of this study involved examining secondary sources of scholarly literatures by discussing the conceptual understandings and empirical findings on the concepts of co-innovation in several academic databases. Co-innovation is defined as a shared work of generating innovative and exceptional design conducted by various actors from firms, customers, and collaborating partners. There are five principal elements within the idea of co-innovation: collaboration, coordination, co-creation, convergence and complementary. The possible outputs of co-innovation can either be new business model, new customer base, new customer value, new value chain, or new products and services. This paper attempts to evaluate the emerging concept of co-innovation and propose a conceptual framework rooted on various authentic business cases and theoretical literatures.
Keywords: innovation; open innovation; co-innovation; collaboration; coordination; co-creation; convergence; complementary; review; conceptual framework.
Development of Survey Instrument for Software Professionals Job Stress (SPJS): A Factor and Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach
by Vikrant Jaswal
Abstract: Stress is an inevitable and unavoidable part of life due to increasing complexities and competitiveness in living standards. In the fast changing world of today, no individual is free from stress and no profession is stress-free. Thus, stress has become the core concern in the life of everyone. Keeping in view the above facts, this instrument was designed to examine the various factors of job stress, which was administrated to a wide range of the software professionals. Eight sub-scale emerged from data analysis: (1) career progress, (2) fear of obsolescence, (3) work-family interface, (4) quantitative demands, (5) job complexity, (6) role overload, (7) role conflict, and (8) changes in organization. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis showed that the scale has both, high reliability and validity as a measure of job stress.
Keywords: job stress; exploratory factor analysis; confirmatory factor analysis; software professionals.
The impacts of learning strategies and creativity on knowledge workers innovation in Iranian knowledge-based firms
by Anahita Ahmadi, Mehdi Abzari, Ali Nasr Isfahani, Ali Safari
Abstract: This paper aims to study the relations of learning strategies, creativity and workers innovation in electricity distribution companies of Isfahan province. Particularly, learning strategies consist of two dimensions of exploitative and explorative learning and creativity is measured by two improvisational and compositional dimensions. A total number of 155 employees were included in the research which 112 of them were considered as sample according to Cochrans sampling techniques. Due to the small sample size, data collection was conducted by using a questionnaire-based survey in all firms. Data analysis was performed in two main phases with using variance based structural equation modelling by Smart PLS. The First phase assesses measurement model and the second one examines the hypotheses through analysis of the structural model. Results show that both exploitative and explorative learning's as well as compositional and improvisational creativities have positive and significant effect on knowledge workers' innovation.
Keywords: learning strategy; exploitative learning; explorative learning; improvisational creativity; compositional creativity.
Leadership and CSR driving frugal and reverse innovations: A conceptual framework for SME-MNE partnerships
by Andrée Marie López-Fernández, Rajagopal .
Abstract: A firms leadership environment is a significant determinant of its overall direction, the way it approaches its business dynamics. Small firms and those operating in emerging markets tend to be disregarded when discussing innovativeness, social responsibility and business growth. However, it is suggested that a partnership may, in fact, not only achieve the latter but also significantly impact social growth and development. This paper contributes to the literature on innovation, leadership and corporate social responsibility as it puts forth two models, one with defined propositions, and the other with suggested implications of potential innovation transformation. They propose a shift in the link between CSR, innovativeness, and SME-MNE partnerships. It is suggested that innovations may undergo an evolution from frugal to corporate socially responsible innovations. The dynamics of a socially responsible, innovative, partnership directly reflect on business and social growth and development; therefore, also potentiating partnerships in developing and developed markets.
Keywords: leadership; SME/MNE partnership; CSR; emerging markets; frugal innovation; reverse innovation.
Main CIOs activities evidences from a Delphi survey using Q-sort
by Roberto Carvalho, Antonio Trigo, João Varajão, Luís Magalhães, Ricardo Colomo-Palacios
Abstract: Nowadays most organizations depend on Information Technologies (IT)/Information Systems (IS) to run their businesses and to achieve their goals. Knowing how to manage IT/IS is fundamental because it promotes a better use of resources and an increase in quality and productivity. Within an organization, the Information Systems Function (ISF) is responsible, not only for exploiting and maintaining the Information System, but also for improving it. The head of the ISF is the Chief Information Officer (CIO). For a CIO to effectively accomplish her/his tasks, s/he needs to know the relevant aspects of her/his work and to have a vast knowledge of the business environment. In this sense, the CIO plays a central role, carrying out a diversified set of activities that are essential for the performance of the IS and, consequently, for the business success. With the aim of identifying the main activities of a CIO, a Delphi survey was carried out involving CIOs from large organizations. As a result, a list of the most important activities for a CIO was obtained from an initial set of twenty-six activities. The top activities of a CIO are: interacting with the top management; analyse business problems, identify opportunities and design IS solutions; IS Planning; Making strategic decisions; Optimize business processes; Evaluate IS performance and plan its optimization; manage the IT team; manage IS development and implementation.
Keywords: Chief Information Office; Roles; Activities; Delphi; Q-Sort.
Design of leagile manufacturing system in a traditional pump manufacturing company
by K. Balakrishnan, S.R. Devadasan, R. Murugesh
Abstract: During the recent years, a section of researchers have been addressing the implementation of leagile manufacturing paradigm in traditional companies for facing the intensified competition. As the title implies, leagile manufacturing paradigm is incorporated with lean and agile manufacturing principles. Although leagile manufacturing paradigm was evolved about three decades back, it is yet to find application in many traditional industries. One among them is pump industry. In order to fill this gap, the research reported in this paper was carried out. While pursuing this research, the sales trend of pumps over the past five years were gathered by visiting a traditional pump manufacturing company. By referring to this trend, leagile manufacturing system was designed. Subsequently, the steps to be followed to implement this leagile manufacturing system was evolved. After presenting these details, the challenges and benefits of implementing this leagile manufacturing system are described in this paper. While concluding, it is claimed that this research has opened an avenue for exploring the steps for successfully implementing leagile manufacturing paradigm in traditional industries.
Keywords: Lean; agile; leagile; pump industry; plant layout; organisational structure.
Empirical Research of the potential benefits of a tourism product club as a model of stakeholder collaboration
by Robert Ribaric, Christian Stipanovic
Abstract: The tourism product club is a novel and insufficiently studied model of stakeholder collaboration aimed at improving an existing tourism product, or developing a new one, through joint action. At the theoretical level, the extant body of scientific knowledge is analysed, positive practical examples are explored, and respondents perceptions of the clubs potential are presented. At the application level, 20 potential benefits from a tourism product club are studied based on the analysis of 158 valid questionnaires. The distribution of respondents covers two countries in the Mediterranean (the northern part of the Croatian coast and the littoral of Slovenia), in which the project Parenzana The Route of Health and Friendship is being carried out as a form of cross-border cooperation. Factor analysis has identified four basic stakeholders: tourism product club members, tourist, the tourist destination and local residents.
Keywords: tourism product club; collaboration; stakeholders; innovation; integrated tourism product; factor analysis; Parenzana.
3Cs Method for Firms Make-or-Buy Decisions: Application in a Large Metal Mechanical Company
by Luciana Reis, June Fernandes, Sergio Silva, Henrique Andrade
Abstract: The core competencies literature states that a company should outsource any activity that is not aligned with its core business. However, a deeper analysis of this literature expresses the need for a more comprehensive method to guide this decision. This study introduces a method for analyzing the make-or-buy decision based on three constructs: cost, customer value, and competencies. This so-called 3Cs method was applied in a large company in the metal mechanical industry to assess the best way in which to perform the core activities of this firm. The main contribution of this study is presenting an integrated approach that allows a deeper understanding of make-or-buy decisions, thereby raising their efficiency.
Keywords: outsourcing; analysis method; production costs; customer value; strategic vulnerability.
