Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management


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International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management (8 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • New Business Model and the Sharing Economy: Impacts and Challenges for the Traditional Automotive Industry.   Order a copy of this article
    by Eduardo L. Lasmar Junior, Rodrigo Gandia, Joel Sugano, Thais Souza, Demosténes Rodriguez 
    Abstract: The outstanding features of a vehicle do not include great modifications for nearly 100 years, as the same to the major car manufacturers' Business Models (BM). Recent services platforms related to urban mobility use, mostly, the sharing economy, resulting in disruptive innovations. These offer to the users new experiences in services (e.g. Uber) which provides the vehicles use without the onus of ownership. From this perspective, this paper qualitatively evaluates the modifications in the automakers BMs standards based on strategies and innovations of the new businesses of the main groups of automotive manufacturers. As a result, we observed that traditional products-based automakers are already moving towards to fit in the new BM, which are impacted by the sharing economy. Finally, we proposed a framework based on an unbundled model operating synergistically in three types (customer relationship management, product/service innovation and infrastructure management).
    Keywords: Business Model; Automakers; Sharing Economy; Disruptive Innovation.

  • The concept supply chain technological capability in case of new product development process   Order a copy of this article
    by Shahab Eshraqi, Shahin Eshraqi 
    Abstract: In some industries such as automotive, the supply chain plays a critical role in the firm success. In these industries, the unit of competition has changed to supply chain vs. supply chain. Accordingly, the aim of this paper is to develop the concept supply chain technological capability (TC) in the new product development (NPD) process. We explored the concept TC in the supply chain level, which are different from the firm level. In this paper, we studied last three NPD projects of the IKCO (the largest Iranian manufacturer), from year 2000 to 2015 by focusing on the supply chain coordinator organization of IKCO enterprise, SAPCO. The results show firm managers are called upon to resolve the tension between supply chain TC and innovation through a NPD project and creating the right context to stimulate individuals to solve problems and to be accountable for their objectives.
    Keywords: supply chain management; technological capability; new product development.

  • Closed-Open Innovation Strategy for Autonomous Vehicle Development
    by Marlous Blankesteijn, Frank de Jong, Bart Bossink 
    Abstract: The automobile industry is faced with societal and market pressures to develop radically innovative cars for the future. The development of the autonomous vehicle (AV) is a strategic innovation in this area. This paper studies whether and how AV-innovation strategies at Tesla, BMW and Toyota are developed by using an open and/or closed innovation paradigm. More than ever, it appears that R&D departments of car manufacturers employ a combination of a closed and an open innovation strategy. In order to nurture their AV innovation strategy, they strategically decide which innovations to adopt from outside and which parts of the R&D process to keep in-house. This paper presents and discusses the combined closed-open AV-innovation strategies used by three dominant car producers. It provides an insight in how they aim to gain a first-to-market position and sustainable competitive advantage in a new market segment of a highly saturated market.
    Keywords: autonomous vehicles; open innovation; R&D management; automotive industry

Special Issue on: Regionalisation of the Asian Automotive Industries and Markets

  • Examining the Realignment Strategies of Automobile Production Bases in Southeast Asia:The Case of Japanese Automakers   Order a copy of this article
    by Hiromi Shioji 
    Abstract: Japanese carmakers have by far the highest production and sales volumes in ASEAN countries. However, the current trend of economic integration in this region will have deep effects on the competitive patterns and geographic distribution of production. This research inquires this topic, and more specifically examines the realignment strategies of production bases of Japanese automakers in ASEAN countries. In order to examine the realignment strategies of production bases, the productive strategies defined in this paper is based on the assessment of two variables: first, the geographic distribution of Japanese carmakers factories in ASEAN. Second, the specialization of production in each country/factory. This approach allows us to consider several scenarios regarding the combinations of the redistribution of production in the coming years, and to asses each scenarios feasibility, strengths and weaknesses. Our main findings are as follows: first, Japanese automakers are recommended to consider pattern WX in the second half of the 2010s, in order to enhance their competitive advantage by focusing on competitive models and introducing new models in countries A and B (namely Thailand and Indonesia). At the same time, countries C, D, and E (namely Malaysia, the Philippines, and Vietnam) should focus only on one model in each countrys production base and concentrate all of the production volume for the ASEAN or global market to one countrys production base. Moreover, they should consider the model adaptation strategy in line with the automobile development policy of each government. Second, in the second half of the 2020s, it might be possible for automakers to adopt pattern WX because automobile markets would expand in each country and automakers could produce the model for the domestic market.
    Keywords: ASEAN automobile market; Trade liberalization; Incentives by ASEAN governments; Realignment strategies of production base; Japanese automobile manufacturers,.

