Forthcoming articles

 


International Journal of Bio-Inspired Computation

 

These articles have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication in IJBIC, but are pending final changes, are not yet published and may not appear here in their final order of publication until they are assigned to issues. Therefore, the content conforms to our standards but the presentation (e.g. typesetting and proof-reading) is not necessarily up to the Inderscience standard. Additionally, titles, authors, abstracts and keywords may change before publication. Articles will not be published until the final proofs are validated by their authors.

 

Forthcoming articles must be purchased for the purposes of research, teaching and private study only. These articles can be cited using the expression "in press". For example: Smith, J. (in press). Article Title. Journal Title.

 

Articles marked with this shopping trolley icon are available for purchase - click on the icon to send an email request to purchase.

 

Articles marked with this Open Access icon are freely available and openly accessible to all without any restriction except the ones stated in their respective CC licenses.

 

Register for our alerting service, which notifies you by email when new issues of IJBIC are published online.

 

We also offer RSS feeds which provide timely updates of tables of contents, newly published articles and calls for papers.

 

International Journal of Bio-Inspired Computation (43 papers in press)

 

Regular Issues

 

  • Earthworm optimization algorithm: a bio-inspired metaheuristic algorithm for global optimization problems   Order a copy of this article
    by Gai-Ge Wang, Suash Deb, Leandro Dos Santos Coelho 
    Abstract: Earthworms are essential animals that aerate the soil with their burrowing action and enrich the soil with their waste nutrients. Inspired by the earthworm contribution in nature, a new kind of bio-inspired metaheuristic algorithm, called earthworm optimization algorithm (EWA), is proposed in this paper. The EWA method is inspired by the two kinds of reproduction (Reproduction 1 and Reproduction 2) of the earthworms in nature. In EWA, the offspring are generated through Reproduction 1 and Reproduction 2 independently, and then, we used weighted sum of all the generated offsprings to get the final earthworm for next generation. Reproduction 1 generates only one offspring by itself that is also special kind of reproduction in nature. Reproduction 2 is to generate one or more than one offspring at one time, and this can successfully done by nine improved crossover operators that are an extended version of classical crossover operator used in DE (differential evolution) and GA (genetic algorithm). With the aim of escaping from local optima and improving the search ability of earthworms, the addition of a Cauchy mutation (CM) is made to the EWA method. In order to show the robustness of EWA method, nine different EWA methods with one, two and three offsprings based on nine improved crossover operators are respectively proposed and they are compared between each other through twenty-two high-dimensional benchmarks. The results show that EWA23 (Uniform crossover operator is used in Reproduction 2) performs the best and is further benchmarked on forty-eight functions and an engineering optimization case. The EWA method is able to find the better function values on most benchmark optimization problems than seven other metaheuristic algorithms.
    Keywords: Earthworm optimization algorithm; Evolutionary computation; Benchmark functions; Improved crossover operator.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBIC.2015.10004283
     
  • A Bacterial Foraging based Batch Scheduling Model for Distributed System   Order a copy of this article
    by T.A.J. ALAM, ZAHID RAZA 
    Abstract: The problem of scheduling in the parallel and distributed environment is proven to be NP-complete and has been addressed by various heuristics. It is always desired from a scheduling scheme to distribute the load evenly on the available resources so as to have maximum resource utilization while meeting the scheduling objective(s). Bio inspired heuristics for job scheduling have gained immense popularity due to their effectiveness in providing near optimal solution in a reasonable time and computational complexity. This work proposes an evolutionary static scheduling technique based on bacterial foraging for a batch of independent jobs. This model generates the schedule minimizing the node idle time and the makespan while exhibiting a balanced load distribution with minimum run time overhead. Simulation study proves the effectiveness of the proposed model in comparison with its peers.
    Keywords: Distributed system; Scheduling; Load Balancing; Bacterial Foraging; Utilization; Makespan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBIC.2016.10004297
     
  • Hybrid Bio-inspired Scheduling Algorithms for Batch of Tasks on Heterogeneous Computing System   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Sajid, Zahid Raza, Mohammad Shahid 
    Abstract: Due to high operational cost, the problem of scheduling a batch of tasks (BoT) applications on HCS remains a challenging problem. Accordingly, a plethora of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) and non-EAs have been proposed as solutions. Due to the ability of exploration of major solution space, EAs have been proven to be very effective in addressing the job scheduling problem. This work proposes two hybrid bio-inspired scheduling algorithms VPG and VDG featuring the combined best properties of VNS, PSO, DE and GA. The expected-time-to-compute (ETC) benchmark have been used to first present the performance of 8 non-EAs viz. MCT, MinMin, MaxMin, Sufferage, HLTF, Relative Cost, MINMin and MINSuff in terms of makespan and energy consumption. The study is then extended to evaluate the performance of VPG, VDG and their seeded variants with GA, PSO and DE. Simulation study establishes the superior performance of VDG over peers.
    Keywords: Bio-inspired Computation; Heterogeneous Computing System (HCS); Batch of Tasks (BoT); Scheduling; Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithms; Makespan; Energy Consumption.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBIC.2016.10004299
     
  • Hybrid Symbiotic Organisms Search Algorithm for Solving 0-1 Knapsack Problem   Order a copy of this article
    by Yongquan Zhou 
    Abstract: We propose a new binary version of hybrid symbiotic organisms search algorithm based on harmony search with greedy strategy for solving 0-1 knapsack problems. A greedy strategy is employed to repair the infeasible solution and optimize the feasible solution. The experiments are carried out in small-scale and large-scale knapsack problem instances. We report on computational experiments which are compared with the results achieved with other state-of-the-art approaches. The results attest the performance of our approach.
    Keywords: Knapsack problem; Symbiotic organisms search; Harmony search; Greedy strategy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBIC.2016.10004304
     