ERP Solution for Effective Supply Chain of Micro, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises A case study of customized ERP solution development and deployment for MSMEs in the Haryana state of India
by Shantanu Trivedi, Saurav Negi, Neeraj Anand, Rishikesh Patnakar
Abstract: Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system - an integrated computer based system used to manage internal and external resources, including tangible assets, financial resources, materials, and human resources is one of such system. ERP plays a vital role in improving the effectiveness and efficiency of a supply chain. An ERP implementation is aimed at achieving operational efficiency by streamlining business processes, and driving up productivity and reducing cost. Planning for ERP systems and their implementations requires an integrated approach to meet the requirements of various functional areas. With a brief overview of ERP implementations, this paper describes some experiences of an ERP implementation named e-Galla at rice mills in the Haryana state of India. The case study reveals some important ERP modules required in MSMEs and its cluster based customization and implementation. Specifically, it describes how the supply chain visibility can be improved by taking advantage of Information technology and system for business innovation. This system was customized and deployed by one of the reputed Non-Profit Company of Dept. of Electronics & IT. The findings from this study can provide the greater understanding of ERP implementation in MSMEs. Researchers, practicing managers and those seeking to implement ERP in MSMEs can also use the findings of the study as a vehicle for improving ERP implementation success in MSME. The scope of the paper is limited to ERP implementation project in MSMEs with reference to rice mill cluster in Kurukshetra region in the Haryana state of India.
Keywords: Information & Communication Technology (ICT); Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP); Supply Chain Management (SCM); Customer Relationship Management (CRM); Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs).
Are Socially Responsible Firms Less Engaged in Earnings Management? Evidence from ADX Listed Companies
by Mohamed Chakib Kolsi, Osama F. Attayah
Abstract: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) disclosures have gained great attention both in media and academic community. Socially responsible firms are expected to behave ethically in accordance with both stakeholders and legitimacy theories. In this paper, we check if socially responsible firms adopt transparent financial reporting strategy, or opportunistically manipulate accounting figures, although engaged in social activities, in order to mislead potential shareholders. Using a sample of 34 listed companies during five years (2010-2014), our results show a positive relationship between abnormal accruals and the level of CSR disclosures thereby enhancing the opportunistic hypothesis of earnings management but not the transparent financial reporting hypothesis. By contrast, we find no relationship between CSR disclosures and the three real manipulation proxies: Abnormal operating cash-flows, abnormal production costs and abnormal discretionary expenses. These results indicate that CSR disclosures act as additional constraint for real manipulations or can be simply induced by errors in estimating real manipulation proxies. Moreover, there is a positive relationship between CSR disclosures and the extent of income smoothing consistent with the opportunistic perspective of earnings management. Our results remain robust to additional sensitivity checks such as manipulation proxies, CSR measures or the estimation method. Overall, our study shows that opportunistic and transparent financial reporting perspectives are not mutually exclusive since earnings management practice conducted by socially responsible firms may be context-oriented.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility disclosures; Discretionary accruals; Real manipulations; Income smoothing; Opportunistic vs transparent financial reporting.
Supply creates its own demand: the great multi-billion rupee coaching business in India
by JEHANGIR BHARUCHA
Abstract: Educationists believe the Indian education system is unable to keep up with the numbers. So millions of families across India enroll their children for coaching classes. An unrealistically high aspiration, along with the deteriorating quality of the formal education system means that examination-oriented coaching has taken over the lives of most students in India. This primary study highlights that private coaching has clearly poached mainstream education and coaching institutes has become the uber cousin of the formal education system. The conditions of schools and colleges have to improve dramatically and teachers need to take their classroom teaching more seriously. The government needs to enact laws to regulate these coaching classes. But the government would probably continue to unrecognized and unregulated this shadow system as it would otherwise amount to acknowledging the failure of the formal system and the stress it inflicts on students. rn
Keywords: coaching; tuitions; regulation; academic stress.
Developing a Measurement for Strategic Entrepreneurship by Linking its Dimensions to Competitiveness in Knowledge-based Firms
by Mohamad Javad Naeiji, Seyed Hossein Siadat
Abstract: Although there are various definitions of strategic entrepreneurship and there is consensus about its importance, most researchers do not take into account the unique characteristics of this construct. The aim of this study was to develop a strategic entrepreneurship questionnaire and investigate how the dimensions of this measuring tool relate to the competitiveness of knowledge-based firms. The questionnaire was developed in four phases: a literature review, use of existing questionnaires to prepare the initial items, use of focus groups to evaluate the items and evaluation of the validity and reliability of the questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed that five factors, continuous innovation, opportunity-based mindset, proactive behavior, risk-taking and value creation, explained 68.8% of the variance. These dimensions have positive effects on the competitiveness of knowledge-based firms. The findings of this research present a insight into the concept of strategic entrepreneurship and provide a tool for measuring strategic entrepreneurship for researchers and managers of organizations.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship Management; Strategic Entrepreneurship; Competitiveness; Knowledge-based Firms.
The Effect of Knowledge-Based Information Technology Tools on the New Product Development Processes in Software Companies
by Mohsen Shafiei Nikabadi, Amin Sepehrnia
Abstract: Software development is a knowledge intensive process and its success depends on the management of knowledge effectively. Knowledge Management(KM) tools play a critical role in this challenge. The main purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of knowledge-based information technology tools on the new product development processes in software companies. The domain of the research covers knowledge-based software companies. The data of the research were collected by a questionnaire based on five-spectrum Likert from 138 experts who have worked in the field of production, development and establishment and support of software. Findings shown that there is a meaningful correlation between knowledge-based IT tools and the NPD processes in a way that IT tools have significant effect on the implementation and to support phases of the NPD.
Keywords: Information Technology Tools; New Product Development Processes; Software Development; Knowledge Management; Software Companies.
Mindful New Service Conception in Not-for-Profit Organizations: A Study of Sustainable Innovation with Scarce Resources
by Joseph Rubleske, Michelle Kaarst-Brown
Abstract: Service innovation entails developing new services, but new service development can be difficult even with slack resources. While no consensus has been reached on the determinants of new service development (NSD) performance, some research has pointed to the importance of new service conception (NSC) practices. Research into NSC is still immature, though, and what we know about it is grounded in traditional expectations of slack resources. To better understand how new services are conceived under conditions of resource scarcity, we draw from an embedded, interpretive case study of an innovative organization that managed ongoing new service conceptions for more than ten years under conditions of continually reduced resources. Findings show that this organization was able to conceive many successful new services by (1) mindfully identifying new, germane customer needs while engaging with new information sources and (2) keeping in mind unresolved customer needs while trying to identify matching potential solutions, especially external resources. This paper contributes to the NSD literature by advancing a model based on these findings.
Keywords: not-for-profit; service innovation; new service development; new service conception; scarce resources; mindfulness.
Intention to Use the Internet of Micro-Size Enterprises: Evidence from The Biggest Emerging Market in Southeast Asia
by Harif Amali Rivai, Yudi Fernando
Abstract: This study aims to examine the intention to use the internet of micro-size enterprises. A survey was conducted in Indonesia, which is one of the biggest emerging markets in Southeast Asia. The sampling includes micro-size enterprises in West Sumatra province. The data were collected from 285 business owners and managers. Structural Equation Modelling with AMOS version 21 was used for data analysis. The results showed that perceived ease of use, computer self-efficacy, and perceived usefulness as predictors of behavioural intention to use the internet. No significant influence of trust in internet technology on perceived usefulness was found, which impacts micro-size enterprises selling products and services on website. The future study therefore, need to study the effectiveness of mobile applications which are developed by micro-size enterprises as another business alternative on online business.
Keywords: Micro-size enterprises; perceived usefulness; perceived ease of use; trust; computer self-efficacy; behavioural intention.