  • Growth strategy from the suppliers view point. -A case study of Denso and Hitachi Automotive Systems-   Order a copy of this article
    by Jaeho Lee 
    Abstract: In a period when global suppliers play a key role in technological innovations across several fields of the automotive industry and in the formation of global value chains, it is necessary to assess their approaches to innovation and their specific design and organizational capabilities. This paper aims to examine and compare the growth strategies of two Japanese mega suppliers involved in research and design of automatic braking systems, and to assess their impact on inter-firm relations and transactions. The case study approach of this paper is based on in-depth interviews and archive analysis, and draws a comparison between Densos wide customer scope strategy and Hitachi Automotive Systems wide product portfolio strategy. In order to analyze the relevance of these two approaches, we use the Growth Strategy Cup Framework, which consists of three parameters: customers, products, and core competences. Our findings show that Denso was successful in terms of economies of customer scope, while Hitachi Automotive Systems was more dynamic in new combination-oriented innovation. In addition, our paper discusses why Hitachi Automotive Systems managed to develop an automatic braking system faster than the Toyota Group. An underlying reason for Densos inability to develop a complete automatic braking system as quickly as Hitachi Automotive Systems lies in the fact that, as part of the Toyota Group, Denso was assigned a specific and limited role in this innovation process.
    Keywords: growth strategy; regional strategy; supplier’s view point; Denso; Hitachi Automotive Systems; Growth Strategy Cup Framework; scope of customer; scope of product; core competence; automatic brake system.

  • Regional Economic Integration and the Automobile Industry: Automobile Policies, Division of Labour, Production Network Formation and Market Development in the EU and ASEAN   Order a copy of this article
    by Holger Bungsche 
    Abstract: The paper compares regional integration of the automobile industries of the European Union (EU) and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Comparing automobile policies and automobile industry development in the EU and ASEAN, the paper is specifically focusing on issues related to the division of labor, the formation of production networks as well as tendencies in intra- and external regional trade. Finally, recent developments in automobile production and automobile markets, levels of motorization, as well as wages and purchasing power in both world regions show the very different development paths of the automobile industries and the different approach to regional economic integration. However, both the liberal market integration approach traditionally applied by the EU as well as the approach of ASEAN to strengthen domestic industry development by pursuing export-oriented strategies are facing considerable challenges in a rapidly changing automobile industry environment.
    Keywords: EU; ASEAN; international trade; division of labor; production networks; automobile industry ASEAN, automobile industry Japan; automobile policies in Asia.

  • Product Innovation in Emerging Economies: Product Architecture and Organizational Capabilities in Geely and Tata   Order a copy of this article
    by Giovanni Balcet, Hua William Wang, Chris Kimble 
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to provide a perspective on the sources of innovation that underlie the creation of low-cost products in emerging economies. It differs from previous analyses in its emphasis on the influence that country specific factors can have, opening the possibility that similar firms, with similar products and similar goals may follow fundamentally different trajectories. It presents two case studies from the automobile industry in China and India, Geely and Tata, that show precisely this phenomenon. Building on its capability for flexibility and responsiveness, and the existence of a loosely-coupled network of suppliers, Geely took a quasi-open approach to the product architecture for its vehicles. Tata on the other hand followed a broadly closed integral approach to product architecture, building on its vertically integrated structure and tradition of frugal innovation. Based on these case studies, existing theory concerning the co-evolution of product architecture and organizational capabilities, and using a process of abductive reasoning, we present a framework that can be used to explain this divergence. The framework highlights the interactions between a product's architecture, a firm's organizational capabilities, and country specific external factors such as institutions, industry, markets, and technology.
    Keywords: Sustainable supply chain management; Marketing management; Sustainable Labels; Barriers; Stakeholders.

Special Issue on: Regionalization of the Asian Automotive Industries and Markets

  • Production networks of the Asian automobile industry: Regional or global?   Order a copy of this article
    by Bruno Jetin 
    Abstract: Asia is the host of some of the largest automobile markets and top global brands. It has recently taken several initiatives to foster its regional integration, such as Asia-wide trade agreements and infrastructure projects. This article examines the impact of these initiatives on the automobile fragmented production networks of Northeast, Southeast Asia and South Asia to see if they are becoming more regionalised or globalised and to see if an Asia-wide production network is emerging. We focus on automobile component trade as a proxy of network trade and follow its evolution over the period 2001-2016 at the Asian and subregional level, with a special emphasis on two major players, China and Japan. Our results show that a regionalisation process is under way between the three subregions, driven by China and Japan. However, this process is still slow due to the persistence of a high level of protectionism between the three subregions.rn
    Keywords: Automobile; fragmented production network; network trade; regionalisation; globalisation; Asia; Northeast Asia; ASEAN; South Asia.