  • Economic load dispatch using memory based differential evolution   Order a copy of this article
    by Raghav Prasad Parouha, Kedar Nath Das 
    Abstract: Many variants of Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm and its hybrid versions exist in the literature to solve Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) problem. However, the performance of DE is highly affected by the inappropriate choice of its operators like mutation and crossover. Moreover, in general practice, DE does not employ any strategy of memorizing the best results obtained so far in the initial part of the previous cycle. An attempt is made in this paper to propose a Memory based DE (MBDE) where two swarm operators have been introduced. These operators based on the pBEST and gBEST mechanism of particle swarm optimization (PSO). The proposed MBDE is tested over 4 different power test systems of ELD problem with varying complexities. Numerical, statistical and graphical analysis reveals the competency of the proposed MBDE.
    Keywords: Differential Evolution; Mutation; Crossover; Economic load dispatch problem.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBIC.2016.10004309
     
  • Multi-swarm Cooperative Multi-objective Bacterial Foraging Optimization   Order a copy of this article
    by Ben Niu, Jing Liu, Lijing Tan 
    Abstract: his paper proposes a novel multi-objective algorithm which is based on the concept of master-slave swarm, namely Multi-swarm Cooperative Multi-objective Bacterial Foraging Optimization (MCMBFO). In MCMBFO, the multi-swarm cooperative operation which involves several slave-swarms and a master-swarm is developed to accelerate the bacteria to come closer to the true Pareto front. With regard to slave-swarms, each of them evolves collaboratively with others during the step of chemotaxis and reproduction, using information communication mechanism and cross-reproducing approach to enhance the convergence rate respectively. At the same time, bacteria in the master-swarm are all non-dominated individuals selected from slave-swarms. They evolve based on non-dominated sorting approach and crowding distance operation, aiming to improve the accuracy and diversity of solutions. The superiority of MCMBFO is confirmed by simulation experiments using several test problems and performance metrics chosen from prior representative studies.
    Keywords: Multi-swarm; Multi-objective; Bacterial Foraging Optimization.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBIC.2016.10004311
     
  • A comparative study among different parallel hybrid artificial intelligent approaches to solve the capacitated vehicle routing problem   Order a copy of this article
    by Teerapun Saeheaw 
    Abstract: The vehicle routing problem involves distribution management in the fields of transportation, distribution, and logistics, and it is one of the most important, and studied, combinatorial optimization problems. The capacitated vehicle routing problem is an NP-hard problem, which was introduced by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959. The objective is to minimize the total distance and to maximize capacity for all of the vehicles. In this paper, the proposed parallel hybrid artificial intelligent approaches are based on cuckoo search that uses the positive features of two other optimization techniques, central force optimization and chemical reaction optimization, for enhancing local search and improving the quality of the initial population, respectively. The motivation for this work is to improve the computational efficiency by getting even better results than the previous best known solutions, to study of the dynamics of various parameters of proposed approaches in searching optimum solutions, and to quicken the process of finding the optimal solution. The proposed approaches are tested on standard test instances from the literature. The test results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches in solving the capacitated vehicle routing problem efficiently.
    Keywords: capacitated vehicle routing problem; CVRP; cuckoo search; CS; central force optimization; CFO; chemical reaction optimization; CRO.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBIC.2016.10004317
     
  • A Rule Generation Algorithm from Neural Network using Classified and Misclassified Data   Order a copy of this article
    by Saroj Biswas, Manomita Chakraborty, Biswajit Purkayastha 
    Abstract: Classification is one of the important tasks of data mining and neural network is one of the best known tools for doing this task. Despite of producing high classification accuracy, the black box nature of neural network makes it useless for many applications which require transparency in its decision making process. This drawback is overcome by extracting rules from neural network. Rule extraction makes neural network an alternative to other machine learning methods for handling classification problems by deriving an explanation of how each decision is made. Till now many algorithms on rule extraction have been proposed but still research on this area is going on to find out more accurate and understandable rules. The proposed algorithm extracts rules from trained neural network for datasets with mixed mode attributes using pedagogical approach. The proposed algorithm uses classified and misclassified patterns to find out the data ranges of significant attributes in respective classes. The experimental results clearly show that the proposed algorithm produces accurate and understandable rules compared to existing algorithms.
    Keywords: Data Mining; Artificial Neural networks; Rule extraction; Pedagogical; RxREN algorithm; Classification.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBIC.2016.10004336
     
  • Behavior-driven Dynamic Pricing Modeling via Hidden Markov Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Qinfu Qiu, Xiong Chen 
    Abstract: Abstract --- The dynamic pricing strategy in airline tickets has gained a lot of concern from both air companies and customers. As it has been proved that putting out discount in airline tickets in sometime may increase a companys total revenue. In this paper, after making analysis in both sides of airline and passengers behavior, we found that all the different choices made by passengers, whether purchase or keep waiting, come from an invisible logical chain which contains several key driving elements. Thus, we implement hidden Markov model here, trying to model a new pricing mechanism to raise the revenue. The simulation verified this models practicability.
    Keywords: Key Words --- dynamic pricing strategy; revenue; invisible logical chain; hidden Markov model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBIC.2016.10004341
     
  • Differential Evolution Based on Node Strength   Order a copy of this article
    by Lenka Skanderova, Tomas Fabian, Ivan Zelinka 
    Abstract: In this paper, three novel algorithms for optimization based on the differential evolution algorithm are devised. The main idea behind those algorithms stems from the observation that differential evolution dynamics can be modeled via complex networks. In our approach, the individuals of the population are modeled by the nodes and the relationships between them by the directed lines of the graph. Subsequent analysis of non-trivial topological features further influence the process of parent selection in the mutation step and replace the traditional approach which is not reflecting the complex relationships between individuals in the population during evolution. This approach represents a general framework which can be applied to various kinds of differential evolution algorithms. We have incorporated this framework with the three well-performing variants of differential evolution algorithms to demonstrate the effectiveness of our contribution with respect to the convergence rate. Two well-known benchmark sets (including 49 functions) are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms. Experimental results and statistical analysis indicate that the enhanced algorithms perform better or at least comparable to their original versions.
    Keywords: Differential Evolution Dynamics; Complex Network; Node Strength; Hybrid Mutation Operator; Self-Adapting Parameter.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBIC.2016.10004343
     
