World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development (12 papers in press)
END OF FOSSIL FUEL ECONOMY: WEATHERING THE STORM OF TRANSITION TO POST-FOSSIL SOCIETY IN NIGERIA
by Austine Sadiq Okoh
Abstract: Nigerian economy built on petroleum faces a carbon catch-22 as profound economic shocks will unfold when the hydrocarbon boom winds down. Exit from fossil fuels in the proliferation of Electric Vehicles will impede vision 20: 2020 and Economic Recovery and Growth Plan (ERGP). Despite this, there is no concrete Fossil Fuel Exit Strategy (FES) to surmount the gathering storm when the petroleum bubble burst. Using quantitative data derived from Nigerias Energy Calculator (NECAL2050), this study examines other alternatives they could adapt while ensuring developmental objectives are met. The study finds that power generation would still be more reliant on fossil fuels due to its cost effectiveness in the advent of FES imposed availability, lack of a Clean Growth Plan strategy together with hotchpotch policies on diversification could derail exit from fossil fuels. The study is the view that holistic smart energy system; large-scale biomass production targeted at feedstock exports, improvements in agriculture, massive renewable energy generation in wind, solar, hydropower and increased off-grid power generation would reinvigorate the economy in the post-carbon era. The study concludes that large-scale bamboo cultivation can provide energy and generate additional income with the private sector providing new investments in other renewables capable of leveraging enormous natural resources to generate revenue.
Keywords: Low-carbon growth; Oil age; Bamboo; Fossil-fuel exit; Post-petroleum society.
Impact of leadership style on sustainable innovation
by Stefane Kabene, Said Baadel, Rafik Attou
Abstract: In a rapidly changing environment, innovation is essential in maintaining long-term survival of public and private organizations. What influences survivability in a fast-paced, changing world? The following paper used quantitative research with the aim of understanding the impact of global innovation index variables have on innovation in 64 countries. Single regression analysis was used to find correlations between Global Innovation Index (II) and Government Effectiveness Index (GEI), Gender Inequality Index (GII), Cultural Diversity Index (CDI), Average Secondary Educational Level (AVSEL), Happiness Index (HI), and Glass Ceiling Index (GCI) to understand how the above variables affected and influence innovation in studied countries. This present study suggests that countries or organizations that are of the transformational leadership nature incur higher levels of innovation. Research findings illustrate that innovation is significantly correlated to Government Effectiveness, whereby the level of internal effectiveness in government structures influence other variables (GII, HI, AVSEL, and CDI). Our study provides a concise explanation of the intricate relationship between transformational leadership and its impacts on innovative, modernized organizational culture, trickling down the hierarchal pyramid to both public and private sectors. This research will benefit the business community, governments, and different stakeholders to understanding what variables and leadership types are most effective and associative with innovation.
Keywords: Cultural diversity; glass ceiling index; government effectiveness index; happiness index; transformational leadership.
Analyzing the influence of supply chain risk on supply chain sustainability using structural equation modeling - with a case study in the home appliance industry
by Arash Shahin, Angappa Gunasekaran, Sima Ebrahimi
Abstract: The aim of this article is to analyze the influence of supply chain risk on supply chain sustainability. Entekhab Industrial Group (EIG) has been considered for case study as the most famous home appliance producer of Iran. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the senior and middle managers of EIG. Data analysis was done using partial least square structural equation modelling. Findings indicate that supply chain risk has significant influence on supply chain sustainability. Other relationships among latent variables which generally relate nine dimensions to two major variables of supply chain risk and supply chain sustainability are found significant indicating appropriate explanation of major variables by the dimensions.
Keywords: Supply Chain Management; Risk; Sustainability; Structural Equation Modelling; Entekhab Industrial Group.
Scientific media dieting and youth awareness and expectations about the environmental issues of deforestation and species extinction in the Middle East and North America
by Ibrahim Niankara
Abstract: The latest horizon scan of emerging issues for global conservation highlights important priority topics for which the current awareness remains limited within the general and conservation communities. The present study inscribes itself in this context, focusing on the role of scientific media dieting and cultural differences to explain heterogeneities in youths awareness and expectations about the two environmental issues of deforestation and species extinction in the Middle East and North America. It achieves this using the cross-national data sample on the environmental affection and cognition of adolescent students, along with bivariate ordered probit regression modeling methods. The results show that compared to their North American counterparts, youth in the Middle East are 14.2% less aware of, and 14.5% less optimistic about the issue of deforestation, while 38.9% less aware of, and 59.0% less optimistic about the issue of species extinction. In addition, we found that science club attendance and broad science reading in books are the two most effective communication media for raising youths awareness about the two environmental issues. Furthermore, each level increase in youths awareness is found to raise their optimism by 20.4% for the issue of deforestation, and 15.0% for the issue of plants and animals extinction. These results suggest therefore that raising young people environmental awareness and optimism through proper communication strategies could be invaluable for moving nations closer to their 2030 sustainable development targets.
