Forthcoming articles

World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development

World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development (WREMSD)

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World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development (106 papers in press)

Regular Issues

    by Asael Islas-Moreno, Manrrubio Muñoz-Rodríguez, Wyn Morris 
    Abstract: The study of how companies arise in rural areas has gained a place in the agenda of researchers, academics and public officials. This is a documentary review in which the rural entrepreneurship process is conceived as an interaction of four elements: the process, the entrepreneur, the context and the community benefits. An important amount of evidence has been generated on the relationship between these components, however, a series of pending tasks are identified, including the need to specify the factors that favour the process in each of its stages, in terms of the characteristics of the entrepreneur and the context.
    Keywords: rural enterprise; rural development; rural entrepreneur; community benefits; entrepreneurship promotion policy.

  • Patients, participation and wicked problems in hospitals: A plea for embracing the networked governance approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Jan Vang, Annalisa Brambini 
    Abstract: Recent years have witnessed a surge of wicked problems in respect to health care systems ability to deliver quality solutions at affordable costs. Scholars from different schools have provided different types of solutions. Yet, the central problem with these different approaches is that the patient is either absent or considered a passive user of the system. There is thus a need for a different approach that sees the patient as an active contributor to solving wicked problems. The paper argues, that the governance network approach although in its infancy provides the contours of a new approach that should replace previous approaches.
    Keywords: Hospitals; innovation; health care; sustainability; SDG.

  • Sustainable Management Education: Insights from Indigenous Wisdom of Bhartiya (Indian) Gurukul Philosophy   Order a copy of this article
    by Anshu Sharma, Ankur Joshi 
    Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to highlight the phenomenon of sustainable management education and its facilitating factors by exploring the indigenous wisdom of Bhartiya (Indian) Gurukul philosophy. The paper provides an understanding of the Gurukul philosophy can contribute to the domain of educational sustainability by underlying the facilitating factors of sustainable management education. Drawing on the indigenous wisdom of the gurukul philosophy, the paper provides five facilitating factors for making management education more meaningful and sustainable: Aparigrah (minimalism), Swawlamban (self-reliance), Udyam (entrepreneurial initiatives), Uttardayitava (responsibility) and Chetna (consciousness). The paper provides implications for institutional educational philosophy for both internal (faculty, students, infrastructure, board members) and external (corporate and society) stakeholders at large.
    Keywords: Sustainable management education; Indigenous wisdom; Gurukul philosophy.

  • Critical Success Factors of Women Entrepreneurship Practice for Women Entrepreneurs in Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Sharon Yong Yee Ong, Nurul Fadly Habidin, Mad Ithnin Salleh, Nursyazwani Mohd Fuzi 
    Abstract: The purpose of present study is to analyses the critical success factors of WEP implementation in Malaysia. The study indicates six critical success factor of WEP (entrepreneurial traits, entrepreneurial experience, management skill, customer relation, training and education and environment). A total of 38 responses from women entrepreneurs in Malaysia were collected through email and on-line questionnaires. The result shows the mean values are 5.811 to 5.461, consider good at WEP implementation. The dimension TE (5.811) and EE (5.758) have the highest mean value and shown to be the most important dimensions of WEP implementation for women entrepreneur in Malaysia SMEs. The implications present study is anticipated to help better understand women entrepreneurs condition, needs and provide new insights for the critical success factors of a more gender-specific practice for women entrepreneurs in Malaysia. This study also provides important guidelines to implement WEP. In future research, the relationship between WEP and business performance of women entrepreneur in Malaysia will be analyses and then compare the results to other countries.
    Keywords: Critical success factors; gender; women entrepreneurship practices; business performance; entrepreneurial traits; entrepreneurial experience; management skill; customer relation; training and education; environment;.

  • Eco-innovation and sustainability performance: An empirical study on Indian manufacturing SMEs.   Order a copy of this article
    by Manvendra Pratap Singh, Arpita Chakraborty 
    Abstract: Unprecedented industrialisation have mounted pressure on small firms to become sustainable in developing economies. To achieve sustainability, firms need to cultivate eco-innovation among manufacturing SMEs. The paper attempts to establish the affiliation between eco-innovation and sustainable performance among manufacturing SMEs in India. The results indicate that eco- process innovation and eco-organisational innovation have noteworthy association whereas eco- product innovation has no relationship with sustainability performance including economic, environmental and social performance.
    Keywords: Eco-innovation; eco-product; eco-process; eco-organisational innovation; economic sustainability; SME; India.

  • How Corporate Social Responsibility Affects Competitive Advantage: A Case Study of the Petroleum Trading Lao Public Company, Lao PDR   Order a copy of this article
    by Phaninee Naruetharadhol, Wutthiya A. Srisathan, Chavis Ketkaew 
    Abstract: The purpose of this research is to study how corporate social responsibility affects organisational performance. To accomplish this objective; fostering corporate social responsibility is one of the techniques that organisations employ. In this study, the researcher focused on internal organisational corporate social responsibility activities, such as employee engagement and corporate governance. A survey of 120 employees from different departments inside a large petroleum trading organisation in Laos was conducted. The research results show that the great practices of corporate governance and its effect on corporate social responsibility (CSR) have a significant impact on employee engagement (EE) and competitive advantage (CA). Our findings indicate that the integration of corporate social responsibility into strategy and organisational governance structure, thereby creating shared value of job among employees and enhancing health and safety, local recruitment, and customer value as competitive advantages.
    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Employee Engagement; Corporate Governance; Competitive Advantage.

  • The Influences of Social Media on Chinese Start-up Stage Entrepreneurship   Order a copy of this article
    by Arun Sukumar, Vahid Jafari-Sadeghi, Zimu Xu 
    Abstract: In todays digital era, information is increasingly shared and distributed through online social networks. Online social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook, Youtube in the west and Sina Weibo, Wechat in China have not only greatly extended the reach of traditional social networks but also facilitated the information distribution process within the networks. With the rising popularity of such social media platforms, the channel where people obtain information has dramatically compared to traditional print media. We collected survey data from 100 Chinese participants and carried out 25 interviews. The results revealed the current status quo, opportunities and challenges on using online social networks. For instance, Weibo and Wechat are the most popular choices for business activities in China. The main entrepreneurial activities on social networks include information collection and analysis as part of the decision-making process or facilitate sales and promotion activities. Challenges include such as the overly populated false news and information distributed through online social networks.
    Keywords: social networks; social media; entrepreneurship; start-ups; China.

  • Sustainability of Tourism Development in Vietnam's Coastal Provinces   Order a copy of this article
    by Nguyen Hoang Tien, Phan Quan Viet, Nguyen Minh Duc, Vo Thi Tam 
    Abstract: This article presents achievements and limitations related to sustainable tourism development in coastal provinces of Vietnam. Through the research process, this study found that sustainable tourism development had many positive benefits for a variety of stakeholders, including community, local government, cultural and natural environment and the tourists. Although the principles of sustainable tourism development are beneficial, their implementation is an enormously difficult task due to the prevailing socio-economic context, political conditions and institutional settings in the developing world. This article assesses the current status of sustainable tourism development in coastal provinces of Vietnam, reflecting gap bet
    Keywords: sustainable development; tourism; coastal provinces; Vietnam.

  • Achieving sustainable value chains by adopting sustainable development goals: a mapping exercise   Order a copy of this article
    by Marina Lourenção, Caroline Kruger, Adriana Fiorani Pennabel, Larissa Marchiori Pacheco, Fabio Henrique Correa Bogado Guimaraes, Adriana Cristina Ferreira Caldana 
    Abstract: Owing the global demand for sustainable interventions and the practitioners willingness to take into account the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in their management processes, it becomes necessary to understand how they are put into practice in the business context. Thus, this study aims to explore how an organisation can operationalise the SDGs in their strategic management, leading to the creation of a sustainable value chain based on a framework developed by the authors. Using a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews, observations and secondary data sources, a framework is proposed based on the experience of a Brazilian power company. The proposed model (SDG SVCMM) has four dimensions: (1) design of the organisational value chain; (2) mapping of SDGs in the value chain; (3) selection of SDG priorities and (4) impact monitoring. The present study makes a theoretical contribution with a model that aims to link a sustainable value chain with SDGs. Also, the present research can guide managers in their attempt to generate innovative and sustainable solutions to develop sustainable value chains.
    Keywords: SDG compass; sustainability; power sector; value chain; strategy; sustainable value chain.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2021.10035509
  • Domestic Products in Swadeshi-Global Entrepreneurship for Sustainable Socioeconomic Growth   Order a copy of this article
    by Khushbu Agarwal, Sharda S. Nandram 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of Country of Ownership on a nations economy and distinguish between the cumulative effect of Country of Brand Origin (CoB), Country of Manufacture (CoM) and Country of Ownership (CoO), on products in a Transnational Economy. This paper proposes a lens for indigenous entrepreneurship, labeled as Swadeshi-Global Entrepreneurship aiming at sustainable socio-economic growth. The findings lead to the development of a new model Product categorisation in the Transnational Economy and an equation explaining the conceptual definition of domestic product in globalised world along with the relative importance of each type of product on the domestic economy of a nation. The framework suggested in the paper if executed rationally ensures to bring social and economic sustainable development of the country involved. Although the paper focuses on indigenous entrepreneurship, its findings are relevant for other types of entrepreneurship too given the emergency situation in which many economies currently are due to COVID-19. Countries are pushed to re-invent the power of domestic production.
    Keywords: Swadeshi Global Entrepreneurship; Country of Brand Origin; Country of Manufacture; Country of Ownership; Transnational Company; Foreign Product and Domestic/ Indigenous Product; Sustainable Growth.