  • Computer Aided Detection and Classification of Pap smear Cell Images Using Principal Component Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Sukumar Ponnusamy, Ravi Samikannu 
    Abstract: Pap smear is a screening methodology employed in cervix cancer detection and diagnosis. The Pap smear images of cervical region are used to detect the abnormality of the cervical cells. In this paper, the computer aided automatic detection and classification method for papsmear cell images are proposed. The cell nucleus is segmented using watershed segmentation methodology and features are extracted from segmented cell nucleus papsmear image. The extracted features are classified using Principal component analysis method. The proposed system classifies the test papsmear cell image into Dysplastic (D), parabasal (P) and Superficial (S) cell images for cervical cancer diagnosis.rn
    Keywords: papsmear; cell nucleus; watershed; cervical cancer; features.rn.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBIC.2016.10004345
     
  • An Elite Opposition-Flower Pollination Algorithm for a 0-1 Knapsack Problem   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed Abdel Basset, Yongquan Zhou 
    Abstract: The knapsack problem is one of the most studied combinatorial optimization problems with various practical applications. In This paper, we apply an elite opposition-flower pollination algorithm (EFPA), to solve 0-1 knapsack problem, an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested against a set of benchmarks of knapsack problems. Computational experiments with a set of large-scale instances show that the EFPA can be an efficient alternative for solving 01 knapsack problems.
    Keywords: Flower pollination algorithm; Meta-heuristics; Combinatorial optimization ; NP-hard ; Optimization; knapsack problems.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBIC.2016.10004350
     
  • Optimization Inspiring from Behavior of Raining in Nature: Droplet Optimization Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Hamid Parvin 
    Abstract: In this paper one of these methods has been proposed called droplet optimization algorithm (DOA). DOA emulates rainfall phenomenon. It employs some special operators to describe the droplet process, including droplet generation, droplet fall, droplet collision, droplet flowing and droplet updating. To compare performance of this algorithm against those of some up-to-dated optimization algorithms, all of the CEC 2005 contest benchmark functions have been employed. The experimental results have proven that DOA superior to all basic optimization algorithms and also some up-to-dated optimization algorithms.
    Keywords: Optimizer; DOA; Metaheuristics; General Optimization.

  • Bit Mask Oriented Genetic Algorithm for Grammatical Inference and Premature Convergence   Order a copy of this article
    by Hari Pandey 
    Abstract: In this paper, a Bit Mask Oriented Genetic Algorithm (BMOGA) is proposed for Grammatical Inference (GI). GI is techniques to infer a context free grammar from a set of positive and negative samples. The BMOGA combines the traditional genetic algorithm, which has a powerful global exploration capability, with a Bit Mask Oriented Data Structure (BMODS) and Boolean based procedure (uses Boolean operators) that can exploit an optimum offspring. The evolutionary operations are performed in two phases: mask-fill for both crossover and mutation and then a Boolean operator based procedure. A vector function is utilized with arguments such as crossover, mutation masks and a couple of parents strings. The arguments crossover and mutation mask helps in replacing various mating rules and therefore no strict rules are to be designed to select an appropriate crossover mechanism. An extensive parameter tuning is done that makes the proposed algorithm more robust, statistically sound, and quickly convergent. The proposed BMOGA is effectively applied over the context free as well as regular languages of varying complexities. The computational experiments show that the proposed BMOGA finds optimal or close-to-optimal grammar with the best fitness value. The Boolean operators introduce diversity in the population that helps in exploring the search space adequately. First, we evaluate the performance of the BMOGA against three algorithms: the genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization and simulated annealing. Then, the BMOGA is tested with two different offspring generation algorithms: random offspring generation and elite mating pool approach. Statistical tests are conducted that indicate the superiority of the proposed algorithm over others. Overall, a genetic algorithm based tool is developed for the GI, which greatly improves the results, robustness and alleviate premature convergence.
    Keywords: Bit-Masking Oriented Data Structure; Context Free Grammar; Genetic Algorithm; Grammar Inference; Learning System.

  • Labor division in swarm intelligence for allocation problems: A survey   Order a copy of this article
    by Renbin Xiao, Yingcong Wang 
    Abstract: Labor division in swarm intelligence is a kind of swarm behavior widely found in social insects and it provides a flexible task allocation method which is enlightening to solve the allocation problems in dynamic environment. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of labor division in swarm intelligence for allocation problems. At first, labor division in swarm intelligence is introduced and stated from the aspects of phenomena, patterns, characteristics and mechanisms, and then four kinds of models of labor division, viz., group dynamics model, response threshold model, activator-inhibitor model and individual sorting model, are discussed in detail. Based on the contrastive analysis and typical applications of these four models, the allocation problems are divided into continuous allocation problems and discrete allocation problems, and the key points of applying the stimulus-response way and the activation-inhibition way to this two types of problems are analyzed. Furthermore, the research of labor division in swarm intelligence in optimization algorithms and its advantages are discussed. Finally, some perspectives on the development trends of labor division in swarm intelligence are given as the concluding remarks of this paper.
    Keywords: swarm intelligence; labor division; task allocation; flexibility; allocation problem.

  • Hybrid Cuckoo Search Algorithm with Covariance Matrix Adaption Evolution Strategy for Global optimisation Problem   Order a copy of this article
    by Xin Zhang, Xiangtao Li, Minghao Yin 
    Abstract: Cuckoo search algorithm (CS) is an efficient bio-inspired algorithm and has been studied on global optimisation problems extensively. It is expert in solving complicated functions but converges slowly. Another optimisation algorithm, covariance matrix adaption evolution strategy (CMA_ES) can speed up the convergence rate via self-adaptation of the mutation distribution and cumulation of the evolution path, whereas it performs badly in complex functions. Therefore, in this paper, we devise a hybridization of CS and CMA_ES and name it CS_CMA, to enhance the convergence speed and performance for the different optimisation problems. An evolved population is initialised at the beginning of iteration, using the information of previous evolution. During the whole evolution process, self-adaptive parameter adjustments are employed through the successful parameter values. To validate the performance of CS_CMA, comparative experiments are conducted based on seven high-dimensional benchmark functions provided for CEC 2008 and an engineering optimisation problem chosen from CEC 2011, and the computational results demonstrate that CS_CMA outperforms other competitor algorithms.
    Keywords: Cuckoo Search; Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolutionary Strategy; Global optimisation; Self-adaptive method; Cumulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBIC.2017.10004358
     
  • Bio-Inspired Reaction Diffusion System Applied to Image Restoration   Order a copy of this article
    by Nour Eddine Alaa, Mariam Zirhem 
    Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new model of nonlinear and anisotropic reaction diffusion system applied to image restoration and to contrast enhancement. This model is based on a system of partial differential equations of type Fitzhugh-Nagumo. We apply the previous algorithm and the proposed one to realistic images and we confi rm the robustness and the performance of our algorithm through a number of experimental results that indicates that it is very efficient for removing noise, enhance image contrast and preserve the edges.
    Keywords: Nonlinear anisotropic diffusion; image restoration; Fitzhugh-Nagumo; reaction diffusion system.

