International Journal of Business Innovation and Research (93 papers in press)
Maximizing Product Innovation in Chinese State-Owned Enterprises
by Xiaomin Zhao, Ping Lan
Abstract: Chinese SOEs have been experiencing dramatic changes over the last three decades. Although there is an active debate on the advantages and disadvantages of Chinese SOEs, few studies pay attention to the quantitative relationship between Chinese SOEs new product development and the ownership structure of the industries. Does the change of weight of SOEs in an industry affect the overall innovation output of the industry? By examining new product development data in all 39 industries in China from 2006 to 2010, this research measures the influence of the SOEs on the industrial innovation at different ownership scenarios. Through comparative analysis between different industrial groups and regression, this study reveals that in the industries which has 15-30% of SOEs, the overall innovation demonstrates the best results, which are reflected in more new products, larger monetary value of innovation, and a higher efficiency of new products development.
Keywords: new product innovation; Chinese SOEs; Chinese industrial enterprises; enterprise symbiosis; structure optimization
How to measure collaboration in an open innovation context
by Emilia Lamberti, Mauro Caputo, Francesca Michelino, Antonello Cammarano
Abstract: The paper suggests a multidimensional measurement system assessing collaboration in an open innovation context by the use of 1) costs and revenues deriving from joint development processes and 2) joint patents as the outcome of such activities. Three metrics are introduced to evaluate the weight of collaborations on both the total business of companies and their patent portfolio: collaboration costs share, collaboration revenues share and joint patents share.
A sample of 114 worldwide top R&D spending bio-pharmaceutical firms is analysed and eight clusters are defined, from closed sole-patenting to coupled joint-patenting.
The work proposes a novel way to assess collaboration processes, identifying their impact on the business model of companies. Furthermore, it integrates metrics for collaboration process and outputs within a comprehensive measurement system. Drawing on objective and available data from both consolidated annual reports and PATSTAT, the framework allows managers to evaluate the collaborative position of their firms, monitoring its evolution and benchmarking with competitors.
Keywords: R&D collaboration; Open innovation; Joint patents; Innovation metrics; Bio-pharmaceutical industry.
Mutual Benefits for Buying and Supplying Firms: The Role of Technology Routinization
by Jae Hyeon Pae
Abstract: Companies often introduce new business technologies into their corporate environment with the aim of improving their competitive advantages. To this end, this study sets out to identify the factors that play a tangible role in facilitating the routinization of procured business technologies. In this context, we not only examine the roles of technology and organizational culture in routinization, but also assess the impact of industrial market interactions between the technology-supplying firm and the buying firm on the level of routinization. More importantly, we focus on the impact of routinization in creating mutual benefits for the technology buying and the supplying firms. Using business-to-business market data, we empirically validate that the buying firms corporate culture, perceived technology attributes, environmental turbulence, and the supplying firms service orientation are critical in increasing the routinization level of business technologies, which in turn helps to create/sustain mutual advantages for both parties.
Keywords: technology routinization, corporate culture, environmental turbulence, benefits for buying firms, benefits for supplying firms
Store Format Choice Behaviour for Organised and Unorganised stores of NCR in India-A Discriminant Analysis
by Moonis Shakeel, Shashank Mehra
Abstract: Indian retail sector was highly fragmented and unorganised till last decade. Many Indian retailers entered in the Indian market and opening the stores across the country in last one decade and later international retailers also entered the bandwagon. As competition is intensified in Indian F&G grocery retailing and retailers are in transformation stage and need to be researched. This research study is based on primary data through at-home survey method using structured and non-disguised questionnaire from National Capital Region (NCR)-Delhi. The study using descriptive as well as empirical research applying random sampling on 1000 questionnaires across national capital region of Delhi out of which 890 usable questionnaires were found to be further analysed. The study classified in two phases in the first phase researchers identified various items for grocery store patronage; and secondly, discriminating dimensions on which the customers select a store format for grocery store choice.
Keywords: Store format choice, organised and unorganised retail in India, kirana shops, store attributes, discriminant analysis.
Marketing conception in SMEs; A paradigm shift, why SMEs fail to adopt marketing in Hefei, China.
by Kashif Ullah Khan, Song Wei, Atlas Fouzia, Muhammad Hamayun, Ahmad Nawaz Zaheer, Bilal Ahmed, Farhan Khan
Abstract: China, at present, is a rapidly growing economy. Just like other developed countries in the world, SMEs play a vital role and contribute substantially to the economic growth of China. Marketing also plays the same role in SMEs growth, but as marketing conception in SMEs has been a continuous issue among academicians and practitioners. This research is an endeavor to investigate the marketing conception held by the owners (entrepreneurs) of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Hefei, China, as compared to the marketing conception developed in academic literature while using three different marketing paradigms (i.e. the transaction, relationship and induction marketing approaches). The second objective of this research is to know why entrepreneurs fail to adopt marketing approach in their firms (SMEs). In order to achieve our objectives, we collected data randomly from SMEs in different sectors and our results show that there is no significant difference, except with some, regarding the perception of marketing concepts. Also we found, the main reason of failure was high costs and the entrepreneurs priority to focus on the quality of the products.
Keywords: Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs); Marketing paradigms; entrepreneurs’ conception of marketing.
Business Innovation in Credit and Collection: A Case Study in a Brazilian Water Supplying Company
by Rosangela Vanalle, Wagner Lucato, Ivone Sato
Abstract: The major objective of this study is to propose a novel and viable procedure for the recovery of overdue debts especially designed for low-income population in order to allow them to regain access to good quality drinking water supply. To verify the suitability of the proposed procedure to real-world situations, two case studies were conducted in communities in which the customers financial situation precludes the maintenance of timely payments. As a result, it was possible to conclude that the reduction in the debt stock and default rates in those communities were significant after applying the new procedure. Hence, this study suggests that using a different way to deal with low-income customers is essential to obtain the best results in terms of financial recovery and also to make once again water affordable for them.
Keywords: Overdue debts; Water supply; Water affordability.
The Mediating Role of Process and Product Innovation in the Relationship between Environmental Management Accounting and Firms Financial Performance
by Sayedeh Parastoo Saeidi, Mohd Shahwahid Haji Othman
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the mediating role of product and process innovation in the relationship between Environmental Management Accounting (EMA) and firms financial performance in Iranian companies. The paper adopted the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach to test the hypotheses. The findings are based on 118 Iranian manufacturing and consumer product firms in 2014. The findings reveal that the link between environmental management accounting and financial performance is a partial mediated relationship. Positive effect of environmental management accounting on financial performance is due to the positive effect environmental management accounting has on both product and process innovation on one hand, and positive affect that innovation has on financial performance on the other. These findings suggest a role for environmental management accounting in indirectly promoting firm performance through enhancing innovation.
Keywords: Environmental management accounting; product innovation; process innovation; firm performance; Iran
Brazilian SMEs Innovation Strategies: Agro-industry, Construction and Retail industries
by Gustavo Dambiski Gomes de Carvalho, Eduardo Damião da Silva, Hélio Gomes de Carvalho, Marcia Beatriz Cavalcante, June Alisson Westarb Cruz
Abstract: The Brazilian Micro and Small Business Support Service (SEBRAE) developed the Local Innovation Agents Program (LIA) mainly to convey the culture of innovation to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). By means of correlational hierarchical cluster analysis of 412 companies Innovation Radar, this research aims to identify the main innovation strategies of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Agro-industry, Construction, and Retail industries. Among the main results, it is noteworthy that in all industries the Platform dimension, which comprises common components for different products, is one of the most developed dimensions among the main innovation strategies. This result reinforces the incremental nature of innovation among SMEs. Moreover, the innovation strategies adopted by SMEs have involved dimensions other than just product development, such as organisational, brand, clients, distribution channels, and supply chain, among others.
Keywords: innovation; strategy; innovation strategies; strategic innovation; innovation radar; business innovation; small and medium-sized enterprises; SMEs; agro-industry; construction; retail; SEBRAE; Brazil; cluster analysis.
Influence of psycho-demographic variables of customers on their expectations and satisfaction towards retail store image attributes
by Anuradha Arthanari
Abstract: With the increasing level of awareness and the changing lifestyle pattern, the consumer prefers to purchase from a place where his/her concurrence and preferences are more valued. The physical environments of retail stores and the attributes of the stores (lighting, air-conditioning, washrooms, store layout, aisle placement etc.,) create a tangible representation or image of the store to meet the expectations of more sophisticated and demanding customers. The present study focusses on the way in which the lifestyle parameters of activities and interests of the people influence their level of expectation and satisfaction towards the store attributes and their shopping experiences in the major organized food and grocery retail outlets in Coimbatore city and ultimately influences their store loyalty status. A unique model was proposed and Stratified convenience sampling procedure was adapted to select 320 customers who visit eight major organized food and grocery retail outlets in the city to carry out the research. Questionnaire was constructed and the data collected was analyzed using the ANOVA and the Structural Equation Modeling. The findings of the study reveal that the lifestyle parameters of activities and interests play a vital role in the shopping decisions of the customers in the organized food and grocery retail outlets. The results of the SEM show that the expectations of the customers are majorly determined by the two major lifestyle psychographics parameters (activities and interests) of the customers. It also reveals the fact that about 35.3% of the change in the level of satisfaction of the customers towards their organized retail outlet is explained by the expectations of these customers towards the attributes of that organized retail outlet.
Keywords: activities, interests, lifestyle psychographics,demographics,store attributes,store image, expectation, satisfaction, store loyalty
How can crowds be used in developing complex industrial products?
An analysis of factors impacting the usefulness of crowdsourcing outcomes
by Sanna Ketonen-Oksi, Hannu Kärkkäinen, Jari Jussila
Abstract: Understanding how to plan and execute crowdsourcing challenges of complex industrial products is crucial for receiving useful information and knowledge from crowds. This qualitative single-case study was, thus, initiated to analyse the factors impacting the usefulness of crowdsourcing outcomes. The data were collected by means of semi-structured in-depth interviews with representatives of a crowdsourcing company and a crowdsourcing platform provider. From these data, a number of factors impacting the usefulness of information and knowledge acquired from crowdsourcing were identified, and their significances were evaluated, thereby increasing our understanding of value creation from crowdsourcing activities. The need for novel skills and competences was highlighted. Though more validation is needed to generalise these preliminary results, this study generates a new qualitative understanding of the use of crowdsourcing in the development of complex (new) product development.
Keywords: open innovation; crowdsourcing; complex products; product development; innovation process.
Performance Evaluation of University Rankings: Literature Review and guidelines for future research
by Sandra Valmorbida, Sandra Ensslin
Abstract: The evaluations of the quality of universities through rankings emerge as an alternative to guide decision making. Thus, this research aims to analyze the characteristics of international scientific publications that address the literature fragment of evaluating the performance of university rankings, in order to generate knowledge to identify gaps and then point out possibilities for future contributions in this area of expertise. For such purpose, this qualitative study selected the ProKnow-C tool for selection of literature and reflection of the established characteristics. From the formation of the bibliographic portfolio which consists of 27 articles, the following results were identified Scientometrics was the most receptive to this topic; 64 authors; and the metaphysical epistemological basis as the one that most informed the evaluation of the rankings; the development of generic rankings; the use of indicators with easily accessible data; focus on the use past data; comparing institutions size and distinct characteristics.
