International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management (17 papers in press)
New Business Model and the Sharing Economy: Impacts and Challenges for the Traditional Automotive Industry.
by Eduardo L. Lasmar Junior, Rodrigo Gandia, Joel Sugano, Thais Souza, Demosténes Rodriguez
Abstract: The outstanding features of a vehicle do not include great modifications for nearly 100 years, as the same to the major car manufacturers' Business Models (BM). Recent services platforms related to urban mobility use, mostly, the sharing economy, resulting in disruptive innovations. These offer to the users new experiences in services (e.g. Uber) which provides the vehicles use without the onus of ownership. From this perspective, this paper qualitatively evaluates the modifications in the automakers BMs standards based on strategies and innovations of the new businesses of the main groups of automotive manufacturers. As a result, we observed that traditional products-based automakers are already moving towards to fit in the new BM, which are impacted by the sharing economy. Finally, we proposed a framework based on an unbundled model operating synergistically in three types (customer relationship management, product/service innovation and infrastructure management).
Keywords: Business Model; Automakers; Sharing Economy; Disruptive Innovation.
The concept supply chain technological capability in case of new product development process
by Shahab Eshraqi, Shahin Eshraqi
Abstract: In some industries such as automotive, the supply chain plays a critical role in the firm success. In these industries, the unit of competition has changed to supply chain vs. supply chain. Accordingly, the aim of this paper is to develop the concept supply chain technological capability (TC) in the new product development (NPD) process. We explored the concept TC in the supply chain level, which are different from the firm level.
In this paper, we studied last three NPD projects of the IKCO (the largest Iranian manufacturer), from year 2000 to 2015 by focusing on the supply chain coordinator organization of IKCO enterprise, SAPCO.
The results show firm managers are called upon to resolve the tension between supply chain TC and innovation through a NPD project and creating the right context to stimulate individuals to solve problems and to be accountable for their objectives.
Keywords: supply chain management; technological capability; new product development.
Patterns of Knowledge Development and Diffusion in the Global Autonomous Vehicle Technological Innovation System: A Patent-based Analysis
by Donghui Meng, Xianjun Li, Yongfeng Cai, Jiaxin Shi
Abstract: This study focuses on assessing the knowledge development and diffusion functions of the global autonomous vehicle (AV) technological innovation system (TIS). To that end, this study uses patent portfolio analysis. A comprehensive and dynamic picture is depicted through our evolutionary analysis covering 5,986 AV patents applied for from 1997 to 2016 worldwide, which were assigned to seven relevant sectors (Automotive, Machinery, Aircraft/Defence, Electronics, Information/Software Service, Mobility/Logistics Service, and Research) and focused on five key technology categories (Control and Actuation, Perception and Localization, Computation, Communication, and System Integration). Three key findings from our study are: 1) sectors differ in terms of the amount of knowledge they developed and the distribution of knowledge across technology categories; 2) different sectors and technology categories have uneven roles in the global knowledge diffusion network; and 3) knowledge development and diffusion patterns exhibit significant evolutionary tendencies. Our research deepens the current understanding of the dynamics of AV innovation and contributes to TIS theory.
Keywords: Autonomous vehicle; technological innovation system; knowledge development; knowledge diffusion; patent analysis.
Consumer-Brand Relationship Development in the Automotive Market:
An Integrative Model
by Hans Ruediger Kaufmann, Cid Goncalves Filho, Christiane Rocha e Silva, Plinio Rafael Reis Monteiro
Abstract: The nature of Consumer-Brand Relationships (CBR) represents one of the topics with the most significant literary resonance in contemporary marketing. However, there is still a gap of a well-defined, integrated, and empirically tested model explaining the causal relationships of CBR's development stages. This study aims to explore and bridge this knowledge gap in the Automotive Market setting. In this sense, a survey of 427 consumers was carried out. The interrelated factors of the successive stages showed adequate levels of variance explanation. As word of mouth grows in importance, due to the spread of digital social networks, the researchs results suggest that the development of attachment/love should become a primordial challenge to develop Consumer-Brand Relationships. The main knowledge contribution of this research is the test of an integrated CBR model focused on the Automotive Market. The final CBR model reflects a fair level of consistency and provides a useful basis for practitioners to plan in detail actions that will engage Consumers and Manufacturer's Brands.
Keywords: automotive marketing; car manufacturer branding; consumer-brand relationships; brand equity; brand love; brand equity; brand loyalty; brand trust; brand commitment; brand image.
