International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management (6 papers in press)
New Business Model and the Sharing Economy: Impacts and Challenges for the Traditional Automotive Industry.
by Eduardo L. Lasmar Junior, Rodrigo Gandia, Joel Sugano, Thais Souza, Demosténes Rodriguez
Abstract: The outstanding features of a vehicle do not include great modifications for nearly 100 years, as the same to the major car manufacturers' Business Models (BM). Recent services platforms related to urban mobility use, mostly, the sharing economy, resulting in disruptive innovations. These offer to the users new experiences in services (e.g. Uber) which provides the vehicles use without the onus of ownership. From this perspective, this paper qualitatively evaluates the modifications in the automakers BMs standards based on strategies and innovations of the new businesses of the main groups of automotive manufacturers. As a result, we observed that traditional products-based automakers are already moving towards to fit in the new BM, which are impacted by the sharing economy. Finally, we proposed a framework based on an unbundled model operating synergistically in three types (customer relationship management, product/service innovation and infrastructure management).
Keywords: Business Model; Automakers; Sharing Economy; Disruptive Innovation.
Special Issue on: Electromobility Challenging Issues
The dynamics of institutional and organisational change in emergent industries: the case of electric vehicles
by Miguel Vazquez, Michelle Hallack, Yannick Perez
Abstract: We consider the electric vehicle industry as a complex system within which firms choose among competing organisational architectures and regulatory institutions emerge from the interaction between firms' choices and rule-makers' beliefs. The main drivers to change regulatory institutions are the 'evaluative criteria' applied to outcomes. Evaluative criteria are rule-makers' simplified models against which outcomes are evaluated. We look at the emergence of dominant organisational structures, and point at the importance of the institutional design in such process. In particular, we analyse the interaction between policy choices: we consider policy makers that have two main dimensions upon which to act: they may facilitate cooperative strategies, or they may implement demand-side measures.
Keywords: co-evolution; institutional evolution; path-dependence; electric vehicles.
Managing 'proto-ecosystems' - two smart mobility case studies
by Giulia Marcocchia, Rémi Maniak
Abstract: This paper considers how ecosystem-based research projects can be managed for a successful deployment of systemic and disruptive innovation. Such projects are defined as assignments in which heterogeneous organisations must invest upfront, aiming at co-constructing a systemic offer with shared interest, shared uncertainty and high economic, environmental and social impacts. Innovation management, ecosystem, and public-private partnership literatures have been investigated, as well as two European Commission funded research projects aimed at smart mobility infrastructure development. Results show these projects are both critical and disappointing for each player. We explain this contradiction of value perception showing that partners need such ecosystem projects to go forward and update their competences and roadmaps, but that the observed project management approach hampers the collectively built learning and the evolution of the strategic agenda of each partner. In conclusion, we define the concept of proto-ecosystem as an intermediary 'management object' for innovation management, and point out implications to manage such projects in order to unfold their whole potential.
Keywords: ecosystem; proto-ecosystem; platform; public private partnership; PPP; business model; smart mobility; systemic and disruptive innovation.
Innovative mobility in rural areas - the case of the Black Forest
by Guy Fournier, Manuel Baumann, Johannes Gasde, Katharina Kilian-Yasin
Abstract: Rural areas in Germany have a lack of well-structured local public transport systems and are still facing exodus. Furthermore, the German energy transition aims to bring inter alia 1 million electric vehicles (EVs) onto German roads by 2020. The aim of this paper is to analyse if innovative forms of EV-based mobility concepts can better meet the needs of rural communities and contribute to the German energy transition in a sustainable way. Specific mobility concepts were thus tested according to sustainability criteria within a government-funded pilot project in four small communities in the Black Forest. The collected data were used to calculate energy consumption, carbon footprint and costs of the local projects and to compare them with fossil fuelled propulsion systems. Surveys in combination with semi-structured interviews were conducted additionally to assess the social acceptance of EVs within the local population. It could be proven that EVs already represent socially and environmentally promising perspectives in rural areas. Nevertheless, the economic drawbacks of the presented mobility solution are currently still hindering an extensive spread of EVs.
Keywords: electric vehicles; car sharing; mobility on demand; rural areas; sustainable mobility; energy transition; Germany.
Evaluation of aggregate models of plug-in electric vehicles for primary frequency control
by Seyedmahdi Izadkhast, Pablo Garcia-Gonzalez, Pablo Frías, Pavol Bauer, Laura Ramírez-Elizondo
Abstract: This paper summarises and evaluates in detail aggregate models of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) for primary frequency control (PFC) through dynamic simulations. A basic aggregate model of PEVs for PFC is introduced and then gradually developed in the following steps: 1) technical characteristics of PEVs are incorporated into the model; 2) technical characteristics of distribution networks are formulated and added; 3) a strategy is described to well-design the frequency-droop controller of PEVs for PFC. Moreover, from an economic point of view, a method is presented to assess the benefits which could result from PEVs for PFC. Four simulation scenarios are defined to evaluate the impact of: 1) different PEV's penetration levels; 2) PEV's operating modes and constraints; 3) power consumed in the network during the PFC; 4) well-designed frequency droop controller, on the frequency response following a contingency event. Simulation results show that aggregate PEVs have a great potential not only to improve the frequency response, while preserving the overall stability, but also to save some costs associated with PFC.
Keywords: aggregation; distribution networks; economic assessment; plug-in electric vehicles; PEVs; primary frequency control; PFC; strategy; technical constraints; well-design droop.
Leadership in the electromobility ecosystem: integrators and coordinators
by Carole Donada
Abstract: Electromobility is a nascent business ecosystem, in which the position of leadership is not assigned per se, so stakeholders have equal claims on it. Firms differ according to their strategic paths (build-borrow-buy strategies for growth) and ability to align their business model with the collective imperatives of the ecosystem. On the basis of strategic management theory, this article proposes two hypotheses. First, the firms that build and master the greatest number of activities and skills required to offer sale bundles (i.e., integrators) are best positioned in the race to leadership, because of their capacity and ability to control key resources. Second, and in contrast to the first hypothesis, firms that are best able to coordinate the ecosystem as a whole (i.e., coordinators) may take precedence. With an empirical study of the strategic actions of stakeholders in the electromobility business ecosystem, we reveal different paths established for individual integrators or coordinators.
Keywords: electromobility; leadership; ecosystem; integrators; coordinators; electric vehicle; build-borrow-buy paths.