Keywords: university rankings; performance evaluation; literature review; Pro Know-C; epistemology.
A Mediation Analysis on the Potential Determinants of Brand Extension Success
by Nithya Murugan, Jayanth Jacob
Abstract: Prior research on brand extension has proved that an extensions success predominantly depends on the perceived quality of the parent brand, extensions congruence to its original brand, advertising effort and distribution support. Albeit many studies have been conducted on the potential determinants of brand extension success, in most of those studies, only the direct relationship between brand extension success and its potential determinants have been tested, ignoring the fact that some success factors may represent extension success on other relationships. In this study the proposed model considers the plausible indirect relationships between the success factors, offering various managerial implications that helps in reducing the fear of launching dissimilar extensions and expanding the boundary of extension products. To test this possibility, a survey about ten national FMCG brands and their real extensions was conducted with a sample of 425 adult consumers. Findings from causal path analyses indicated that advertising effort helps in gaining retailers acceptance of the product in addition to improving the fit perceptions leading to positive evaluation of extension product. Distribution support has both direct and indirect effect on brand extension success through perceived fit. Hence, perceived fit partially mediates the relationship between distribution support and consumer evaluation of extension. The positive parent brand attitude affects the retailers distributions support for the extension and in turn the extension success. This study shows that judgments on fit perceptions are dynamic; even moderate and in-congruent extensions can benefit from repetitive and consistent advertising and intense distribution, indicating that extensions can stretch beyond the original boundaries suggested.
Keywords: Brand extension, perceived fit, adverting effort, distribution support, India
Towards the Open Innovation Strategy: A Longitudinal Study of Service Firms in an Emerging Market
by Erlinda Yunus
Abstract: This study examines the innovation practises of service firms in one of the most promising emerging markets: Indonesia. The study highlights innovation strategies that Indonesian service firms employ, particularly, contrasting closed versus open innovation strategies, investigating the influence of innovation strategies on firm innovativeness and examining the impact of firm innovativeness on firm performance. The results reveal a significant shift towards open innovation, indicated by the increasing reliance on the external sources of innovation and the extent of external collaboration over the years. A higher degree of collaboration is shown by the degree of vertical collaboration (that is, collaboration with suppliers or customers) and knowledge-intensive collaboration (collaboration with universities or government). Open innovation strategy is found to have a positive effect on firm innovativeness; firm innovativeness further exerts a positive impact on firm performance, while firm size also influences the relationships.
Keywords: open innovation, innovation performance, service firms, longitudinal study, emerging market
The innovation dynamics in SMEs: proposal of a method
by Luís Filippe Serpe, Diogo Jose Horst, Pedro Paulo de Andrade Junior, Dalcio Roberto dos Reis
Abstract: Innovation management is an issue of central importance to modern firm management, literature and praxis, creating great discussion concerning managerial topics, definitions, problems and possible solutions. The scope and boundaries of innovation activities have also become a matter of greater debate, thus creating further problems in determining which activities are present in a company and what method, criteria or structure should be used to develop improvements for each activity. The objective of this study is to propose a method to evaluate a set of innovation activities, helping to guide small companies towards the implementation of innovation within their core managerial structure. The method intertwines the innovation dimensions (REIS, 2008), with the four phases of the diagnosis process, as described by Reis (2008). The assessment process was developed through a scoring system, which concentrates the innovation activities in levels, based on a model by Andrade Jr. (2013). This should help to ease the assessment of innovation problems and deficiencies in companies, by expanding its development perspective through an integrated innovation-driven and market oriented model.
Keywords: multicriteria decision analysis; innovation management; knowledge management; SMEs; decision support methods.
Multi-dimensional nature of innovation at Amazon
by Jesse Arnett, Brion Goldfinch, Ravi Chinta
Abstract: The paper presents the evolutionary transformation process of Amazon as a company case study that is based on the analysis of documentary data and interviews with industry consultants responsible for advising strategic growth plans of large and fast growth firms in technology-intensive industries. Our analysis reveals many distinct and diverse patterns of innovation at Amazon that come under customer-driven innovation (based on unmet needs revealed from customer research), technological innovation (leading to radical process redesigns), business model innovations (stemming from bold new vision about the future) and open innovation (co-innovation partnerships with other firms). While our examples from Amazon provide the empirical basis for the paper, we believe that the patterns of innovation revealed by these specific examples underline broad patterns of innovation models that other firms can emulate. We conclude the paper with implications for future research and practitioners.
Keywords: Amazon; B2C innovation; continuous innovation; firm transformation; open innovation
Performance outcomes of interaction, balance, and alignment between exploration and exploitation in the technological innovation domain
by David Cembrero, Josune Saenz
Abstract: A key point in previous research on ambidexterity is the operationalization of the ambidexterity concept. Usually, multiplicative interaction (i.e. showing high scores in exploration and exploitation) and balance are the two facets considered. We argue that a third facet should be added: alignment, which refers to the extent to which exploration and exploitation are certainly interrelated and complement each other. The results of the research show that, unlike previous research, what truly matters for firm performance is to focus on radical innovation and to develop incremental innovations that truly complement the former (alignment). On the contrary, interaction and balance between both types of innovation do not show a significant influence on company performance. Specific measures to operationalize the alignment construct are provided.
Keywords: Ambidexterity; Alignment; Exploration; Exploitation; Firm performance; Technological innovation.
CO-EXISTENCE OF SOCIAL MEDIA AND WORK PRODUCTIVITY?
by Jehangir Bharucha
Abstract: Abstract:This paper throws more light on the ongoing debate whether social media at work reduces or increases productivity. Purposive sampling was conducted with 118 employees chosen from different parts of Mumbai city. It is clear that employees are absolutely in favour of access to social media at the workplace. In fact a modern employer today should use this to his advantage and try to ensure that social media access guarantees better productivity. It is also preferable that organisations have a social media usage policy in consultation with the employees and to which employees agree.
Keywords: social media; workplace; productivity; hinders; balance.
Network structure and open innovation: the role of trust in product development
by Aluisius Hery Pratono
Abstract: The challenge of implementation of open innovation to new product development does not only spring from margin of managerial action but also from network structure. However, there is a complex relationship between network structure and product development that allows firm to achieve performance. Along with survey on SMEs in Indonesia context, this study demonstrates empirically that firms with extended expansion of network structures will not achieve per performance, unless they can build trust and product development capability upon the networks. The result confirms that combination between social capital theory and dynamic capability enhances the explanation on firm performance.
Keywords: open innovation; network structure; trust; product development; firm performance
Predicting Online Buying Behaviour A Comparative Study Using Three Classifying Methods
by Sanjeev Prashar, Sai Vijay Tata, Chandan Parsad
Abstract: Online retailing with its increasing foothold has made India one of the most anticipated destinations for both local and multinational retailers. The success of these online retailers will depend on their ability to attract more and more consumers to shop online. Therefore, it is pertinent to comprehend and understand consumers attitude and behaviour towards online shopping, besides predicting online buying potential. This empirical study investigates the accuracy of prediction of different classifiers used in determining online buying. We empirically compared the forecasting ability of neural network (NN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and k-nearest neighbour (kNN) in the context of consumers willingness to shop online. Statistical evidence has been provided that neural network significantly outperforms the other two models in terms of the predicting power. This study shall contribute to online retailers in reducing their vulnerability with respect to market demand and improve their preparedness to handle the market response.
Keywords: Online buying; Predicting buying behaviour; Neural network; e-Commerce; k-nearest neighbour; Linear discriminant analysis.
What drives SME explorative-exploitative alliance formation: An integrated perspective
by Ch. V. V. S. N. V. Prasad, Rohit Prabhudesai
Abstract: Domain separation approach toward ambidexterity has received increased research attention in recent years. While SMEs can especially use the approach for obtaining competitive benefits, what drives them to form alliances across the different domains of the approach is not yet clear. The aim of this paper is to determine the drivers of SME exploration-exploitation alliance domains. The study combines the parallel perspectives on motives-antecedents of SME alliances and the domains of exploration-exploitation to provide an integrated theoretical model. Specifically, the paper aims to determine the likely conditions which cause SMEs to opt for exploration or exploitation in each of the domains. Findings indicate that a combination of motives and antecedents at all three levels- firm-level, partner-level, and environmental-level, affect the three domains of SME exploration-exploitation alliances, namely functional, structural and attribute.
Keywords: Exploration-exploitation; SME alliances; SME alliance formation; resource-based view; ambidexterity; functional exploration-exploitation; structural exploration-exploitation; attribute exploration-exploitation; absorptive capacity; alliance formation; social networks; entrepreneurship
INFLUENCE OF TRANSFORMATIONAL SERVANT LEADERSHIP STYLES AND JUSTICE PERCEPTIONS ON EMPLOYEE BURNOUT: A MODERATED MEDIATION MODEL
by Divya S, Suganthi L
Abstract: Todays managers need to possess strong leadership skills in order to combat the dynamic organizational demands. This study provides a unique insight into how two popular leadership styles- transformational leadership and servant leadership interact, when faced with employee burnout. A moderated mediation model is formulated with transformational leadership moderating the indirect effect of servant leadership on employee burnout through organizational justice. This model is empirically tested and proved in an information technology firm. The results support the model and provide new avenues for leadership research by providing a unique insight on how different leadership styles can be effective together. The practical implications of this study andrndirections for future research are discussed.
Keywords: Moderated mediation; transformational leadership; servant leadership; organizational justice; burnout.
HESITATION TO ADOPTION IN THE E-GROCERY RETAILING IN AN EMERGING MARKET
by Bikramjit Rishi, H Pradeep, Manaswini Viswanathan
Abstract: The study aims to identify the various factors influencing adoption of e-grocery in India. The factors which have been analyzed in this study include guidance for shopping, transaction security, sensory perception while shopping and product assortment and availability. The impact of these factors has been studied on perceived risk, perceived communicability, perceived compatibility and perceived complexity. The interactions have been hypothesized to influence customers choice of shopping for groceries online. The sample has been selected from the MBA graduates from a leading business school in India as these MBA graduates have joined the program after the work experience and majority of them are married and they are the prospective innovators which will contribute hugely in the success of e-retailing in India. Questionnaire has been administered to 500 respondents and 440 respondents responded. Multiple regression analysis has been used to analyse the data. A thorough understanding of the factors influencing online grocery purchase adoption could lead to the designing effective marketing mix by online retailers to grow their business.
Keywords: E- Grocery, perceived risk, perceived communicability, perceived compatibility and perceived complexity
Empirical research on the adoption and diffusion of e-commerce portals
by Sanjay Mohapatra, Kishore Chandra Sahu
Abstract: While many online business are spending much of their money on bringing the visitors to their websites, the rate at which the website visitors get converted to customers and do transactions is very less. This study investigated the various factors that affect the e-Commerce conversion rate. Results of the online survey with 160 online consumers of various e-Commerce websites in India indicate that visitors experience, user interface experience, post purchase experience, streamlined checkout process, advertisement and promotion, and m-commerce are significantly affects the visitors willingness in doing transaction and becoming loyal customers.