Evaluation of Individuals Behaviour Patterns towards Cellular Network: An Empirical Study of Pakistan
by Masoodul Hassan, Zeeshan Iqbal, Maimoona Malik
Abstract: In the fast changing technological landscape, telecommunication sector of Pakistan is playing an impressive role in the delivery of services to its more than 139 million annual cellular subscribers. This made Pakistan one of the top 10 information economies. Pakistan Vision-2025 put telecommunications as one of the six technologies giving birth to entire new sectors of economic activity including cellular sector. However, prior research work has provided narrow understanding about the drivers that influence the customers behavioural intention towards cellular network in Pakistan. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and test a parsimonious model of Pakistanis subscribers behavioural intention towards cellular network by enriching the theoretical lenses of TRA, TAM and TPB with other constructs such as perceived cost, perceived expressiveness and network quality. The researchers employed convenient sampling method for data collection by distributing self-administrated questionnaires among the students of various universities located in Pakistan. Furthermore, structural equation modelling Smart-PLS was used to analyse the yielded data. The results showed that perceived ease of use is the major determinant of attitude towards cellular network followed by network quality and perceived usefulness. Moreover, perceived cost is the major determinant of behavioural intention followed by perceived attitude, perceived behavioural control, social influence, and perceived expressiveness. This study empowers the academicians and the policy makers to gain in-depth knowledge of the drivers associated with attitude and intention towards cellular network in Pakistan. However, this research is limited by its scope of data collection, therefore extended data are needed to generalize these findings.
Keywords: Theory of Reasoned Action; Theory of Planned Behaviour; Technology Acceptance Model; Cellular Network; Telecom Sector; Pakistan.
CUSTOMER ENGAGEMENT IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY: PERCEPTIONS OF HOTEL STAFF AND GUESTS
by Henna Järvi
Abstract: Research has focused on how customer engagement enables firms to involve their customers through offerings and social media and how customers can engage in creating experiences. However, empirical evidence is still lacking on how customer engagement is achieved, especially on how service experience and customer engagement are connected and customer engagements negative outcomes. Hence, this paper studies customer engagement in the hotel context and explores the antecedents and outcomes of customer engagement. We conducted a qualitative study with a hotel chain and drew empirical data from 12 semi-structured interviews and 15 reflective diaries. We propose that customer engagement can be achieved through dialogue, customer engagement strategy, and service experience, the latter playing a significant role in achieving customer engagement. We also highlight the positive and negative outcomes of customer engagement. We contribute to the growing customer engagement literature by offering a holistic understanding of the concept, including antecedents and outcomes.
Keywords: Customer engagement; Customer disengagement; Service experience; Hotel; Tourism.
A Empirical Study on Consumer Attitude and Intention towards Online Shopping
by Priya Sethuraman, Jayanthi Thanigan
Abstract: Keeping in step with global practices, the Indian subcontinent too is witnessing a change in the shopping attitude of the consumers, reflecting a steady shift from traditional brick-and-mortar stores towards online shopping. Factors such as the deeper penetration of the Internet and the easy accessibility of smartphones, supplemented by changing lifestyles, have all triggered a rise in this trend. The study seeks to identify the factors that influence the perceived quality of a website and also analyze the effect of these factors towards consumers online purchase intention in the Indian continent. Further, it tries to establish how factors such as perceived quality, trust, and attitude towards online shopping influence a consumers online purchase intention. The findings of the study reveal that perceived quality helps to win over the trust of the consumers, which then motivates them to make an online purchase, thus inducing a positive online purchase intention.
Keywords: consumer attitude; intention towards online purchase; purchase intention and online shopping.
Entrepreneurship Research in Iran: A Systematic Review of the Empirical Studies
by Afsaneh Bagheri, Morteza Akbari
Abstract: A highly growing body of research has attempted to explore various aspects of entrepreneurship. Yet, there is limited well-organized knowledge on entrepreneurship research interest areas and gaps in the empirical literature specifically in developing countries including Iran. This study aims to categorize the main research interests and identify the specific themes and the gaps in the empirical research on entrepreneurship in Iran using the systematic literature review method. A total of 236 articles on entrepreneurship published in between 1995 to 2012 were identified in 74 national and international academic journals. The findings suggested six main research interest areas of Iranian researches including entrepreneurship education and training, SMEs, organizational and corporate entrepreneurship, entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship process, entrepreneurship development at rural, national and international levels and social entrepreneurship and family businesses. This paper concludes with a systematic summery of the research interests, gaps in the body of literature and directions for future studies.
Keywords: entrepreneurship research; systematic literature review; Iran.
The effects of internal marketing mix on performance in a healthcare context
by Reza Salehzadeh, Hadi Balouei Jamkhaneh, Shabnam Doosti
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of internal marketing mix on organization performance. Statistical population includes the employees of a community health service delivering dental, community nursing, physiotherapy, psychology, social work and occupational therapy services across some sites in Tehran. For data analysis, 211 completed and usable questionnaires were used. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to test the relationships among the research variables. The findings showed that strategic reward, internal communications, training and development, and leadership have a significant positive effect on performance.
Keywords: internal marketing; performance; healthcare; strategic reward; internal communications; development; leadership; SEM; Iran.
Adoption of lean practices as management innovation. A review and conceptualisation
by Nicole Belfanti
Abstract: An increasing number of manufacturing and service firms considers lean management as a strategy to improve organisational performance. However, lean management adoption is prone to high failure rate.
This study develops a conceptual framework examining the adoption of lean management practices, which builds on the review and systematisation of 66 scientific articles on the topic. The definition of the theoretical categories is guided by an analysis of the antecedents of management innovation, of which lean management is a part.
The drivers of lean management adoption resemble those of management innovation and refer to five areas: organisation, management, individuals, environment and the attributes of the innovation itself.
This study finds that the scholarship has not considered the attributes of innovation as a driver of lean management adoption. The analysis of lean management from this perspective represents an opportunity for future research. Finally, this study offers practitioners a reference model to assess the preconditions of the adoption of a lean transformation.
Keywords: Lean Management; Lean Production; Management Innovation; Organisational Innovation; Lean Adoption; Lean Implementation; Literature review; Antecedents.
Idea Management and Innovation Programs: Practices of Large Companies in the South Region of Brazil
by Carlos Quandt, Helena Silva, José Frega, Alex Ferraresi
Abstract: This article investigates the characteristics of idea management programs and their effectiveness in producing innovation results. The survey comprised 41 large companies in the South region of Brazil. The results show that 70 percent of the companies have programs or systems in place to solicit, encourage, evaluate, implement, and reward new ideas. Structural equation modeling using partial least squares (PLS) estimation indicates that, although structured idea management initiatives have a positive influence on innovation results, they should be supported by elements of company culture, behavior, and processes to help promote learning, absorption, and knowledge sharing, and the consequent development of innovative activities.
Keywords: Idea management; Innovation; Innovativeness; Knowledge management.
Organisational antecedents of innovative firms: a focus on entrepreneurial orientation in South Africa
by Boris Urban, Abdullah Verachia
Abstract: A longstanding literature has theorised corporate entrepreneurship as a multidimensional phenomenon, which incorporates the behaviour and interactions of the individual and organisational factors within organisations. However, adopting a firm level entrepreneurial orientation (EO) is difficult as organisational antecedents are a prerequisite for the type of environment that promotes or inhibits EO. This article is motivated by the dearth of empirical research on understanding EO in an African context. A model is tested in terms of the causal links between organisational antecedents, EO and firm performance. Survey data from South African corporates is collected to test the hypotheses using structural equation modelling. Study findings reveal that the antecedents of management support and rewards and reinforcement significantly influence EO, which in turn has a strong influence on firm performance. The study findings also have contextual relevance when considering the effectiveness of African organizations is severely limited.
Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation; organisational antecedents; management support; rewards; innovation; risk-taking; proactiveness; South Africa.
