World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development (48 papers in press)
COPLANAR WAVE GUIDE FED CIRCULAR FRACTAL ANTENNA USING WIRELESS APPLICATIONS
by Rajasekar Boopalan
Abstract: Micro strip patch antennas are noticed because the ones that have placed a most vital role in trendy wireless communications, during this project, analysis of high potency multiband antenna fed with two-dimensional wave guide for wireless applications is mentioned, two-dimensional wave guide(CPW) fed antennas give inherent electrical resistance matching for broader frequency vary, This planned style uses pattern patch as diverging layer with CPW feed. Performance of the planned style is investigated on range of pattern iterations with defected ground structure. The planned antenna is written on a awfully low value substrate material known as FR4 that has relative permittivity 4.4. HFSS simulation tool is employed so as to style the planned antenna.
Keywords: COPLANAR; CIRCULAR; FRACTAL; ANTENNA; WIRELESS APPLICATIONS.
Low-Complexity Particle Swarm Optimization based Adaptive User Clustering for Downlink Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access deployed for 5G systems.
by S.Prabha Kumaresan, Chee Keong Tan, Ching Kwang Lee, Yin Hoe Ng
Abstract: Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has been envisioned as a fundamental method towards fifth generation (5G) cellular networks. Typical clustering schemes employ adaptive user clustering (AUC) to improve the performance of the NOMA system using brute-force search (BF-S). But, the search to perform AUC is computationally complex and practically infeasible. Therefore, AUC using particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm is proposed to minimise the computational complexity. PSO is an intellectual algorithm, implements using a random number of particles moving in a search space. The particles are evaluated by the fitness value on each iteration until it reaches the optimal solution. Simulation results demonstrate that NOMA
system employing PSO-based AUC is able to reduce the complexity with acceptable throughput performance compared with BF-S-based AUC. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that the proposed PSO-based AUC outperforms the conventional clustering with fixed number of users in NOMA system and orthogonal multiple access (OMA) system in terms of throughput performance.
Keywords: non-orthogonal multiple access; NOMA; adaptive user clustering; AUC; particle swarm optimisation; PSO; throughput maximisation; low complexity.
An efficient Data Mining Process on Temporal data using Relevance feedback method
by Yuvaraj D, Dinesh M, Sivaram M, Nageswari S
Abstract: Some data is historical such as the judicial or medical which the factor of time is very important. temporal databases can deals with these data because it provide a systematic way of dealing with historical data.The new generation type of data mining which is called temporal data mining deals with these type of data that has time stamping and influnces by the factor of time after mining.the relevance feedback technique is included in the individuals revisitation habits and memory strength. we have additionally executed and assessed the performance by utilizing a trace driven methodology dependent on the online real behavior dataset. the exploratory outcomes demonstrate that our plan bolsters successfully on both overall aggregate queries and the different specific aggregate queries with correspondence overheads and satisfactory calculation.we also presented the efficient technique for calculating competitiveness in large level datasets introducing a profile that encode the user subjective notation of similarity in domain. These profiles can be gained ceaselessly from connection with client. we further show how the client profile might be embedded in a system that utilization relevance feedback mechanism. Finally, we calculate the quality of our results and the scalability of our technique by using multiple datasets from the different domains.
Keywords: Data Mining ,Process; Temporal; data ,Relevance.
Adaptive channel allocation for spectrum sharing based on ACO algorithm
by J. Suji Priya, T. Padma
Abstract: The customer requirements increase day by day, so the radio spectrum demand also increases. The situation is far worse if data usage is getting higher. The spectrum sharing techniques are designed in the cognitive radio (CR) system, which increases the efficiency of spectrum usage through the sharing process overcomes these issues. Even though several spectrum sharing techniques are available in the literature, new methods are required for different applications. The methods vary from the mode of operation, interference management, and application used. This paper presents the
implementation of spectrum sensing and sharing techniques.
Keywords: cognitive radio; CR; spectrum sensing; spectrum sharing; energy detection; ant colony optimisation; ACO; swarm intelligence; data.
XSS Attack Prevention Using Machine Learning
by Kanav Raj Farishta, Vivek Kumar Singh, Rajeswari Devarajan
Abstract: Web Applications are extensively used all over the world-wide net. These are the applications that have made our regular day to day existence easy and straightforward. We share incredibly confidential information over the web and keeping the information confidential is the most important priority of these web-based applications. These web-based applications are vulnerable to different attacks, XSS and SQL Injection being one of the most perceived attacks. Attackers inject malicious code into the web application and can cause cataclysmic harm to the person without his/her consent. Cross Site Scripting (XSS) and SQL Injection strikes are the most generally perceived sort of attacks that a web application experience. The XSS attack is caused by executing malicious code to a web browser which runs in the server about which the user isnt aware of and is capable of catastrophic disaster. Recognizing a script that is malicious or benign can keep an unwanted attack from happening and can help the web application from keeping the data of the users confidential. The work accentuates on a portion of the conceptual approaches to identify the XSS Script on the customer side dependent on a portion of the highlights extracted from the vindictive contents.
Keywords: Xss attack; Machine learning.
Analysis of wastewater from medical institutions in India
by Aastha Dhingra, Nadeem A Khan, Sirajuddin Ahmed, Viola Vambol, Svitlana Kovalenko
Abstract: One of the main reasons for the deterioration of the quality of natural waters is industrial and household human activity. Medical wastewaters contain significant amounts of chemical waste, such as antibiotics, disinfectants and others. Wastewater from health-care facilities contains organic particles (faeces, hair, food, vomit, paper, fibres), soluble organic material (urea, proteins, pharmaceuticals), inorganic particles (sand, grit, metal particles), soluble inorganic material (ammonia, cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, thiosulfates) etc. The problem is intense as these get discharged into the ground and surface water, due to improper treatment before being discharged as part of the hospital effluents. In some countries, such as India and Ukraine, hospital wastewater is discharged to urban wastewater treatment plants. The quantity of wastewater produced in a health-care facility depends on the amount of water used and is best measured by the water consumption. A survey was conducted in 75 hospitals, including 25 hospitals from the categories of high, medium and low. The average water consumption per bed per day in a hospital of Delhi ranges between 500-600 LPD. The annual water consumption in hospitals of Delhi is about 9000 million litres. Since the composition of the wastewater of medical institutions is diverse, it is necessary to conduct an extensive characterization to study the composition of the wastewater for their further use.