Keywords: Deforestation; Environmental Awareness; Scientific Media Consumption; Sustainable Development; Species Extinction.
Upgrading the buildings energy performance with an advanced ventilated fa
by Katerina Tsikaloudaki, Theodoros Theodosiou, Dimitra Tsirigoti, Stella Tsoka, Dimitrios Bikas, Asier Martinez-Urrutia, Julen Hernández González
Abstract: This paper aims at identifying the energy benefits deriving from the installation of a new technological solution developed for the retrofit of existing buildings within the research project E2VENT. The E2VENT system comprises an advanced ventilated fa
Keywords: ventilated facade; building's energy performance; energy retrofit; existing buildings; thermal insulation.
Design and validation of a rubric to evaluate the ethical project of life in university students
by Andrea Juana Lima Bautista, Luis Gibran Juárez Hernández, Sergio Tobón
Abstract: Abstract: Acting with ethics means considering the implications of actions and the welfare of others, addressing environmental sustainability and seeking personal growth. From this perspective, the ethical project of life emerges as a process of concrete actions in which people develop holistically applying universal values. Considering its conceptualization and its key axes, an instrument was designed to evaluate the ethical project of life in university students. For its validation, the instrument underwent a review process from three experts along with some expert judgment and a further application to a pilot group of university students. The experts made suggestions to improve aspects such as instructions, items and descriptors. Regarding the expert judgment, all the items and descriptors of performance levels presented content validity (mean> 3.0, Aiken
Keywords: Keywords: ethical project of life; rubric; socioformation; content validity.
Strategizing CSR in addressing Sustainable Development Goals using a Scorecard approach
by Shulagna Sarkar, Punam Singh
Abstract: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a way of responsible businesses to produce an overall positive impact on society through economic, environmental and social actions. CSR has matured rapidly as a concept, driven by demand for greater accountability by corporate to society. CSR is also regarded as one of the key drivers to attaining Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Although CSR initiatives may not generate direct and fast economic outcomes for enterprises in the short run but it has the potential to deliver strategic returns in long-term. The paper discusses the need to integrate organizational goals as well as sustainable development goals through a strategic outlook towards CSR using a Balanced Score Card approach. The paper describes a scorecard approach to CSR and shares the Indian way of addressing Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) through strategic CSR. The paper also explains a strategy map for implementing CSR using balanced scorecard approach.
Keywords: CSR strategy; Sustainable Development Goals; Strategizing CSR; Balanced Scorecard.
State-of-the-Art Surface Texturing and Methods for Tribological Performance
by Faarih Farhan Mohd Nasir, Jaharah A. Ghani, Mohd Shahir Kasim, Wan Fathul Hakim W. Zamri
Abstract: Studies revolving surface texturing appear to be both challenging and exciting for a substantial number of researchers since past few decades ago. To date, researchers aggressively seek suitable methods for surface texturing with the attempt of enhancing tribological performance. The selection of the most suitable methods applied and the optimum parameters for surface texture are highly desirable. Surface texture has a significant impact on load-carrying capacity, wear resistance, and friction coefficient of the tribological components by generating appropriate surface textures on their surfaces. These surface textures are applied in the engineering field for their benefits in oil lubrication, thermodynamic, hydrodynamic, and aerodynamic. Several types of surface textures, such as groove, dimple, pillar, and channel, are discussed in this paper. The mentioned surface texture genres are beneficial in real applications for piston engine, submarine, and airfoil. This paper presents an overview of surface texturing process, fabrication methods to produce various types of surface textures, and cutting-edge applications that embed surface texturing. Primarily, this paper presents a summary of the state-of-the-art surface texturing and manufacturing methods.
Keywords: surface texture; tribological performance; fabrication methods.