IMPACT OF MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS ON COMMODITY FUTURES
by Kirithiga S, Thiyagarajan S, Naresh G
Abstract: Globalization policy expanded a nations trade beyond its boundaries leading to imports and exports of goods or services across countries. Large number of economies are frequently divulged to macroeconomic adjustment in response to the commodity price movements. Therefore, when commodities are traded across nations, the factors that affect increased their prices and with it the risk as well (Mahalakshmi, et.al. 2012b). To safeguard the commodity prices from the influence of the macroeconomic indicators that directly affect the price of the commodity market it has to imbibe the macroeconomic information. The commodity futures market serves as a benchmark for determining the commodity prices. Better pricing for commodities can be done only when the commodity market is efficient by transmitting information effectively. Indian commodity market was developed only after the introduction of nationwide exchanges in 2002. Thus, queries may arise on its efficiency regarding its reactions to macroeconomic variables. Hence this paper intends to examine the impact of macroeconomic variables on commodity futures in India.
Keywords: Commodity Futures; Commodity Price; Macroeconomic Indicators; Wholesale Price Index; Interest rate; Exchange rate.
Eco marketing and Innovations in developing sustainable and green environmental standards
by Soumya Pandey
Abstract: Green accounting is a new and evolving concept of accounting consisting of eco marketing with well-defined standards for productionconsisting of wide-ranging eco-friendly products and processes, satisfying environmental friendly standards and norms. The article focuses on the significance of green branding, green processing and environmental standards which stresses on innovations in practices with a view to develop a sound and sustainable environment. The article examines how green consumerism can be linked to green-marketing and the extent that can influence the environment within and outside the business. The scope of involving green marketing and adopting green processes can be linked with ISO . The article also examines how the green processes can be further strengthened through adoption and implementation of environmental performance indicators. Finally, the article studies, at some length, the operational aspect of implementing Environmental management system in production and processing of goods and services.
Keywords: Eco marketing; green branding; green consumerism; Environmental performance indicators; Environmental management system; ISO 14000.
Effect of Innovation on Firm Competitiveness:Case of Manufacturing SMEs in Nairobi County, Kenya.
by Mary Kiveu, Mary Namusonge, Stephen Muathe
Abstract: Innovation is widely acknowledged as one of the key factors in firm competitiveness and has become prominent in SMEs strategies and government policy. However empirical studies linking Innovation to competitiveness are very limited. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of innovation on firm competitiveness in manufacturing SMEs in Nairobi County, Kenya. Data was collected from a sample of 284 enterprises for the period 2012-2014. Multiple Linear regression was used to analyse the effect of innovation on competitiveness. Findings indicate 97% of the manufacturing SMEs were innovating with majority implementing incremental innovations. Process, Marketing and Organizational innovations had positive significant effect on competitiveness, while product innovation had positive non-significant effect. The study recommends the implementation innovations with high novelty by SMEs to increase their competitiveness.This can be facilitated by SMEs forming linkages and cooperating in innovation with knowledge generating institutions.
Keywords: Competitiveness; Innovation; Small and Medium Enterprises; Manufacturing; Kenya.
Innovativeness, Business Performance and Environmental Uncertainty: A Multivariate Configuration
by Harpreet Singh Bedi
Abstract: This study attempts to explore the contextual nature of Innovativeness Business Performance relationship. Environmental uncertainty is being considered as the contingent variable. The study is descriptive and cross-sectional in nature. It relies upon a purposive sample of 457 North Indian firms. Confirmatory Factor Analysis assesses the psychometric properties of the constructs under investigation. Structure Equation Modeling is used to examine the impact of innovativeness on business performance. Multi-group Moderation Analysis evaluates the role played by environmental uncertainty in Innovativeness Business Performance relationship. This study finds that the pursuit of innovativeness is required for better performance. Results support the contextual nature of Innovativeness Business Performance relationship and reveal that firms operating in a dynamic environment are more likely to be benefitted from the pursuit of innovativeness as compared to firms operating in a stable business environment. The study provides meaningful insights for managerial decision making and also attempts to draw the attention of management personnel towards the pursuit of innovativeness.
Keywords: Innovativeness; Business Performance; Environmental Uncertainty; Innovativeness –Business Performance relationship.
SWARM OPTIMIZED ENERGY HUBNESS CLUSTERING TO DETECT AND RESPOND INTRUSIVE ATTACK VARIANTS IN MANET
by SANTHOSH BABU A V, MEENAKSHI DEVI P
Abstract: A MANET is a continuously self-configuring network contains group of mobile nodes connected without any pre-existing infrastructure. In MANET, the mobile nodes moves arbitrarily and forwards packets to other node within the network. Due to the node mobility, variants attacks are occurred in MANET which reduces the network lifetime. The conventional security method preserves a wired network but it is not effective for detecting the variants intrusive attack in MANET. In order to detect and respond the intrusion attack variants, a Swarm Optimized Energy Hubness clustering (SOEHC) technique is introduced in MANET. The swarm optimization is used for solving the problem of energy efficient routing and by having a number of mobile nodes in network. The mobile nodes are moved in network based on their position and velocity. The fitness of each node is measured based on energy and trust value to detect the intrusion variants in MANET. After that, Hubness clustering is applied to identify the attack variants through the range value of cluster centroid. Finally, intrusion responsive mechanism is performed to make a reaction for attacks through the isolation message distribution. As a result, the SOEHC technique prolong the network lifetime with minimum energy consumption. The simulation is carried out to analyze the performance of proposed SOEHC technique with the parameters such as energy consumption, intrusion detection rate and network lifetime.
Keywords: MANET; Swarm optimization; hubness clustering; fitness function; energy; trust value; intrusion detection; responsive mechanism.
MANAGEMENT OF MUSCULOSKELETAL SHOULDER AND NECK PAIN THROUGH ERGONOMIC INTERVENTION: A PRE-POST DESIGN ANALYSIS IN HAND SCREEN PRINTING INDUSTRY
by Shankar S, Naveenkumar R, Karthick J
Abstract: Hand screen printing process (HSP) is a highly labour intensive work involving repetitive and awkward motion without proper ergonomic tools. The main purpose of this study is to modify the design of the traditionally employed wooden squeegee and evaluate its effect on muscle activity during HSP process. Twenty hand screen printing industry workers participated in the study and printed the design on 30-meter length cloth using both traditional and modified squeegee. Surface electromyography (SEMG) is used to record the muscle activity of sternocleidomastoid (SCM), upper trapezius (bilateral) and infraspinatus (bilateral) muscles during HSP process. One way ANOVA and chi square test is performed using SPSS version 21.0 and the result showed that the data obtained using both traditional and modified squeegee are statistically significant. Introducing modified squeegee in HSP process reduces muscle activity of sternocleidomastoid (SCM), upper trapezius (bilateral) and infraspinatus (bilateral) muscles during HSP process thereby reduces the risk of neck and shoulder injuries.
Keywords: Hand screen printing; Modified squeegee; work related shoulder pain; surface electromyography.
Diving into strange waters: Incumbent adoption of emerging radical technology
by William Carter, Manjula Salimath
Abstract: The timing of incumbent firms adoption of emerging radical technologies has important implications for firms and industries as well as for technological progress. Much is known about factors that lead to successful innovation or adaption to radical technological change, yet little empirical research has examined factors that distinguish between incumbents that choose to be early adopters versus those who do not. From a survey of key informants in firms facing emerging radical technologies, we compare early adopters versus other firms on variables related to learning capacity and technological capabilities. Findings suggest that early adopters possess greater pre-exploitative learning capabilities that enable faster and more effective issue interpretation. Early adopters also perceive greater technological knowledge and commercialization flexibility advantages over rivals that motivate early adoption moves even in the face of extreme uncertainty.
Keywords: Early adoption of radical technologies; strategic choice; incumbent response to radical technological change; radical technological change; incumbent technological innovation; absorptive capacity; pre-exploitative learning; early-mover advantages; awareness-motivation-capability; commercialization flexibility.