Keywords: wastewater; medical institutions; pharmaceuticals; natural waters; wastewater discharge.
An Analysis of A Secure Communication for Healthcare System Using Wearable Devices Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography
by Pandiaraja Perumal
Abstract: In recent years, security and privacy are becoming more challenging which the major concerns in cloud are computing. The usable healthcare not only provides the accurate outcome but also maintains the confidentiality of medical results since the health information is highly sensitive. Nowadays, heart attack is considered as a more chronic disease and the use wearable sensors to monitor the patient continuously help the patient to take immediate medication with the help of SMS alerts through the patients mobile phone. At present, the mobile phones provide secure and private communications among the healthcare systems. It performs the authentication and secure communication of patient, doctor and other healthcare entities involved in healthcare scenario. The healthcare system aims to achieve a secure communication with high efficiency and low computational overheads. This paper focuses on various cryptographic algorithms and wireless technologies for secure and efficient communication.
Keywords: Cloud security; mobile healthcare; wearable devices; group key management.
Time-interleaved digitisation systems for time of flight mass spectrometry: a review
by R.S. Karthic, R. Ragumadhavan, K.R. Aravind Britto, R. Vimala, M. Arivalagan
Abstract: We consider time-interleaved analogue-to-digital converters (TIADCs) to realise higher sampling rate, high speed systems such as time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToF-MS). TIADC has inherent offset, gain and timing mismatch errors. Out of these errors, time skew, a function of input signal frequency, degrades system performance and hence the resolution and resolving power of ToF-MS. This paper reviews the various time skew detection and correction mechanisms. We consider analogue, digital, background and foreground based detection and correction methods. Analogue
methods are slow and noise prone. Digital background methods use filter banks and are computationally intensive with convergence issues. Input signal statistics based method like blind digital background correction algorithms impose additional constraints like the necessity of wide sense stationary (WSS) and thus require statistical information of the input signal. Digital foreground perfect reconstruction method uses a pilot tone to detect and correct errors. This method is applicable only to narrow bandwidth signal.
Keywords: time skew; time-interleaved analogue-to-digital converters; TIADCs; time-of-flight mass spectrometry; ToF-MS; foreground; background.
A Literature Survey Of Automated Detection Of Cervical Cancer Cell In Pap Smear Images
by LAVANYA DEVI, P. Thirumurugan
Abstract: Cervical cancer is one of the major reasons for gynecologic cancer even though it can be treated if detected in the early stage. Pre-cancer identification of the uterine cervix can be done by the Pap Smear test. In the present day scenario, the pap smear images are taken and the patient has to wait for an experts suggestion. This time consuming conventional method can be replaced by automating the process which gives a rapid and accurate result. The automated screening of cervical cancer saves human resources and material and gives better accuracy by reducing human errors than an experts review.The major steps involved in the automated classification are preprocessing the image, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, and analyzing the classification result. This paper discusses the various algorithms that were used for segmenting and classifying the abnormal and normal cells based on the features extracted.
Keywords: Preprocessing; segmentation; classification; feature extraction; Pap smear test.
A novel three level integrated AC-DC converter for renewable energy source
by A.Santhi Mary Antony, D. Godwin Immanuel
Abstract: Power stability is an important fact for the development of power. This power stability is maintained when voltage and current are in phase with each other. More harmonics are generated led to poor output voltage regulation and power factor is reduced. An effective way to achieve power factor correction is attained by power stability analysis. A single stage PFC three level converter is proposed by using renewable energy as an input. The proposed converter integrates an AC-DC boost PFC converter into three levels DC-DC converter. A flexible DC link voltage is used to achieve power factor correction at high line voltage. The power factor is improved and output voltage regulation is increased. An enhancement of load efficiency of the converter is obtained by less number of switches. The converter operation is explained and simulated by using renewable energy source as an input. The implementation of hardware is done for PV system and results are determined.
Keywords: three level AC-DC converter; power factor correction converter; power factor correction; PFC; single stage full bridge converter; single stage full bridge; SSFB; power stability.
Prediction of CI Engine Combustion Characteristics Operating with HHO Gas as the Supplementary Fuel
by P.V. MANU, Navaneeth Kishan T R, S. Jayaraj
Abstract: Substitution for diesel in CI engines is the immediate need, considering the depletion of fossil fuels at a faster rate. In the present work, a zero-dimensional two-zone model is implemented to predict the combustion characteristics of a CI engine operating in dual fuel mode with diesel and oxy-hydrogen. A double Wiebe function is used to estimate the mass fraction burned in the premixed and diffused stages. The estimated mass fraction burned is then used to calculate the heat released during combustion. Basic thermodynamic relations are used to determine the pressure and temperature at all crank positions and engine kinematics is used to find the variation in the cylinder volume with respect to crank angle considering specific amount of heat transfer to the cylinder walls. The effect of temperature on various properties such as specific heat, viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity are considered in the analysis. The equations are solved in MATLAB
Keywords: Two zone model; Combustion; Theoretical model; HHO gas; Double Wiebe function.
An empirical study on effect of financial accounting indicators towards stock market price volatility
by S. Umamaheswari, C.K. Suresh, Shilpa Sampathkumar
Abstract: Indian stock market, the stock market price volatility is an unavoidable part of an investment decision of individual investors. It is essential to identify that share price of listed companies affected due to the financial statement information namely like EPS, DPO, PE, and return on capital employed, return on Investment and those are treated as influential factors of investors investment decision making. Therefore, the study is examined the effect of listed companies financial information towards stock price instability .The present research work has taken twelve listed companies from various industrial sectors listed under national stock exchange of India and to determine the effect of accounting variables like EPS, PE and DPO ratio on stock cost volatility for the duration of five years (20142019) The result of the study revealed that most of the company stock prices are indicated instable due the accounting indicators like EPS and Dividend payout among those
periods but not because of PE ratio. Hence, the study has concluded and suggested that all companies should focus on provide absolute information about their financial statement indicators and it is helpful to the individual investor investment decisions.
Keywords: finance indicators; stock price volatility; EPS; DPO; PE.