Keywords: e-Commerce; streamline check-out process; factors affecting e-Commerce conversion rate; B2B
The Study of Influential Factors Causing an APP being Removed
by Chin-Yao Chen, Tzong-Ru (Jiun-Shen) Lee Lee, Ya-Ching Yang, S.P. Anbuudayasankar, A.T. Resmi
Abstract: Due to the fact that more and more people use iPods and smart phones in their daily life, mobile phone applications (APP) have become one of the key business opportunities for a corporations success. It is important to understand the factors leading to customers satisfaction because it ensures that APPs will be retained and continuously used by the customer. It is also important to combine the program of the APP along with customers perspective. The aim of the study is to elucidate the key factors that would result in customers removing the APP. The research methods used are GRA, TRIZ and SIM. Key influential factors are sorted out through Grey Relational Analysis (GRA). Strategies are generated by the theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ), and the priority of strategies-executing is provided by interpretive structural modeling (ISM). The research findings indicate 7 key factors to understand the reason why customers delete an APP, and 12 strategies to increase customers satisfaction that would ensure continuous use of the APP.
Keywords: Mobile phone application (APP); Customers’ satisfaction; Grey relational analysis (GRA); The theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ), Interpretive structural modeling (ISM)
Pester Power: Comparison between China & India
by Monica Chaudhary
Abstract: This empirical paper article presents a comparative study of children from the two most emerging and growing economies; India and China. The one-child policy in the People's Republic of China has created a generation of only one child in many urban areas. For this reason, urban China offers a unique environment to study the influence of children in family purchase decision-making. On the other hand in India, where population is growing very rapidly and expected to surpass China is a very attractive investment opportunity for MNCs. The objective is to explore to what extent findings related to Chinese childrens influence in buying process are applicable in India. The paper also presents a comparison between the results of both countries.
Keywords: China, India, Children, Marketing, Purchase decision, Buying Process
Brazil in the research and development of vaccines: innovation policies and measurable results
by Cássia Rita Pereira Da Veiga, Claudimar Pereira Da Veiga, Jansen Maia Del Corso, Wesley Vieira Da Silva
Abstract: This paper investigates the Brazilian innovation policy to encourage research and development (R&D) of NTDs vaccines and evaluates the measurable results achieved by Brazil from the perspective of Intellectual Property over the past 35 years. It is possible to note the significant national efforts that have been made in Brazil to ensure that national policies and technological and industrial strategies incorporate innovation in NTDs vaccines. Regarding patent date, Brazil can be analyzed as an innovative developing country and the R&D of vaccines for NTDs has progressed slowly over the past 35 years. Moreover, Brazilian R&D remains under the responsibility of public institutions and the establishment of public-private partnerships is still limited. On the other hand, this study highlights an important change in NTDs scenario, with increased participation of private companies. Finally, this study establishes a criticism in confronting the incentives of Brazilian innovation policy with the findings of empirical research.
Keywords: Patent; Innovation; intellectual property; Neglected Tropical Diseases; Vaccine Market; Research and Development.
Effects of Innovation Types on Firm Performance: An Empirical Approach in South Korean Manufacturing Industry
by Eunil Park
Abstract: In recent years, the innovation paradigm has changed from a closed to open strategy. Open innovation is currently considered as one of the hottest topics in business and management research. Although the understanding of the current innovation paradigm has improved in the last decade, a number of unexplored questions still remain. Therefore, the current study aims to investigate the relationships among closed and open innovation strategies, R&D performance, and firm performance in South Korean manufacturing industry. This study attempted to determine the types of innovation strategies that contribute to R&D and firm performance. Using a structural equation modeling method with the data of 837 firms in South Korea, it was found that closed innovation strategy is stronger than open innovation strategy, and the effects of open innovation strategy on R&D and firm performance are marginal in the manufacturing industry. Furthermore, multidimensional relationships were identified in the integrated model. Both implications and limitations are presented.
Keywords: open innovation; closed innovation; R&D; revenue
Possible Impact of E-Commerce Strategies on the Utilization of E-Commerce in Nigeria
by Habib Ullah Khan, Stellamaris Uwemi
Abstract: The unmet need for technology spread in Nigeria has been purporting efficient planning and implementation of strategies in order to increase the spread of e-commerce. The present study is such a venture to know the extent of the impact of e-commerce strategies that have been implemented in Nigeria to promote e-commerce utilization. Unlike the previous studies, this study is concerned about the opinion of the e-commerce operators along with that of customers. This is a primary data based study, which collected the opinion of customers as well as operators about the impact of e-commerce strategies on the level of e-commerce utilization. The study tool questionnaire is designed and sent to 225 customers through google link and among them 200 questionnaires are completely filled and returned. But the operators are contacted directly for data collection, as they are less in number (10 members). The collected data is tabulated and analysed using relevant statistical techniques. The results revealed that though customers are interested towards the strategies developed to spread the e-commerce, they alone are not very much satisfied with them. Also, the version of operators affirmed the need for programmatic interventions by Government to reduce internet illiteracy and suggested the policy makers to design policies or plans to address the raising needs of the e-commerce customers
Keywords: Cashless Policy, Nigeria, Operators, E-commerce, Strategies
Factors influencing Technology and Innovation Capability in the Nigerian Indigenous Oil Firms
by Yusuf Akinwale, John-Felix Akinbami, Joshua Akarakiri
Abstract: This study investigated the factors influencing technology and innovation capabilities in Nigerian indigenous oil and gas firms. Primary data were collected through the use of questionnaire to elicit information from 150 indigenous oil firms. The result of the ordered logit regression showed that the extent of the firms R&D captured by in-house R&D and R&D Fund Allocation were significant at 10% level of significance. Also, work experience of staff, qualification of staff and size of technical staff which captured human and knowledge capital of firm were significant in influencing the firms technology capabilities. Acquisition of advanced machinery, firms size and age and training were also significant in influencing technology capabilities of indigenous oil firms. The study suggests that both government and industry should ensure improvement in extensive training, R&D and Education of the Work Force to enhance local capabilities in oil and gas field development.
Keywords: Technology and innovation capability; indigenous oil firms; training; R&D; logit regression
The Role of Mindfulness in Strategic Creativity: An Empirical Investigation
by Hasan Al-Zu'bi
Abstract: The study aims at investigating the impact of mindfulness in strategic creativity by analyzing the impact of the mindfulness dimensions from the perspective of the Jordanian telecommunications companies, such as creation of new categories, openness to novelty, and attention to context.
To achieve the aims of the study a questionnaire was developed to collect primary data, after it has been distributed to the study sample consisting of (211) employee.
The results of the study show that there is a significant statistical impact of mindfulness dimensions in impacting strategic creativity. Based on the results, the study recommends supports self-training and development of to enhance mindfulness and creative energies that will reflect positively on organizations development.
Keywords: mindfulness; Creativity; Strategic Creativity; Jordan.
The innovation orientation influence on architectural marketing capabilities and the impact on innovation performance
by Tatiane Cristina Pscheidt-Gieseler, Simone Regina Didonet, Ana Maria Machado Toaldo, Tomas Sparano Martins
Abstract: This study aims to analyse the influence of innovation orientation on architectural marketing capabilities and the impact on innovation performance. These capabilities are considered through its two dimensions: strategic market planning and marketing strategy implementation capabilities. The research outcomes allow concluding that innovation orientation positively influences innovation performance and both architectural marketing capabilities dimensions. However, the two of them are not related to innovation performance, neither have they mediated the relation between innovation orientation and innovation performance. Therefore, results indicate that marketing capabilities may not contribute to company performance isolate.
Keywords: innovation orientation, architectural marketing capabilities, strategic market planning capability, marketing strategy implementation capability, innovation performance
The Relationship between Green Perceived Quality and Green Purchase Intention: A Three Path Mediation approach using Green Satisfaction and Green Trust
by Mathew Thomas Gil, Jayanth Jacob
Abstract: The present study integrates the extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) model and StimulusOrganismResponse (S-O-R) framework to test the serial mediation effect of green satisfaction and green trust between green perceived quality and green purchase intention. Data was collected, from professionals in the field of information technology (IT) who use green energy efficient products, using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was circulated among 540 members of the target population and 469 usable responses were obtained. The results of Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) showed that green satisfaction and green trust serially mediate the relationship between green perceived quality and green purchase intentions. The implications, limitations and scope for future work are discussed in the present paper.
Keywords: Green marketing, Green products, Green perceived quality, Green purchase intention, Green satisfaction, Green trust, Energy efficient products, Extended theory of planned behaviour, Stimulus–organism–response
Perceived Quality of Mobile Cell Phones (An Initiative to Develop Local Product)
by Hotniar Siringoringo, Heidy Olivia Thaeras
Abstract: The objective of the study was to develop mobile cell phones characteristics based on consumer perceived quality. For this purpose, questionnaire was used as a research instrument. Questionnaires were distributed to 390 mobile cell phones consumers and all were valid to be proceeded to data analyses. Quality Function Deployment was used to analyze the data. Research findings showed that product characteristics to be developed in order to be success in competition in descending order of importance were the application, the capability of processor, hand anthropometry, batteries, image density, shape, keypad size, navigation buttons, internal memory, data packet technology, MP3 facilities, external memory, screen size, structures material, antivirus, warranty, data exchange device, a gap, and the page on short message service. Other factors should be taken into consideration were increasing trading partners (retailing or agent) and outlets, improving labors, and post purchase warranty.
Keywords: perceived quality, mobile cell phone, QFD, Indonesian market, house of quality, Consumer
The Determinants for Sustainability in a Low-Technology SME Textile Cluster in an Emerging Economy
by Pingali Venugopal, Ritu Malhotra, Balamurugan Annamalai
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to ascertain whether cluster-based strategies for SMEs could result in the enhancement of competitiveness in an environment of a developing nation, with a primary objective of examining the use of a cluster approach as a tool for sustainability particularly for a low-technology textile cluster. Building on extensive literature dealing with SME clusters and cluster-based strategies, the paper identifies the determinants and variables for SME cluster sustainability in philosophy and policies. The paper builds upon and links together research about collective efficiency in small-industry clusters and literature about entrepreneurial environments, the significance of cluster policy and intermediaries, trust, and the acquisition of technological capabilities in context to low-technology textile clusters of an emerging economy. The paper identifies the different advantages that commonly occur in a typical cluster and then examines the ways in which these advantages may boost competitiveness, resulting in sustainability. Theoretical insight from the literature about clustering, agglomeration advantages, skill, trust, and competitiveness in developing and advanced economies is examined in order to make the assessment. Subsequently, solutions for the future have been proposed by means of a conceptual framework. Generation of hypotheses for further empirical validation are proposed.
Keywords: Small Businesses, Intermediaries, Entrepreneurial culture, Competitiveness, low technology cluster, developing economy
An Empirical Test of the Select Multifactor Asset Pricing Models with GMM
by Shweta Bajpai, Anil K. Sharma
Abstract: This study focuses on the empirical testing of the two multifactor asset pricing models, namely, the Fama-French three-factor and Carhart four-factor models in the Indian capital market. The study builds on the constituent stocks of the Nifty 500 index to have an adequate representation of the Indian market. The study employs the Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) to address the problem of endogeneity, and to have the consistent estimates. The results show that the four-factor model explains the cross-section of expected stock returns better than the three-factor model. However, the momentum factor is not significant for a majority of the periods of the study.
Keywords: Multifactor asset pricing model; GMM; Indian capital market; Nifty 500.