Group decision technique for multiple criteria evaluation problems: The preferential difference and rank approach through data envelopment analysis
by Mongkol Kittiyankajon, Danaipong Chetchotsak, Panutporn Ruangchoengchum
Abstract: In a multiple criteria evaluation problem, ranking or selecting the alternatives is usually carried out using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) due to its simplicity and popularity. When applied in a group environment, computation of AHP becomes more difficult and complicated. Although the geometric mean method (GMM) is known to be most common used with AHP for aggregation of judgments of the experts in the group, it may ignore variations among the experts opinions. This paper proposed a group decision technique based on the preferential difference and rank concept. The proposed method used the preferential difference to accommodate strong opinions of the experts in the group while using the DEA/AR exclusion model to give more priority to the alternatives that were put in high ranks more often. The data set used by previous literature, simulated data sets, and the case study of Thailand sugar industry for identification of the SWOT sub factors with their priorities were used to test the effectiveness of the proposed method. In this paper, the group decision techniques by Huang et al. (2009), Angiz et al. (2012), and GMM were used as baseline methods to compare against the proposed method.
Keywords: Group decision; AHP; DEA; A’WOT.
Exploring the determinants of mobile based services diffusion: past determinants, emergent pattern and a proposed framework
by Abhishek Roy, Gautam Dutta, Prabir Kumar Das
Abstract: Firstly, the purpose of this paper is to identify pivotal attributes that are the key determinants of diffusion of innovation in the context of mobile based government services. Secondly, the paper draws-up the emergent pattern derived from the literature review. Thirdly, a framework is proposed enabling enhanced diffusion of mobile telephone based initiatives for policy decisions. Apart from exploring the key determinants used in mobile adoption, in this study an attempt has been made to investigate theories, variables, frameworks, models and methodologies employed by the researchers in the past. A holistic view of mobile based service diffusion research has emerged. One can use this research in policy making, strategizing and finding the key to user acceptance of technology innovation in the mobile based services diffusion. The research motivation is gaining deeper understanding and knowledge of the diffusion of innovation technologies such as mobile phones, mobile based services diffusion. Building m-governance strategies, implementing innovative ideas, mobile and ICT policy development for the e-governance initiatives are also the key motivating factors.
Keywords: Keywords: Diffusion of technology; mobile based services diffusion; technology adoption; e-government; m-government; user behavior.
Social Media Security and Privacy Protection Concerning Youths. How to be Safe, Secure and Social
by Ajith Sundaram
Abstract: In this paper the concept of privacy and security in social media or social networking will be discussed. Today people have become much reliable on social media to share their personal information and multimedia content with relatives, friends and other online users. Users are not completely aware of who has access to their private information. This study provides insight into the impact of the various risk factors involved in social media like phishing, profile squatting, image tagging, spamming ,cross profiling etc., there by highlighting the best practices one can employ to protect their online privacy. This study will help the readers to understand the privacy and security issues involved in social media which can be taken by both users and social network organizations to help improve security and privacy.
Keywords: Social Networking; Privacy; Social Media Affinity; Perceived Risks; Communication; Security.
Understanding the Process of Organizational Commitment Origination in Managers Based on the Grounded Theory with an Emergent Approach (Case Study: Iran Airports)
by Masoumeh Aref, Azar Kafashpoor, MohammadReza Ahanchian, GholamReza MalekZadeh
Abstract: Today, organizational work has different conditions compared to the past. The present study aimed to identify and describe the different aspects of organizational commitment in the managers of the organizations performing in the aviation industry. An emergent methodology was adopted to explain the grounded theory (GT). Using the theoretical sampling principle, 15 managers selected from airports in Iran were interviewed until achieving data saturation. Analysis of 359 codes showed 85 concepts and six subjects, which led to the advent of the final research model called the organizational commitment in managers of airports". Overall, the study could differentiate the concept of organizational commitment in managers from the findings of all the studies conducted to the present in an attempt to demystify this issue.
Keywords: Organizational Commitment in Managers; Organizational Commitment; Grounded Theory; Emergent Approach.
Sparking Innovation among Alien Minds
by Ping Lan
Abstract: This paper introduces a pragmatic framework for stimulating innovation in people who have little innovation experiencealien minds. It demonstrates that individuals innovation capacity can be activated or enhanced by clarifying misconceptions associated with innovation, and using the framework. The introduced framework has three dimensions which correspond to different leverage in sparking innovative ideas: solution, problem and passion. Each dimension has its own delivery package and training focus. The interaction of the three approaches boosts the stimulant to mass innovation. Mini cases drawn from the application of the framework testify the feasibility for improving innovation among alien minds.
Keywords: Alien minds; mass innovation; inside-a-box innovation; close-to-a-box innovation; above-a-box innovation.
INNOVATION QUALITY: BASIC CONCEPT AND MEASUREMENT MODEL
by Dian Prihadyanti
Abstract: Many indicators related with evaluation and measurement of innovation in firm level either theoretically or empirically have been developed. Nevertheless, these indicators are insufficient to evaluate the whole important innovation aspects comprehensively. This may lead to inappropriate conclusion about how well is innovation in a firm can result. Present indicators are only stress on the input or the output, and tend to evaluate the innovation partially. Therefore, a new indicator needs to be developed. This paper attempts to propose a new basic concept and measurement model of innovation quality as new indicator of innovation in firm level. By elaborating basic concept of quality and innovation, innovation quality can be defined as the summation of evaluation on customers satisfaction and firms innovativeness. Innovation quality can be measured by quantifying innovation output, outcomes and impact, and satisfaction towards them in a specific time period. The calculation can then be summarized in a quantitative model. The model has potential to be developed and applied in different level, such as sectoral or geographical.
Keywords: innovation; quality; indicator; customer satisfaction; innovation output; innovation outcome; innovation impact.
Factors contributing to familiarity degree in family firms
by Ascensión Barroso, Ramón Sanguino, Claire Seaman, Tomás M. Bañegil
Abstract: This research proposes a measuring instrument to determine the intensity of family engagement in meeting the defining and distinguishing criteria of family businesses. This proposed method enables the assessment of the different degrees of familiarity of a business on a continuous scale, where the extremes represent the companies with lower and higher degree of familiarity. The instrument, therefore, allows classify firms in function of its familiarity degree. The study was conducted in 180 Spanish family businesses. We have used a latent variable model (Rasch model) which has allowed us to define the familiarity degree construct from the existence or not of a set of items. This methodology also enables managers and institutions to identify the most uncertain perceived items. The article contributes to the existence of an objective characterization when exploring the extent to which family members are involved in the family business, identifying its degree of familiarity.
Keywords: family business; family firm; familiarity degree; family engagement; familiness; measurement instrument; latent variable model; Rasch model; Spain.
Supply Chain Risk Assessment in Pharmaceutical Industries: An Empirical Approach
by Raja Sreedharan V, V. Kamala
Abstract: Supply chain risks are one of the significant hurdles faced by the organizations in achieving operational excellence. The purpose of this study is to assess the supply chain risks in the pharmaceutical industries and their influence on Supply chain operational performance (SCOP). Through extent literature review, we have identified 44 items which are classified under five constructs consisting of Supplier Risk (SR), Production Risk (PR), Demand Risk (DR), Infrastructure Risk (IR) and Macro Risk (MR). Using these constructs, a structured questionnaire has been developed. An online survey was conducted in the pharmaceutical industries yielding a response rate of 66.20%. To validate the hypotheses between these constructs and SCOP, we used Structural equation modeling (SEM). From the SEM result expect demand risks, all other threats have the negative relationship with SCOP (i.e., the higher the chances, the lower the SCOP).Further, to rank the organization based on their SCOP, we proposed a supply chain risk assessment Index (SCRAI) based on the ratings obtained from the experts using Fuzzy techniques. From this results, it is clear that SCRAI is essential for evaluating the organizations efficiency on Supply Chain operations
Keywords: Supply chain risks; Pharmaceutical industries; SCOP; risk index.