  • Strategic stages in subsistence small businesses: the case of the timber industry in Misiones (Argentine)   Order a copy of this article
    by Carlos Fernandez-Jardon, Nilda Tañski, Fabian Martinez 
    Abstract: In Argentina and many developing countries, small businesses are often created as a method of subsistence for the entrepreneurs and their family. They are also a source of wealth and employment creation in the poorest areas. This paper analyses the development phases of small timber businesses based on their competitive advantages and performance in a region of Argentina. Our methodology defines the phases, and combines the resource-based view with the Uppsala model of knowledge increase. Our results show that these businesses develop in four phases, with different factors of competitiveness and performance. This paper contributes to the theory of small business development, improving companies knowledge of the situation in each development phase and allowing them to establish competitive strategies that are associated with their current phase and political improvement actions.
    Keywords: Strategic stages; subsistence; small businesses; Uppsala model; Resources-based-view; timber industry; Argentine.

  • Linear and Asymmetric Analyses of Macroeconomic and Bank-Specific Determinants of Non-Performing Loans in West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ)   Order a copy of this article
    by Ebere Ume Kalu, Augustine Arize, Awa Kalu Idika, John Malindretos, Chiamaka G. Eze 
    Abstract: We used Panel ARDL and Panel NARDL to investigate the macroeconomic and bank-specific determinants of Non-Performing Loan (NPL) in the West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ) for the period 2003 to 2018. We found that both bank-specific and macroeconomic determinants jointly influence NPLs in varying degrees. There is also empirical evidence that NPL adjusts more nonlinearly/asymmetrically to the dynamics of the bank-specific and macroeconomic determinants than it does linearly. This discovery will guide in rebalancing the policy direction in loan and credit administration from just a linear direction to a combination of linear and nonlinear perspectives especially in the WAMZ
    Keywords: Panel ARDL; Panel NARDL; Asymmetry; Return on Assets (ROA); Return on Equity (ROE); Non-Performing Loans.

  • The Influence of Corporate Social Responsibility on Share Price Before and After Tax Amnesty   Order a copy of this article
    by Josua Tarigan, Aileen Natalia, Saarce Elsye Hatane, Ferry Jie 
    Abstract: With a purpose to provide a more profound clarification in regards to socially and environmentally responsible cultures among Indonesian natural resources industry, this study highlights the empirical confirmation on the correlation between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and share price. Kinder, Lydenberg, and Dominis (KLD) measurement approach is used as a basis to assess CSR performance since it gives more social rating transparency. Panel data analysis and paired sample T test are carried out on 83 Indonesian listed firms in the natural resources industry. The study finds a significant difference in the CSR performance and Tax Amnesty between before and after tax periods. The empirical result suggests that the CSR performance serves as a tool in assisting investors to value share prices. This is the first study, which observes and proves that tax amnesty 2016 gives a significant impact on Indonesian natural resources industrys CSR and share price
    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; KLD; Share Price; Natural Resources Industry; Tax amnesty.

  • Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices regarding Good Agricultural Practices among Rice Farmers under the Large Agricultural Plot Scheme (LAPS) in Khlongudomchonlajorn, Chachoengsao Province, Thailand   Order a copy of this article
    by Athiwat Joedsak, Suneeporn Suwanmaneepong, Duangkamol Parnrostip 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitude and level of practice regarding good agricultural practices (GAP) of rice farmers under Large Agricultural Plot Scheme (LAPS) Khlongudomchonlajorn, Chachoengsao Province, Thailand. Data were collected by using questionnaires from 38 farmers during the period from March to July 2019, and data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The results showed that most of the farmers were male (57.9%) with an average age of 56.7 years (65.8%), had completed primary education (73.7%), were married and had an average of 4.1 household members. In terms of the farmers knowledge of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) for rice, the results showed that the knowledge levels of the respondents were medium (65.8%), high (26.3%) and low (7.9%). Regarding attitudes towards GAP for rice, it was found that most of the farmers had a positive attitude (55.3% strongly agreed and 44.7% agreed) towards GAP for rice. Regarding the level of farmers implementation of GAP for rice, farmers produced rice according to GAP standards at a high level (52.6%), the highest level (39.5%) and a moderate level (7.9%). The farmers performed practices regarding the inspection of water quality and harmful contamination (average score=2.16) and the recording of plantation area codes and information (average score=2.55) with a low level of compliance. Relevant agencies should provide training programmes on the knowledge of GAP standards for rice in every item for farmers under the Large Agricultural Plot Scheme, especially for the items concerning water inspection and planting area recording.
    Keywords: agricultural scheme; farmer’s attitude; farmer’s knowledge; good agricultural practices; rice GAP.

  • The impact of SMEs on growth prospects of North Macedonia   Order a copy of this article
    by Edrina Emini 
    Abstract: Developing countries have changed their attitudes towards developing SMEs and supporting entrepreneurship due to the importance of SMEs and Entrepreneurship in these countries. Recent studies show that SMEs highly affects economic growth, employment, export, and poverty. Considering these circumstances, this paper tries to examine the profile of SMEs and their impact on the growth prospects of North Macedonia for the period 2012-2019. The study is carried out using secondary data. The data analysis is done using SPSS software as a statistical tool. The results of the paper suggest that there is a negative correlation between SME indicators and GDP, but the empirical findings also suggest that there is a correlation between exports, and SMEs economic situation, exports, and SMEs financial situation. On the other hand, there is a significant negative correlation between the poverty index and the economic situation of SMEs, meaning that the increase of the economic situation of SMEs results in the decrease of poverty and vice versa.
    Keywords: SMEs; entrepreneurship; economic growth; export; GDP; North Macedonia.

  • Rural entrepreneurship challenges and development: The case of Albanian women entrepreneurs in North Macedonia   Order a copy of this article
    by Nadire Ramadani, Veland Ramadani 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is through rural entrepreneurship to analyse and give an understanding on the concept and the current situation on rural women entrepreneurship, to explore the challenges rural women entrepreneurship face in North Macedonia, especially the case of Albanian women and in the end to discuss potential solutions, further suggestions, and recommendations on how to overcome these challenges. The case-based approach was used. To achieve our main goal, in total 20 women have been contacted in different rural villages around the city of Tetovo. All the interviews were conducted in distance, some using FaceTime, and others by phone call. Interviews took place during the month of April and May 2020, a very challenging time when most of the businesses were locked down.
    Keywords: rural entrepreneurship; women entrepreneurship; Albanian entrepreneurs; North Macedonia.

  • Factors influencing the start-up intentions of urban women in India: A theory of planned behaviour based approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Shreya Virani, Sarika Sharma, Poornima Tapas 
    Abstract: The growth in number of women enterprises is necessary for maintaining the gender justice and equality around the globe, and specifically in developing countries. Role of female entrepreneurs is vital in innovation based ventures and entrepreneurship for social, cultural, and economic development of a country like India. This study aims to ascertain the factors influencing the start-up intentions of urban women in India. A conceptual framework is proposed through rigorous literature review and based on theory of planned behaviour. The empirical testing of the proposed model is carried out using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM). The results reveal that attitude of a person, personality traits, and awareness about ecosystem affect the start-up intentions of a person. Whereas subjective norm and perceived behaviour control do not impact. Parents business background plays a mediating role in subjective norms and start-up intentions. The conclusion is presented and the future directions for further research are provided at the end.
    Keywords: Start-up intentions; Theory of planned behaviour; Structural equation modelling; Women entrepreneurship; Entrepreneurial intentions; Female entrepreneurs; Start-up India; Attitude; Subjective norms; Perceived behavioural control; Personality traits; Start-up ecosystems.rnrn.

  • The Role of Human Resource Management in the Growth of Startups: A Multiple Case Study from the Perspective of Entrepreneurs and Employees   Order a copy of this article
    by Hasan Boudlaie, Hannan Amoozad Mahdiraji, Mina Saneie Jirandeh, Vahid Jafari-Sadeghi 
    Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the role of human resource management (HRM) in the growth of startups. Accordingly, the missions and practices of HRM in startups are identified from the perspective of entrepreneurs and employees. A multiple case study approach is used by focusing on two startups in Iran. Moreover, the data are collected by interviewing one entrepreneur and 4 employees in each company. Besides, qualitative data are analysed using thematic analysis. Results demonstrated the various types of HRM missions and practices in startups and reflect different perspectives of entrepreneurs and employees of human resources management in these companies. Finally, the results illustrated that HRM can play an important role in the growth of these companies. Although research in the field of startups has increased in recent years, the role of HRM in the growth of these companies has rarely been addressed. The present research helps to expand literature related to the role of HRM in the growth of startups by considering the different perspectives of startups' entrepreneurs and employees.
    Keywords: Human resource management missions; Human resource management practices; Growth of startups.

  • COVID-19 Pandemic and Behaviour of Indian Consumers: A sustainable transition   Order a copy of this article
    by Mosab I. Tabash 
    Abstract: In this paper, we offer some preliminary examinations of how COVID-19 pandemic affects Indian consumers behaviour. In this paper, data is collected from various Indian consumers from different cities. 300 consumers are randomly selected to fill the questionnaire. (76 responses are from a semi-urban city in Uttar Pradesh, Aligarh, 70 were from Delhi/NCR, 100 were from Hyderabad and 54 were from Bangalore). We argue that COVID-19 pandemic offers great opportunities for businesses. We also discuss some potential directions of how consumer sustainable decision making has been shifted due to this pandemic. The results show that Indian consumers interests have been shifted towards online retailing, online payments, sustainable food habits, and a sustainable lifestyle. This study will help the businesses as well the academicians in determining what consumers are preferring during this COVID-19 pandemic. This is the first study conducted in India that addressed the consumers behaviours at the best knowledge of the authors.
    Keywords: COVID 19; Consumer Behaviour; Online Retailing; Online payments; Indian markets; Sustainable Lifestyle; Sustainable Buying Habits; Sustainable food habits.