Selection of sanitary landfill site by integrated fuzzy AHP and GIS for Multan, Pakistan
by Samra Fatima, Zulfa Hanan Ash’aari, Mohammad Firuz Ramli, Amir Hamzah Sharaai, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry
Abstract: Sanitary landfill is a common solution for the final solid waste disposal in developing countries. The appropriate landfill location is a very complicated task, as the site selection process involves several factors and guidelines. In this study, suitable candidate landfill sites with minimum risks to public health and environment for the Multan district of Pakistan were identified by integrating the Fuzzy set theory and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) within GIS. The socio-economic (i.e., distance to main roads, railway lines, airport, settlements and slope), ecological (i.e., distance to the protected area, distance to the source of surface water, groundwater level, soil type, and land cover type), and infrastructure (distance to tube wells and electric power lines) criteria were taken into consideration. In the Fuzzy set, criteria standardisation was done by using different membership functions, whereas the weighting was performed using AHP method to determine the relative importance of the sub-criteria. The results showed that almost 8.5% of the total study area was the most suitable for landfills. After ground-truthing, the three best suitable landfill sites were selected across the district in terms of significant criteria.
Keywords: multi-attribute decision making; multi-attribute decision-making; MADM; solid waste; site selection; suitability map; ground validation.
BLOCKCHAIN FOR THE ASSET MANAGEMENT INDUSTRY
by VIJAYA KILLU MANDA, VIJAYA KITTU MANDA, VEDAVATHI KATNENI
Abstract: Purpose: The Financial Asset Management Industry (such as hedge funds, mutual funds, pension funds, portfolio management services etc.) is looking for avenues to cut fund maintenance cost, optimize their processes and easy way of staying in compliance with regulations. Blockchain provides a feasible solution to these requirements. This paper explores the operational and implementational aspects of how the Enterprise Blockchain the business grade version of the blockchain technology can benefit all stakeholders in the asset management industry. Both managerial and technical perspectives are kept into consider to provide a feasible solution for practical applicability. Methodology/approach: This research uses a theory-driven approach by taking through the concepts of enterprise blockchain and explaining how each of them fit into the practical implementations in the industry. Technology, process, policy and social aspects of the implementation are being discussed. Enterprise Ethereum Alliances (EEA) Ethereum Architecture Stack is used to describe the architectural framework in the technical implementation. Findings: There is a significant potential for the application of blockchain in the asset management industry. The architecture provided by EEA eases practical implementation and derives benefits to various stakeholders. Research Implications: This paper brings together the existing body of knowledge and latest developments on enterprise blockchain and explains how these features give a value proposition for the asset management ecosystem from a practical implementation perspective thereby furthering our understanding on the subject. Practical Implications: Stakeholders of the asset management industry (Regulators, Asset Management Companies, Registrars etc.) and other financial intermediaries will have to migrate their systems to the blockchain network sooner or later. When the entire financial eco-system moves to the blockchain, lazy laggards will be forced to migrating with technology flow sooner or later.
Keywords: asset management; fund management; smart contract; regulatory technology; Ethereum; enterprise blockchain; dapp.
Flood Risk: A capacity and vulnerability analysis of Newham and Hammersmith, UK
by Arzoo Hassan, Cody Morris Paris
Abstract: The intensity of floods due to climate change has significantly increased in both developed and developing countries. Flood prevention measures are assumed to be more robust in more developed economies with the ability to dedicate greater economic resources. However, in London, a deeper interrogation of flood risk management (FRM) tells a different story. This study presents a comparative capacity and vulnerability analysis of the Newham and Hammersmith areas of London. The analysis suggests lower levels of resiliency for Newham, a lower-income and ethnically diverse area. On the contrary, the more affluent area of Hammersmith is more likely to be better equipped to respond and recover in the event of flooding.
Keywords: Climate Change; Natural Disaster; Social Justice; Sustainable Development; Disaster Risk Reduction; Natural Hazards; Resilience; Community Development.
A Review on Anticipation of Blackhole Attack in Manet Environment
by Padmini Devi Balachandran
Abstract: A Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is most recent and developing Research subject among analysts. The purpose for the ubiquity of MANET is adaptability and autonomy of system foundation. MANET has some exceptional trademark like unique system topology, constrained power and restricted data transfer capacity for correspondence. In MANET every last hub goes about as a customer and server. Any hub in the MANET can join and leave the system with no consent. MANET is a Mobile Ad-hoc Network in which the hubs get associated with each other without a passageway. Messages are traded and transferred between hubs. Steering calculations are used for sending parcels between aberrant hubs not in coordinate range with help of moderate hubs. Because of the open correspondence media the versatile specially appointed system has some security restrictions there are the likelihood of data spillage in the system. Dark gap assault is a genuine danger, in this assault a malignant hub include parody course and promote most limited way to goal hub and ingests all information bundle in it. Numerous scientists have purposed diverse procedures of AODV convention to recognize and shield from dark gap assault.
Keywords: Ad-hoc networks; Routing Protocol; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV); Black Hole attack.
Proposal for revision of Brazilian resolution 687/15 to expand distributed generation through photovoltaic systems
by Thiago Da Paz Caldas, Alex Álisson Bandeira Santos
Abstract: This study explored the expansion of the generation of photovoltaic solar energy in Brazil based on a technical-economic approach. Opportunities for improving Brazilian NR 687/15, which regulates distributed generation from renewable energy sources in the country, were identified. The study was based on data regarding the potential for photovoltaic power generation in a region of Brazil; the acquisition, installation, and maintenance costs of a photovoltaic power generation system during its useful life; demand; and the consumption tariffs charged by the distributor. The economic viability of a photovoltaic system connected to the grid in Brazil was analysed. The results show that investment in such is not viable based on the current technology costs, financial conditions, and tariffs charged by the energy distributor. The case study also demonstrates that Brazils net metering scheme alone does not promote distributed generation for Group A consumers.
Keywords: photovoltaic systems; minigeneration; financial viability; NR 687/2015.