EFFECTS OF COUNTRY OF ORIGIN, FOREIGN PRODUCT KNOWLEDGE AND PRODUCT FEATURES ON CUSTOMER PURCHASE INTENTION OF IMPORTED POWDER MILK
by Phuong V. Nguyen, Hoang T.P.M. Le
Abstract: This study aims to investigate drivers of purchase intention for imported powder milk by using the partial least squares-structural equation model approach to analyse a data survey of 449 customers in Vietnam. The findings indicate that ethnocentrism has no significant impact on perceived product quality. This implies that ethnocentrism could become of a reason for customers to support domestic milk products but they also highly appreciate values and quality of foreign products. Meanwhile, the country of origin has a significant positive effect on perceived product quality, brand attitude and purchase intention. However, as separating the country of origin in the first-order construct, information of the country of technology is preferred than that of the country of manufacture. In addition, foreign product knowledge plays a crucial role in purchase intention. Customers will devote more time to seeking information of imported products before making decision. It is worth noting that subjective norm is an essential predictor for purchase intention and product attitude, in which other people around customers can affect their decision and attitude. The research also conducted a qualitative approach to support the empirical results. The findings enable suppliers or managers to identify key determinants to improve the business strategies on the powder milk market.
Keywords: ethnocentrism; features; product quality; country of origin; product knowledge; face saving and conformity; purchase intention.
A Strategic Alignment Model for Collaborative Open Innovation Networks
by Farnaz Fallah Tafti, Neda Abdolvand, Saeedeh Rajaee Harandi
Abstract: Today, the concept of open innovation and collaborative networks attracts great interest. Many organizations use collaborative networks. The success of the innovation of these networks is restricted to their alignment. Hence, this study aims to propose a strategic alignment model for collaborative open innovation networks. The Luftman strategic alignment framework was used as a reference model and was analyzed using qualitative and quantitative approaches. In the qualitative part of the study, the meta-synthesis approach was used to find the factors, and then these factors were placed in proper categories using experts ideas. Next, in the quantitative part, the Chi-square test was used to analyze the hypothesis and the Friedman test was used to prioritize the concepts, dimensions, and categories. Finally, 42 concepts and 16 main categories were identified. Moreover, in addition to the six dimensions of the Luftman model, the research and development dimension was identified as an important dimension.
Keywords: Collaborative Innovation Networks; Open Innovation; Strategic Alignment; Luftman Strategic Alignment Model; Meta-Synthesis.
FinTech - The Systemic Innovation of the Banking Industry
by Jarunee Wonglimpiyarat
Abstract: This paper analyses the diffusion of financial technology or FinTech in the banking industry. It is argued that the FinTech-based innovations need systemic characteristic in order to realise the value of technology and achieve wide market acceptance. The main contribution of this research study is the development of systemic innovation model which can be used as a dynamic tool to track the progress and pattern of technology development and diffusion. The analyses have shown that systemic characteristics of the innovation process are the outcome of interactions between the complexity of the innovation and the capabilities of innovators in managing the innovation. The study provides useful implications to support the FinTech landscape of the banking industry.
Keywords: FinTech; systemic innovation; technology diffusion; PromptPay; e-payment.
Entrepreneurs perceptions of business incubator services in Brazil and Portugal
by Luisa Carvalho, Adriana Backx, Simone Galina
Abstract: Business Incubators (BINC) play an important role in entrepreneurial ecosystems, providing relevant services to support the creation and growth of start-ups. The goal of this paper is twofold: first, to provide a literature review focused on the particularities of BINC, and second, to present an empirical study of Brazilian and Portuguese BINC, Brazil and Portugal being the two places where we designed profiles for entrepreneurs. The results suggest that entrepreneurs perceptions are connected with the requirements of each incubation phase for each firm and register some differences not only between traditional and technological BINC but also between the countries studied, mainly based on the type of services used by entrepreneurs in the different incubation phases
Keywords: Entrepreneurs; Business Incubation; Perceptions; Services.
Impulsiveness and its impact on behavioural intention and use of mobile shopping apps: a mediation model
by Prasanta Kr Chopdar, V.J. Sivakumar
Abstract: The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology 2 (UTAUT2) is applied and extended to explore the adoption and use of mobile shopping apps in India. This study adds impulsiveness construct to the original model. The data gathered from 328 respondents were evaluated using the partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) method. All constructs (i.e. performance expectancy, effort expectancy, facilitating conditions, hedonic motivation, habit and impulsiveness), except for social influence and price value were found to significantly relate to behavioural intention to use mobile shopping applications. Behavioural intention, habit and impulsiveness were found to significantly influence use behaviour of mobile shopping apps, except for facilitating conditions. Moreover, significant mediating influences were reported in the study. The findings of the study provide valuable insights and suggestions for mobile marketers and developers of shopping apps to enable their increased adoption and use. Further, the mediating roles of performance expectancy, effort expectancy and habit have been explored in the model.
Keywords: Consumer behavioural intention; Use behaviour; Mediation; Mobile shopping applications; UTAUT2; Impulsiveness; PLS-SEM; India.
The relationship between job crafting and job performance: Empirical evidence from the automobile industry
by Homa Khorasani Esmaeili, Jihad Mohammad, Iraj Soltani
Abstract: The main objective of this study is to predict the relationships between job crafting and employees in role and extra-role behaviour in a non-western context. The objective also seeks to confirm the validity and reliability of job crafting when measured as a multidimensional construct at a higher order. This study used a cross-sectional design and a self-administered questionnaire to collect quantitative data from 201 employees in the automotive industry in Iran. The partial least squares technique was used to test the developed hypotheses. The results found that job crafting exerts positive and significant effects on employees task and contextual performance. Additionally, the output of this study confirms the measurement of job crafting at the second order in the form of reflective formative type II model. The conclusion, limitations, and future studies directions are discussed as well.
Keywords: job crafting; task performance; contextual performance; automotive industry; partial least squares.
DETERMINANTS OF M-TICKETING ADOPTION USING SMARTPHONE APP AMONG IT EMPLOYEES OF BENGALURU CITY-AN EXTENDED UTAUT2 APPROACH
by K.A. Asraar Ahmed, A. Kranthi Kumar
Abstract: Usage of mobile applications has become pervasive as a part of digital transactions. If not all, most of the desired services (like shopping, banking, ticketing, etc.) are available ubiquitously with the use of smartphones. The present study builds upon the model of the Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 (UTAUT2). The same model is extended to suit the context of mobile ticketing app adoption. Descriptive - cross-sectional research design is employed with purposive sampling to achieve the desired objective. A structured questionnaire is given to the 305 respondents working in Information Technology (IT) sector of Bengaluru city in South India. The structural equation modelling (SEM) is used to test the extended model using plspm package of the R software. The results obtained has portrayed Performance Expectancy, Price Value, Habit, Trust, Perceived Risk, Mobility, and Compatibility as the important factors which would affect mobile ticketing app adoption
Keywords: The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 (UTAUT2); mobile app; smartphone; mobile ticket; PLS-PM; Structural equation modelling and R software.
A CONCEPTUAL STUDY ON INSIGHTS INTO USING "SELFIE" AS A MARKETING TOOL BY COMPANIES: CATCHING THE YOUNG MINDS
by Naresh Babu, D. Bhanu Sree Reddy
Abstract: Purpose:rnThis study is majorly concentrated on selfie marketing strategies that are taken by various companies to improve their business market in current world. It also deals with usage of selfie in marketing strategy and its leverage on selfie phenomena.rnrnMethodology:rnThis research study is entirely based on collection of datas through various database from online journals like, Scopus, Wiley, Emerald, Proquest, EBSCO, Google Scholar and web block. In this paper the search includes, the usage of selfie in market campaign and it also comprises both individual and organizational factors. rnrnFindings:rnCompanies use to adopt marketing strategies based on latest trends in the market. In this scenario, selfie play major role in todays market to create lively marketing campaign in all the vertical and horizontal of business to attract more customers and to create trustworthy, brand loyalty, customer engagement, etc rnrnPractical Implication:rnWhen all the customer prefers to virtual shopping, the social media marketing tools like selfie has its own part to attract the customer towards brand or product on its lively form of self-advertisement.rn rnOriginality:rnThis paper deals with the latest marketing trends and marketing strategy to evoke the latest social media marketing tools to advertise the brand and to increase the customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, product or brand awareness among customers and which help the company for their future growth. rn
Keywords: Selfie; Marketing Strategy; Social Media Marketing; and Selfie Campaigns.