  • Sustainable Development through CSR Practices in the area of Community Services: Evidence from Select Indian Public and Private Manufacturing Firms   Order a copy of this article
    by Vimal Srivastava, Rahul Dhiman 
    Abstract: It is pertinent to see how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), social initiative of the Government is being undertaken by the public and private sector companies to ensure sustainable development of an enterprise. Considering the importance of CSR, this paper is an attempt to examine how CSR practices in the area of community services are being conducted by various public and private manufacturing firms. Also, this paper highlights stakeholders? perceptions and involvement in CSR projects. The findings of this study reveal that CSR has itself become a business strategy which is closely aligned to the core objectives of the companies. Also, with the increase in awareness about CSR, this has become more prominent. The data reveals that according to policymakers of private sector entities, majority of the investment in the community is oriented towards sports among the nearby community people and socio-cultural development in the surrounding areas. However, the activities of private firms are focussed towards training programmes such as computer training, tailoring, making paper bags. It is recommended that since CSR activities also improves goodwill of the company so conducting regular CSR activities may also help in the sustainable development of the selected firms.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; stakeholders’ perceptions; sustainable development.

  • Attitude towards green manufacturing by Indian SMEs: A factor Analysis Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Utkal Khandelwal, Trilok Pratap Singh 
    Abstract: Increasing environmental consciousness led to the demand for green products by consumers. This dynamic is now shifting the trend from conventional manufacturing to green manufacturing practices. The paper aims to find out the various factors measuring attitude towards green manufacturing practices by Indian SMEs. For this, the survey form was used, and data were collected online and offline. In the study of standard factors, a critical factor analysis approach can help and clarify the factors that underlie attitudes towards green manufacturing practices. It is found that factors affecting attitude towards green manufacturing practices by Indian SMEs are energy management, water conservation, green actions, waste management, and government initiatives and support. The results of this study provide valuable insights into green production in Indian SMEs for performance measures. The results metrics presented in this study help decision-makers assess their organization's awareness and significance of the green production activities.
    Keywords: Green Manufacturing; SMEs; Environmental Concern; Energy Management; Water Conservation; Environmental Consciousness; Waste Management; Government Initiatives.

  • Sanitary napkin manufacturing units: creating entrepreneurial opportunities for rural females   Order a copy of this article
    by Umesh Shrivastava, Satya Ranjan Acharya 
    Abstract: Menstruation is a taboo which haunts rural females of low-income countries of the world even today. It is more painful when there are misconceptions and myths encompassing it with a perception of what to wear and how to conduct during that period. Rural females have been using rags and unhygienic clothes (repeatedly) for ages and as a result of this have encountered many reproductive tract infections and other diseases. Sanitary napkin has not been the first choice of rural females in spite of its proven advantages. This paper focuses on an entrepreneurial solution to a daunting problem of non-usage of sanitary napkins among rural females of developing countries and the reason behind it. It encompasses an action research to understand if there can be a viable entrepreneurial opportunity amidst a taboo of menstruation. To understand the reason for non-usage of sanitary napkins, the research draws on literature to identify independent variables which are: accessibility, affordability and awareness. A sample of 500 rural females was taken in two days. Data was collected through administered questionnaire and was nominal in nature. Chi square and pseudo R-square tests were applied to the data and accessibility had a significant loading on the dependent variable. The finding has implication on rural business development through entrepreneurial opportunity recognition.
    Keywords: Sanitary Napkins; rural business; opportunity recognition; Accessibility; Affordability; Awareness; Menstrual; Hygiene; Entrepreneurial; rural females.

  • Exploration of factors contributing towards livelihood security among fisher women (A study sponsored by ICSSR- IMPRESS, New Delhi)   Order a copy of this article
    by Preethi Keerthi Dsouza 
    Abstract: Women have historically been taking care of their families and have given major contributors to the livelihood securities of their households. It is observed that fisherwomen have been instrumental in giving livelihood security to their families and themselves. In the study, the factors contributing to livelihood security are analyzed. This study is conducted among fisherwomen of the two taluks in the state of Karnataka, in India. The explorations of the factors are done with the aid of factor analysis. The study finds that majority of fisherwomen were content with their role in providing food, clothing, shelter, and education to their family members. However, the facets wherein they were not happy are on saving and the low involvement of the men of the household to support them economically. In the study, five factors were explored that contribute to livelihood security among the respondents.
    Keywords: Livelihood Security; Factors; Fisherwomen; Health; Women; Coastal region; Fisheries.

  • The impact of SMEs on Kuwait's economic sustainable economic growth: What do Pearson correlation coefficients confirm?   Order a copy of this article
    by Fayez Abdulsalam, Mohammad Zainal 
    Abstract: Several studies confirm that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an important role in developing the countries' economies in terms of increasing the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), creating new jobs and decreasing unemployment, and increasing the goods' export, and reducing the poverty. This paper provides a picture of Kuwaiti SMEs and their impact on sustainable economic development. In terms of methodology, secondary data are used for the purposes of this study. These data are taken from the State Statistical Office of Kuwait for the period 2012-2019. The study involves data for macroeconomic indicators and SMEs indicators. As a statistical tool for data analysis is used the SPSS software. Findings show that the development of SME has no significant impact on Kuwait's economic growth for the analysed period, which opens many questions and opportunities for the Kuwaiti Government with regards to their policies about SMEs support and development.
    Keywords: SMEs; GDP; Pearson correlation; multiple linear regression; indicators; development; growth; Kuwait.

  • The innovative potential of SMES in Kazakhstan in the course of entrepreneurial online education   Order a copy of this article
    by Almira Kulmaganbetova, Ziyat Kozhakhmetov, Elvira Tlessova, Bota Sharapayeva, Assel Baimbetova, Kasiya Kirdasinova, Katira Mamutova 
    Abstract: The increasing role of the innovative potential of small and medium-sized businesses is due to constant changes in the field of entrepreneurial and innovative education and the formation of a strategy to ensure the innovative attractiveness of the state. The purpose of the study is to assess the innovative attractiveness of small and medium-sized businesses and establish partnerships with the education system. The article presents a comparative study of students of business specialties whose training methods include or do not include web-based learning methods. The paper results show a significant increase in the innovative potential of entrepreneurs who have received online training and their greater willingness to create independent small or medium-sized businesses (SMEs) and introduce innovations in business. Positive changes are noted in students of all specialties in all participating universities, which makes the data more generalized.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial university; innovative education; assessment; innovative potential; small and medium-sized enterprises; expert assessment; component assessment.

  • How can we teach young consumers to become entrepreneurs? Application of specific instruments   Order a copy of this article
    by Theodore Tarnanidis, Jason Papathanasiou, Demetres Subeniotis 
    Abstract: One of the prime objectives of entrepreneurship education is to help individuals acquire all the necessary knowledge and skills, in order to create sustainable commercial enterprise ventures. The literature suggests that the teaching of relevant courses and seminars on entrepreneurship increases peoples current and future entrepreneurial perceptions and attitudes. However, in many studies across different study domains, it was reported a variation in the educational assessment of entrepreneurship in terms of producing practically applicable programmes that provide economic and social developments. Thus, the contributions of our study are to provide a robust tool of a measurement for entrepreneurship education in the Greek context by helping graduates acquire the necessary entrepreneurial skills. Having that purpose in mind, in this research, we collected data from business administration students at the University of Macedonia and applied the Ajzens theory of planned behaviour. We found that the teaching of entrepreneurship positively impacts on the three latent variables of the students' entrepreneurial intentions inventory. Further, it was reported that entrepreneurship courses/seminars acts positively to the students decision to become entrepreneurs. What is more, based on their beliefs the optimal duration of entrepreneurship courses will be two curriculum semesters. On the other, the existing courses offered to them fail to direct the following entrepreneurial capacities (opportunity recognition, develop new products/patents/services, etc.). Based on the gender distribution, we identified that females have strong intention to start a firm after their graduation. Their skills will be improved through the acquisition of knowledge from the teaching of entrepreneurship. Thus, policy makers and academics in Greece should try to expand the horizons of the existing entrepreneurial modules, through the creation bachelors and masters degrees in entrepreneurship only. Also, pre-entrepreneurship education, when the youngs are in the age of adolescence (high school level) will help them to acquire more easily the tacit knowledge and necessary skills for the creation of startups.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurial education; entrepreneurial intentions; theory of planned behaviour; gender effects; Greece.

  • Exploring the case of ISO 26000 Social Responsibility Standard as a pathway to a sustainable maritime industry   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: United Nations 2030 Agenda, and incorporated 17 Sustainable Development Goals, aimed at establishing a universal framework in which organizations committed to balance, in practice, their environmental, social and economic challenges and objectives for the benefit of humanity. Accordingly, a profound policy and strategy has already been in place by the International Maritime Organization to ensure the contribution of the maritime transportation system to latest sustainability venture. In search of pathways to facilitate the implementation of global sustainability mandates in shipping, corporate social responsibility has been growingly considered as an appropriate business management model. However, the absence of a statutory social responsibility framework in shipping calls for practical solutions on how maritime organizations can contribute to global sustainable development. Employing a case study strategy and content analysis method this study seeks to explore the contributory role of corporate social responsibility, as envisioned by ISO 26000 guidelines, to the achievement of sustainable shipping operations. Results indicated ISO 26000 as an effective tool that serves maritime leaders in ensuring a sustainable pathway for their organization. In fact, implementation of ISO26000 guidelines in ship management models can turn out to be a proper guide and compass in redefining an organizations sustainable character through the establishment of a socially responsible corporate governance framework.
    Keywords: sustainable shipping; ISO26000 Standard; corporate social responsibility; United Nations 2030 Agenda; SDGs.