  • A Firefly inspired Game Dissemination and QoS based Priority Pricing Strategy for Online Social Network Games   Order a copy of this article
    by Ebin Deni Raj, Dhinesh Babu L.D 
    Abstract: With almost all educated individuals having access to computing cum communication gadgets like mobiles, tablets, pcs, and laptops, Online Social Networks (OSNs) have become the default means of networking among majority of individuals. OSNs have become an inseparable part of daily lives attracting more than one third of the current world population. Majority of the users enjoy the entertainment aspects of OSNs like gaming with friends from different geographic locations. Social gaming has spawned a whole new sub culture which helps users to discover and build connections with other users. Game development companies constantly try to publicize and attract new users using OSNs to enhance their revenues. In this context, we propose a new firefly inspired strategy to spread and disseminate games in OSNs and assist the gaming companies to decrease the acceptance- discontinuance anomaly. Collective behaviour in online social network is closely related to swarm intelligence techniques. We have also proposed a rewarding and efficient Firefly inspired QoS based priority pricing model that will attract more users to play online games while using online social networks, thereby, enhancing the profits of the service providers and game developers.
    Keywords: Online social networks; Firefly algorithm; Acceptance-discontinuance anomaly; priority pricing; OSN based games; cloud gaming.

  • Dynamic Data Clustering by Combining Improved Discrete Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with Fuzzy Logic   Order a copy of this article
    by Ehsan Amiri, Mohammad Naderi Dehkordi 
    Abstract: Data clustering is a method of partitioning data into different groups pursuant to some similarity or dissimilarity measure. Nowadays, several different technics are invented and introduced for data clustering such as heuristics and meta-heuristics. Many clustering algorithms fail when dealing with multi-dimensional data. In this research, we proposed an innovative fuzzy method with improved discrete artificial bee colony (ID is ABC) for data clustering called FID is ABC. The D is ABC is a new version of Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) that first introduced to sort out the uncapacitated facility location (UFLP) problem and improved by the efficient genetic selection to solve dynamic clustering problem. The performance of our algorithm is evaluated and compared with some well-known algorithms. The results show that our algorithm has better performance in comparison with them.
    Keywords: Data clustering; Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Algorithm; dataset; Fuzzy logic; Artificial Intelligence.

  • Iterative Sequential Bat Algorithm for Free-Form Rational Bezier Surface Reconstruction   Order a copy of this article
    by Andres Iglesias, Akemi Galvez, Marta Collantes 
    Abstract: Surface reconstruction is a very important research topic with outstanding applications in many areas: CAD/CAM (reverse engineering for the automotive, aerospace and shipbuilding industries), rapid prototyping, biomedical engineering (customized prosthesis, medical implants), medical imaging (computer tomography, magnetic resonance), and many others. A classical approach in the field is to consider free-form polynomial surfaces, such as B
    Keywords: Surface reconstruction; free-form shapes; rational B├ęzier surface; reverse engineering; bat algorithm.

  • Symbiotic organisms search algorithm for different economic load dispatch problems   Order a copy of this article
    by Dimitrios Gonidakis 
    Abstract: Economic load dispatch (ELD) is an important topic in engineering management as it is associated with the efficient operation of an electric power generating system. The aim of ELD is to determine the generation dispatch among the thermal units such that the operating cost is minimised. This study presents a novel nature-inspired optimisation method called symbiotic organisms search (SOS) to solve various types of ELD problems. SOS imitates the interaction strategies adopted by organisms to survive in an ecosystem. The proposed method is applied to six different test systems in order to verify its effectiveness and robustness. The simulation results of the proposed SOS algorithm confirm its superiority over other successful optimisation approaches reported in recent literature.
    Keywords: symbiotic organisms search; metaheuristics; engineering optimisation; economic load dispatch; valve point loading.

  • COMPUTER AIDED DIAGNOSIS OF DRUG SENSITIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS WITH CAVITIES, CONSOLIDATIONS AND NODULAR MANIFESTATIONS ON LUNG CT IMAGES   Order a copy of this article
    by Dhalia Sweetlin J, H. Khanna Nehemiah, Kannan Arputharaj 
    Abstract: In this work, a Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to improve the diagnostic accuracy and consistency in image interpretation of pulmonary tuberculosis is proposed. The lung fields are segmented using region growing and edge reconstruction algorithms. Texture features are extracted from the diseased regions manifested as consolidations, cavitations and nodular opacities. A wrapper approach that combines cuckoo search optimization and one-against-all SVM classifier is used to select optimal feature subset. Cuckoo search algorithm is implemented first using entropy and second without using entropy measure. Training is done with the selected features using one-against-all (SVM) classifier. Among the 98 features extracted from the diseased regions, 47 features are selected with entropy measure giving 92.77% accuracy. When entropy measure is not used, 51 features are selected giving 91.89% accuracy. From the results, it is inferred that selecting appropriate features for training the classifier has an impact on the classifier performance.
    Keywords: Computer aided diagnosis; Pulmonary Tuberculosis; Tuberculosis manifestations; Binary Cuckoo Search; one-against-all SVM classification; Drug sensitive TB; Miliary TB; Cavitary TB; Nodular TB.