Prevention of water leakage in the shallow well jet pump through the application of Total Quality Function Deployment technique
by K. Sivasamy, C. Arumugam, S.R. Devadasan, R. Murugesh, S. Venkatachalam
Abstract: Engineers and managers have been adopting quality function deployment (QFD) technique to translate the voice of customers into technical parameters and values for improving the quality of products. During the recent years, certain difficulties of applying QFD in practice have been reported. In order to overcome these difficulties, the researchers have been evolving advanced models of QFD. In the research being reported here, one of such advanced models namely Total Quality Function Deployment (TQFD) was applied in a manufacturing company to prevent water leakage in a type of pump called shallow well jet pump. The solutions evolved were implemented by releasing the work instructions in thiscompany. This experience indicated that TQFD is a suitable technique for translating the voice of customers into technical languages in a manufacturing company in which employees possess inadequate expertise to develop House of Quality of QFD technique.
Keywords: Quality Function Deployment (QFD), House of Quality (HoQ), Total Quality Function Deployment (TQFD), Continuous quality improvement, Shallow well jet pump.
Making online courses free for everyone an empirical study to determine the feasibility
by Sanjay Mohapatra
Abstract: Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are free courses offered with a range of options. MOOCs have been run by several universities so as to deliver education around the globe (Mohapatra et al., 2012). This paper presents an empirical study of stakeholders viewpoints, which have developed into a framework. The framework will provide guidance to those who would venture into offering open online courses. Using a sample size of 135 respondents, we have used structured equation modelling to derive the framework.
Keywords: Online courses, Free education, structured equation modelling, MOOCS.
High Customer Involvement: An Essential Element for Effective Co-Creation
by Kumkum Bharti, Rajat Agrawal
Abstract: Understanding customer needs for meeting the customer expectations and to provide customer satisfaction is pivotal for the long term sustainability of the firm. Customer involvement, through co-creation for developing the products and services will ensure this sustainability. This paper explains the meaning of co-creation, state the difference between co-creation and customization- the most closely associated term with co-creation and elongates the difference between customerization and crowdsourcing activities. This paper projects firms understanding of the co-creation concept and give suggestive ways and direction of concept implementation in an organization. Research is conducted by using secondary sources and used in context of clarifying the concept of co-creation viz a viz other overlapping concepts. Two disguised caselets are also used to build clarity of the concept. On the basis of current literature, caselets and theoretical understanding we propose that an activity with high customer involvement, preferably at each stage of development of product and services can be called as a criteria to qualify for an activity to be termed as co-creation.
Keywords: Customer Involvement; Co-creation; Customization; Customerization.
Balancing actions for radical and incremental innovations in SAES Getters
by Valentina Lazzarotti, Raffaella Manzini
Abstract: In a context of limited resources, in terms of time, competencies and money, companies face the problem of being ambidextrous, i.e. to manage and achieve both radical and incremental innovation, by adopting both technology push and market pull approaches. The paper tries to enrich the empirical evidence on the topic, with the practical experience of a company, SAES Getters, which defined a set of actions that could help in finding and maintaining a sustainable balance between incremental and radical innovation. Organizational and cultural actions are implemented by SAES to manage ambidexterity: the definition of an organization structure able to capture simultaneously technology push and market pull forces, a leadership and a decision making structure able to enable the coordination of such forces, the development of a new language for innovation.
Keywords: radical innovation; incremental innovation; technology push innovation; market pull innovation; ambidextrous organizations.
Review of Experimental Methods to Optimize the Collaboration Between Organizations in the New Product Development Process (NPDP)
by Janine Fleith De Medeiros, Gabriel Vidor, Andre Luis Korzenowski
Abstract: Focusing on the collaboration between organizations issue, despite studies showing that suppliers, universities and intermediaries should be included in the new product development process, such interaction still requires further investigation. The present article sought to theoretically retake concepts, processes and applications related to the methodology of experiments design, so that studies to be developed in Business to Business (B2B), focusing on the improvement of the Product Development Processes (PDP), use it. Thus, after illustrating a collaborative development process, structured in three blocks (cooperation, development and offer), the authors commented on the gaps mapped by distinct studies regarding the collaboration process between organizations, and systematized possibilities of resolution of the gaps mentioned throughout the application of experimental studies. Regarding studies to be done, other than the practical applications of the design of experiments to assist on the verifications here described as relevant to optimize the practice of collaboration between organizations in the Product Development Process, it is also suggested that the theoretical discussion regarding the trending usage of experiments in marketing be broadened.
Keywords: Design of Experiments; Collaboration Between Organizations; New Product Development Process.
Management models correlations with more frequent indicators of PPS
by Victor Hugo Oliveira, Elpidio Oscar Benitez Nara, Jacques Schreiber, Liane Mahlmann Kipper, Julio Siluk, Guilherme Augusto Schwingel
Abstract: Participation in Profits Sharing (PPS) is a mode of negotiation, between companies and employees, which is growing around the world, particularly in economically developed countries, such as England, France, Germany, Japan, and the USA. PPS in Brazil has emerged as a social incentive, where employees have the opportunity to earn profits through the results that helped build the companies; the opportunity to enhance results, productivity, quality and profitability through the commitment of employees. Our study was based on national and international journals, and results indicated that there are great opportunities for studies on this subject in Brazil. In the shadows of the recent establishment of rules of law, which guides contracts of participation in profit sharing, companies have been negotiating PPS with their employees. This study was conducted with 232 PPS agreement contracts in Brazil between 2013 and 2014. These contracts were analyzed and correlated to management models. The set of standard PPS indicators was developed with the purpose of serving as a reference for companies, employees and unions in their PPS negotiations.
Keywords: Participation in Profit Sharing (PPS); Organizational management models; National Quality Award; SMART.
The escape of the operation of commodities as strategy
by Elpídio Nara, Lisianne Benitez, Giuliano Forgiarini, Liane Kipper, Guilherme Schwingel
Abstract: The present paper seek demonstrate viable strategies for the survival and increase of the competitive of medium and small enterprises of the beef meatpacking front to the current reality of the beef market in Brazil, increasingly dominated by large transnational conglomerates meatpacking, formed the light of exports whose operations are defined in the regime of commodities. For this, it is delineated the current panorama of productive chain of beef in Brazil, recognized as non-integrated and absent coordination, unable in its current structure of being used as instrument for the potentiation of the productive and increase of profit of these enterprises. It is presented, for this, the marketing alliance among the production chain links like a strategic measure for the positioning of medium and small conglomerates meatpacking in the beef market, particularly in internal, greater destiny of its production. Through the study of these alliances, it was verified, in a case study, the emergence of alternative of offering to an internal market, increasingly demanding, differentiated products and quality adding value to these, culminating in the escape of operations in a regime of commodities of these enterprises.
Keywords: productive chain; beef; strategic alliances; commodities; meatpacking; competitive; transnational conglomerates.
Innovation capability for sustainable development of SMEs: An Interpretive Structural Modeling methodology for analysing the interactions among factors
by K.R. Kiron, K. Kannan
Abstract: Sustainable development is gaining more importance in the current dynamic world. Even though developing countries depends more on SMEs for its economic development, SME sector is not equipped with sustainable manufacturing methods. Innovation plays a vital role for overcoming this deficiency. In order to develop a culture of innovation, organisations must be aware of the enablers of innovation and their interrelations. Fifteen enablers of innovation capability with respect to steel manufacturing SMEs were found from literature and the same was finalized after the discussion with experts. The relationships between these enablers were analysed by using interpretive structural modeling. The study revealed a higher degree of interrelationship between the factors. Further, factors which have high driving power and dependence was found out using ISM.
Keywords: Sustainable development; sustainability-oriented innovation; Innovation capability; SME; ISM.
The value of long-term co-innovation relationships: experiential approach
by Tuula Lehtimäki, Hanna Komulainen, Minna Oinonen, Jari Salo
Abstract: Co-innovation often occurs in trustful long-term relationships when a fruitful match is found. Evaluating the value of those relationships is difficult but necessary for their management. Discussions of business-to-business relationship value have been revolving more around utilitarian elements even though experiential value aspects have gained increasing research interest. Here, the concept of experiential value is applied to understand the value of long-term co-innovation relationships. An exploratory case study of such a relationship between a supplier, its customer, and a university was built on in-depth interviews with key informants from each party. The study provides a multi-level framework of experiential value in the context of co-innovation relationships that encompasses the subjective, temporal, and contextual aspects of value as well as personal relationships and projects as devices that transfer individuals value experiences between individuals and organisations, and through time. This study contributes to relationship value and co-innovation research by elaborating on the experiential aspects of relationship value.
Keywords: Business relationship; case study; co-innovation relationship; collaborative innovation; experiential value; explorative case; long-term relationship; project business; relationship value; triadic relationship.
Analysis of the competitive gains in the Local Productive Arrangement of Milk from S
by Ernane Martins, Silvio Batista, Solange Silva
Abstract: This work sought to identify the gains resulting from the cooperation of the Local Productive Arrangement (LPA) of Dairy, in the city of. In Goi
Keywords: Local clusters; competitive gains; corporate earnings; Interorganizational Cooperation Networks.
An integrated approach to analyze requisites of product innovation management
by Sanjay Kumar, Sunil Luthra, Abid Haleem, Dixit Garg, Sultan Singh, Sachin K. Mangla
Abstract: Innovation may be recognized as a key driver towards business success and winning over tough globalized competition existing in the market. Effective and efficient management of innovation process may be observed as one of the important requirements to sustain existing position of an organization and to attract new customers for gaining competitive advantage over other competitors and supply chains international and domestic markets. Product innovativeness, in terms of significantly improved/new features, functions, usage, properties and aesthetics etc., may be appreciated as an increasingly important research area in Indian context for attaining business sustainability nationally and internationally. This paper attempts to identify, understand and analyze key requisites for product innovation management in Indian firms. Literature review approach has been utilized for identifying requisites and benefits of product innovation management. Interpretive Structural Modeling technique is utilized to understand and analyze contextual relations and hierarchical levels of requisites of product innovation management. Further, Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory methodology is employed to understand and segregate requisites for product innovation management in to cause and effect groups. This paper may also help practicing innovation managers of various Indian firms and multinational firms seeking business in/from India towards identifying, developing an understanding and analyzing strengths and weaknesses of their firms in managing activities and resources involved in product innovation management processes.
Keywords: Innovation management; Literature review; Product innovativeness; Requisties for product innovation management; Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM); Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL).
Innovation Project Tool for outlining innovation projects
by Zornitsa Yordanova
Abstract: The paper presents the Innovation Project Tool (IPT) which aims at outlining common characteristics of innovation projects in terms of project management and using these specifics for creating a tool for categorization of innovation projects. The IPT might be useful for researchers and practitioners alike in their management in order to prevent them from making mistakes, to decrease unpredictability and ambiguity of such projects and to improve innovation projects performance and success. The IPT can be also used as a checklist for categorization of innovation projects; as a pre-defined watch list during project work; a risk management tool for better analyzing and assessing project risks and integration management supporting tool for better scoping all possible ingredients in innovation projects.
The IPT provided 51 specifics of innovation projects with ranking of their specificity and impact on innovation projects. The research is based on two iteration interviews with 60 highly experienced project managers from different industries.
Keywords: innovation management; innovation project; project management; innovation project management; innovation categorization.