Removal of Methylene Blue using Naturadsorbents
by Lincy Arulraj, Palanichamy Jegathambal, E.J. James
Abstract: The main aim of this study is to present a novel green and cost-effective method tosuccessfully synthesized using four different natural wastes such as Mosambi peel, Pomegranate peel, Moringa leaf powder and Tea waste. These plant materials and tea waste have high polyphenol content and they form complex with metal ions and will increase the adsorption rate. The prepared materials were characterized by UV- Visible Spectroscopy (UV- Vis Spectroscopy) and Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). The synthesized nanoparticles where then incorporated into beads and it is tested for its efficiency to remove blue dye. among these four sorbent materials, Pomegranate beads were more effective than other adsorbents in the removal of blue dye. Magnetite nanoparticles synthesized using chemical method could remove only 20% of the dye.
Keywords: Magnetite; Biological Method; Beads.
Comparative assessment of carbon sequestration potential of sodium bicarbonate supplemented marine and freshwater algae
by Smriti Mehrotra, Bhawana Pathak
Abstract: The present study aims to compare the carbon sequestration potential of marine algae (Dunaliella salina) and freshwater algae (Scenedesmus dimorphus) by supplying sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) to the culture medium as a source of inorganic carbon. Increasing concentration of NaHCO3 0.25 g/l, 0.5 g/l, 0.75 g/l and 1 g/l was supplied to the culture medium of both algae. Results revealed maximum growth rate and biomass productivity at 0.5 g/l concentration, with Scenedesmus dimorphous obtaining a biomass productivity of 46.22 +- 2.13 mg/l/d in comparison to Dunaliella salina 38.92 +- 2.56 mg/l/d. However, lipid productivity was found to be highest at NaHCO3 supplementation of 1 g/l in Dunaliella salina with 24.77 +- 1.23 mg/l/d. Thus these findings prove the freshwater microalgal strain of Scenedesmus dimorphous to be a potent carbon sequester and the marine strain of Dunaliella salina to be an efficient feedstock for biodiesel production.
Keywords: biomass productivity; CO2 fixation rate; carbon sequestration; Dunaliella salina; Scenedesmus dimorphus; microalgae; sodium bicarbonate; lipid.
Highly cited articles about organic leachate treatment by Fenton method in 21st century: a bibliometric and visualised analysis
by Erfan Nabavi, Mohammadreza Sabour, GhorbanAli Dezvareh, Majid Ehteshami
Abstract: The debate of leachate is one of the hot topics of world today, and the purification of this factor is one of the challenges of many experts. Organic wastewater treatment becomes a critical problem in sustainable advancement, while it involves a high number of refractory and toxic organic pollutants. Finding the best method of leachate treatment, especially the leachate of organic waste is one of the significant problems and concerns of researchers today. Applying Fenton method, Research and articles on leachate and waste treatment have dramatically increased in recent years. In comparison to other AOPs, Fenton process is the most popular due to its some exciting benefits. This bibliometric study was performed using the authoritative source of the Scopus site using VOSviewr analytical software. Brillas had the highest number of articles and researches with 30 works and chong m.n with 2,709 citations had the highest number of citations to articles.
Keywords: author citations; Fenton process; organic leachate treatment; review article; research trends.
COVID-19 and MSMEs: basic insights from India on revival through financial inclusion backed by digital technologies
by K. Rajamani, A.G. Rekha
Abstract: MSMEs are facing a double-edged sword that of a health crisis combined with an economic crisis. They have been worst hit due to COVID-19 and prolonged lockdown and are facing a myriad of challenges with regard to restarting of business. One of the frequently identified challenges to the development of the MSME sector is access to finance. The significance of this challenge is higher than ever in the pandemic and post-pandemic scenario. This paper explores the issues involved in MSME financing and the opportunities offered by ICT for overcoming those issues. Digital technologies offer the potential to radically improve financial inclusion in the MSME sector by overcoming the obstacles that affect the supply and demand for financial services. This study contends and proposes a financial ecosystem backed by emerging innovative technologies that offer a holistic approach for achieving inclusive growth and bridging the gap between demand and supply in MSMEs.
Keywords: digital transformation; COVID-19; financial inclusion; micro small and medium enterprises; MSME; India.
Special Issue on: ICSDEE'19 Sustainable Development in Energy and Environment
CONDITION MONITORING ON PIEZOCERAMIC EMBEDDED COMPOSITE BEAM UNDER FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION USING COMSOL
by JEROLD JOHN BRITTO J, VASANTHANATHAN A, RAJAKARUNAKARAN S
Abstract: In this research paper, a piezoelectric material is embedded into a composite material in the form of a beam structure. Structural Health Monitoring system is created to find the mechanical parameters under dynamic loading condition. The Finite Element Simulation Software tool is used to predict the failure, deformation and the induced stress during the loading condition. A Multiphysics COMSOL
Keywords: Piezoelectric; Composite; COMSOL®; Finite Element Simulation; Dynamic Simulation; Condition Monitoring.
Special Issue on: ICRD 2019 Special Issue Title Rural-Urban Linkages in the Age of Urbanization
Rural livelihood resilience on multiple dimensions: a case study from selected coastal areas in Central Java
by Tia Dianing Insani, Iwan Rudiarto, Wiwandari Handayani, Holi Bina Wijaya
Abstract: Rural coastal areas in northern Central Java suffer from tidal flood caused by sea level rise and land subsidence. People not only lose their properties as tidal flood submerges houses and lands but many of their livelihoods become unsustainable. To understand the extent of tidal flood impact to livelihood of rural coastal communities and their livelihoods, this paper aims to measure the level of rural livelihood resilience through multiple dimensional analysis. Drawing from various sources including livelihood resilience index (LRI) and resilience radar, four dimensions that consist of social, economic, environment, and physical-infrastructure are adapted to express the level of livelihood resilience in the study area. The results indicate the tidal flood severity of two study areas caused different composition of contributing dimensions to livelihood resilience even though the score values showing insignificant gap. The findings also acknowledged that environment dimension is an important factor for building livelihood resilience for coastal community regardless of the disaster exposure. It comes as effect of coastal community inclination to depend their livelihood on the land resource and its supporting ecosystem.
Keywords: rural livelihood resilience; multi-dimensional analysis; rural coastal area; Central Java.