  • HYBRID PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION WITH MUTATION FOR CODE SMELL DETECTION   Order a copy of this article
    by Saranya G, H. Khanna Nehemiah, Kannan Arputharaj 
    Abstract: Code smells are characterized as the structural defects in the software which indicate a poor software design and in turn makes the software hard to maintain. However, detecting and fixing the code smell in the software is a time consuming process, and it is difficult to fix manually. In this paper, an algorithm named as Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization with Mutation (HPSOM) is used for identification of code smell by automatic generation of rules which represent the combination of metrics and threshold. Moreover, an empirical evaluation to compare HPSOM with other evolutionary approaches such as the Parallel Evolutionary Algorithm (PEA), Genetic Algorithm (GA), Genetic Programming (GP) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to detect the code smell is done. The analysis shows that the HPSOM algorithm performs better than other approaches when applied on nine open source projects, namely, JfreeChart, GanttProject, ApacheAnt 5.2, ApacheAnt 7.0, Nutch, Log4J, Lucene, Xerces-J and Rhino. HPSOM approach has achieved precision of 94% and recall of 92% on five different types of code smells namely, Blob, Data class, Spaghetti code, Functional decomposition and Feature envy.
    Keywords: Search based software engineering; Code smell; Evolutionary algorithms; Software maintenance; Software metrics; Particle Swarm Optimization; Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization; Cohesion; Coupling; Open source software.

  • Embedded Implementation of Template Matching using Correlation and Particle Swarm Optimization   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuri Tavares, Nadia Nedjah, Luiza Mourelle 
    Abstract: Template matching is an important technique used in pattern recognition. The goal is find a given pattern, from a prescribed model, in a frame sequence. In order to evaluate the similarity of two images, the Pearsons Correlation Coefficient (PCC) is widely used. This coefficient is calculated for each of the image pixels, which entails a computationally very expensive operation. This paper proposes the implementation of Template Matching using the PCC based method together with Particle Swarm Optimization as an embedded system. This approach allows for a great versatility to use this kind of system in portable equipment. The results indicate that PSO is up to 131
    Keywords: Embedded systems; co-design; particle swarm optimization; template matching; correlation; tracking.

  • 3D reconstruction of pulmonary nodules in PET-CT image sequences based on a novel 3D region growing method combined with ACO   Order a copy of this article
    by Juanjuan Zhao, Wei Qiang, Guohua Ji, Xiangfei Zhou 
    Abstract: The three-dimensional visualization is an important aid for the detection and diagnosis of pulmonary nodules. The traditional method by which clinicians restore the 3D structure of pulmonary nodules (i.e., by subjective imagination and clinical experience, which may not be intuitive or accurate) is not conducive to pulmonary nodule extraction and quantification. Therefore, we herein propose an algorithm of pulmonary nodule segmentation and 3D reconstruction based on 3D region growing in positron emission tomographycomputed tomography (PET-CT) image sequences. First, k-means clustering was used for the lung parenchyma segmentation. Next, 3D surface rendering reconstruction of lung parenchyma was performed. Finally, the novel 3D region growing method optimised by ant colony optimization (ACO) was used to segment the pulmonary nodule. Our proposed method was more efficient than traditional methods in the present study. The experimental results show that our algorithm can segment pulmonary nodules more fully with high segmentation precision and accuracy.
    Keywords: pulmonary nodules; 3D visualization; k-means; 3D region growing; ant colony optimization.

  • An iterative method to improve the results of Ant-tree algorithm applied to colour quantisation   Order a copy of this article
    by María-Luisa Pérez-Delgado 
    Abstract: Colour quantisation methods attempt to represent a colour image by a palette with fewer colours than the original one. This paper presents a method of this type, based on a previous algorithm called ATCQ (Ant-Tree for Colour Quantisation), which applies artificial ants for colour reduction. An important advantage of the new algorithm is that it does not require sorting the input data. Moreover, it applies an iterative process to increase the quality of the quantised image as iterations proceed. The proposed algorithm gives better results than the original one, and it is competitive with other well-known colour quantisation methods, such as Median-cut, Octree, Neuquant, Variance-based, Binary splitting or Wu\'s methods.
    Keywords: colour quantisation; clustering; artificial ants; Ant-tree algorithm; colour image processing.

  • An Intelligent Traffic Engineering Method for Video Surveillance Systems over Software Defined Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Reza Mohammadi, Reza Javidan 
    Abstract: Nowadays, Software Defined Network (SDN) is an innovative technology for provisioning Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. SDN network management facilitated using software in which network administrator can perform desired traffic engineering techniques on different applications. Video streaming in video surveillance systems is a critical application which needs QoS requirements such as low packet loss and short delay. These requirements can be satisfied by using traffic engineering techniques over SDNs. In this paper an intelligent traffic engineering technique for a video surveillance system over SDN is proposed. It is based on Constrained Shortest Path (CSP) problem in which the packet loss and delay of video streaming data should be significantly reduced. Due to NP-completeness of the CSP problems, in this paper ant colony optimization algorithm is used to solve it. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first traffic engineering technique used ant colony for video streaming over SDN. Comparisons between the proposed method and prevalent methods such as OSPF routing protocol and LARAC optimization algorithm demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of packet loss, delay and Peak Signal-To-Noise Ratio (PSNR). It was shown that using the proposed method will also ameliorate the traffic engineering for video surveillance systems.
    Keywords: Software defined network; ant colony; traffic engineering; video streaming.

  • Constrained optimisation by solving equivalent dynamic loosely-constrained multiobjective optimisation problem   Order a copy of this article
    by Sanyou Zeng, Ruwang Jiao, Changhe Li, Rui Wang 
    Abstract: A constrained optimisation problem (COP) is solved by solving an equivalent dynamic loosely-constrained multiobjective optimisation problem in this paper. Two strategies are considered. i) An additional objective (constrained-violation objective) is introduced to obtain a twoobjective optimisation problem. This provides a framework for adopting multi-objective techniques to solve the COP. ii) A dynamic constraint boundary is introduced to obtain an equivalent dynamic loosely-constrained multiobjective optimisation problem since a broad boundary is gradually slightly reduced to the original constraint boundary. This suggests that an dynamic constrained multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (DCMOEA) can performs as effective as that of a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) in solving an unconstrained multiobjective optimisation problem. The idea is implemented into three major types of MOEAs, i.e., Pareto ranking based method, decomposition based method, preference-inspired co-evolutionary method. These three instantiations are tested on two sets of benchmark problems. Experimental results show that they are better than or competitive to two state-of-the-art constraint optimizers, especially for the problems with high dimensions.
    Keywords: evolutionary algorithm; constrained optimisation; multi-objective optimisation; dynamic optimisation.