Factors Affecting Social Media Adoption in Small and Medium Enterprises:
Evidence from the UAE
by Adel Alsharji, Fauzia Jabeen, Syed Zamberi Ahmad
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify the various determinants of social media adoption among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study addresses the current dearth of literature on social media adoption within UAE-based SMEs. The data were collected through survey questionnaires from 107 SMEs listed at Khalifa Fund for Enterprise Development, a UAE-based entrepreneurial development entity, and correlation analysis was used to test the study hypotheses. The findings revealed that social media adoption within UAE-based SMEs is significantly associated with perceived relative advantage, perceived compatibility, managers/owners knowledge and expertise, management characteristics and pressure from customers and competitors. This study enhances understanding about the factors associated with social media adoption within SMEs, and particularly in the UAE. The study findings will help entrepreneurs to promote their businesses via social media, and provide insights that may be useful to policy-makers in designing social media adoption initiatives around technical training for SME owners/managers.
Keywords: Social media adoption; Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs); United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Dynamic technological capability of a university as source of academic performance
by Elvis Silveira-Martins, Deosir Flavio Lobo De Castro Junior, Marcio Nakayama Miura, Jean Carlos De Abreu, Flavio Augusto Martino
Abstract: Researchers interested in the process of strategy development are motivated to research the dynamic capacities due to their assumption that they are source of organizational results. In this sense, dynamic technological capabilities prioritize technological knowledge as a competitive differential and generator of superior results compared with the competitors. In Universities, the organizational performance is intrinsically related to several indicators of academic performance. In this article the objective was to analyze the association between the technological dynamic capacity and the performance, by the perception of the academics, of a Federal University in Brazil. The methodology used the quali-quanti research, and the sample was composed by 122 respondents. Multivariate techniques were used to analyze the data. It was concluded that dynamic technological capacity has a positive relation with performance. These results confirm the theory that assures that this type of capacity is the source of performance. As a suggestion, new research could test the possibility of mediation or moderation of the model.
Keywords: Strategy; Dynamic technological capacity; academic performance; organizational performance; competitiveness; university.
Success factors of SMEs: the case of Indonesia
by Mariyudi Mariyudi
Abstract: Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are a business group which could survive when the economic crisis hit developing countries such as Indonesia. The purpose of the current study is to identify the enabling factors to innovativeness for SMEs in the emerging Indonesia market and to examine the relationship between innovativeness and business growth performance. Drawing upon survey questionnaire data from 300 SMEs (with an acceptable response rate of 97.67%) in the Indonesia market, five research hypotheses are tested using a structural equations modeling technique. The results suggest that: fist, the micro-environmental have a significant influence on firms innovativeness and business growth performance, second, firms innovativeness have a significant influence on firms innovativeness, finally, geographical clusters have a significant influence on firms innovativeness and business growth performance. It is believed to be the first empirical research study examining SMEs innovativeness and their business growth performance in the emerging Indonesia market.
Keywords: micro-environmental; geographical clusters; innovativeness; business growth performance.
Influence of Arab culture on managing an innovative work environment: An exploratory study in the United Arab Emirates
by Khadeeja Alfaqeeh, Chowdhury Hossan, Bret W. Slade
Abstract: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has recently shown rapid increases in innovation compared to other parts of the world. The UAE leadership is developing both government and industry, with an emphasis on non-oil sectors, and has prioritized a focus on innovation to increase efficiency and effectiveness. This qualitative study examines the effect of Arab culture on innovation management in the UAE. The study suggests that certain cultural characteristics are enablers for innovation while others are inhibitors. The results of twenty face-to-face interviews show that high collectivism, high context, long-term orientation, and strong followership contribute to building an innovative work environment. High power distance and uncertainty avoidance are the main obstacles to innovation. This study argues that these traits should be minimized or eliminated, and positive factors should be enhanced to increase innovation.
Keywords: Arab culture; Innovation; Government organization; UAE; Qualitative study.
Innovative vs non-innovative manufacturing SMEs: Do strategies and goals differ?
by Nuno Carvalho, Vítor Raposo, Miguel Preto, Luísa Carvalho
Abstract: This paper aims to understand if innovative and non-innovative manufacturing small and medium size enterprises (SME) reveal similar or different goals and strategies. Eventual differences will allow to assist to formulate public policies and managers decisions in order to boost the existence of more innovative enterprises. This research uses an AMOS SPSS multigroup analysis with data from the Community Innovation Survey (CIS) 2012 to test goals and strategies similarities. An independent samples t-test is performed to all variables that dont load in the theoretical model. Results suggest similarities in goals (all enterprises value goals that, eventually, can translate in financial gains). With regard to the strategies, results suggest three similar strategies to all enterprises and five different ones that are more associated to innovative enterprises. The similar strategies are related to costs reduction and alliances while the different ones are more related to international expansion and different types of innovation. Research limitations are related with the sample. The sample only includes manufacturing SMEs and is limited by the goals and strategies present in the CIS survey.Results can be important for managers and policy makers since it was possible to uncover a set of strategies that are more fit to innovative enterprises, which will allow that future public policies and strategy formulation take in consideration these results to improve innovative performance of SMEs or to change enterprises from non-innovative to innovative ones. Testing an industrial sector is an important step to start uncovering industries segmentation (industries that have a similar behavior) and, consequently, improve public policies and management decisions. This study also allowed to uncover that, despite not being innovative, many enterprises value innovative strategies.
Keywords: CIS; community innovation survey; SMEs; strategies; goals; innovative enterprises; non-innovative enterprises.
Financial interval time series modeling and forecasting using threshold autoregressive models
by Leandro Maciel
Abstract: Financial interval time series (ITS) describe the evolution of the high and low prices of an asset throughout time. Their accurate forecasts play a key role in risk management, derivatives pricing and asset allocation, demanding the development of models able to properly predict these prices. This paper evaluates threshold autoregressive models for financial ITS forecasting as a nonlinear approach for ITS considering as empirical application the main index of the Brazilian stock market, the IBOVESPA. One step ahead interval forecasts are compared against linear and nonlinear time series benchmark methods in terms of traditional accuracy metrics and quality measures designed for ITS. The results indicated the predictability of IBOVESPA ITS and that significant forecast contribution are achieved when nonlinear approaches are considered. Further, nonlinear models do provide higher accuracy when forecasting Brazilian financial ITS.
Keywords: Interval Time Series; Threshold Models; Forecasting; IBOVESPA; Interval Representation.