The spatial dynamics of the Semarang-Surakarta development corridor: two young metropolitan cities of Central Java, Indonesia
by Imam Buchori, Lintang Rahmayana, Anang Wahyu Sejati, Pangi Pangi, Yudi Basuki, Angrenggani Pramitasari
Abstract: The interactions between metropolitan cities can generate so-called development corridors along the regional lines. In Central Java, three cities, namely Yogyakarta (Jogya), Surakarta (Solo), and Semarang, form a triangular development known as Joglosemar. This study aimed to observe the spatial dynamics of the Semarang-Surakarta corridor, regarding the operation of the new toll road connecting these two cities. Spatial analyses based on the geographic information system (GIS) were applied to observe the land-use change in the corridor. Statistical analyses focused on population shift, the poor, and employment at the sub-district (kecamatan) level. The empirical findings confirm previous studies, in that the regional development follows regional lines along both arterial and toll roads, and the existence of the toll road was the magnet for the development. However, the increase in industrial
activities did not always benefit the poor, especially in the sub-districts where
industrial activities have been developing in the longer term. For this reason,
we recommend that local governments consider how to make the positive impacts of industrial development sustainable. The results of this study are also expected to enrich the literature on the spatial dynamics of a development corridor connecting two medium-sized metropolitan cities in developing countries.
Keywords: spatial dynamics; development corridor; toll road; urbanisation; geographic information system; GIS; urban sustainability; Indonesia.
Contemporary urban development of Yogyakarta municipalitys peri-urban areas
by Bambang Hari Wibisono, Alfian Yoga Sulistya
Abstract: The peri-urban areas of Yogyakarta Municipality have been designated as part of Greater Yogyakarta Urban Development through Yogyakarta Urban Development Project (YUDP) launched in 1989. This paper presents the results of the investigation and analysis on the contemporary urban development of the areas after more than two decades of planning and implementation of the program. Some districts show some spontaneous growth, more specifically those involving the change from agriculture lands to urban functions. Contemporary developments of Yogyakartas peri-urban areas
mainly produced by a mixture between urban activities, physical forms and some rural features, thus producing fragmented rural landscapes, indicated by unbalanced intensity of growth among the districts. Several identified factors are: geographical location and conditions, population growth and demands for residential spaces, local regulations or policies, economic pressures, as well as education and tourism developments as the leading sectors in Yogyakarta.
Keywords: urban spatial development; peri-urban; contemporary.
Rural planning within local development: Indonesian context
by Muhammad Taufiq, Suhirman Suhirman, Tubagus Furqon Sofhani, Benedictus Kombaitan
Abstract: This study investigated how deliberation is implemented in rural planning practice in Indonesia and what issues are encountered. Qualitative content analysis of secondary data was conducted on the main concepts of deliberative planning, participatory governance, and participatory budgeting, supported by the authors experience as a government planner facilitating deliberation in Langkat district, Indonesia. The deliberative village planning involves interaction between actors in village communities, i.e., community members and representatives from the government and the private sector. The viewpoint is put forward that in deliberation in the Indonesian context there is more space for knowledge transfer and power contestation than for mediation and negotiation. Community members adopt the planners knowledge and synthesise it with their experiential knowledge. This knowledge transfer helps
to create organisational knowledge. Meanwhile, power relations in informal arenas influence the course of the deliberation process in formal planning meetings, obscuring the essence of the public's desires.
Keywords: deliberation; knowledge transfer; participatory budgeting; rural planning; Indonesia.
Sociocultural pressure on cemeteries in Jakarta, Indonesia and its impacts
by Raditya Hari Murti
Abstract: Cemeteries began to become a concern for urban planners in Jakarta because of the crisis voiced by the media in the 2000s. The characteristics of Jakarta as a densely populated metropolitan and as a multicultural melting-pot, put pressure on the provision of funeral space. The objective of this research is to analyse the challenges in the funeral management in Jakarta and the adaptation of the community facing this problem. My approach is to see Jakarta in an evolutive lens, with an analysis of different scales of territories: extended urban area, citywide and selected cemetery. A qualitative descriptive analysis is employed to comprehend the phenomenon of the chosen region, while a quantitative descriptive approach is applied to support the analysis. This research wishes to contribute to better awareness of the cemeteries problem in management in Jakarta, along with the changing mentality of its inhabitants.
Keywords: geography of death; cemetery; green open space; Jakarta; Indonesia.
Special Issue on: FsCONGRESS2020 Sustainable Business Practices for Marketers in Emerging Markets
The impacts of wind energy generation on the economic growth: a dynamic panel data analysis
by Sukru Apaydin, Umit Koc
Abstract: Energy is a crucial factor in both production and consumption processes. It is a critical component not only for economic growth but also for social, technological and environmental issues. With the events and facts in these areas, the importance of the energy has increased more and the research for alternative energy sources has accelerated in the last 50 years. Renewable energy sources have become more preferable by considering the goal of sustainable growth. In this context, wind energy production, which is almost the half of the total renewable energy production, has gained significant importance especially in the post-1990 period. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of wind energy production on economic growth with GMM method on a sample of 60 countries between the time period 1990 and 2017 (N = 60, T = 28) The findings suggest that wind energy positively affects economic growth, thus, supporting the growth hypothesis.
Keywords: renewable energy; wind energy generation; economic growth; dynamic panel data.
The usage and economic effects of biomass energy
by Umit Koc
Abstract: Carbon emission rates have been increasing continuously in the last 200 years and consequently, this increase has dangerous and irreversible effects on climate. The rise in the planets temperature is not the only negative result of climate change and global warming, triggered by the depletion of the ozone layer. Increased frequency and impact of extreme weather events such as drought, floods, violent hurricanes, rising sea levels and acid rates, melting glaciers are some of the known effects. As a result of these effects plants, animals and ecosystems, as well as mankind are at serious risk. For this reason, many institutions such as OECD and the World Bank are trying to control climate change and prevent the destruction of nature by announcing the concept of green growth. Increasing energy efficiency, using renewable energy sources and increasing forest lands are extremely critical for preventing the destruction of nature. The use of biomass, which is a very old and traditional energy resource, has entered the agenda of the governments as a serious renewable type of energy in parallel with the recent developments. This study will focus on the use of biomass as a renewable energy resource and its economic effects.
Keywords: biomass; renewable energy; biomass energy; economic growth; energy supply.