  • Swarm Intelligent Based Congestion Management Using Optimal Rescheduling of Generators   Order a copy of this article
    by Surender Reddy Salkuti, Wajid S.A. 
    Abstract: Congestion Management (CM) refers to the controlling of transmission system such that the power transfer/flow limits are observed. In the restructured electrical system, the challenges of CM for the System Operator (SO) is to maintain the desired level of system reliability and security in the short and long terms, while improving the market/system efficiency. In this paper, the CM problem is tackled by using the centralized optimization i.e., optimal rescheduling of generators, which in turn is solved by using the Swarm intelligent techniques. Here, the CM problem is solved by using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Fitness Distance Ratio PSO (FDR-PSO) and Fuzzy Adaptive-PSO (FA-PSO). First, the generators are selected based on sensitivity to the over-loaded transmission line, and then these generators are rescheduled to remove the congestion in the transmission line. The suitability and effectiveness of the proposed CM approach is examined on the standard IEEE 30 bus and practical Indian 75 bus systems.
    Keywords: Congestion management; Generation rescheduling; Optimal power flow; Generator sensitivity; Evolutionary algorithms; Particle swarm optimization.

  • Intelligent Swarm Firey Algorithm for the Prediction of China's National Electricity Consumption   Order a copy of this article
    by Guangfeng Zhang, Yi Chen 
    Abstract: China's energy consumption is the world's largest and is still rising, leading to concerns of energy shortage and environmental issues. It is, therefore, necessary to estimate the energy demand and to examine the dynamic nature of the electricity consumption. In this paper, we develop a nonlinear model of energy consumption and utilise a computational intelligence approach, specifically a swarm firefly algorithm with a variable population, to examine China's electricity consumption with historical statistical data from 1980 to 2012. Prediction based on these data using the model and the examination is verified with a bivariate sensitivity analysis, a bias analysis and a forecasting exercise, which all suggest that the national macroeconomic performance, the electricity price, the electricity consumption efficiency and the economic structure are four critical factors determining national electricity consumption. Actuate prediction of the consumption is important as it has explicit policy implications on the electricity sector development and planning for power plants.
    Keywords: energy consumption; nonlinear modelling ; swarm firefly algorithm; parameters determination.

  • A Moving Block Sequence-based Evolutionary Algorithm for Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problems   Order a copy of this article
    by Xingxing Hao, Jing Liu, Xiaoxiao Yuan, Xianglong Tang, Zhangtao Li 
    Abstract: In this paper, a new representation for resource-constrained project scheduling problems (RCPSPs), namely moving block sequence (MBS), is proposed. In RCPSPs, every activity has fixed duration and resource demands, therefore, it can be modeled as a rectangle block whose height represents the resource demand and width the duration. Naturally, a project that consists of N activities can be represented as the permutation of N blocks that satisfy the precedence constraints among activities. To decode an MBS to a valid schedule, four move modes are designed according to the situations that how every block can be moved from its initial position to an appropriate location that can minimize the makespan of the project. Based on MBS, the multiagent evolutionary algorithm (MAEA) is used to solve RCPSPs. The proposed algorithm is labeled as MBSMAEA-RCPSP, and by comparing with several state-of-the-art algorithms on benchmark J30, J60, J90 and J120, the effectiveness of MBSMAEA-RCPSP is clearly illustrated.
    Keywords: Moving block sequence; Resource-constrained project scheduling problems; Evolutionary algorithms.

  • Cloud service composition using an inverted ant colony optimization algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Saied Asghari, Nima Jafari Navimipour 
    Abstract: In recent years, clouds are becoming an important platform for scientific applications. Service composition is a growing approach that increases the number of applications of cloud computing by reusing attractive services. However, more available approaches focus on producing composite services from a single cloud, limiting the benefits derived from other clouds. Furthermore, in many traditional service composition methods, there is a key problem called load balancing that was inefficient among cloud servers. Therefore, this paper proposes the inverted ant colony optimization (IACO) algorithm, a variation of the basic ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm, to solve this problem. This method inverts its logic by converting the effect of pheromone on the selected path by ants in order to improve load balancing among cloud servers. In this method, ants begin to traverse the graph from the start node and each ant selects the best node for moving, then other ants may not follow the track travelled by the previous ants. We evaluate the performance of the proposed method in comparison with the ACO, greedy and COM2 algorithms in terms of the obtained optimal cloud composition, load balancing, waiting time, cost and execution time. The results show that the proposed method improves load balancing, reduces waiting time and cost that are the advantages of the proposed method and also increases execution time that is a disadvantage of the proposed method.
    Keywords: Cloud computing; Inverted ant colony; Service composition; Load balancing; Optimal cloud composition.

  • Markov Approach for Quantifying the Software Code Coverage Using Genetic Algorithm in Software Testing   Order a copy of this article
    by Sujatha Ramalingam, Boopathi Muthusamy, Senthil Kumar C, Narasimman S, Rajan A 
    Abstract: Markov Chain approach to quantify the coverage of dd-graph representingrnthe software code using genetic algorithm (GA) is presented in this paper. Initially the ddgraph is captured from the control flow graph. In this technique, test software code coverage is carried out by applying GA through sufficient number of feasible linearly independent paths. These paths have been decided in a software code depending on computational uses and predicate uses. Automatic test cases have been produced for the three mixed data type variables namely, integer, float, Boolean and GA is applied. Transition Probability of the Markov Chain is attained from gcov coverage analysis tool of the initial test suite. Fitness function of GA is measured using path coverage metric; as the product of node coverage and TPM values. Highest fitness value represent the most critical paths among these independent paths with aim to increase testing efficiency of the software code.
    Keywords: Software testing; Test adequacy; Cyclomatic complexity; Markov Chain; dd-rngraph; Genetic Algorithm.