  • Workplace Spirituality and Organisational Commitment across Indian Edupreneurs: Examining the Mediating Role of Job Engagement and Organisation Engagement   Order a copy of this article
    by Alka Swami, Rajni , Pragati Hemrajani 
    Abstract: The purpose of the study is to add to the extant literature by focusing on edupreneurs exploring the possible relationships between Workplace Spirituality (WPS), Employee Engagement (EE) and Organisational Commitment (OC). In particular, the parallel mediating effect of Job Engagement (JE) and Organisation Engagement (OE) is discussed. A conceptual framework followed by survey method was embraced and data from 333 faculties employed in different universities/colleges of Rajasthan were collected. The results suggest a significant indirect relationship between WPS and OC Furthermore, JE and OE completely mediate the relationship between WPS and OC. It is fair to conclude, based on the results, that WPS is a critical element in enhancing the commitment level of edupreneurs.
    Keywords: Edupreneurs; Workplace spirituality; Job Engagement; Organisational Engagement; Organisational Commitment.

  • Slums and Entrepreneurship as an Impact of Urban Poverty and Social Exclusion in Dhaka, Bangladesh   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Rapid urbanisation encourages rural poor to migrate into urban areas in search of better economic and living condition. In Bangladesh, alike other developing countries, these migrated people often suffer from urban poverty and social exclusion; unequal wealth and income distribution, lack or low level of entrepreneurial opportunities due to socio-economic and religious forces etc. make them marginalised urban poor. Slums, the physical manifestation of poverty and exclusions, provide shelter to this large urban poor labour force. A knowledge gap exists in Dhakas slum discourse regarding the impact of these inter-linked phenomena. The study investigates Dhakas three slum communities to understand livelihood development constraints lacking entrepreneurial prospects resulting from the vicious cycle of urban poverty and social exclusion. Empirical investigation and literature review reveal, prevailing inadequate physical environment, suppressed socio-economic or cultural capitals hinder entrepreneurial activities. Findings may facilitate future research on entrepreneurship in urban slums to reduce such social inequality.
    Keywords: Slums; Entrepreneurship; Urban Poverty; Social Exclusion; Marginalisation; Dhaka.

  • Do social and professional relations matter when firms make decisions on export destinations? The Italian case of the Montefalco wine cluster.   Order a copy of this article
    by Amir Maghssudipour, Francesco Capone, Niccolò Innocenti, Luciana Lazzeretti 
    Abstract: A wide literature on economics and management analyses the determinants of firms decisions on export. However, few contributions investigated the role knowledge flows across firms co-localised within clusters play on decisions about export destinations. This paper investigates the link between multiple network relationships across firms and their decisions about countries of export destination. The analysis is based on data collected through interviews and the administration of a questionnaire to 41 wineries in the Montefalco wine cluster, Italy and data are examined using Social Network Analysis and Exponential Random Graph Models. Results show that the friendship network, the professional network, and similarity in terms of size and experience are relevant drivers of firms decisions about where to export. The work suggests novel insights on research on export, on clusters of co-located firms, and on the wine industry.
    Keywords: Export; Wine industry; Network; Cluster; ERGM; Italy.

  • Entrepreneurial Firms and their sustainability in a VUCA World   Order a copy of this article
    by Meenakshi Gandhi, Manoj Joshi 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship is a central theme of discussion, with entrepreneur coined by Jean-Baptiste, implying one who undertook a new venture. This field has its genesis from the field of economics, sociology and economic history, agglomerating as an interplay between wealth creation, resource optimisation and economic development. It is interesting to posit do all entrepreneurial firms survive in a volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous (VUCA) world with a discussion on their sustainability? We identified select papers published between 2000-2019 and entrepreneurial firms incepted between 2000-2015 but reeling under VUCA, deploying qualitative method for examining various dimensions of VUCA. We undertook a typical case of iTiffin, incepted in 2013. iTiffin has struggled to capitalise the market in VUCA times, undergoing sustainability perspectives. Similarly, start-ups posed with vulnerability often fail to steer the rough waters of the VUCA environment. We triangulated, reducing biases and concretised evidence to address the subject
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Enterprise; Entrepreneur; Entrepreneurial firm; survival; sustainability; VUCA; iTiffin.

  • Sustainable supply chain management in the food industry: a case study of enablers and inhibitors from Greek small enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Theofilos Mastos, Katerina Gotzamani 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify the enablers and inhibitors of sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) in small food enterprises. While the focus of most studies is on specific sustainability dimensions and on single companies, this study evaluates each factor in terms of environmental, economic and social sustainability across a supply chain. The analysis followed in this research includes a case study of 8 small enterprises across a Greek meat supply chain.15 enablers and 19 inhibitors are identified as key factors and classified into firm level, supply chain level and external level. Some of the most important enablers include the adoption of health, safety and quality standards, supplier trust and external support. The lack of commitment by the top management and the suppliers, and the economic uncertainty are identified as some of the key inhibitors. The end result proposes a conceptual framework based on a set of propositions that show how food small enterprises are enabled and inhibited towards the implementation of SSCM across a supply chain. In addition to identifying and categorising the various enabling and inhibiting factors, the proposed framework contributes to a better understanding of SSCM in small enterprises, by portraying the required attention that needs to be given in specific critical areas.
    Keywords: Sustainable supply chain management (SSCM); enablers; inhibitors; small enterprises; food industry; Greece.

  • The Journey of a Hero and Sustainable Development   Order a copy of this article
    by Monomita Nandy, Britain Stelly, John McCarroll, Suman Lodh 
    Abstract: In this paper, we propose a sustainable lifestyle process for the economic agent that will lead to sustainable growth of the economy. A lack of fit between a person and their environment influences an individual to distinguish between human and non-human elements of the planet. We therefore propose that a distinction between economic agent and the planetary boundaries delays the process of achieving sustainable goals. Based on the academic literature and extensive experience of the authors, in this paper we develop the three stage Heros Journey model that with application will reduce the resistance to change by the individual, support businesses of any size and the policy makers to achieve goals for sustainability for the country in the near future. The findings of the study will contribute to the academic literature related to training, sustainability, psychology, well being and corporate finance.
    Keywords: Training Sustainable Development; P-E Fit model; Courage; Actor Network theory; Planetary boundaries; Resilience.

  • The Impact of Relocation or Short-Term Business Travels on the Spouses Sense of Sacrificing   Order a copy of this article
    by Hana Ornoy 
    Abstract: International business travels (whether relocation, or frequent travels) demand sacrificing not only from the expatriate but also from his/her escorting spouse. We sampled 70 couples, to test our hypothesis whether the escorting spouse in relocation assignments would sense a higher level of sacrifice, compared with those who on short frequent business travels. Results reveal that both spouses sense a feeling of sacrifice, however expatriate spouse, endure a wider-range of difficulties, which affect their entire spheres of life, such as: adapting to a new culture, and sacrificing their own career life. A particular intriguing finding reveals that expatriates believe their spouses sacrificed more than they did. The implications of the study may apply to organizations who assign their employees to international assignments. Most tend to invest resources in the expatriate him/herself who is sent for the assignment, yet very little is invested in their spouses, as well as the family.
    Keywords: business travels; relocation; sacrificial sense; escorting spouses.

  • Corporate Social Responsibility of Small Business Entrepreneurs: A Critical Review of Stakeholders Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Vimal Srivastava, Aakanksha Uppal, Rahul Dhiman 
    Abstract: This paper has two purposes i) to access how small businesses entrepreneurs are involved in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and ii) to assess the knowledge and information which may be of help in understanding the current thinking and findings on the different aspect of CSR. This paper also takes into account perceptions of various stakeholders of small business enterprises. The findings of this paper reveal that entrepreneurs engaged in small business are still to find a way to move further in CSR. CSR practices of small business entrepreneurs in various nations differed in the managerial exercises. It is found that that there is more CSR doings in Northern as compared to Southern Europe. The study recommends that small businesses have to understand that CSR actions can correspond to public relations approach, predominantly in the present market surroundings in which stakeholders might have strong concern for the welfare of the society.
    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Small Business; Entrepreneurship; Stakeholder.

Special Issue on: Constraints to SMEs’ Growth and Sustainability

  • Linkage between Psychological Variable of Entrepreneur and Business Performance - An Empirical Study in Delhi & NCR with Special Reference to SMEs   Order a copy of this article
    by Gurinder Singh, Vikas Garg, Pooja Tiwari 
    Abstract: The emphasis of this paper is to understand and explore the different factors related to the traits that are internal and analysing its impact on the performance of the SMEs in Delhi & NCR. This paper aims at exploring the linkage between traits of the individual with the performance of their firm and understanding how they manage their business. This paper employs a mixed-method to collect the data from different target respondents. Data is collected with the help of a survey, i.e. questionnaire. Data has been collected with the help of convenience sampling. For the survey, entrepreneurs were selected who have their SMEs and are running successfully for the last ten years. 86 SMEs were selected to survey the area of Delhi & NCR. To analyse the data factor analysis and correlation method were used. The results of the study have indicated the strong positive association between the psychological traits of the individual and the performance of the business. Also, it indicated the level of contribution of each trait towards business success. Findings of the study it can be implied that the result of the study will surely benefit from understanding the different factors and competencies having a significant impact on the performance of the business and its survival in the market.
    Keywords: SMEs; Entrepreneurship; Psychological Variables; Business Performance.

  • Digital marketing modelling: a sustainable competitive advantage for SMEs   Order a copy of this article
    by Jugal Kishor 
    Abstract: The central aim of this study is to identify forms of digital marketing enhancing SMEs productivity, along with to recommend an action to optimise the productivity of SMEs. This study was centrally steered using survey questionnaire and complemented with relevant literature review. The proposed hypothesised model recommends that four forms of digital marketing viz social media marketing, search engine marketing, content marketing, and e-mail marketing positively affect SMEs productivity. The examination in this research depicts that SMEs productivity encouraged when employing forms of digital marketing due to its cost-effectiveness, acceptability, and availability. The research methodology adopted, and strategies derived in this study may give direction to social scientists to conduct a comparative study in other nations.
    Keywords: Digital marketing; e-mail marketing; SMEs; search engine marketing; social media marketing; entrepreneurship; content marketing.