An impact of FPI inflows, Nifty returns, and S&P returns on India VIX volatility
by Parul Kumar, Sunil Kumar, R.K. Sharma
Abstract: This paper analyzes the relationship between FPI and the Implied volatility. The daily data have been used for analyzing the impact of FPI, Nifty returns, S&P 500 returns and CBOE VIX (the proxy of volatility expectation in the US) on India VIX, the proxy for volatility expectations. The time period for this study starts from March 2008 December 2017. The overall objective of the study was to analyze the impact of FPI, Nifty returns, S&P returns, Volatility of US market and interaction effect among them on the Implied volatility index (India VIX). ARIMA GARCH have been used to test the hypothesis of the study. It was concluded that Implied Volatility is impacted by the FPI investment in India, Nifty returns, S&P returns and CBOE VIX. It was also found that the volatility has not increased by the emergence of FPIs in India, rather the expected volatility decreased with the increased investment by FPIs. Another observation from the study was that the past volatility affect was more on the future volatility as the GARCH effect was more as compared to the ARCH effect.
Keywords: GARCH; PGARCH;EGARCH;Implied Volatility; NSE;S&P 500.
Workplace Spirituality in the Indian IT sector: Development and Validation of the Scale
by Anshul Gupta, Arti Arun Kumar
Abstract: The Indian Information Technology (IT) sector faces a unique challenge of managing their knowledge workers. Workplace spirituality, defined as recognizing employees as a spiritual being, is seen as a new solution to the challenges faced by the IT sector. There are many conceptual models, but very few empirical ones to measure spirituality at work in the Indian context. The present study aims to develop an instrument that measures workplace spirituality. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 IT professionals and seven themes emerged from these interviews, based on which a 66 item questionnaire was developed which was further reduced to 33 items as per recommendations from experts. The questionnaire was administered to 172 Indian IT professionals and its reliability and construct validity were determined using convergent and discriminant validity. As a future scope, the questionnaire could be tested in other sectors and suitable changes be generalized in the Indian context.
Keywords: Workplace spirituality; Indian Information Technology sector; Scale construction; Reliability; Construct validity.
Bank segmentation at the bottom of the pyramid: A developing country perspective
by Sonal Purohit, Rakhi Arora
Abstract: The paper explored the segmentation of financial services sector at the Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP) in India. This could help managers in financial institutions to devise appropriate marketing strategies to address the needs of various segments. The study used benefit segmentation approach and studied the demographic characteristics of various segments. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 400 individuals in the BoP from both urban and rural areas of Delhi National Capital region. To identify the segments, factor analysis and cluster analysis were employed. The study shows that there are several statistically distinct segments in the BoP. There was significant difference in the benefits sought by individuals with varying demographic profile. The study contributes to the existing literature on bank segmentation at the BoP, particularly in the context of developing country, were the area is under-researched.
Keywords: Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP); Financial services; Segmentation; Services marketing; Cluster Analysis; Factor Analysis.
Factors for contact lens denial: Contact lens dispensers perspective about wearers
by Satyam Gupta, Deependra Sharma
Abstract: Contact lens dispensers play significant role in wearers decision of choosing vision correction devices like contact lenses. This study aims to identify the factors of contact lens denial in the contact lens dispensers perception about wearers perspective and explore the relationship between dispensers work experience and role in the optical store with factors of contact lens denial. A questionnaire was constructed and distributed among contact lens dispensers. Cost, Care and maintenance of contact lenses, fear of worsening the vision, interest in spectacle, fear of contact lens side effects and handling issues were identified as major reasons for contact lens denial. Among all fear of contact lens side effects was found most widely accepted barrier in contact lenses acceptance. Study identifies relationship between various characteristics of contact lens dispensers and factors of contact lens denial.
Keywords: Contact lenses; dispensers; vision; care and maintenance; side effects; work experience; cost; spectacles; denial; opinion survey.
Volatility study in some of the emerging stock markets: a GARCH approach
by Navita Nathani, Silky Vigg Kushwah
Abstract: The current study analyses the volatility of stock indices of some developing and developed economies regarding the emerging index of India, Nifty. It also tries to understand the trends of the volatility of stock indices and the interdependence among the stock markets of these economies. Stock market indices of the USA, Japan, India, China and Iran have been regressed with the emerging stock market index of India. The study uses GARCH models to analyse the co-movement and volatility transmission among various stock indexes considered. The result indicates that ARCH and GARCH effect has been seen but the terms are not significant in Tepix, SSE Composite and Nikkei stock indices while significant among Nifty and Nasdaq Composite. The volatility interactions between Nifty and Nasdaq Composite are more
prominent as compared to other stock indices considered and investors are suggested to study the movements of Nasdaq Composite before making an investment decision for Nifty.
Keywords: volatility; GARCH/ARCH; developing and developed nations; time series; emerging stock market.
The rise of the era of technological amenities and their adoption in the hotel industry
by Vaibhav Verma, Sheetal Thakur
Abstract: Technology has transformed every industry in the world and the tourism and hospitality industry is no exception. The advent of information technology has transformed the hospitality industry in numerous ways, but now the advent of the technological amenities has taken this transformation to a whole new level. The provisioning of technological amenities such as keyless entry, electronic lockers, smart rooms, smart mirrors etc. by the hotels is creating a new form of satisfaction for the tech-savvy generation of travellers. The adoption of these technological amenities can upgrade the hotel industry and increase customer satisfaction. Himachal Pradesh being one of the most important tourist destinations in India attracts millions of guests to its hotel industry and thus there is a need to identify the State Tourisms adoption of these technological amenities. The research has found that the technological amenity adoption at the hotels of Himachal Pradesh is in its cradle at the moment. Out of the 100 hotels visited only 8.04% of the hotels are providing one or more types of such amenities and thus the tourism industry of the state requires considering better adoption for enhanced guest satisfaction.
Keywords: digital menu; digital footprint; electronic locker; HSIA; keyless entry; pay per view; smart mirrors; smart room; technological amenity; hotel amenities.
Impact of Marketing Semiotics on Branding Towards the Interest of Customers in Indian Retails: An Exploration of Factors
by Subhajit Paul, Anirban Dutta
Abstract: Over the past twenty years all over the world, the retail industry has undergone a radical change and India has also experienced the same. Hence, competition has risen drastically. To survive in this competition, various retail organisations have come up with various strategies to attract customers. In this scenario, the marketing semiotic elements played a vital role in framing the branding strategies. In this research paper, we have taken Reliance Trends which is one of the biggest pan India garment retail chain as a case study. The research objective is to find out the most important factors which are responsible for creating brand interest of customers in Indian retails by the three important marketing semiotic elements such as brand name, logo & symbol and brand ambassador. The methodology adopted for this research work is descriptive in nature and primary data has been collected through a structured questionnaire from 356 valid respondents. Using factor analysis, seven factors have been identified after the completion of the data analysis which can be considered as the most important factors responsible for creating customers interest towards Indian retail brands.