  • Quantum Inspired Monarch Butterfly Optimization for UCAV Path Planning Navigation Problem   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiao-Hong Yi 
    Abstract: As a complicated high-dimensional optimization problem, path planning navigation problem for Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicles (UCAV) is to obtain a shortest safe flight route with different types of constrains under complicated combating environments. Monarch butterfly optimization (MBO) is a highly promising swarm intelligence algorithm. Since then, though it has successfully solved several challenging problems, MBO may be trapped into local optima sometimes. In order to improve the performance of MBO, quantum computation is firstly incorporated into the basic MBO algorithm, and a new quantum inspired MBO algorithm is then proposed, called QMBO. In QMBO, certain number of the worst butterflies are updated by quantum operators. In this paper, the UCAV path planning navigation problem is modeled into an optimization problem, and then its optimal path can be obtained by the proposed QMBO algorithm. In addition, B-Spline curves are utilized to further smoothen the obtained path and make it more feasible for UCAV. The UCAV path obtained by QMBO is compared with the basic MBO, and the experimental results show that QMBO can find much shorter path than MBO.
    Keywords: Unmanned combat air vehicle; Path planning navigation; Monarch butterfly optimization; Quantum computation; B-Spline curve.

  • An Evolutionary Classiffication Method based on Fireworks Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Yu Xue, Binping Zhao, Tinghuai Ma 
    Abstract: Classi cation and clustering are two important problems in machine learning and data mining. Recently, many evolutionary computation (EC) techniques have been employed to solve the clustering problems by taking the advantage of the global search ability of EC. Di erent from the situation in clustering research issues, EC techniques are only employed to improve the performance of the classi ers either by optimizing their parameters and structures, or by pre-processing their inputs. In this paper, we propose an evolutionary optimization classi cation model for the classi cation problems, and the reworks algorithm (FWA) is employed to solve the classi cation model directly. In the optimization classi cation model, a linear equation set is constructed based on the training sets, and an objective function which can be optimized by the EC techniques is proposed according to the equation set. Ten di erent datasets have been employed in the experiments. For each dataset, 70% instances are used as a training set while the rest are used as a test set. The experiment results show that it is possible to directly solve the classification problems by EC techniques through introducing the evolutionary optimization classi cation model. Moreover, FWA performs better than particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm on most datasets.
    Keywords: Fireworks Algorithm (FWA); Classi cation; Evolutionary Computation; Evolutionary Classi cation; Evolutionary Learning.

Special Issue on: Applied Metaheuristics for Addressing Big Data Problems

  • TTPA: A Two Tiers PSO Architecture for Dimensionality Reduction   Order a copy of this article
    by Shikha Agarwal, Prabhat Ranjan 
    Abstract: Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a popular nature inspired computing method due to its fast & accurate performance, exploration & exploitation capability, cognitive & social behaviour and has fewer parameters to adjust. Recently an improved binary PSO (IBPSO) was proposed by Chuang et. al. to avoid getting trapped in local optimum and they have shown that it outperforms all other variants of PSO. Even though many variants of PSO exists independently to improve the performance of PSO, to escape from local optimum and to deal with dimensionality reduction, there still needs an integrated approach to handle it. Hence in this paper two tiers PSO architecture (TTPA) is proposed to find the maximum classification accuracy with minimum number of selected features. The proposed method is used to classify nine benchmarking gene expression data sets. The results show the merits of TTPA.
    Keywords: Dimensionality Reduction; Binary Particle Swarm Optimization; FeaturernSelection; Microarray Gene Expression Profile Data.

Special Issue on: New Trends in Many-Objective Optimisation

  • Solving many-objective optimization problems by an improved particle swarm optimization approach and a normalized penalty method   Order a copy of this article
    by Dexuan Zou, Fei Wang, Nannan Yu, Xiangyong Kong 
    Abstract: The problem with more than three objectives is commonly known as many-objective optimization problem (MOP), and it has drawn much attention from researchers because of its big potential in the real word. In this paper, a novel modified particle swarm optimization (NMPSO) approach is presented to handle a kind of MOP called many-objective knapsack (MOK) problem. NMPSO relies on the global best particle to guide the search of all particles in each generation, which can enhance the convergence of NMPSO. Furthermore, a randomization-based mutation is adopted to overcome the premature convergence which usually occurs in the late evolutionary optimization process. In addition to many objective functions, MKP consists of several inequality constraints, and all the objective functions should be minimized under the precondition that all the inequality constraints are satisfied. A normalized penalty method (NPM) is devised to reach a compromise between objective functions and inequality constraints, which enables particles to explore solution space more precisely. In summary, the contribution of our work can be summarized in two aspects: (1) A more powerful approach called NMPSO is proposed. (2) A reasonable NPM is devised. Five improved PSOs are used to handle the MOKs with different number of objective functions and dimensions. Experimental results show that NMPSO has higher efficiency than the other four approaches. It uses the lowest computational cost, and achieves the smallest penalty function values for most MKPs.
    Keywords: Many-objective optimization problem; Novel modified particle swarm optimization; Many-objective knapsack problem; Randomization-based mutation; Normalized penalty method.