  • Financial literacy: An imperative approach for SMEs growth   Order a copy of this article
    by Swati Sharma 
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between financial literacy, firm's growth, and access to finance among small and medium enterprises (SMEs) within Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. This study tries to find out whether financial literacy affects a firm's access to finance and growth. To get an insight of the relationship, quantitative research was carried out among 41 SMEs of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. The findings from the study are based on quantitative data collected through the use of semi-structured questionnaires. Findings reveal a positive correlation among the variables i.e. financial literacy, access to finance and firm's growth. Both financial literacy and access to finance have a substantial impact on firms' growth. This study contributes to the existing literature by justifying the role of financial literacy in the strategic decision-making process. Financial literacy not only enables the entrepreneur in decision making but also helps SMEs to develop economies. Furthermore, as SMEs play a key role in developing countries, it becomes imperative for the entrepreneurs to be sound in financial decision making which also affects the performance of the firm.
    Keywords: SMEs; Financial Literacy; Economic Growth; Access to Finance; entrepreneurship.

  • Gender, Technology, and Innovation: The Role of Women in Indian Micro Small and Medium Enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by ANURAG SINGH, Ujjwal Das, Sharad Kumar 
    Abstract: Innovation is the buzzword for all-round socio-economic development of nations, globally. It is considered as a method to increase productivity, processes new products, or services, playing a major role in socioeconomic change. Innovation becomes a tool for solving societal problems and economic development. It has also been seen as a process of qualitative change taking place in historical times. However, in innovation literature, the role of women in innovation received not much attention as its deserved to be credited in academic and practice research. Innovation-based research and practices have not focused on gender differences. The role of women in innovation activities cannot be ignored. In this article, we present the role of women in selected Indian innovative Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) and the barriers they are facing. On the basis of our findings and literature, we also put forth several policy recommendations, to promote and encourage women entrepreneurship in India, viz. Government support towards access to finance, training, and encouragement for innovation at educational and organizational levels.
    Keywords: Gender and Technology; Gender and Innovation; MSME; Women; Patents; India.

Special Issue on: ICSSB-2019 Innovation in Markets and Its Capitalisation in the Digital Scenario

    by Ratinder Kaur, Jiwanjot Kaur Hira 
    Abstract: India is emerging as one of the leader in the medical tourism market and is also making its mark in the field of dental tourism- which is often regarded as a cousin to medical tourism. This paper makes the use of qualitative research, where a phenomenological approach was followed with an objective of studying the perceptions of Indian dental practitioners with regard to dental tourism in India. The data was collected by conducting semi- structured interviews with six Indian dentists practicing privately which were chosen by using purposive and snowball sampling. The interviews were then analysed using the Atlas.ti software which uncovered various themes like behavior of dental tourists, benefits of dental tourism, ethical issues, and initiatives needed for the progress of dental tourism. The research has also given an array of suggestions which can benefit multiple stakeholders like hospitals, corporates, government and dental practitioners that are involved in dental tourism market.
    Keywords: Medical tourism; dental tourism; medical tourism in India; dental tourism in India; dental practitioners; dentists; qualitative research; phenomenology; phenomenological approach; Atlas.ti; thematic analysis.

  • A Hybrid Ensemble Machine Learning Model to Predict Success of Bollywood Movie   Order a copy of this article
    by Garima Verma, Hemraj Verma, Sushil Dixit 
    Abstract: The Bollywood is a multi-billion industry. Hundreds of movie are released everyrnyear, where each movie is an investment of multi crores. It becomes a need asrnwell as a huge concern of the director, producer and all stakeholders involvedrnin a particular movie to know the chances of the success of a movie on the boxrnoffice before its release. To address this concern, a hybrid ensemble machine learning model has been proposed. The model uses dataset collected from various sources such as- Boxofficeindia, cinemalytics, youtube etc. The model performed preprocessing on data set, which included handling of missing values with mean, cleaning of data, and removal of text values. The feature engineering has been done in the model to create a new feature called act_direct to make model more robust. The effectiveness of model has been tested in terms of accuracy and AUC-ROC curve. From the experimental results it is evident that the proposed model ensures relatively better accuracy compared to some recent state-of-art models.
    Keywords: Bollywood; Ensemble; Machine Learning; Feature Engineering.

  • Entrepreneurship boost: predicated factors based study in digital era   Order a copy of this article
    by Rakhi Arora, Kirti Jainani 
    Abstract: Indian economy is the reflection of education and employment opportunities. Educated youth in India depends upon public/private sector jobs availability. A study reveals that millions of Indians are joining the labour force every year due to fewer employment opportunities. This gap can be minimised by identifying major factors leading to more entrepreneurial ventures, which is the scope of this study. The Government of India has also taken initiatives like Make in India, Atal Innovation Mission, Digital India, Start-Up India, StandUp India, and National Skill Development Mission to support innovation and entrepreneurship in India. Today, entrepreneurial skills alone are not sufficient to run start-ups efficiently; some creativity needs to be added for added value. This study is an attempt to develop a framework for predicated entrepreneurial factors driving an individual for start-ups. In this study, various published articles were reviewed to identify critical factors and develop a casual framework. ISM Modelling and MICMAC analysis were used to establish a relationship between all critical factors and validate the framework respectively.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; employment; digital era; start-ups; innovation; factors; entrepreneurial ventures and skills; entrepreneurial intention; entrepreneurship dependent factors; entrepreneurial traits.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2020.10034579
  • The role of leadership in organisational climate, job satisfaction and turnover intention among middle level employees in Indian telecom industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Vishal Choudhary, Nusrat Khan 
    Abstract: Leadership seeks to create a climate that enables smooth functioning of different operations and fosters innovation in organisation. It is important for an organisation to promote effective leadership in order to enhance productivity and performance of its employees. An effective leader is one who creates a conducive organisational climate to ensure job satisfaction among employees. The present research intended to study the impact of the leadership on job satisfaction, organisational climate and turnover intention in telecom industry of India. For this purpose, the researcher undertook a primary study consisting of the survey method on 356 employees of the chosen telecom companies in Uttar Pradesh region of India. The study concludes that there is significant impact of the leadership on job satisfaction, organisational climate and turnover intention in telecom industry of India.
    Keywords: Leadership; organisational climate; job satisfaction; turnover intention; telecom industry; competition.

  • Effects of T&D Practices on job satisfaction: A study of foreign collaborates operating in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Tanvi Rana, Subhash C. Kundu 
    Abstract: This study is aimed to examine the impact of training and development practices on employee job satisfaction in Indian companies and foreign collaborates from US, Europe, Japan, China and South Korea, operating in India. The data were collected through survey method from 762 respondents of 282 foreign collaborates and analysed by applying means, standard deviations, Cronbach alpha values and multiple regression. To test the validity and reliability of the data, factor analyses (exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses) were also applied. The results of the study revealed a positive and significant impact of training and development practices on job satisfaction in Indian companies as well as in foreign collaborates from US, Europe, Japan and South Korea. However, no significant relationship was found in the case of China. Important practical suggestions were given to HR managers, organisations and policy makers for building job satisfaction among the employees with the help of training and development practices.
    Keywords: Training and development; job satisfaction; foreign collaborates; National culture; HRM practices; comparative HRM; China; Korea; Japan; India.

  • From verbal abuse to intention to leave: role of engagement and emotional exhaustion   Order a copy of this article
    by Lata Bajpai Singh, Anubha Vashisht 
    Abstract: This study aims to test a model explaining the process of verbal abuse causing emotional exhaustion, poor engagement, and increased intention to leave among the employees of service industry. This cross-sectional study includes the responses from 282 employees, responsible for customer service. During the study, confirmatory factor analysis was done to ensure the reliability and validity of five constructs, namely customer verbal abuse, supervisory verbal abuse, emotional exhaustion, engagement, and intention to leave. Then after related hypotheses were tested using structural equation modelling. The study concludes that both verbal cases of abuse lead to emotional exhaustion, which further reduces engagement level. The poor engagement causes high intention to leave among the employees. It was also found that customer verbal abuse is more responsible for poor engagement, whereas the supervisory verbal abuse is for intention to leave. The limitations of cross-sectional data and common method bias provided directions for future research.
    Keywords: customer verbal abuse; supervisory verbal abuse; emotional exhaustion; engagement; intention to leave; service sector organisations.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2021.10033723
  • Investigating the role of reinforcement and environmental factors in balancing the state of apprehension: Evidence from India   Order a copy of this article
    by Bijay Kushwaha, Vikas Tyagi, Atul Shiva 
    Abstract: State of apprehension is a post-purchase evaluation which creates regret, anxiety and unpleasant feeling in the mind of customers popularly known as cognitive dissonance. It is the responsibility of marketers to reduce intensity of apprehension experienced by consumer. This study measures the role of reinforcement factors, environment factors and state of apprehension towards post purchase buying behaviour. It is for this purpose we used a purposive sampling technique and questionnaire as a research instrument to obtain opinion from respondents. A total of 396 usable responses were found appropriate and considered for analysis. A total of 396 respondents were involved during the study and the time period of the study was from December, 2018 to March, 2019. Both SPSS software version 20 and AMOS 18 were employed as tools for analysis in this study.The result of study found that reinforcement factors and environmental factors both are having significant contribution towards balancing the intensity of apprehension experience by consumers in post purchase evaluation stage. The after sales service, positive word of mouth and improvement on product performance have greater impact on balancing the state of apprehension. The forces such as feedback calls, extended guarantee/warrantee, and users reviews are also helpful in improving the post purchase behaviour primarily led by brand image & reputation, consultant groups, and authentic sources of information to the consumer of high-end electronics household products.
    Keywords: Post purchase behaviour; Cognitive Dissonance; Reinforcement factors; Environment factors; State of Apprehension.