Is more automation always better? An empirical study of customers willingness to use autonomous vehicle functions
by Mohamed Souka, Daniel Böger, Reinhold Decker, Christian Stummer, Alisa Wiemann
Abstract: Sometime, many (maybe all) vehicles on our streets will drive autonomouslyor at least have autonomous functions. However, in the short run, consumers preferences regarding the automation of pivotal vehicle functions are not entirely clear. This paper accordingly investigates consumers willingness to use three levels of automation (none, partial, and full) of potentially autonomous vehicle functions (safety, parking prediction, and remote diagnostics). The results show that consumers willingness to use autonomous vehicle functions is generally the highest for moderately autonomous functions and that the willingness to use these functions decreases above a certain level of autonomy. This paper also finds that this effect is moderated by gender and depends on individual involvement level with respect to autonomous vehicle functions, that is, highly involved consumers are more likely to appreciate autonomous vehicle functions compared with low-involved consumers.
Keywords: Autonomous vehicles; autonomous vehicle functions; choice-based conjoint analysis; consumer preferences; involvement; level of automation; safety; parking prediction; remote diagnostics; willingness to use.
Carpooling and the Pan-European emergency call "eCall 112": Connected cars and their potential for environmental and transport policy
by Marco Domenico Schaefer
Abstract: To meet transport sector obligations to emissions reductions, large effects may be derived from intelligent transportation systems (ITS) solutions. Substantial decrease of vehicle miles travelled (VMT) can be achieved using transport systems management (TSM) measures, especially through High Occupancy Vehicles (HOV) incentives. Of these, carpooling and vanpooling approaches proved to be effective. However, theres a lack of reliable enforcement procedures. A review of automated vehicle occupancy verification (AVOV) research and development (R&D) is followed by a proposal focused on the Pan European emergency call eCall 112. The concept explores options for an eCall 112 application as an enforcement tool in TSM operations with vehicle occupancy data contained in the Minimum Set of Data (MSD) as the base for new road transport policy tools. A set of incentives is described which support transport and environmental objectives. The proposed enforcement may impact congestion levels in combination with HOV-lanes and without them. Climate, environment, and the performance of road transportation systems could benefit from integrated road safety and TSM operations.
Keywords: Adaptive Network Signal Control (ANSC); Automated Vehicle Occupancy Verification (AVOV); carpool; Clean Air Zone (CAZ); congestion pricing; crash detection; data privacy; eCall; European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS); environment; GALILEO; General Data Privacy Regulation (GDPR); greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; Information and Communications Technology (ICT); Intelligent Transportation System (ITS); Low Emission Zone (LEZ); Minimum Set of Data (MSD); Technology Readiness Level (TRL); threshold legislation; Transportation Demand Management (TDM); Transportation Systems Management (TSM); transport policy; vanpool.
Pie sharing and pie expansion in buyer-supplier new product development partnerships
by Joachim Wölfel, Pan Theo Grosse-Ruyken
Abstract: Firms seek new product development (NPD) partnerships to achieve competitive advantage by pooling interorganizational resources. Although such collaborations may expand the partnerships total value pie, sharing the pie often results in poisonous win-lose rivalry amongst partners. This study investigates how automotive suppliers may gain competitive advantage and increase their financial stake within NPD partnerships with OEMs. We analyze sources of pie expansion from a resource-based view (RBV) perspective and the mediating role of fairness in pie sharing. As NPD partnerships also induce dependencies between collaborating firms, we extend the RBV with arguments from resource dependence theory (RDT). We test our predictions on a sample of 147 NPD partnerships between tier-1 suppliers and OEMs. Our findings suggest that fairness in pie sharing significantly mediates pie expansion. Moreover, NPD partnerships enable suppliers to increase OEMs dependency on their firm, which mediates suppliers competitive advantage, resulting in a more equitable division of the value pie.
Keywords: pie sharing; pie expansion; fairness; new product development; buyer-supplier partnerships; automotive industry; resource-based view; resource dependence theory; competitive advantage; financial distribution.
Special Issue on: 26th Gerpisa International Colloquium 2018 Who Drives the Change? New and Traditional Players in the Global Automotive Sector
Incremental and radical innovation in an emergent country automotive subsidiary: is there any organizational ambidexterity there?
by Helio Henrique De Matos, Ana Valeria Carneiro Dias, Raoni Barros Bagno
Abstract: Organizational ambidexterity is the capacity to simultaneously perform "exploitation" and "exploration", that is to exploit existing skills, for instance through incremental innovation, without abandoning the exploration of new opportunities, e.g. through radical or major innovation. This paper aims to analyse how an emergent country automotive subsidiary organizes itself for innovation and undertook exploration and exploitation efforts in the context of a multinational group over time. Research was done from a single retrospective, qualitative study. Results showed the existence of parallel structures, contextual ambidexterity and temporal balancing for ambidexterity. The relation between organizational ambidexterity and the trajectory of the subsidiary concerning international division of innovative labour was analysed, thus providing a conceptual contribution in order to understand the dynamics of organization for innovation and, particularly, ambidexterity in the context of multinational companies. Managerial and theoretical implications are discussed especially regarding the impacts of organizational ambidexterity on subsidiaries capability upgrading processes.