Keywords: Marketing Semiotics; brand name; logo & symbol; brand ambassador; factor analysis.
Exploring the relationship between seller selection and purchase intention: The mediating role of e-WOM and Trust
by Priyadarshi Ranjan, G. V. R. K. Acharyulu
Abstract: The emergence of the e-commerce marketplace has witnessed impressive growth over the years, attracting several players, large and small. While it has made shopping convenient, it has also brought in its share of challenges for marketplace operators to facilitate the development of seller selection criteria. Sellers play an essential role in e-commerce marketplaces because business activities such as product price, product quality, delivery lead time, delivery quality, and delivery cost depend on them. This study aims to explore the relationship between seller selection and customer purchase intention. A theoretical framework is constructed using trust and electronics word of mouth (e-WOM) to form a combined research model to describe how seller selection influences purchase intention. Web-based questionnaires, created using Google Survey, are used to collect data from people with online shopping experience. and the responses are analysed using structural equation modelling with SmartPLS 3.0. The results show that seller selection significantly affects purchase intention and sets strong precedents for trust and e-WOM. Trust and e-WOM are found to be good mediators between seller selection and purchase intention.
Keywords: Seller selection; e-commerce marketplace; purchase intention; trust; e-WOM; pls.
Does employee retention depend on spiritual work environment and organisational internal branding? A study in the context of emerging market
by Vikas Arya
Abstract: The study was conducted to identify whether spiritually charged organisations are capable of retaining their employees and whether internal branding of the organisation has an effect on employees retention rate. The current study addressed the role of spiritual practices in the corporate workplace through the employees perspectives, especially their retention in the organisation. This study is descriptive in nature, where primary data were collected from 251 respondents who work in Patanjali Yogpeeth, Uttarakhand, India. For structural analysis of the conceptual relationship, we used structural equation modelling imploring AMOS and ADANCO software. The findings of the study identified that being spiritually charged led organisations to have high employee retention rates, as employees attain self-satisfaction in professional as well as personal lives if they are able to explore their values, customs, and spiritual inclinations. This study explored the spiritual practices that influence employees to have a positive attitude towards the organisation and stay loyal to the firm. Spiritual practices at the workplace reflect employees happiness, which helps the organisation to strengthen its internal branding.
Keywords: spiritual work environment; SWE; employee retention; organisational internal branding; employees’ behaviour at work; nature of spirituality at work.
Special Issue on: CONCOVID 2020 The Global Economy, The Tourism Sector and Sustainable Development
Effects of Covid-19 pandemics on the cost items of hotel operations
by Muammer Mesci, Mehmet Akif Öncü, Aslinur Yavuz
Abstract: The outbreak of the new type coronavirus (Covid-19) has affected all commercial sectors including the tourism sector, nearly bringing mobility in tourism to a halt. The aim of this study is to determine the possible effects of the outbreak on the cost items of hotel businesses. The method of the study is based on the qualitative research method. In this context, a large five-star hotel enterprise (luxury segment) in Istanbul Province was examined. The work is designed in the context of a case-by-case method. In this respect, the effects of the outbreak on the cost items of the business were examined by the hotel employees. Data of the study were obtained through the semi-structured questions form. The study concluded that food and beverages, front office, sales and booking, parking and spa-health departments were the most affected cost items. Ahead, the Covid-19 outbreak can negatively affect people economically, and subsequently, peoples purchasing power may also decline. For this reason, suggestions are made for how businesses can create affordable pricing policies for consumers and their own businesses in their products and services.
Keywords: Covid-19; tourism; cost elements.
Potential impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on Turkish economy and its carbon dioxide emissions: an extended input-output analysis
by Levent Aydin, Izzet Ari
Abstract: COVID-19 pandemic has lead to societal transformation in terms of economic, social, and environmental behaviours. Like other countries, Turkey has suffered from the pandemic. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of COVID-19 on the following major indicators: total hours worked by employees, number of employees, labour compensation, capital compensation, gross value added and nominal capital stock at current basic prices, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Throughout the study, an extended input-output (EIO) analysis was employed. The scope of the study was based on the decline in economic activities in the restricted sectors such as accommodation and food services, travel agencies, tour operators and other reservation and related
services, air transport, land tourism, water transport, and leisure activities.
Three main scenarios, i.e., fast recovery scenario, continuing slowdown scenario, and economic recession scenario, were set to analyse the effects of COVID-19 on the Turkish economy and CO2 emissions.
Keywords: COVID-19; extended input-output analysis; Turkish economy; carbon dioxide emission.
Covid-19 pandemic period reflections on problems experienced in distance education at the primary school level: teacher opinions
by Nefise Celik Omeraga, Nurdan Ozrecberoglu, Sema Yilmaz Genc, Rui Alexandre Castanho
Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic, which began in December 2019 and quickly spread throughout the world, led to the closure of the world as well as our country and affected all sectors, including the education sector. As a result of the impact of Covid-19, face-to-face education was interrupted all over the world and in our country and distance education systems were initiated. During this whole process, various problems occurred in education; consequently, this study aims to investigate the opinions of teachers in primary schools in the TRNC working during this time to determine the nature of these problems. Information was gathered using the qualitative research scanning model; for this purpose, an easily accessible sample group selected on a volunteer basis was studied and their views on the subject were determined using a semi-structured interview form. The data obtained from the research were analysed by content analysis.
Keywords: Covid-19 distance education; Covid-19 distance education teacher opinions; distance education in TRNC.