  • Impact of HRM Practices on Organizational Commitment: Evidence from School Educators in Indian Context   Order a copy of this article
    by PRATIBHA , Atul Shiva, Rupali Arora 
    Abstract: The study measures the impact of selected HRM practices on organisational commitment among educators based in Northern region of India. An online questionnaire was designed which was duly answered by 428 respondents of Northern India by applying Partial least squares Structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) version 2.0. The study revealed that educators gave highest preference to compensation and rewards (?= 0.409, p<0.000) followed by performance appraisal (?= 0.388, p<0.000) for towards their organisational commitment levels and are not concerned by HR practices of employment security, training and development and recruitment and selection. The paper presents a very important insight for the administrators and HR experts in educational organisations to redefine their HR strategies so that higher levels of organisational commitment is achieved. The paper proposes a critical dimension of educators working in school education level in Indian context and depicts reality of Indian education system based in the Northern region.
    Keywords: Human Resource Practices; Organizational Commitment; Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling; India.

  • The Effect of Ethical Climate on Corporate Reputation for Sustainability of Indian Banking   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashita Chadha, Ritu Sharma, Radha Yadav 
    Abstract: Financial Institutions should be founded on fundamentals of ethical code and values that drive core business practices essential for their sustainable development. The study evaluates the ethical climate and its impact on corporate reputation of two largest banks of India State Bank of India i.e., a public sector bank and ICICI Bank i.e. a private sector bank through an ethical climate and corporate reputation questionnaire. A descriptive design used empirical research to investigate the ethical climate through a sample size of 250 employees from both banks in the tri-city region of Chandigarh. The study provides a comparison on the ethics climate in the public and private sector bank and assists to find some common factors that affect the reputation of banks that is essential for sustainable growth.
    Keywords: ethics climate; financial institutions; corporate reputation; banking sector; ethics for sustainability.

  • Employee Happiness, Engagement and Organisational Commitment: A Literature Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Arijit Choudhury, Anirban Dutta, Sonit Dutta 
    Abstract: In contemporary business scenario, employee happiness and engagement have become the highlighted area of interest. These constructs taken together have the ability to makes an impact in the organisational commitment leading to enhanced performance of the employees which in turn leads to organisational success. The present paper attempts to compile the literatures related to employee happiness, engagement and commitment. It also aims to identify relevant factors affecting these constructs, and tries to establish a linkage among them. All the works of literature are organised and categorised into three different groups namely employee happiness, engagement and organisational commitment and have been portrayed in a tabular format. A theoretical model based on these literatures has been developed to consolidate the linkage between employee happiness, engagement and organisational commitment. The model depicts that there is an important relationship between happiness, engagement and commitment. Finally, it can be concluded that employee happiness and engagement can predict organisational commitment in employees.
    Keywords: employee happiness; engagement; organisational commitment; literature review.

  • Role of the Service Value Network in Social Transformation   Order a copy of this article
    by Yupal Shukla, Mithilesh Pandey 
    Abstract: The present study seeks to develop the current understanding of service value network literature by adding new insight into resource exchange in-network relationships for social transformation. The purpose of this study is to explore how network participants exchange value towards the transformation of society rather than contribute solely for individual benefit. The study uses a qualitative approach and the depth interview method has been used to obtain the opinion of network members in a service value network. The study found that dairy farmers feel empowered as part of the co-producing group and this strengthens their trust in the service value network. Cooperation among the members of village dairy cooperatives aids them in information sharing in the field of milk production and provides exposure to new technology in milk production. Milk unions contribute to the service value network through co-marketing of milk. Consumers play a role in service value networks and make their impact through social consumption. It can help various entrepreneurial groups to form Service Value Networks(SVNs) and help in promoting the well-being of society. The study has discussed the concept of co-production, cooperation and co-marketing which can help the organizations by aggregation, assemblage, and distribution of value to their customers. The study contributes to the social marketing theory through its in-depth study of the service value network model. The study has established a relation between the service value network and social transformation with social capital formation as a moderating variable. The model can be helpful social entrepreneurs to understand the micro aspects of service value networks and create new business models based upon it.
    Keywords: Social Value Network; Social Capital; Social Transformation; Value Creation.

    by Rajni Bala, Sandeep Singh 
    Abstract: From the past decade concept of sustainable development must be seen as one of the big tales of India. Degradation of the environment has always been a point of worry not only for India but almost from all over the world. Unless ecological issues are not solved or not taken care; the future generations may find earth worth not living. The present research work has been carried out to analyse the factors affecting the role of government in sustainable growth and eco-development of economy in Punjab state of India. The sample of the study was 300 general masses. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied on the primary data and six factors were confirmed.
    Keywords: sustainable development ; eco-environment ; convergent validity; discriminant validity ; confirmatory factor analysis; perception; scale development; political will; sustainable growth ; eco- development of economy.

  • Impact of SHGs on Social, Economic and Political Women Empowerment: A Case Study of Ghaziabad District, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Shalini Aggarwal, Rudra Rameshwar, Anurag Pahuja 
    Abstract: In India, the SHGs are playing a commendable role in poverty alleviation by reaching out to the poor rural women in particular, which forms the major part of their membership. These groups are determined to eradicate poverty from the country as these are truly active at the grass root level. An effort has been made to survey 388 respondents from four blocks of Ghaziabad district to find the impact of SHGs on the rural women at three unique levels namely social, economical and political. The study also aims at investigating the influence of population factor which could impact the women empowerment category/scheme. As the 388 respondents under reference form a part of SHGs, they have shared the considerable improvements they experienced as individuals relating to economic and social empowerment aspect in particular.
    Keywords: Self Help Groups; Women Empowerment; Social Culture; Economic Environment.

    by Sahiba Sharma, Kavita Singh, Vikas Arya 
    Abstract: Biotechnology sector, a sunrise sector in India has now 2% global market share. The much needed push to the bioentrepreneurs in India has been given by Indian government recent initiatives. However, top management teams have been ignorant of the consequences of promoting scientists as managers with no managerial skills or of handling the human resource (HR) responsibilities to administrative or finance officer. The organizations have been moving on the path of encouraging a negative organizational culture that leads to the technically sound workforce with people management issues. Hence, the industry is facing low innovation and high employee turnover challenges. This study reviews and addresses the role of strategic human resource management in biotechnology companies by taking a dig in the existing common business models and discuss strategic HR role. The article sheds light on the importance of HR function in the changing biotech business scenario.
    Keywords: Strategic human resource management; Biotechnology companies; science based firms; HR; biotech business models; top management teams; turnover; innovation; bioentreprenuers.

  • Performance Evaluation of Public and Private Sector Banks   Order a copy of this article
    by Pawan Kumar, Ajay Khurana, Sunil Sharma 
    Abstract: Abstract: This paper is attempt to analyze how domestic banks performed during the fiscal year (2015-18) that go through issues affecting the sector, in general, while also explaining how the future of banking performances. The study included performances of 19 publicly listed state owned banks and SBI associate banks. In this paper performances of all the listed private sector banks have also been covered. Banks have since existence playing vital role in channelize of savings into productive purpose. As intermediaries, banks facilitating the flow of savings into investment for industrialization of economy. But over the years the significance of banks undergone with changes in their functions like financial services. Now banks are not limited with accepting of deposits and disbursement of loans and advances.\r\n
    Keywords: Keywords: CASA-Current account and saving account; PSB-Public Sector Banks; CAR-Capita adequacy Ratio; RWA- Risk weighted assets; NPA-Non Performing assets; ROA-Return on Assets; IBA-Indian banking association.s.

  • Exploring Workplace Expectations: An Empirical Study on Millennials of India   Order a copy of this article
    by Karuna Prakash, Prakash Tiwari, Vijay Jain 
    Abstract: As we look ahead into the future, we see an abundance of young professionals entering into the labour market. Literature suggests that different generations at the workplace differ in their values, attitudes, behaviours and ways of working. Managers find it difficult to set equilibrium among the generations at the workplace and the reason is the lack of understanding of the Millennial behaviour and expectations they have from the workplace. This paper looks deeper into the various attributes and features that Millennials expect from the workplace. Focus group interviews were initially conducted to identify the attributes that Millennials expect from the workplace. A questionnaire was then formulated and circulated to collect the responses. The results have shown that the millennial generation finds it extremely important that the workplace where they are employed must provide them with opportunities for growth and development also comprise occasions to develop their leadership skills.
    Keywords: Millennials; Expectations; Workplace; Organizational attributes; Generations; India.

Special Issue on: ICKSSD2019 Sustainable Consumption, Public Policy and Corporate Interventions

  • Adoption of sustainable business practices by entrepreneurs: modelling the drivers   Order a copy of this article
    by Shilpa Sindhu, Shweta Dahiya, Parveen Siwach, Anupama Panghal 
    Abstract: Sustainability in business involves all such processes which take into consideration immediate economic gains for the organisation as well as resource-saving for future generations. Entrepreneurs are considered as one of the pioneers in carrying out innovative initiatives in the field of sustainability. This study is an effort towards mapping the drivers for the adoption of sustainable practices by entrepreneurs. Significant variables which drive entrepreneurs to adopt sustainable business practices were identified through literature screening; structured questionnaire based primary data collection and expert opinion. Nine variables were identified, through this three-step approach which were then modelled through interpretive structural modelling (ISM). The proposed ISM model indicates that public funding in promoting sustainable business is the variable which can strategically influence the linkage variables and the dependent variable viz. attitude of entrepreneur. The study, therefore, highlights that public funding, with support of moderating factors, can impact the attitude of entrepreneur towards the adoption of sustainable practices in business.
    Keywords: sustainability; entrepreneurship; sustainable business practices; food entrepreneurship; ISM.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2021.10034632
  • Analysis of Plastic Waste Management in India: Study of Law and Behaviour   Order a copy of this article
    by Aakriti Mathur, Kanwal D.P. Singh 
    Abstract: Ever increasing demand for single-use or disposable plastics has contributed to generation of large amounts of plastic waste. Pollution caused by these single use plastics has become a subject of international debate. This paper discusses and evaluates international and national framework to combat plastic pollution. The methodology adopted in this research paper is empirical by collection of primary data through a questionnaire consisting of 20 questions administered to a random sample of 108 respondents in the age group of 18 67 years, selected from urban population. On the basis of the study of the global practices relating to plastic waste as well as analysis of data, suggestions have been made for improvement of the Indian framework relating to plastic waste.
    Keywords: Sustainable Consumption; Plastic Pollution Awareness; Plastic Consumption Behaviour; Single Use Plastic; Plastic Waste Management; Plastic Waste in India; Plastic Waste Rules.