A Framework for Innovation Outsourcing
by Christopher Turner, Ashutosh Tiwari, Shahwar Rehman, Leon Williams
Abstract: This paper proposes a framework for the facilitation of organisational capability for outsourcing innovation, enabling firms to take advantage of its many benefits, (e.g., reduced costs, increased ﬂexibility, access to better expertise and increased business focus), whilst mitigating its risks. In this framework a generic holistic model is developed to aid firms to successfully outsource innovation. The model is realised in two stages using a qualitative theory-building research design. The initial stage develops a preliminary model which is subsequently validated and refined during the second stage. The propositions which form the preliminary model are deductively explored to identify whether they also exist in a second data set. A semi-structured interview survey is executed with the aid of a rich picture survey instrument to gather data for this purpose.
The model developed by this study describes innovation outsourcing as an open system of interrelated activities that takes established company strategy, (in terms of people, organisational structures, environment, and technology), and transforms it into improved firm performance through innovation. The model achieves this through a three-stage process which enables the alignment of capability to outsourced innovation activity, and makes actual performance outcomes, rather than expected benefits, the focus of innovation outsourcing aims.
Keywords: Innovation Outsourcing; Business Strategy; Open Innovation,.
REFLECTIONS ON CO-AUTHORING IN BRAZILIAN ARTICLES
by Renata V. Klafke, Claudia Tania Picinin, Jessyca Moraes
Abstract: In a recent issue of Science and Engineering Ethics, the article written by Bozeman and Youtie (2015) focused on the collaboration of co-authors in publications. They addressed some of the problems found in this type of collaboration, and they also proposed a preliminary model to assign the credit for co-authoring. rnIn light of what was presented above, this current short paper aims to consider the professor evaluation model in Brazilian universities, as the Brazilian educational institutions are increasingly requiring authorship (or co-authorship) of research publications for favourable career advancement decisions.
Keywords: Ethics; Brazil; Co-authorship.
Impact of Knowledge Creation and Organizational Learning on Organizational Innovation: An Empirical Investigation
by Ali Rezaei, Seyyed Mohsen Allame, Reza Ansari
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between knowledge creation, organizational learning and organizational innovation. Organizational innovation was evaluated by Damanpour model in the form of technological and administrative innovation. A descriptive (non-trial) and correlational methodology using structural equations modelling was used for the study. Participants included top and middle managers of knowledge-based, start-up and industrial knowledge-based companies. These companies were divided into 14 groups. A number of 200 questionnaires were distributed among top and middle managers of these companies. Out of these, 141 questionnaires were returned. Of the questionnaires returned, 8 questionnaires were partially completed; thus, they were excluded from the analysis. Finally, 133 questionnaires were analyzed. This study used a correlational methodology by structural equations modeling in the form of partial least squares to test the measurement model and hypotheses. For data analysis, SMARTPLS was used to test the model. The results indicate a positive direct relationship between knowledge creation and technological and administrative innovation. Moreover, knowledge creation has a positive effect on organizational learning. The results also found a positive direct relationship between organizational learning and technological and administrative innovation; organizational learning mediates the relationship between knowledge creation and technological and administrative innovation.
Keywords: knowledge creation; organizational learning; technological innovation; administrative innovation.
Masculine and Feminine Traits and Career Satisfaction: moderation effect of Glass Ceiling Belief
by Pathmu Blessie, M.V. Supriya
Abstract: This article examines the impact of Glass Ceiling Belief on the relationship between personality and career satisfaction. This domain of research, despite being crucial in understanding behavior at work has not received much attention. Gender bias continues to limit career satisfaction experiences. Personality is a key individual difference that can help negate Glass Ceiling beliefs. Hence, understanding personality becomes relevant today in the context of glass ceilings. Personality is viewed in two aspects, Masculine traits and Feminine traits (Wirth, 2001). Data were collected from 150 participants. Regression moderation technique was used to analyse the primary data collected across both the genders. The result supports the existence of a moderation effect of the glass ceiling belief. The Glass ceiling belief partially moderates the masculine traits career satisfaction relationship. While significant moderation effect is observed in the case of feminine traits career satisfaction relationship. Individuals with masculine and feminine traits cope differently with glass ceiling. Personality therefore impacts their career satisfaction. This study is instrumental in understanding glass ceiling belief and career satisfaction. This study is perhaps a first one in understanding masculine and feminine personality traits in the context of glass ceiling belief.
Keywords: Glass ceiling belief; Career satisfaction; Personality traits; Regression Moderation.
MANAGERIAL DECISIONS FOR INNOVATION STRATEGY OF FIRMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNTRY LEVEL INNOVATION
by Keya Sengupta
Abstract: There is an integral relationship between economic growth, competitiveness and innovation undertaken by a nation. Innovation lies at the root of growth and competitiveness of a nation. The study with the help of simple and multiple regression models, highlights the importance of managerial decision making in determining which management activities should be concentrated upon for bringing the highest level of innovation by the firms. The findings reveal that it is not only the R&D investment but equally important is the product process sophistication and the professional management of the firms for determining the innovation. These motivating determinants of managerial decisions determines how innovative the country is in the global scenario.
Keywords: economic growth; management decisions; innovation; Research & Development; product process sophistication; professional management.
Mom I want it: Impact of Anthropomorphism on Pester Power among children
by Vandana ., Vinod Kumar
Abstract: The present research investigated the impact of anthropomorphized product and animal on pester power among children. To achieve this objective, a scale on anthropomorphism is developed and two independent studies have been carried out to test the reliability and validity of the developed scale taking children and parents as respondents. Findings of the study revealed a significant impact of anthropomorphism on pester power. However, anthropomorphic animals are found to be more impactful than anthropomorphic products in influencing pester behavior among children. Moreover, parent respondents revealed that anthropomorphic stimuli create significant impact in generating pester behavior among children. On the contrary, child respondents did not disclose their impact on their behavior in similar way. The study thus provides implications for marketers, academician and Government.
Keywords: Anthropomorphism; Children; Cognitive theory of Piaget; Consumer socialization theory; Parents; Pester power; Resource theory; Theory of mind.
Brazilian industrialization: The influence of technological levels on the Gross Domestic Product and Human Development Index
by Renata Klafke, Claudia Picinin, Augusta Pelinski, Luiz Pilatti
Abstract: This study aims to investigate which technological levels of industry contributed most to the formation and development of the gross domestic product (GDP) and the Human Development Index (HDI) in Brazil from 2000 to 2010. The HDI and the GDP were the dependent variables selected for the study. The independent variables were selected from the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) base: they included employees, salaries and manufacturing establishments from 23 industries that were separated into technological levels according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Multiple regressions were used to indicate the relationship of dependency and explanatory power between dependent and explanatory variables. The results showed that the industries with mid-low and low technological levels have greater impact on the formation of GDP and HDI in Brazil. These two technological levels were primarily developed with the arrival of multinationals in the 1990s and 2000s, as found in the theory background. An empirical research spanning a longer time period and based on other sources would possibly give more strength to the econometric study. This study has implications for academicians and entrepreneurs willing to understand the Brazilian market and industry history.
Keywords: Brazil; Industry; Technology; Economic Growth.
A scale proposal for higher education creativity in the classroom
by Leandro Souza, Ana Luisa Leão, Viviane Carmona, Roberto Ruas, Julio Carneiro-da-Cunha
Abstract: Education with creativity is one that uses approaches to make the learning process more interesting. Considering the existence of scales designed to measure creativity in the classroom, our concern was to identify the reliability and validity of a proposed scale called the Perceived Creativity Scale in the Classroom (PCSC). We conducted a survey with Tourism students in a private, higher education institution in Brazil. The responses were submitted for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and calculation with Cronbachs Alpha. The new scale emerged with three constructs: a teacher's ability to teach creatively, the student's attitude towards the creative teaching-learning process and the creative students self-evaluation. The reliability test of the constructs indicated satisfactory levels in the teacher's ability to teach creatively and the creative students self-evaluation. However, the construct about the students attitude to the creative teaching-learning process presented the unsatisfactory index. Nevertheless, the scale can be considered adequate to measure the perceived creativity in the classroom.
Keywords: Creativity in the classroom; Creativity Measurement Scale in the Classroom; Exploratory Factor Analysis.
Risk Management Tool to maximize the Performance of Technology Accelerators
by Jarunee Wonglimpiyarat
Abstract: The central argument of this paper is that policy makers around the world use technology accelerators as mechanisms to drive economic development and national innovative capacity. In the innovation economy, incubators and science parks are technology accelerators that support innovative companies and start-ups. This paper discusses the application of risk management and auditing to technology accelerators. The proposed audit plan focuses on the risk assessment using the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) framework. The risk-based audit plan and performance analysis tool can help perform risk assessments across the aspects of entrepreneurial development, product/process innovations, production, marketing, management as well as finance and investments. These dynamic tools are innovation enabler that can help achieve effective and efficient goal of incubator operation to maximize the success of emerging businesses.
Keywords: technology accelerators; technology auditing; Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO); technology incubators; science parks.
An Empirical Examination of the Influence of Corporate Social
Responsibility (CSR) on the Small and Medium Enterprise (SMEs)
Performance in Northern Malaysia
by Lucky Ossai-Igwe Esuh
Abstract: The movement of Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) is no longer just the concern of the large scale multinational company (MNC) but also of the small and medium enterprise (SME)However, the practices of CSR activities among SMEs are still not as effective as MNCs. To examine this, a cross-sectional study of quantitative questionnaire survey approach was conducted using a purposive convenience sampling technique drawn from29 SMEs in Kedah, Malaysia. A questionnaire was distributed via self-administered procedure and the data was analyzed using the PLS analysis. Overall, the study found support for the influence of CSR on the SMEs performance. The findings further show that internal factors and knowledge level factor rather han the external factors have significant influence on the SMEs performance. The study concludes that CSR practices help SMEs to build corporate image and goodwill thereby enhancing the firm performance. Unfortunately, not all SMEs actually execute and practice CSR even though they might have CSR policies.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; SMEs; MNCs; Economic factor; Performance; Malaysia.
Brand Literacy and Knowledge Transfer Process: Analysis of Purchase Intentions among Consumers in Mexico
by Rajagopal , Ananya Rajagopal
Abstract: Consumer knowledge on brands affect the consumer perceptions and purchase intentions. Companies are actively engaged today in transferring the brand knowledge to consumers through ethnic, social, family, and digital channels to create sustainable brand literacy and empowering consumers with substantial information to support their decision making process. This study analyzes empirical data from consumers in Mexico with the principal objective of exploring the role of brand literacy in educating consumers and reinforcing consumer purchase intentions towards specific brands of the companies. The study reveals that the brand literacy generates cognitive strengths and perceptional stimuli among consumers towards buying behavior in reference to competitively differentiated products and services, and price advantages, and breaks the attitudinal stigmas towards brand attributes like-brand etymology, ethnicity, family practice, and disruptive psycho-dynamics.
Keywords: Brand literacy; knowledge transfer; purchase intentions; consumer behavior.
The entrance mode for small and medium enterprises in the Indonesian fashion industry to international market
by Wawan Dhewanto, Donald Lantu, Sri Herliana, Salma Azzahra
Abstract: The Indonesian fashion industry has recently grown rapidly and has become one of the main contributors to the countrys economy in terms of added values, employments, and a growing number of enterprises. In addition, Indonesian fashion products are known to have good quality in the international market. International markets demand for Indonesian fashion products is progressively increasing. Unfortunately, nowadays, there are many fashion entrepreneurs, especially SMEs in Indonesia who still do not know how to enter the international market. Meanwhile, it is a good opportunity for the SMEs to develop. By using the quadruple-helix approach, this research aims at generating strategies for an entrance mode of the fashion industry to be observed by the international market. This study proposes insights from Indonesian fashion entrepreneurs who have successfully penetrated the international market. The insights include the motivation and possible types of entrance mode, barrier, and supporting factors and potential programs that may help other SMEs in the Indonesian fashion industry to enter the international market.