An impact study on Covid-19 and tourism sustainability: intelligent solutions, issues and future challenges
by Saumendra Das, Janmenjoy Nayak, Bighnaraj Naik
Abstract: Tourism is the deed of every individual who loves to travel for leisure, entertainment, sports, or other purpose and usually stay in places outside their environment. It involves hospitality, health, sports, education, or entertainment. Tourism is often connected with the individual intentions to discover the facts and findings of the environment. But, the Covid-19 pandemic contamination has furiously affected the kind of tourism industry across the world and waiting for the biggest downfall ever in the history of tourism. It not only affected the common inter and intraregional travel but also badly hit the global tourism sectors. In this article, an impact study of Covid-19 on tourism sustainability is performed with an in-depth discussion on various issues and challenges. Further, an effective analytical perspective is presented on the applications of intelligent computing techniques to meet the challenges of tourism concerning Covid-19. This study will be helpful for effective analysis on different tourism sectors in a post-pandemic scenario along with a special focus towards the enhancement of domain knowledge of different stakeholders, industries, and government organisations.
Keywords: tourism; sustainability; Covid-19; pandemic; machine learning.
Impact of the COVID-19 on MSCI world equity market index
by Nurhan Toğuç
Abstract: This article aims to analyse and measure the impact of the COVID-19 daily fatality cases, along with the BRENT prices and the financial volatility index (VIX) on the global economy, proxied by MSCI global market index (MXWO) both in the long run and the short-run and discuss policy responses using the ARDL methodology. The study contributes to the literature as it is one of the first studies aimed at measuring the impact and direction of COVID-19 daily fatality cases on the global markets investigated through financial contagion. The ARDL model estimates indicated a significant and negative effect of the coronavirus crisis on MXWO. BRENT prices seem to have no direct effect on the global economy proxied by MXMO index, both in the long and the short term. But, it is likely to have an indirect effect through financial volatility as BRENT prices reacted sharply to the rise in financial
Keywords: COVID-19; autoregressive distributed lag; ARDL; MSCI world index; BRENT; volatility index; financial contagion.
How SARS-CoV-2 crisis could influence the tourism intentions of Azores Archipelago residents? A study based on the assessment of the public perceptions
by Gualter Couto, Rui Alexandre Castanho, Pedro Pimentel, Célia Barreto Carvalho, Áurea Sousa
Abstract: Tourism shows to be one of the most affected activities by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (responsible for COVID-19) outbreak. This situation is not only to because of the cancelled flights but also to the fear of being infected with the virus. In this regard, a study was carried out intending to define and analyse the consequences of SARS-CoV-2 over the tourism intentions of Azores residents in 2020 by studying their perceptions. Throughout the research, it was possible to verify that the Azores Archipelago Residents tourism intentions were considerably modified due to SARS-CoV-2, with approximately 70% of the Azores Region residents saying that will spending their 2020 vacations in the region. Moreover, this article also provides insights into the enhancement of tourism safety models in regional tourism
activities and consequently, in regional sustainable development and growth.
Keywords: Azores Region; COVID-19 pandemic; regional studies; socio-economy; sustainable development; sustainable tourism.
The situation of the tourist sectors after the outbreak
of the COVID-19 pandemic - tourism covidisation
by Bartosz Korinth
Abstract: The article puts forward a proposal for a new concept enabling a more in-depth analysis of the impact of the development of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism sector, dating back from the turn of 2019 and 2020. In order to present the concept of 'tourism covidisation', subject literature has been analysed. While analysing the literature, it was found that the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has affected all tourism sectors: the accommodation and catering sector, the tourist attractions sector, the transport sector as well as the tourism organisers sector. This prompted the author of this publication to create a new definition tourism covidisation, which may be defined as "any effects on the tourism industry sector directly or indirectly connected to the COVID-19 pandemic."
Keywords: pandemic; COVID-19; tourists sectors; covidisation; concept.
CSR: analysing shifting paradigm from climate change to global health emergencies
by Kritika Singh, Priya Kumari
Abstract: The pandemic that has hit our economy hard has forced corporations to see the coronavirus crisis as an opportunity to rethink corporate social responsibility and its role and purpose in the corporate sector. With corporate social responsibility in place, corporations need to answer how they can give back to the stakeholders and society. The authors are trying to analyse whether corporate social responsibility in India can tackle pandemics and climate change. If not, has it just become a utopian ideology hijacked by the politicians?
Keywords: corporate social responsibility; climate change; COVID pandemic; global health emergencies.
Special Issue on: REAIM2020 Sustainable and Intelligent Manufacturing
Eco-friendly flagging tape
by Rachel Cordeiro, João Meneses, Fernando Dourado, Paula Pascoal-Faria, Carla Moura, Nuno Alves
Abstract: One of the problems of using commercial flagging tapes is that they are produced with non-degradable plastic and remain in the environment for long periods. To find a solution, an eco-friendly flagging tape was developed. Bacterial cellulose (BC) was used to produce a cellulose-based film and it was hypothesised that coating the tapes with a polymer would improve their resistance. So, two natural polymers (chitosan and hyaluronic acid) were used to coat the BC tapes. The wet BC was also stained with natural pigments extracted from carrot and spinach. Mechanical testing showed that uncoated BC tapes have similar resistance to hyaluronic acid coated tape. However, the chitosan-coated tapes and the tapes pigmented with the selected pigments showed a decrease in mechanical resistance. Biodegradability tests showed that the uncoated BC tape and BC tape coated with chitosan or hyaluronic acid did not fully degrade within three months.
Keywords: bacterial cellulose; flagging tape; sustainable; foot-print; environment; hyaluronic acid; chitosan.
Decision support system for production improvement in a cork flooring company
by Luis Rodrigues, Luís Pinto Ferreira, Francisco J.G. Silva, José Carlos Sá
Abstract: Information is a companys key factor for optimal activity efficiency. Gathering and processing data for decision making provides optimal solutions in production, quality control, distribution, sales, etc. resulting in reduced waste costs regarding materials, time, consumables, repairs, etc. This research demonstrates the importance of decision support systems (DSS) and simulation tools in process optimisation, focusing on the industrial sector and Industry 4.0 concept. Consequently, a DSS, named ARSimTool, was developed in a cork processing company, to perform the simulation of occupational levels of its production lines. This was requested as an alternative to the existing method, offering advanced representation capabilities of the real model and additional functionality on interface accessibility, autonomous data recovering, creation of testing scenarios, management of the workflow along the production floor, among others.
Keywords: decision support system; DSS; lean manufacturing; agile manufacturing; strategic manufacturing; smart manufacturing; Industry 4.0; production improvement; simulation; productivity; capacity usage efficiency; production planning.