  • Impact of self-control on financial behaviour and financial wellbeing: empirical evidence from India   Order a copy of this article
    by Kanchan Sehrawat, Ankita Sehrawat, Madhu Vij 
    Abstract: Self-control is often linked to various positive behaviours which are instrumental to overall wellbeing of the individual. Financial wellbeing is an important component of the overall wellbeing which has gained social and political priority over the years. Growing number of bankruptcy cases and financial crises across the globe has raised concerns among the researchers and policy makers about the ability of individuals to take necessary financial decisions. Hence, it becomes important to study the financial wellbeing of individuals as a part of their overall wellbeing. This study aims to examine the relationship between self-control, financial behaviours and financial wellbeing. Online survey responses are analysed using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) to empirically examine this relationship. The results suggest a positive significant impact of self-control on both the endogenous constructs. The results are particularly useful for policy makers and academicians working towards policy formulation and imparting knowledge to help individuals achieve positive financial wellbeing.
    Keywords: Self-control; financial behaviour; financial-wellbeing.

  • A Study of the Socio-Economic Status of Women via Self-help Groups in the Rural Areas of Karnal District in Haryana   Order a copy of this article
    by Pratibha .., Sanjay Bhayana, Neeraj .. 
    Abstract: Self-help groups is an effective and systematic model, which emphasizes the community development of socio-economic status and lifestyle of rural area womens driven by ongoing process of socialization. The SHGs approach has also promotes the entrepreneurial activities among the womens in rural area. The current study was conducted in Karnal district of Haryana. The sample size for this study was 160 SHGs members, which is selected from 40 self-help groups (SHGs). The main objective of this study was to measuring the socio-economic status of SHGs members with references to bank-linkage activities, living conditions and livelihood activities. In present study the maximum participation was showed by newely formed (2014-2017) SHGs, which are working under NRLM and HRLM. The data was analyzed using SPSS 20.0 software. The results of present study have indicated that the SHGs members had improved their lifestyle and uplifts the socio-economic status in the society after joining the SHGs.
    Keywords: Self-help groups; Socio-economic; Rural Development; Women Empowerment; Entrepreneurship.

  • Sustainable Behaviour and Social Media: A study of Centennials Attitudes towards Sustainable Advertising   Order a copy of this article
    by VIVEK AGGARWAL, Prashant Dev Yadav 
    Abstract: Eco-friendliness, recyclable properties, natural ingredients, association with charity or a social cause are the new characteristics of a products that influencing the purchase of consumer products in India. With increase in spending and demand for sustainable products there is need to understand ways to encourage sustainable thought and behavior effectively and social media can be one of them. The purpose of this study is found out the significance of social media and sustainability advertising on the sustainable behaviour of young consumers aged 15 years to 25 years in India. The quantitative data was collected by means of online survey using self-administered structured questionnaires in India. A generalised linear model using structure equation modelling was used to evaluate the responses of 514 undergraduate and graduate students. The results revealed that advertising on social media has a positive influence on the behavioural intention and sustainable behaviour of young consumers. Based on findings, paper provides insights about understanding of sustainability to this population and specific design principles for creating effective social media campaigns such that more sustainable behaviours are palatable to individuals of varying attitudes.
    Keywords: Sustainability; Sustainable advertising; Sustainable behaviour; Corporate responsibility; Social media; Centennials;.

  • Measurement and Reporting of Carbon Footprints: A Step Towards Sustainability   Order a copy of this article
    by Sanjay Kumar Patel, Poonam Kumari 
    Abstract: Industrialization seemed to be the key to a better wealthy life, although it contributes to climate change. Resulting in the stakeholders' behavior drastically tends towards the reduction of carbon emissions released by corporations. Carbon accounting is one of the methods that have been identified to combat the serious issue of environmental externalities. Although various methods exist for the measurement of carbon footprints, till now there is no consensus on its accurate measurement and harmonized reporting in financial statements to identify the noticeable behavior of the corporates towards the environment. The present study explored the theoretical perspective on carbon accounting and its reporting in financial statements by examining the carbon emissions sources, the procedure for measurement, and disclosure as per the stewardship theory for a sustainable future. The findings have practical implications for corporations, accounting standard setters, and policymakers for setting the effective structure of carbon measurement and reporting standards and accountability of corporates regarding noticeable behavior.
    Keywords: Carbon Accounting; Environmental Externalities; Sustainability; Climate Change; Stewardship Theory.

  • Attainment of Sustainable Development Goal of Empowerment of Women through Active Employment: A Study of the Gendered Workspace in Delhi   Order a copy of this article
    by Upma Gautam, Deeksha Bajpai Tewari 
    Abstract: Across countries, in the sphere of economic employment, in contrast to men, women face higher unemployment, informal nature of employment, poverty and instability in employment. Even though in many countries there is an increase in percentage of women holding a university degree, this has not essentially converted into an increase in their participation in labour market both in measure and value of employment. City Petrol pumps are one such gendered workspace, which are highly masculine in its work practices, customer base and approach. They were one of the many proverbial glass ceiling needed to be broken by women. Urban workspaces once inaccessible to women (gender stereotyping) and now increasingly accessed by women plays a crucial role in establishing gender equality and widen the possibilities of economic participation of women. This study is based on the women petrol pump operators in Delhi. The study elaborates ways in which women negotiate their workspace alongside men, the ways in which gender relations are built, sustained and altered in the petrol pumps, strategies adopted, impediments faced by women to regulate themselves in this occupation.
    Keywords: Gender; Masculine; feminine; workspaces; negotiating spaces.

  • An Empirical Study on Channel attributes of Online and Offline channels based on Engel-Kollat-Blackwell(EKB) model   Order a copy of this article
    by Riktesh Srivastava, Jitendra Singh Rathore, Harbhan Singh 
    Abstract: Multi-channel shopping is gaining unprecedented forte over recent years. 86% of shoppers use at least two channels when shopping, which is either one amongst - researching offline and buying offline, researching offline and buying online, researching online and buying offline, or researching online and buying online. It has become essential for both retailer and consumer to identify the relevance of these channels and devise strategies accordingly. The present research studies the significance of multi channels with reference to Indian scenario. We use 5 steps of Engel-Kollat-Blackwell (EKB) model of consumer decision making process to identify the applicability of multichannel using 41 questions comprising of 216 respondents were taken for the study across 6 states of India to identify the relevance of each of the channels using statistical findings and critical values.
    Keywords: Engel-Kollat-Blackwell; problem recognition; product search; alternative evaluation; product purchase.

    by Sidhi Verma, Apoorva Bhatnagar, V.K. Singh 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of environmental knowledge and awareness and openness to experience on green purchase behaviour. The moderation effect on openness to experience was checked on the relationship between environmental knowledge and awareness and green purchase behaviour. The study also tries to predict the mediation effect of need for affiliation on the relationship between openness to experience and green purchase behaviour. The findings suggest that environmental knowledge and awareness and openness to experience positively affect green purchase behaviour. It was also shown by the results that need for affiliation does not mediate the relationship between openness to experience and green purchase behaviour. The study adds to the existing literature by positing the moderation effect of openness to experience on the relationship between environmental knowledge and awareness and green purchase behaviour.
    Keywords: Environmental knowledge and awareness; Openness to experience; Need for affiliation; Green purchase behaviour.

Special Issue on: International Conference on Women Leadership and Empowerment 2020 Women’s Empowerment

  • Gender issues faced by women and its impact on job Satisfaction across sectors   Order a copy of this article
    by Sowmya K.R, Panchanatham N 
    Abstract: Women of present-day work in various organizations across sectors, in various shifts. Women do not hesitate to work on par with men adding value to the economic growth of the country. In such condition women face a lot of issues in workplace not limited to Organizational politics, Stress, Gender discrimination, and turnover intention. The researcher has done this study among working women across sectors to understand if they face any gender issues in specific and the influence of such issue on job satisfaction. Respondents were women working in any organization in any level from whom the researcher could collect data through online method. The data collected was analysed using One-way Anova, Karl Pearsons Correlation and t-test. It was found that women working across sectors perceived gender inequality in comparison to men in workplace.
    Keywords: Job satisfaction; Organisational Politics; Turnover Intention; Gender; Gender Discrimination; Women.

  • Competency as an Enabler for Entrepreneurial Intention among female post graduates   Order a copy of this article
    by Krithika J, Sowmya K.R, Syamala Gouri P 
    Abstract: The role of Entrepreneurship and the growth of a countrys economy is inseparable. Various behavioural theories agree that intention precedes any planned behaviour. One who has a strong entrepreneurial intent becomes an entrepreneur. Ajzens theory of planned behaviour(TPB) is one of the most common psychological theories that predict human behaviour and has been successful in predicting the entrepreneurial intention of the individuals in different countries and various cultural setups. Education institutions play a crucial role in the transformation of a countrys economy as suppliers of potential entrepreneurs. One of the goals of higher education is to instil the entrepreneurial skillsets among the students. Hence the study population is selected as post graduates. Growing economies witness the increase in the number of women entrepreneurs and the governments encourage diversity in the entrepreneurial space by incentivising the women-owned start-ups. Contribution of women in entrepreneurship is inevitable for the economic growth of the country with a sex ratio of 933. Hence female post graduates were selected for the study. The purpose of the research is to study the entrepreneurial intent and competencies among the female post graduates. Does possessing the entrepreneurial competencies has relation with the intent of becoming an entrepreneur? Research model is developed by extending the theory of planned behaviour with entrepreneurial competency as an additional predictor variable. Data collected from 905 female post graduates from South India. Convenient sampling technique was adopted, which is a non-probability sampling method. The data were collected through the research instrument Questionnaire and the collected data were compiled, coded and tabulated accordingly. Correlation technique and multiple linear regression analysis were the tools used to analyse the data. Results revealed that possessing entrepreneurial competency has a positive and significant effect on the entrepreneurial intention. Perceived behavioural control is the other antecedent variable that has positive and significant effect on the intention. Based on the findings, the researchers recommend to organise Entrepreneurial Management Development Programs for the female post graduates and focus on developing the entrepreneurial competencies.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Entrepreneurial Intention; Competency; Women; Theory of Planned Behaviour; Entrepreneurial Management Development Programs.