Keywords: ambidexterity; exploration; exploitation; dynamic ambidexterity; innovation management; organization for innovation; automotive industry; international division of labour; multinational companies; emerging countries.
The Trajectory of Chinas New Energy Vehicles Policy
by Sergio Muniz, Bruce Belzowski, Jaclyn Zhu
Abstract: This paper describes and analyzes the trajectory of public policies on New Energy Vehicles (battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles) in China from 2009 to 2018s first quarter, with a focus on policies adopted by the Central Government of China (CGC). The aim is to analyze the recent policy path on New Energy Vehicles (NEVs) under the demand-pull versus technology-push theoretical approaches. In this context, this paper classifies the main public policies on NEVs adopted in China in recent years on these two broad approaches and analyzes the direction of federal NEV policies, based on its trajectory. The article shows that the policies adopted by the Central Government changed dramatically in recent years, moving from simple buyer incentives (demand-pull policies) to a more complex set of policies comprising incentives not only for buyers, but also stimulus for automotive manufacturers to invest in R&D, and technological densification (demand-pull plus technology-push policies).
Keywords: electric vehicles; public policies; China; demand pull vs technology push.
The existing and the emerging: Car ownership and car sharing on the road towards sustainable mobility
by Elisabeth Marie Cassidy Svennevik
Abstract: The use of car sharing has experienced rapid growth in recent years, but user-numbers are still low, and privately owned cars dominate. This paper studies how the use of car sharing contributes to altering the car system in urban areas. The study employs data from semi-structured interviews with 39 households in Oslo that are members of car-sharing arrangements. How does the current use of car sharing in Oslo relate to and influence the established use of privately owned cars? Are these relations elements in a transition towards sustainable mobility? The study find that car sharing acts help to promote reduced car-ownership, changing and reducing the overall use of cars. However, there are limits to its contribution to environmental sustainability because of the continued use of fossil fuel cars and the continued dependence on privately used cars.
Keywords: car sharing; sustainability transition; shared mobility; sharing economy; collaborative consumption; privately owned cars; automotive industry.
Reorienting electric mobility research focus on industrialization issues
by Marc ALOCHET, Christophe Midler
Abstract: Considering the pace of the EV market, the high level of investment made by carmakers in electric line-up development, scale production units and mobility services, we acknowledge that, after a century long phase of emergence and unmet expectations, electric mobility dynamics enters now a transitional phase. Industrialization strategies, predominant in the success of EV market scale up, have been quite neglected till now and, consequently, we state that electric mobility research must be refocused on these issues and introduce a research question: is BEV scale-up, along the whole value chain, driven by reuse of manufacturing assets or pulled by (product) design disruption?
We identify two differentiated industrialization scenarios: one driven by manufacturing assets dependency path, one pulled by the optimized BEV product design strategy whose we discuss benefits, drawbacks and conditions of success. Furthermore, from empirical observations, we confirm that the EV market is in a transitional phase; we also assess the current positioning of carmakers versus these industrialization scenarios and identify some strong patterns of a manufacturing assets dependency path regime.
Keywords: EV; scale-up; transitional phase; value chain; industrialization scenario; manufacturing strategy.
Global supply chains and intangible assets in the automotive and aeronautical industries
by Catherine Sauviat, Claude Serfati
Abstract: The relocating of Transnational corporations (TNCs) high-generating value activities at the upper (design, development, branding, Intellectual property) and lower (marketing, maintenance and post-sales services) ends of their Global supply chains (GSCs) and the amazing rise of Intangible assets (IA) in their stock value operate in interaction. The paper documents the deep transformations in major French automotive and aeronautical TNCs strategies in particular in the management of their R&D in relation with the appeal of IA for financial investors. It thus highlights a further dimension of the relation between finance and production to the ones more commonly addressed by the literature on financialisation.
Keywords: Transnational corporations; Global supply chains; Intangible assets; R&D Financialisation.
Special Issue on: SUPF 2017 Smart Urban Mobility Futures
Examining the Myths of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles: Analysing the Pathway to a Driverless Mobility Paradigm
by Alexandros Nikitas, Eric Tchouamou Njoya, Samir Dani
Abstract: Connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) could become the most powerful mobility intervention in the history of human race; possibly greater than the conception of the wheel itself or the shift from horse-carriages to automobiles. Despite CAVs likely traffic safety, economic, environmental, social inclusion and network performance benefits their full-scale implementation may not be as predictable, uncomplicated, acceptable and risk-free as it is often communicated by a large share of automotive industries, policy-makers and transport experts. Framing an unproven, 'disruptive' and life-changing intervention, primarily based on its competitive advantages over todays conventional automobile technologies, may create misconceptions, overreaching expectations and room for errors that societies need to be cautious about. This article tests eleven myths referring to an overly optimistic CAVs development and adoption timeline. This approach highlights unresolved issues that need to be addressed before an inescapable CAV-based mobility paradigm transition takes place and provides relevant policy recommendations of how to achieve that.