Sustainability risk management: An integrative framework to evaluate emerging risks and other non-quantifiable risks affecting company survival
by NORLIDA ABDUL MANAB, NAZLIATUL ANIZA ABDUL AZIZ, Diara Md. Jadi
Abstract: The importance of sustainability risk management (SRM) in managing emerging risks and other non-quantifiable risks has recently been the subject in many discussions. The debate focuses on the flaws of the risk management programme, which excluded sustainability risk in the risk assessment. Thus, this study attempts to develop an SRM framework for company survival by adopting the triangulation approach which integrates both quantitative and qualitative methods to identify the key components of an SRM framework. A total of 88 respondents from public listed companies participated in the survey and 4 companies were interviewed. The findings highlight that stakeholders expectations, board and senior management risk oversights, resources and capabilities, risk assessments and methods, and risk reporting are the key factors in developing an SRM framework. As a general conclusion, this study develops a generic SRM framework which is applicable to all types of companies, irrespective of its size or business type.
Keywords: sustainability risk management; emerging risks; non-quantifiable risks; company survival.
Multi-criteria decision making and GIS techniques in the design of a stream gauging network
by Aimilia-Panagiota Theochari, Elissavet Feloni, Apollon Bournas, Dimitrios Karpouzos, Evangelos Baltas
Abstract: Stream flow data collection is of major importance for various hydrologic applications. The design of a proper stream gauging network is a requirement in order to obtain accurate, continuous and quantitative flow information, important for various hydrologic purposes such as planning and management of water resources, flood forecasting and assessment of impacts of climate change. The accuracy of the flow estimations depends on the instruments network density. A denser network always provides more information but the added cost of the instrument installation and operation should always be considered. Therefore, while it is necessary to minimise the number of stream gauges in terms of feasibility and cost, the most suitable locations should be found that is a case of spatial decision problem. In this context, this paper presents an approach based on Geographical Information Systems (GIS) techniques and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) for the optimal site selection regarding stream gauging network design. The proposed station network design method was applied to the Sarantapotamos River basin in Attica region, Greece, and incorporates various criteria such as the morphology, land cover, network density and the general guidelines of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO, 2010). The criteria weights were estimated for three scenarios regarding hierarchy using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP), in order to illustrate the impact of the selected method to the final result. Results indicate that GIS-based MCDM may contribute to the identification of suitable locations for a stream gauge installation, as a way to minimise the necessary field exploration for a station network design. It is also illustrated that the criteria number and their weights values affect the final result regarding suitability score.
Keywords: hydrometric station network; stream gauge; river monitoring; floods; GIS; MCDM.
Special Issue on: 7th Sweden Brasil Innovation Week Innovation, Technology and Sustainability Brazilian and Swedish Experiences
The triple helix approach in the defence industry: a case study at the Brazilian Army
by Ligia Lopes Fernandes, Giselle Farias Rosa, Leonardo Oliveira De Araújo, José Luiz Andrade Jr.
Abstract: As in many other industries, technological innovation plays an important role in the economic development of the defence industry. In recent years, the Brazilian Army has adopted the triple helix model and open innovation as cooperation models in research in order to generate innovation, involving the Army research efforts, the defence industry and academia. Inspired on a Swedish model, one of the most recent Armys initiatives to stimulate innovation was the creation of an Open Innovation Arena in order to encourage joint open innovation projects in the area of intelligent energy conversion devices and energy storage, involving academia and industry actors. In this article, the concept of this pilot initiative and its first results are described. With the Arenas the Army intends to induce the creation of a sustainable defence industry with companies based on dual use technologies in order to achieve strategic and economic goals.
Keywords: Triple Helix; Brazilian Army; Open Innovation; Open Arena; Technological Innovation; Innovation Ecosystem; Defence Industry; Dual-use Technology; Technology spillover; Sweden.
Open innovation: the challenges of knowledge integration in bi-national projects
by Kleber Celadon, Roberto Sbragia
Abstract: Purpose This paper seeks to evaluate the professional culture factors that are present in knowledge integration mechanisms in two selected open innovation cases. Design/methodology/approach In-depth case studies were conducted in two different expatriate groups, Embraer Brazilian workers (at Saab in Sweden) and Kuhn French workers (at Kuhn-MB in Brazil), in order to investigate their collaborative practices and professional cultures. Findings This study identified ten main professional cultural factors that were present and influenced open innovation. Research limitations/implications The research is based on different large sized firms. Therefore, the findings may not be applied to SMEs. Practical implications This study provides information and is based on real factors that involve workers from different cultures in collaborative projects. Originality/value The factors described in this paper are based on the on-going collaborative practices at the studied organisations, and results are expected to contribute to the management literature and practitioners.
Keywords: Open Innovation; Knowledge Integration; Bi-national projects; Collaborative project; Transcultural Management.