An Assessment of the Effect of Organizational Ambidexterity on Performance of Selected Global System for Mobile Communication Operators in Enugu State, Nigeria
by Wilfred Ukpere
Abstract: An essential aspect of an organizations strategy involves deciding how to devote time and resources to various kinds of endeavors. Exploration and Exploitation which is Organizational Ambidexterity are two categories of undertakings organizations share their attention as proposed by scholars. The argument though mixed, is that, organizations that are able to simultaneously carryout these two activities perform better. This study had the broad aim of assessing how organizational ambidexterity affects the performance of selected operators of GSM in Enugu State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to identify the extent of the relationship between the adoption of exploitative innovations and customers satisfaction; and to ascertain the extent of the relationship between the adoption of explorative innovations and new product acceptability. Descriptive survey research design was adopted and a total of 4,968,716 subscribers of the four selected GSM operators made up the population of the study. Kregcie and Morgans formula for determining sample size from a finite population gave us a sample size of 384 subscribers. Out of the 384 copies of questionnaire that were distributed to the subscribers, 365 copies were correctly filled and returned. Validity of the instruments was achieved through the assessment of management experts from both the academia and the industry. Internal consistency test that uses Cronbach alpha coefficient as a test statistic was used to test the reliability of the research instrument and it yielded a coefficient of 0.890. Pearson product moment correlation was employed to test the hypotheses at 5% level of error. The findings indicated that: the adoption of exploitative innovations had a significant and positive relationship with customers satisfaction (r =0.774, P= 0.000< 0,005); the adoption of explorative innovation strategy does not significantly correlate with new product acceptability (r =0.090, p= 0.085 > 0.005). The study therefore concluded that the customers are satisfied with the exploitative innovations of the GSM operators but they are not expressively receptive to their exploratory innovations. The study therefore recommended that organizations should carry out a concept testing survey exercise before launching new products. Also adequate attention should be given to both exploitative and exploratory innovation so that one aspect does not suffer.
Keywords: Ambidexterity; Explorative Innovation; Exploitative Innovation; Product Acceptability; Customer Satisfaction.
Smallholder Farmers Intention to Adopt Microfinance Services in Rural Areas of Tanzania A Behavioural Study
by Julius Joseph Macha, Yee-Lee Chong, I-Chi Chen
Abstract: In Tanzania, microfinance services aim to assist individuals who are not qualified for conventional banking services to access financial services that is necessary for increasing their work productivity and output. However, response given by smallholder farmers who are the majority of rural population is not encouraging. This study addresses issues that are related to behavioural variables. Probability sampling technique was used to select respondents and the questionnaire survey data were analysed by using structural equation modelling (SEM). The results show that, the following variables: perceived benefits, subjective norms, attitude, and perceived behavioural control produce significant positive effects on smallholder farmers intention to adopt microfinance services. Meanwhile, perceived barriers and behavioural intention have significant negative relationship. Public and private sectors are recommended to arrange more training sessions to enhance respondents financial knowledge, revise group-lending model to minimise the risk that need to be borne by individual group member, reduce the micro-loans interest rate, and introduce financial products that can match with rural farmers needs.
Keywords: Perceived barriers; perceived benefits; subjective norms; attitude towards microfinance; perceived behavioural control; behavioural intention.
Development of a model for assessing technology commercialization success
by Jafar Yazdimoghaddam, Mohammad Saleh Owlia, Reza Bandarian
Abstract: Considerable evidence from all around the world shows that so far, only a small number of the technologies in commercialization have been successful, and this is because of the complex nature of the commercialization process. One of the solutions which have been offered in literature to solve the problems of commercialization process is the initial evaluation of the success of the technology commercialization before its implementation. The current study intends to identify the factors affecting the success of technology commercialization and their relative importance in order to develop a model for assessing technology commercialization. Based on literature review and fuzzy Delphi method, 32 components were identified and classified in four dimensions including technical specifications, financial specifications, market specifications, and rules and confirmations. Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) was utilized to determine the interaction of factors of technology commercialization success, and Analytic Network Process (ANP) was used to derive the relative importance of technology commercialization success factors (TCSF). In this study, Fuzzy Delphi, ISM and ANP methods were conducted sequentially using opinions of 22 chosen experts working at research institutes and knowledge-based companies active in the commercialization of technologies in Iran. The market specifications revealed as the most important dimension affecting the success of the technology commercialization. Finally, a commercialization assessment model was proposed based on the priority weights of success factors.
Keywords: technology commercialization success; commercialization evaluation; Fuzzy Delphi method; Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM); Analytic Network Process (ANP).
Reinventing Leadership: New Approaches and the Perspective of Italian Millennials
by Vittorio D'Amato, Francesca Macchi
Abstract: The business world is changing, and it is expected that a new generation of employees (Millennials), whose needs, ideas, and expectations are different from those of the past, will make up 75% of the workforce by 2025. The present study is aimed at understanding what competencies are needed for a leader to relate to Millennials. To answer this question, the authors have collected the perspective of this group from the Millennials themselves.
Our proposal is based on a wealth of experience and integrates many of the latest, best, most robust and practical approaches on the theme of leadership, with research carried out on a group of 240 freshmen in our university in order to obtain the Millennial point of view.
Keywords: leadership; engagement; people management; change; leadership behaviours; leadership innovation; Millennials.
Banks Performance and Customers Satisfaction in Relation to Corporate Social Responsibility: Mediating Customer Trust and Spiritual Leadership: What Counts!
by Anan Srouji, Suzan Abed, Madher Hamdallah
Abstract: The drive of the work study is essentialzed at first to investigate Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) awareness impacts on apparent Customer Satisfaction (CSatf) and Banking Performance (BPerf) in the Jordanian banking division. Meanwhile, the second focus of this work is to propose a mediating role of Customer Trust (CTrust) and Spiritual Leadership (SprLead) with a measurement of relationship effect between exogenous and endogenous variables. A hypothesized model test was performed through field survey, total of 417 customers input gathered in 24 banks. Results and presumptions reveal that customers in Jordanian banks ascertain that CSR is a dimensional paradigm that obliges as a direct component of CSatf and BPerf through a positive relationship. While, CTrust has a partial positive mediating effect on relationship between CSR Csatf, and between CSR Bperf, SprLead had a partial mediating effect between CSR - CSatf. and did not influence the relationship between CSR - BPerf.
Keywords: Corporate social responsibility; Customer satisfaction; Bank performance; Customer trust; Spiritual leadership.
Collaboration Improvement among Batik Tourism Stakeholders of Surakarta City: A Value Co-Creation Process With Soft System Dynamic Methodology
by Santi Novani, Yudi Azis, Atik Aprianingsih, Arlavianyssa P. Aru, Utomo S. Putro
Abstract: Stakeholder interest and participation is crucial in the success of city tourism. However, further study is needed to elaborate how value co-creation can be enhanced among stakeholders. The objective of this paper is to develop a simulation model that can describe value co-creation processes in city tourism. For doing so, this study uses Surakarta City as a case study because it is one of the famous tourist cities in Central Java, Indonesia. The study was conducted using a Soft System Dynamics Methodology (SSDM). Data were collected using qualitative and quantitative approaches. The research findings were derived through simulation, which shows the best scenario for improving collaboration among stakeholders. By using the concept of a value co-creation process from a service science perspective, it is believed that the simulation model from this study can provide guidance for the citys tourism sector in order to increase its performance. This guidance is especially relevant for the local government of Surakarta
Keywords: Soft System Dynamic Methodology; Value co-creation; Tourism City; Case Study.
Employee Engagement: A Structured Review of Antecedents and Consequences
by Neha Gupta, Vandna Sharma
Abstract: Employee engagement emerges as a critical success factor for the corporate world and consulting firms and has become the most researched phenomena in the research world. The development of policies and strategies that facilitate employee engagement in an organization depends majorly on human resource development professionals. The psychological status of employee engagement is an inclusive term that encompasses employee sentiments like job satisfaction, commitment, involvement and extra role behaviour. Employee engagement is the integration of motivation, performance and business. Engagement is a road map to profit, performance and loyalty that begins the journey to the results that organization is looking for. Thats why organizations are putting their extra effort to implement this strategy due to its results that is linked with organization effectiveness. However, it has rarely been included in the academic curriculum and there is very little knowledge about the antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. The purpose of this study is to explore the conceptual and empirically driven antecedents as well as consequences of employee engagement concepts. A structured literature review method was adopted to list out the antecedents and consequences of employee engagement at the individual level as well as organizational level. The results from this study provide supports for identifying the antecedents and the consequences variables and applicability of these variables towards development of management practices centred on employee engagement.
Keywords: Employee engagement; antecedents; consequences; organizational performance; outcomes.