Keywords: Connected and Autonomous Vehicles; Driverless and Self-driving Technologies; Artificial Intelligence and Mobility; Smart Urban Futures; Transport Policy and Planning.
Range Extenders: An Innovative Approach to Range Anxiety in Electric Vehicles
by Ian Clarke, Athena Piterou
Abstract: Electric vehicles have been a source of major innovation but the problem of vehicle range persists. Range extenders, auxiliary power units that can be attached to vehicles as a trailer, seek to solve the problem by providing additional range during longer journeys. This study uses patent data, Social Network Analysis and qualitative data to examine the development of this technology. It finds that small firms have made significant progress in technological terms and have also designed credible business models. They have met resistance from larger vehicle manufacturers, however, whose preference is to wait for developments in battery density despite great uncertainty as to when these will come.
Keywords: electric vehicles; innovation; range anxiety; range extenders;.
Special Issue on: SUPF 2017 Smart Urban Mobility Futures
Closed-Open Innovation Strategy for Autonomous Vehicle Development
by Marlous Blankesteijn, Frank De Jong, Bart Bossink
Abstract: The automobile industry is faced with societal and market pressures to develop radically innovative cars for the future. The development of the autonomous vehicle (AV) is a strategic innovation in this area. This paper studies whether and how AV-innovation strategies at Tesla, BMW and Toyota are developed by using an open and/or closed innovation paradigm. More than ever, it appears that R&D departments of car manufacturers employ a combination of a closed and an open innovation strategy. In order to nurture their AV innovation strategy, they strategically decide which innovations to adopt from outside and which parts of the R&D process to keep in-house. This paper presents and discusses the combined closed-open AV-innovation strategies used by three dominant car producers. It provides an insight in how they aim to gain a first-to-market position and sustainable competitive advantage in a new market segment of a highly saturated market.
Keywords: autonomous vehicles; open innovation; R&D management; automotive industry.
Management and Business of Autonomous Vehicles: A Systematic Integrative Bibliographic Review
by Bruna Cavazza, Rodrigo Gandia, Fabio Antonialli, André Zambalde, Isabelle Nicolaï, Joel Sugano, Arthur Neto
Abstract: This paper reviews studies in the research field of autonomous vehicles (AVs) in a bibliometric context from the viewpoints of management and business; identifies strategies, practices, and management tools; and summarizes the existing studies and points out their research gaps. Methodologically, our research can be characterized as qualitative and descriptive, being based on a bibliometric review of the ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and Science Direct databases, followed by a systematic integrative bibliographic review. The results show that, in the near future, AVs will certainly be introduced in the society. However, the way in which this might be established is still surrounded by uncertainty, doubled by governments lack of planning in this area. The absence of studies related to the business context can be a determinant for AV introduction, considering that business models play an important role in the events that precede AV advancement. Nevertheless, especially in European countries (e.g., the UK and Germany), studies related to the AV business model of car-sharing seem to be predominant, as this is a great substitute for traditional transportation models. As such, we observe a research gap regarding business models and platforms and radical and responsible innovation theories. Consequently, to minimize the risks, impacts, and uncertainties of the eminent introduction of AVs and provide the necessary tools to guide governmental and organizational spheres, further research is needed.
Keywords: Autonomous Vehicles; Business; Management; Systematic Integrative Review; Bibliometric Review.
From electric cars to energy-efficient houses the automotive retail sector at the crossroads
by Heike Proff, Gregor Szybisty, Thomas Martin Fojcik
Abstract: The already low profitability in the automotive retail will drop still further with the increasing market share of electric mobility. New sources of profit therefore have to be developed. While the manufacturers are already reviewing options for new retail systems beyond the traditional car retail, many car dealers are passive and pursuing a "wait and see" policy. It is therefore important, particularly for multi-brand dealers, to develop new service innovations for electric mobility and to develop new business models for it. The review of the literature, the own survey of 30 multi-brand dealers as well as of their largest single-brand dealers and creative workshops with (potential) customers about possible service innovations in automotive retail show a set of potential service innovations for electric mobility. Due to low profitability automotive dealers need a quick positive profit impact from service innovations for electric mobility. E-fleet man-agement and especially Brokerage of energy self-sufficient houses appear particularly suited to them.
Keywords: Perceived value; acceptance; willingness to pay; new mobility services; automotive retail; business models.