Special Issue on: CBIC & LA-CCI 2015 Swarm Intelligence Algorithms and Applications

  • Population-based Variable Neighborhood Search Algorithm Applied to Unconstrained Continuous Optimization   Order a copy of this article
    by Rafael Parpinelli, Wesklei Migliorini 
    Abstract: This work presents a population-based Variable Neighborhood Search approach for unconstrained continuous optimization, called PRVNS. The main contributions of the proposed algorithm are to evolve a population of individuals (i.e., candidate solutions) and to allow each individual adapts its own neighborhood search area accordingly to its performance. The adaptive amplitude control allows individuals to autonomously exploit and explore promising regions in the search space. Several unconstrained continuous benchmark functions with a high number of dimensions (d=250) are used to evaluate the algorithm's performance. The PRVNS results are compared with the results obtained by some well known population-based approaches: Differential Evolution (DE), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC). Also, the standard VNS algorithm is considered in the experiments. The results and analyses suggest that the PRVNS approach is a promising and competitive algorithm for unconstrained continuous optimization.
    Keywords: Unconstrained Continuous Optimization; Population-based Algorithm; Variable Neighborhood Search; Meta-heuristic.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBIC.2017.10004327
     
  • An Alternative Approach for Particle Swarm Optimization Using Serendipity   Order a copy of this article
    by Fabio Paiva, Jose Costa, Claudio Silva 
    Abstract: In study of metaheuristic techniques, it is very common to deal with a problem known as premature convergence. This problem is widely studied in the genetic algorithms context, but also has been observed in Swarm Intelligence methods such as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). Most approaches to the problem consider the generation and/or positioning of individuals in the search space randomly. This paper approaches the issue using the concept of serendipity and its adaptation in this new context. Several techniques that implement serendipity were evaluated in order to develop a PSO variant based on this concept. The results were compared with the traditional PSO considering the quality of the solutions and the ability to find global optimum. The prototype also was compared with a PSO variant. It showed promising results related to the criteria mentioned above, however there is the need for additional adjustments to decrease the runtime.
    Keywords: particle swarm optimization; serendipity; swarm intelligence; global optimisation; bio-inspired computation; metaheuristic.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBIC.2017.10004328
     
  • Feature Selection based on Binary Particle Swarm Optimization and Neural Networks for Pathological Voice Detection   Order a copy of this article
    by Suzete Correia, Taciana Souza, Vinicius Vieira, Micael Souza, Silvana Costa, Washington Costa 
    Abstract: The voice quality may be affected by laryngeal pathologies. Acoustic analysis employing digital signal processing techniques have been used to detect the presence of laryngeal diseases. The choice regarding the appropriated features of voice signals which are really relevant to discriminate healthy from pathological voices is still a challenge. In this work, 52 Haralick texture features, extracted from two-dimensional wavelet coefficients of speech signals from recurrence plots (RP) pathologies are used for pathological voice discrimination. Here, three pathologies are considered for analysis: vocal fold paralysis, edema and nodules. For feature selection, a binary Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm using Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) neural network with cross validation is employed. The adopted fitness function is based on the maxima average accuracy rate. Statistical tests for individual measures were made and their results show statistical significance for several employed measures. The measures were combined and the more relevant ones based on the highest accuracy were selected by the PSO. The comparison with and without PSO by applying the statistical test of mean difference showed that the PSO use increased the accuracy rates. Furthermore, the PSO use reduced the amount of features for almost half of all initially used.
    Keywords: Laryngel pathologies detection; Acoustic Analysis; Recurrence Plots; Haralick texture features; Particle Swarm Optimization; Wavelet Transform.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBIC.2017.10004331
     
  • A Memetic Algorithm for Power System Damping Controllers Design   Order a copy of this article
    by Wesley Peres, Valceres V. R. Silva, Francisco C. R. Coelho, Ivo C. Silva Junior, João Alberto Passos Filho 
    Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid algorithm for robust and coordinated design of power system stabilisers. Power system stabilisers are controllers installed on synchronous generators for excitation control in order to damp power system oscillations. The tuning procedure (gain and phase compensation stage) is cast as an optimisation problem which aims at maximising the damping coefficients in closed-loop operation. Robustness is dealt with by using multiple operating scenarios. For the optimisation problem solution, the bio-inspired Bat Algorithm is combined with the Steepest Descent Method for local search capability enhancement. The proposed algorithm is applied to benchmark systems for validation.
    Keywords: bat algorithm; steepest descent method; power system stabilisers; small-signal stability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBIC.2017.10004332
     
  • Using the metaheuristic methods for real-time optimization of dynamic school bus routing problem and an application   Order a copy of this article
    by Tuncay Yigit, Ozkan Unsal, Omer Deperlioglu 
    Abstract: The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is an optimization issue that has been studied for more than 50 years with its numerous subfields. The optimization of VRP over distribution and transportation systems leads to significant gains in cost and time. There are many metaheuristic methods developed for the solution of the problem; and it was observed that metaheuristic methods prove to produce more successful results compared to common heuristic methods. In this study, a mobile-supported visual application was developed using Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Genetic Algorithm (GA), which are among the metaheuristic methods for the dynamic school bus routing problem (DSBRP), one of the sub-problems of VRP. The ACO and GA methods were utilized via the application for bus routes of a school located in the province of Ankara and the performance of these methods were compared through the obtained results. It was observed that time and distance values of the routes of current school bus routes may be improved by these two methods.
    Keywords: Metaheuristic methods; Real-time optimization; Dynamic School Bus Routing Problem; Ant Colony Optimization; Genetic Algorithm.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBIC.2017.10004333
     

Special Issue on: Recent Advances in Metaheuristics and Swarm Intelligence for Software Testing, Quality and Applications

  • A Novel Artificial Bee Colony Optimizer with Dynamic Population Size for Multi-level Threshold Image Segmentation   Order a copy of this article
    by Lianbo Ma, Xingwei Wang, Hai Shen 
    Abstract: Existing swarm intelligence (SI) models are usually derived from fixed-population biological system. However, this approach inevitably causes unnecessary computational cost. In addition, the population size of these models is usually hard to be pr-determined appropriately. In this contribution, this paper exploits a general varying-population swarm model (VPSM) with life-cycle foraging rules based on the population growth dynamic principle. This model essentially improves individual-level adaptability and population-level emergence to self-adapt towards an optimal population size. Then, a novel VPSM-based artificial bee colony optimizer is instantiated with orthogonal Latin squares approach and crossover-based social learning strategies. A comprehensive experimental analysis is implemented in which the proposed algorithm is benchmarked against classical bio-mimetic algorithms on CEC2014 test suites. Then, this algorithm is applied for multi-level image segmentation. Computation results show the performance superiority of the proposed algorithm.
    Keywords: Artificial bee colony algorithm; Population varying; Image segmentation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBIC.2016.10004298