Keywords: Entrance mode; international market; quadruple-helix; SMEs; fashion industry; barrier and supporting factors.
Consumers Buying Decision Process toward Halal Product: A study in Bangladesh
by Md. Monirul Islam, Ashraful Ferdous Chowdhury
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine understanding consumers buying decision process toward halal products. This study, employing the Dewey (1910) five stages buying model, analyzed how the factors of Need Recognition, Information Search, Evaluation of alternatives and post-purchase experiences affect the purchase decision. To conduct this study, data were collected from 204 Muslim students of Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh in a convenient way. Factor analyses were used to test the reliability and validity. Regression analyses were used to test the hypotheses. Findings revealed that Need recognition and evaluation of alternative were influenced significantly on the buying decision of halal product, but information search and post-purchase experiences were not influenced significantly. From the theoretical and managerial point of view it has implications, theoretically, this study is one of the first attempts to use five stages model empirically and managerially the research results can be helpful to designed marketing strategy related to Muslim consumers.
Keywords: Consumer Buying process; Halal Products; Bangladesh; Religious; Muslim.
Sustainable Innovation in Supplier Networks: An Empirical Study with South African Steel and Engineering Sector
by Surajit Bag
Abstract: The purpose of the current study is to identify the factors influencing sustainable innovation in supplier networks. Firstly, literature review was conducted to identify the leading dimensions and further exploratory factor analysis was applied to reduce the dimensions to fourteen factors. The EFA output was used as an input in the regression analysis and the functional relationship was tested.As a result of data analysis, the key aspects of sustainable innovation in supplier networks are identified and further discussed. The linear multiple regression analysis output shows that only two factors i.e. effectiveness of new product development team and leadership skills are strong determinants of sustainable innovation in supplier networks and found to be statistically significant. Therefore, South African steel and engineering sector need to focus strictly both on Effectiveness of new product development team and Leadership skills.The study is unique in terms of identifying the critical factors influencing sustainable innovation in supplier networks and further broadens the knowledge base.
Keywords: Sustainable Innovation; Supplier Networks; Leadership Skills; Effectiveness of New Product Development team; Exploratory Factor Analysis; Regression analysis.
Factors influencing consumers decision making towards selecting credit cards: An exploratory Study
by Md. Nur Alam Siddik, Sajal Kabiraj
Abstract: Credit cards begin to use in financial markets and play important role in businesses which make the process of payment easier. Nowadays, there are increasing of value and volume of consumers who spend their money via using credit card. Despite this, there is relative dearth of studies examining the factors influencing consumers decision making in selecting credit cards. Therefore, this research examines the behavior, demographic characteristics and attitude of consumer in selecting credit cards. To serve the study purpose, a structured questionnaire was distributed to 412 respondents during April-June 2016. Empirical results showed that demographic characteristic and product-specific variables were correlated with consumers behavior in term of credit card selecting. This research is expected to be beneficial for banks and card issuers on that they can study and understand more about their consumer characteristics and behavior which lead to create attractive products and services to grasp their attention.
Keywords: Consumers’ decision making; demographic factors; product-specifics variables; brand; Thailand.
OPEN SOURCE INNOVATION: WHAT MAKES IT MOVE?
by Cecília Burtet, Jorge Verschoore, Anelise Bittencourt
Abstract: The way organizations conduct their innovation processes has advanced in recent years, evidencing open innovation as an object of study. Notable works are Von Hippels (1988) on "the sources of innovation" and Chesbroughs (2003) on "open innovation". More recently, Von Hippel (2005a) introduced an even more radical innovation concept called "open source innovation" (OSI), characterized by an opening of not only the innovation process but also its results, which are free of any intellectual property rights. In the present scenario, we explore the adoption of this model by several organizations, not only restricted to the software industry and pose the question: What moves open source innovation initiatives? To answer this question, we conducted field research with international companies that used the OSI model. Empirical evidence enabled us to address the research question by a) confirming the presence of motivations that were previously reported in the literature, integrating them into two newly identified backgrounds and b) unveiling a highly strategic aspect of the adoption of OSI as a business model, enabling a new understanding of the open approach, and breaking from some traditional principles of management. Our main contribution is the analysis of open strategies beyond the software industry, paving the way for significant progress and the development of new theories on this topic.
Keywords: Open Source; Innovation; Open Innovation; Strategy; Open Strategy.
Analysis of the relationship between assimilation capabilities and organizational performance
by Alexander Zuñiga-Collazos, Geovanny Perdomo-Charry, Nelson Lozada
Abstract: There is limited empirical evidence about the relationship between innovation and organizational performance in developing countries like Colombia. While this country has had an important growth in the last years in its innovation levels of within enterprises, innovation based on the assimilation capacity of companies has been key to this growth. This empirical study analyzed the relation between assimilation capacity and organizational performance using a sample of 227 companies located in Medellin, Colombia. The findings show that enterprises that develop assimilation capabilities may have better probabilities to improve their organizational performance. This study suggests that companies where managers promote problem solving between areas of a company may have better probabilities to improve their profit growth.
Keywords: Assimilation Capabilities; Organizational Performance; SEM; Colombia.
The Networks- Innovation- Firm performance relationship: Does it hold good in Indian Pharmaceutical Industry?
by ABHISHEK NIRJAR, MANASWINI ACHARYA, Aniruddha
Abstract: This research is set in the Indian pharmaceutical industry and presents the impact of networks both social and business on innovation and further its impact of both these parameters on the firms performance. The study also considered the impact of firm age on the networks and innovation capability of the firm. Data for 140 firms was captures from the Capitaline database. The results have shown positive association between business networks and the impacts it has on innovation capabilities of the firm. Networks- both social and business have a positive association with firm performance while R&D expenditure was found to have a positive impact on firm performance. The impact of patents however has been found to be insignificant which is in line with the characteristics of the Indian Pharmaceutical industry which is focussed on developing the generic drugs. Similarly, firm age has been found to have a positive impact on networks while it is not significant for R&D expenditure which seems so because of the increasing number of strategic alliances for R&D. The paper aims at combining the current research in the field of networks and innovation in the backdrop of the industries in the fast developing and emerging economies, thus likely to create further attraction in these emerging markets for further research.
Keywords: Networks; social networks; business networks; firm performance; Indian Pharma industry.
WLB MODEL AND PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT: EVIDENCE WITH PRIVATE HOSPITAL WOMEN NURSES IN GHANA MILEAU
by SUBBURETHINA BHARATHI P, MOHAMED JASIM K, SANTHANALAKSHMI K, DAVID BOOHENE
Abstract: The major intend of this research to examine demographic and biographic characteristics of nurses, identify the attitude towards different contextual variables that impact nursing staff, analyze the work environment and an organizational supports that impact on attitude towards work life balance among the nurses, identify the determinants of professional and personal satisfaction, identify the presence of different groups of nurses based on the professional pride and determine the appropriate hr intervention policies supporting work life balance in tertiary hospitals. The result of the study which indicates that, women nurses of private hospitals in Ghana Context are able to support their hobbies, household activities, study; care for self, however, shopping for necessaries and attending family functions is one of the key areas the respondents are missing. If attending a social function is also recognized as one of the work life balance variables, it will help better job satisfaction of nurses. The majority of the women nurses in the private hospitals in Ghana Context, Ghana is satisfied with different dimensions with respect to work logistics. It has been confirmed by the researcher while discussing with the nursing staff, they did express satisfaction over work logistics provided by hospitals. Skipping food and drug abuse are likely to be major lifestyle choice issues, which may impact health of nursing staff while other dimensions are not perceived as likely problems in future. Provision of canteen facilities with adequately stopped nutrition diet is likely to health
Keywords: Demographic Characteristics; Biographic Characteristics Professional and Personal Satisfaction.
Exploring how and why consumers create unintended uses of products
by Apiradee Wongkitrungrueng
Abstract: The use of products for unintended purposes is prevalent among consumers, and can generate ideas for product improvement and new product development for the firm. However, little is known about how and why people create novel uses outside the regular context. Based on consumer experiences, this study aims to discover patterns of creative reuse of existing products and to understand consumer motives and outcomes. The qualitative data revealed that creative reuse is based on knowledge about product attributes, categories and users as well as from individual preference. Respondents are motivated by economic benefits as well as knowledge-seeking and excitement. The findings reveal that creative reuse helps increase product value and consumer engagement with a product.
Keywords: Use Innovativeness; Reuse; Unintended uses; Post-purchase; Creativity.
SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT METHODS: PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT IN LARGE COMPANIES
by Maria João Machado, Joana Fortunato
Abstract: The general objective of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the performance evaluation methods used by large companies. As specific objectives we have the following: to identify the methods used and the importance attributed to them; to analyse their implementation process and the level of success given to it. The data collection method used was a survey to the financial managers of the largest companies in Portugal, which resulted in thirty-five valid responses. The main contributions of this study were the associations found between the following variables: the method used and the level of importance assigned to it; the person in charge of implementing the method and training provided to employees; the method used and the degree of success attributed to its implementation; the degree of resistance to change and the degree of success in implementing the performance evaluation method.
Keywords: performance evaluation methods; sustainable management; Balanced Scorecard; Tableau de Bord; resistance to change.
Road to Employee Commitment: The role of Empowerment, Leadership and Culture
by A.T. Resmi, Sandhya Pentareddy, L. Suganthi, Gemini V Joy, Anbuudayasankar SP
Abstract: This exploratory research seeks to identify the relationships between the leadership, empowerment and commitment within the integrated model of competing values framework (CVF) of organizational culture. A conceptual model which relates the constructs to commitment is developed. The study attempts to use a social constructionist approach and scenario planning. Hypothetical cases are used to develop two scenarios. The study proposes an integrated model of CVF, and also provides greater understanding of the competencies required in the organization to move from one competing value quadrant to another. The paper helps managers gain better understanding of managerial roles, their inter-relationships to each other and how to apply them more effectively. It further develops an understanding by providing a model of how to transform an organization to be a self sustained one. The study also brings forth a constructive approach in management
Keywords: Organizational Commitment; Employee Empowerment; Leadership; Organizational Culture.
Analysis of the Brazilian entrepreneurial ecosystem in the perception of business incubator professionals
by Mario Cesar Silva, Rosley Anholon, Izabela Simon Rampasso, Osvaldo Luiz Goncalves Quelhas, Walter Leal Filho, Dirceu Silva
Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the maturity of the Brazilian entrepreneurial ecosystem based on the opinions and insights from business incubator professionals. To this end, a survey was performed with 74 professionals who published at least one paper related to this topic in Brazil. The maturity analysis was based on a theoretical model with variables to be measured for the incubators in six major constructs: Support, Government, Finance, Human Capital, Culture and Market. Data was analyzed through Structural Equation Modeling, which allowed for a statistic validation of the model. With this validation, it was possible to analyze the maturity notes assigned to each variable and conclude that the Brazilian entrepreneurial ecosystem has an intermediate level of maturity, with some possible improvements. The originality of this study lies both in the assessment carried out and in the use of this particular statistical technique for this purpose.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Brazilian Entrepreneurial Ecosystem; Business Incubators; Business Incubators Professionals; Structural Equation Modeling; Partial Least Squares Method; Constructs; Smartpls.
Shipping Innovation Orientation and Capabilities in the Digital Era
by Maria A. Lambrou, Daniel Samson, Masaharu Ota
Abstract: In our paper, we develop a conceptual model that investigates the innovation orientation, capabilities and practices, in the shipping sector. We examine a number of intertwined shipping management components and innovation management perspectives, considering both the firm-level diversity and sectoral regularities, so as to survey shipping companies approach to innovation related business activities. We present a set of shipping innovation observations, articulated as hypotheses/propositions, comprising a combined perspective of strategic, organizational, institutional and technological determinant factors of the innovation process. The purpose of this paper is to develop a contemporary framework of innovation in shipping, addressing pertinent managerial and research implications.
Keywords: shipping innovation; dynamic capabilities; strategic-orientation; maritime cluster; business model innovation; organizational intelligence; leadership; technical innovation; digitalization; big data technology.
An empirical examination of knowledge management and organisational performance among Malaysian manufacturing SMEs
by Shiaw Tong Ha, May Chiun Lo
Abstract: Knowledge management has gained increased attention recently, as many researchers have revealed its significant roles on enhancing organisational performance. This study aims to examine the relationship between knowledge management and organisational performance in the context of Malaysia. Knowledge management was conceptualised as capabilities made up of knowledge acquisition, knowledge conversion, knowledge application, and knowledge protection. 116 respondents comprising of the top management from manufacturing SMEs had participated in this study. Smart PLS 2.0 (M3) was employed to examine the hypothesised relationships between knowledge management and organisational performance. The results revealed that among the four knowledge management capabilities, only knowledge acquisition and protection had a significant positive relationship with organisational performance, whereas knowledge conversion and application had not. Implications, limitations as well as directions for future research were further discussed.
Keywords: knowledge acquisition;knowledge conversion;knowledge application;knowledge protection;organisational performance.
Review of Lean-Green Manufacturing practices in SMEs for sustainable framework
by Anjali Negi, Mandar Sumant
Abstract: The concept of lean manufacturing aims at maximizing the resource utilization through minimization of waste, and was further evolved and modified in response to the fluctuating and competitive business environment, whereas GM concept addresses a various manufacturing matters, say recycling, conservation, waste management, environmental protection, regulatory compliance, pollution control, and a variety of other related issues. Previous research papers about Lean manufacturing and its integration with green manufacturing practices have been studied to understand how it is beneficial economically and ecologically for industries and society. The review paper has attempted to identify prime or important elements of lean and green manufacturing as well as also throws light on current scenario in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Paper begins with brief introduction about lean and green manufacturing concept. In section 2, literature review has been presented where we have identified elements of lean and green manufacturing practices and inference obtained from literature study. Section 3 is divided into two parts, where first part highlights principle of sustainability-oriented framework and second part shows significant features of MDCM models, to study their usefulness for such framework. Section 4 focuses on current scenario of Indian SMEs in context of sustainable lean-green manufacturing practices and its comparison with SMEs in other countries. Section 5 presents conclusion of the review paper along with future scope of the study.
Keywords: Small and medium enterprises (SMEs); lean manufacturing (LM); green manufacturing (GM); sustainable manufacturing; Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques; design for environment (dfE); Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); Green Design; Sustainable manufacturing practices (SMP); environmental sustainability (ES).
Empirical linkage between Sustainable HRM and Organizational Flexibility: A SEM Based Approach
by Nitin Vihari, M.K. Rao, Umaamaheswararao Jada
Abstract: Sustainability has been regarded as a panacea for organizational flexibility from the past few years of management research, but there remains considerable research gap in terms of the empirical linkage between the latent constructs of Sustainable HRM and Organizational Flexibility. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether the employee perceptions of Sustainable HRM practices affects the Organizational Flexibility via three intervening variables such as Employee Voice Behavior, Organizational Learning Culture and Employee Satisfaction. Drawing on the survey data from the pharmaceutical companies in India, the authors have used structural equation modeling and Hayes mediation analysis in order to test the direct and indirect effects respectively. The authors find a positive association between the sustainable HRM practices and organizational flexibility. The results also suggest that the three intervening variables act as partial mediators corresponding to the direct linkage. By highlighting association between sustainability & flexibility, the present study provides novel insights, essentially to the HR and Sustainability managers in the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry.This present study adds value because of the nascent stage of the Sustainable HRM construct and less number of empirical studies that have examined the linkage between sustainability and flexibility, not only in the Indian context but also in the advanced economies. rn
Keywords: Sustainable HRM; Organizational Flexibility; Employee Voice Behavior; Organizational Learning Culture; Employee Satisfaction and Structural Equation Modeling; Mediation Analysis.
Development, Refinement and Validation of a Lifestyle instrument in India: A Confirmatory Factor Analytic Approach
by Arham Adnan, Mohammed Naved Khan
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to develop, refine and validate a lifestyle instrument in Indian context. At present, marketers are struggling hard to unravel and understand the diverse and complex Indian lifestyles for various segmenting and targeting purposes. Moreover, the changing demographic profiles, increasing income levels, urbanization, technology, globalization and a free flow of ideas from within and outside the country, has brought about a dramatic shift in consumer taste, preferences and lifestyles. Furthermore, the rapid change in the Indian consumers attitudes and profiles, has made it difficult for organizations to cater to the consumer needs and the marketers face an uphill task of catering to the changing consumer perception and inclinations. Surprisingly, there is a dearth of appropriate scales for measuring such needs and requirements in the Indian research settings. The results of exploratory factor analysis (EFA), based on a sample of 200 respondents, led to a refined 6 dimension scale. The findings of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), from next stage sample of 150 from the same population, further validated the results of EFA. This study is a mere building block and a starting point in Indian lifestyle research and would add to the limited body of knowledge in this particular field. Beyond refining and validating the instrument, this study is expected to provide marketers with insights about how to integrate consumer lifestyles with marketing strategies. Altogether, the study is a significant beginning towards assembling a well-defined and more holistic image of factors influencing the lifestyles of Indians. The paper also discusses theoretical and managerial implications of the study.
Keywords: lifestyle;scale refinement;India;AIO;VALS.
Earnings Management under Public Offerings and Private Placements: Evidence from China
by Li Dang, Sijing Yang
Abstract: In this study, we compare earnings management behavior of Chinese public firms under public offerings and private placements. We find that, in the year before the issuance, public offerings firms exhibit more income-increasing earnings management than private placement firms. The result is opposite in the year after the issuance. We also find that, within private placements, firms that issued offerings to institutional investors exhibit higher income-increasing earnings management than firms that issued offerings only to non-institutional investors. These results suggest that firms manage earnings in response to regulatory requirements.
Keywords: Earnings Management; Public Offerings; Private Placements; Institutional Investors.
The risk of innovation: measuring drug clinical development in Brazil
by Michele De Medeiros Rocha, Danilo Garbazza Vieira, Gilson Brito Alves Lima, Emmanuel Paiva De Andrade, Osvaldo Luis Gonçalves Quelhas
Abstract: Although risk is inherent in innovation, the pharmaceutical sector still leads Research and Development (R&D) investments. Therefore, the awareness of potential risks is especially important for this sector that spends approximately 70% of the total cost of new drug development on clinical trials. The economic crisis in Europe and its reimbursement system has made emerging countries, like Brazil, potential strategic markets for the return of these high investments. Using a public database (ClinicalTrials.gov), this study estimated the probabilities of failure and success of clinical trials in Brazil up to approval by the regulatory authority. The results showed that the risk in conducting Phase 3 clinical trials, the most extensive and complex phase, is considered high (26.7%). On the other hand, regulatory approval represents a high success rate, since over 90% of the drugs with positive results in Phase 3 were approved by the Brazilian Agency.
Keywords: risk; innovation; pharmaceuticals; drug development; clinical trials.
A new Social Network Analysis-based approach to extracting knowledge patterns about research activities and hubs in a set of countries
by Paolo Lo Giudice, Paolo Russo, Domenico Ursino
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new Social Network Analysis-based approach to providing a multi-dimensional picture of the research scenarios of a set of countries of interest and to detecting possible hubs operating therein. This knowledge allows the understanding of the impact of different socio-economic conditions on research. Furthermore, it may help the design of policies for sustaining the accumulation of scientific and technological capabilities. We apply our approach to four North African countries (i.e., Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia) in such a way as to show its potential. We also investigate (both scientific and commercial) related approaches and specify the main novelties of our approach with respect to them.
Keywords: Bibliometrics; Social Network Analysis; Hubs; Hub Neighborhoods; Innovation Support.
Brand and Brand Origin Valuations: A Case of the Electrical Appliance Market in Thailand
by Chompunuch Pongjit, Yingyot Chiaravutthi
Abstract: The importance of branding has raised concerns among marketers about how to properly address a brand and its origin, particularly when the country of origin is at a disadvantage. This study relied on secondary data regarding electrical appliances published by one of the largest modern retail stores in Thailand to examine the effects of branding and brand origin on product price premiums. The findings from the hedonic price model confirm the power of brand origin on consumer willingness-to-pay as well as the brand name effects on price premiums. Nevertheless, the effects of brand origin on price premiums are, to a certain extent, category-specific.
Keywords: hedonic price model; brand name; brand origin; electrical appliance.
The Effect of Psychological Capital on Quality of Life, given the Mediating Role of Social Capital and Quality of Work Life
by Sayyed Mohsen Allameh, Seyed Hasan Hosseini, Mohammadreza Naderi Mahabadi, Ardalan Samadi
Abstract: Present research examines the relationship between psychological capital and quality of life, with (and without) mediation of social capital and quality of work life. The research statistical population included employees of a chosen state organization. The collected data through the questionnaire were used in the structural equation modeling for test of the research hypotheses and the assumed relationships between the variables. Validity of the questionnaires was examined and verified consulting the university professors and experts, and the questionnaires reliability was determined by calculating their Cronbachs alpha, that, indicating adequate reliability of them. According to the results, psychological capital (PsyCap) had a positive effect on quality of life (QOL), social capital (SC) and quality of work life (QWL). In addition, social capital positively influenced employees quality of work life and quality of life in the understudy organization. Finally, the variables social capital and quality of work life significantly mediated in the relationship between psychological capital and quality of life. All these relationships were significant at 95 percent confidence interval.
Keywords: psychological capital (PsyCap); social capital (SC); quality of life (QOL); quality of work life (QWL).
Dynamic Capabilities Development and Business Model Innovation: Evidences from IT Industry in an Emerging Country
by Afonso Ricardo Paloma Vicente, Marcos Ferasso
Abstract: This research has had as main objective to analyze how the development of DC improve BM innovation, in the context of IT high-techs in an emergent country. We performed multiple case studies with multiple data collection techniques. Main findings revealed that the process of developing DC depends on how knowledge and information are managed and acquired by the high-techs. Results evidenced that the more diverse is the set of elements of BM, the more a company develop their DC. The results corroborate to the literature of microfoundations of DC by influencing on how knowledge is managed by each company. As novelty, this research sheds some lights on the relation of DC development and BM innovation and suggests some highways for future researches.
Keywords: Dynamic capabilities. Business model innovation. Information technology industry.
A Framework for the Selection of Organizational Empowerment Project Portfolio Based on the Human Resource Practices
by Hossein Mansoori, Ali Shaemi Barzoki, Mohammad Hossein Moshref Javadi, Masoud Kianpour
Abstract: This study provided a framework to select organizational empowerment (OE) project portfolio based on human resource practices utilizing a mixed methods approach. Participants consisted of senior managers, middle managers and HR experts of Hormozgan Electric Distribution Company (HEDC) in Iran. In qualitative phase, a grounded theory study was conducted to design an organizational empowerment model. A total of 25 senior managers, middle managers, and HR experts of surveyed company were selected through purposive sampling and snowball method. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and were analyzed through the constant comparative method. Improvement projects were extracted based on the designed model. Goal programming (GP) and fuzzy hierarchical analysis process (FAHP) were used in quantitative phase. The proposed framework was presented to help managers and planners of organization for strategic decision making and the improvement of organizational empowerment considering effective factors in either the success or failure of a project.
Keywords: Project; Improvement Project; Organizational Empowerment; Human Resource Practices; Grounded Theory; Goal Programming; Fuzzy Hierarchical Analysis Process.
The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Social Performance, Financial Performance and Customer Reactions in the Foods Industry
by Fereydoun Omidi, Majid Mohammad Shafiee
Abstract: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is among the most important factors affecting financial and social performance in companies and plays a key role in consumer reactions. This paper aims to model the impact of CSR on financial and social performance of firms as well as consumer reactions. The required data are gathered using random sampling and a questionnaire developed by the authors, enjoying a 97 percent reliability. The statistical population includes the managers and top customers of a select group of food companies in the City of Khuzestan (Iran). 540 individuals are selected as the sample. Both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses e.g. structural equations are carried out using SPSS and AMOS software packages. The results indicate that all hypotheses are supported with 95 percent confidence. Therefore, CSR affects financial performance both directly and by mediation through social responsibility and consumer reactions.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility; social performance; financial performance; consumer reactions; foods industry.
The University Innovation Model in a Unique Environment
by Sami Al Kharusi, Mahmoud Al Kindi
Abstract: National Governments have recognized the important role played by higher education institutions in the diversification of their economy through innovation. Universities and Colleges are playing a crucial role not only in their traditional mean of serving the country (teaching, research and community services) but also through innovation. Universities are playing critical role in the development of hi-tech products and services; generation of new knowledge and the spin-off of a new business venture. Universities innovation model should incorporate the national innovation framework, society, regulation, culture and business for a successful transformation of knowledge into a useful products and services that will give a nation an edge over competition.
Keywords: Innovation Model; Universities; Innovation Policy; Academic Innovation Programs.
The Chaotic Terminology of Non-incremental Innovation
by Shahab Ahmadi
Abstract: Non-incremental innovation terminology has always been disorganized. The problem is that researchers use several terms to describe a single concept (non-incremental innovation), including: disruptive innovation, radical innovation, non-linear innovation, discontinuous innovation, breakthrough innovation, paradigm-shifting innovation, revolutionary innovation, really new product, major innovation, boundary expanding innovation, strategic innovation and game changing innovation. The present paper clarifies the need for a lucid language in non-incremental innovation terminology to accumulate the findings of different innovation studies, to eliminate the managers' confusion while reading academic articles on innovation, and to ease the pedagogical purposes. In doing so, this article reviews papers discussing the seven most used terms in this area and identifies their definitions and features in order to compare them and to make a conclusion about their relationship. At last, this research proposes radical innovation as the best term to address the concept of non-incremental innovation.
Keywords: innovation; innovation typology; innovation terminology; non-incremental innovation; radical innovation; disruptive innovation; strategic innovation; incremental innovation; discontinuous innovation; breakthrough innovation.
Proposition of a systematics to qualify the cross-functional collaboration through the organizational communication for the development of services
by Lisiane Rodrigues Hermes, Gunnar Trindade, Cassiana Lima Cruz, Janine Fleith De Medeiros
Abstract: The interfunctional collaboration configures one of the success-driving factors for the innovation market. However, the collaboration between different areas of the organization is characterized by intangibility. Thus, coordination mechanisms between them must be formalized. In light of the exposed issue and considering the increasing competition in the higher education sector in Brazil, the present study seeks to comprehend how the service development occurs within a university, analyzing convergences and divergences in the managers speeches of the involved areas in order to, consequently, propose improvements. The research we conducted is explanatory and qualitative. The results allow us to affirm that the analyzed institution does not have a formalized service development, as well as interfunctional collaboration presents gaps for being informal. As the main contribution, a systematics is proposed to qualify interfunctional collaboration through organizational communication practices.
Keywords: Inter-functional collaboration. Development services. Organizational communication.
integration. Organization learning. Organizational culture. Leadership. structure.
Factors affecting trust towards online retailers in India: An empirical study
by Plavini Punyatoya
Factors influencing the adoption and implementation of HRIS applications: are they similar?
by Rand Hani Al-Dmour, Ra'ed Masa'deh, Bader Yousef Obeidat
Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the influence of firms' internal and external environmental factors upon their adoption of HRIS behaviour and the level of implementing human resources information systems (HRIS) applications. Data were collected through structured-directed interviews with 236 respondents. The survey units were the shareholding companies in Jordan. The findings of the study support that the influential environmental factors of the adoption of HRIS behaviour (i.e., the variation between adopters and non-adopters) differ from the influential factors of the level of implementing of HRIS applications in terms of their importance and strengths. In comparison to each environmental dimension acting alone, the integration approach of the two internal and external dimensions gives better explanation not only of the prediction of the level of implementing of HRIS applications, but also of the prediction of adoption behaviour. Therefore, a better understanding of adoption of HRIS behaviour and the level of implementing of HRIS applications requires that firms' environmental factors be viewed as whole.
Keywords: HRIS application; adoption; implementation; external factors; internal factors.
Voyaging of agile manufacturing: from Iacocca Institute to pump industry
by V.M.M. Thilak, S.R. Devadasan, D.T. Sunil, M. Vinod, R. Murugesh
Abstract: In this paper, the recent developments in agile manufacturing field are reported by reviewing the information, research and knowledge reported in literature arena. Agile manufacturing is a paradigm that enables an organisation for quickly responding to the dynamic demands of the customers. At one stage of presenting this literature review, the focus is turned towards appraising the researches carried out to implement agile manufacturing principles in the pump industry. This review indicated that few researchers have started to apply computer aided design (CAD) to achieve agility in the case of producing the components of pumps. However, no researcher has examined the application of agile manufacturing principles on the assembled pumps. In the context of drawing this derivation, in this paper, the avenues for enhancing agility of designing and manufacturing pumps by applying functional, ergonomic and aesthetic features with the aid of CAD have been enumerated.
Keywords: agile manufacturing; literature survey; pump industry; agility enablers.
An empirical analysis of eco-design of electronic products on operational performance: does environmental performance play role as a mediator?
by Yudi Fernando, Nijo Chein Rou Uu
Abstract: Eco-design has been used to support the upstream and downstream production processes in green supply chain management (GSCM). It is included in the product design and processes effectively starting from resources extraction, to remanufacturing, use and reuse, recycling, and finally, to dispose products in economic end-of-life. The constructs of this study were developed based on literature and verified using two cases of leading global manufacturing firms. A theoretical model was tested using a survey in Malaysia, and the results fulfil literature gaps on the effects of eco-design to environmental performance (EP) and operational performance (OP). The mediating effects of EP were indicated to have improved the positive link from eco-design to OP. This study provides new research opportunities for developing theoretical justification in building eco-efficient-based GSCM. Finally, the paper suggests that the operation managers should apply parsimony principles of eco-design measurements to foresee the imminent organisation outcome. Future researchers should therefore find a way to enlighten industry counterparts with a guidance to enhance further robust statistical modelling and constructs development.
Keywords: innovation; eco-efficient supply chain; green supply chain; GSC; eco-efficient; eco-design; operational performance; Malaysia.
Using TOC to develop U-tourism and to formulate its marketing strategy
by Tzong-Ru Lee, Shiou-Yu Chen, Ing-Ching Chen, A.T. Resmi, K. Ganesh, S.P. Anbuudayasankar
Abstract: The progress of information and telecommunication technology (ICT) has accelerated the arrival of an 'Ubiquitous Society', where information can be received and exchanged anytime and anywhere. The transformation of commerce comes from brick and mortar stores to electronic commerce and to mobile commerce, now we call 'ubiquitous commerce' (U-commerce). U-commerce implies ubiquity, universality, uniqueness and unison, and brings lots of new challenges to marketers. Meanwhile, ICTs also provide new opportunities to tourism industry, and its food and beverage sector. Therefore, this study uses theory of constraint (hereafter TOC) to identify the existing challenges of tourism industry in Taiwan and provide the possible solutions of utilising ICTs properly. Then construct the U-tourism and formulate its corresponding marketing strategies. Hence, the results of this study could be divided into three major parts: 1) identifying tourist's demand and corresponding ICTs by questionnaires; 2) through TOC to map Taiwan's tourism challenges with possible solutions; 3) formulating new marketing strategies for U-tourism with U-space as the infrastructure.
Keywords: ubiquitous; information and communication technology; ICT; theory of constraint; U-space marketing strategy.
Modelling customer's intention to use e-banking in Saudi Arabia: an empirical study
by Mohamed A. Youssef, Eyad M. Youssef, Yaprak Anadol, Abdullah Al Zahrani
Abstract: This study examines how customers perceive and adopt internet banking (IB) in Saudi Arabia. Developments of this study were based on technology acceptance model (TAM) which is used with an added construct of Web Security to determine the level of adoption to use IB. Attitude, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived Web Security and intention to use are the main constructs of the study. Intention to use IB is used as the dependent variable and the determinant of the adoption. The questionnaire of the original study was utilised with some modifications to fit the Saudi environment. The analysis in this paper is based on a sample of 252 responses, collected from individuals living in the eastern province of KSA. A series of regression analyses was used to test the six main hypotheses of this study. This study contributes to the existing body of the literature in that it confirms the findings of original study by Cheng et al. (2006). It also confirms the strength of the TAM in determining the level of acceptance to IB services in a developing economy.
Keywords: e-banking; consumer attitude; technology acceptance model; TAM; Web Security; ease of use; Saudi Arabia.
Perceived risks of individual investors in the capital market: the antecedences and consequences
by Amir Reza Konjkav Monfared, Saeed Fathi, Bahram Ranjbarian
Abstract: Perceived risks are important in investment decision-making. This is why the present study aims to investigate the antecedents and consequences of the perceived risks in the capital market. Accordingly, a conceptual model was developed and tested among the individual investors who invested in Tehran Stock Exchange through brokerage firms. The model was developed and tested in two steps. The first step involved the identification of those factors which are effective in forming the perceived risks among individuals. In the second step, the consequences of perceived risks were recognised. The findings revealed that self-efficacy, trust, perceived quality, risk propensity, and investor knowledge are the main predictors of perceived risks in Tehran Stock Exchange. In addition, our findings indicated that the perceived risks have a negative effect on the investment intention. Finally, our findings revealed that perceived risks of individual investors have an indirect effect on the investment intention through information search and attitude.
Keywords: perceived risks; trust; self-efficacy; risk propensity; investment intention.