  • Fashion Clothing - Retailers Perspective and Business Strategies focusing on Market Segmentation   Order a copy of this article
    by EASWARAMOORTHY RANGASWAMY, Girija Periyasamy, Uma Rani Srinivasan 
    Abstract: Business strategies to succeed retail markets is often focused on the consumers behavioural pattern and product involvement. There is limited research focusing on fashion clothing involvement and its related management strategies adopted by retailers including market segmentation. The study describes the management strategies presently adopted by the retailers of clothes including market segmentation to keep their customers satisfied. Structured schedules were used for collecting data from 100 retailers, selected by a stratified random sampling method in Singapore. The results showed that focusing on demographics of buyers seemed to be a preferable strategy in retail trade of clothes. Practical implications include that intensively competitive world market for clothes, growth of fashion consciousness has eradicated the impediments to fashion for the masses by making affordability and availability of varieties of products. Therefore, market segmentation based on identified factors would largely benefit retailers of clothes.
    Keywords: Fashion; Clothing; Retailer; Business Strategies; Market Segmentation; Buyer Behaviour.

  • A Study on Impact of Ageing Population on Singapore Healthcare Systems using Machine Learning Algorithms   Order a copy of this article
    by Girija Periyasamy, EASWARAMOORTHY RANGASWAMY, Uma Rani Srinivasan 
    Abstract: Ageing population has been identified as a key issue for healthcare because of its adverse impact on ageing and facilities of healthcare systems. The study is focused on ageing population which has been having widespread consequences in Singapore context. Review of the healthcare systems was done as the gap revealed the need to address the objectives of the study which is to evaluate the various improvements of healthcare systems in Singapore with respect to the ageing population requirements and analyse the various factors related to ageing population that influences the health care systems in Singapore. Analysis included ANOVA, Correlation, along with Machine Learning Algorithms like Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine and Logistic Regression. The results, discussions along with findings are also provided with links to the literature and research objectives. Suggestions were provided for various healthcare systems initiatives and needs that are required to transform to cope with ageing population.
    Keywords: Ageing; Healthcare; Healthcare Systems; Healthcare Facilities; Machine Learning.

    by Chellammal Arimuthukumar 
    Abstract: Teaching can turn into transformative when teachers and students are generating information clearly. In effective teaching educators grasp all the significant things in an effective manner. Educators can create such potential way of critical learning to their children, in which students were motivated and engaged their abilities to analyze such critical situation. This article explains about challenges faced by educators while adopting online technology such as knowledge to use the technology, attitude, time taken, mental stress, family hindrance etc. The study found that online teaching method is the effective one even though it has some difficulties also. The study also reveals that, Professors are faced some difficulties in handling online classes such as headache/migraine, family hindrance etc, how to handle the online tools etc. They feel that these are the problems they met while entering into digitalized teaching.
    Keywords: Challenges; Technology; Educators; Indian education system; Students; Pedagogical tools; Teachers attitude; Differences between conventional vs. online education; education institution; Social media; Problems.rnrn.

    Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic appears to have us heard in a new change in education systems around the world. Digital learning is the modus operandi of professionals looking to improve their skills in an increasingly automated world. Online learning has found a place in the curriculum of schools and universities to ensure academic continuity. Access to online learning is highly dependent on the subject and the tools the students are familiar with. This research report looks at different aspects of the challenges in the form of an online learning questionnaire. The study shows that most of the younger generations are very familiar with the use of online platforms, but use them as part of their daily academic activities, but are faced with many attitude problems that drive them to behave differently, which can be further elaborated in the findings of this study.
    Keywords: Online learning; challenges; learners; technology; classroom; digital; pedagogy; conventional; higher education; infrastructure.

  • Work-life happiness among non-academic staff of institutions of higher learning: A demographic study   Order a copy of this article
    by Anita Sikandar, Sikandar Mohd. Abdul 
    Abstract: Happiness plays an important role in human life and career. Continuous engagement, happiness and satisfaction at the workplace have a positive impact on health that enhances productivity and performance of an employee in organisations. Happiness is generally termed as a positive emotion by psychologists. It is believed in society at large that happiness is a state of mind and the happy people can achieve success in their career through positivity. The present study investigates the level of work-life happiness (WLH) among non-academic staff from select higher educational institutions in India and to find out whether or not the demographic factors influence WLH. The results reveal that the demographic factors significantly influence the level of work-life happiness and their well-being in organisations.
    Keywords: employee commitment; employee engagement; employee wellbeing; work-life balance; workplace collaboration; work-life happiness.

  • Organisational Politics and Turnover Intention Challenges faced by women in Leadership positions   Order a copy of this article
    by Sowmya KR, Krithika J, Jagannathan K 
    Abstract: Holding leadership positions are not an exception to women off late. Women have started getting hold of the top most positions across industries and across countries. However, it is not an easy journey that they go through which therefore influences their stay in the positions peacefully. The discussed leadership challenges in this study are organisational politics and Turnover intention. Women find it tricky to handle these two issues and are found continuing to either live with these challenges or they leave the organisation and the leadership position for betterment in life. The researcher has chosen 120 respondents holding top positions from India for this study. Judgement or purposive sampling by non-probability method was used to choose the respondents. Their perception was studied and analysed using Exploratory factor analysis, and Karl Pearsons Correlation. The factors influencing women perception of organisational politics was identified and summarised that women did work with turnover intention in their job however successful positions they were holding.
    Keywords: Organisational Politics; Turnover intention; Women; Leadership; Challenges faced by women; Leadership Issues.

    by Punniyamoorthy Ramasamy, Vijayarani Sampath 
    Abstract: MSME has its ability to generate sustainability for the people by providing opportunities for steady growth, thereby giving a competitive advantage to its products by reducing the cost through technology up gradation and grab the new opportunities (Klewitz and Hansen ,2014). MSME plays a vital role in enhancing sustainable development by promoting sustainable growth in economy through careful investments, advancing sustainability in industrialisation and encouraging development and diminishing pay imbalances, several programs and services are provided to support MSME to activate their participations in reaching sustainable development are as through workable business model that could help a win-win strategy (Abraham et al.,2014 ; Belu et al .,2018). Many policies recommendations were concluded to support SMEs sector as a key driver for sustainable development in developed and developing countries in addition to emerging economies (Meyer D.F and N.Meyer, 2017). Supplier base develops and harvest the benefits on receiving quality products in a long term (Khan and Ede, 2009; Banarjee and Lahiri, 2018). It can be understood by the suppliers and if adhered they can reach different levels of operation to compete with global sources (Brentand Labuschagne ,2006;Nidumolu et al .,2009).
    Keywords: Sustainability; quality conscious; Environment protection; supplier; Technology Development ; Profitability and Fund Management.

  • Evidence of Moral Hazard in Employee Performance: An Empirical Analysis of Contract Theory   Order a copy of this article
    by Preetha Panicker, Amudha Ramachandran 
    Abstract: Incentive schemes in organizations are generally based on the self-interest and willingness of the employees rather than coercion. But in most of the organizations compensation system is designed by the organization as per their interests to motivate and induce an extra level efforts from the agent side. But this may create certain problems in employer-employee trust which should be taken care of. The Nobel Prize won theory in Economics named Contract theory describes about the problems and issues that arise and exist in incomplete incentive contracts and thereby suggests the possible solutions too. This research article attempts to assess the impact of the two associated paradigms, moral hazard and risk aversion existing in the relationship between the principal and agent on their employment contracts that leads to the effectiveness of the employees performance based on their incentive schemes. The study attempts to analyse with appropriate statistical tools to assess the association and impact on the dependent and independent variables identified for the study. The results indicate the conformity of the contract theory and contributes to its significance to assist the decision-making and implementation of the incentive system by the corporates.
    Keywords: Risk Aversion; Moral Hazard; Employee Performance; Contract theory; Incentive schemes.

  • Impact of Goods and Service Tax on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Shetty Deepa Thangam Geeta, S.P. Mathiraj 
    Abstract: Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises in India plays a vital role in developing a country where many public depends on micro and small enterprises. India's Gross Domestic Product largely influence by the Growth of MSMEs and present contribution in manufacturing sectors is 6.11%, and Services sectors are 24.63%. Also, more than 120 million persons are employed in these sectors. It acts as an engine in creating jobs for a developing country like India. The study is purely centred on secondary data to evaluate MSMEs performance in various parameters and bring out the impact of Goods and Service Tax on MSMEs. The main purpose of the paper is to focus on growth and opportunities of MSMEs and to find impact of GST from date of its implementation on MSMEs in parameters such as number of enterprises, employment, exports and fixed investment applying the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression method. The finding of paper shows that the share of MSME in GVA and GDP are stagnated from 2012-13 to 2017-18 and 2017-18 share of MSME in GVA increased by 0.02% which shows positive impact of GST on Gross value-added and Working enterprises and Market value of fixed assets are positively influenced by the indirect taxes on MSMEs has. This paper will help the entrepreneurs of MSMEs to overcome the challenges posed by GST implementation.
    Keywords: MSMEs; Gross Domestic Product; Nation Manufacturing Policy; Growth of MSMEs; Performance of MSMEs; Impact of GST on MSMEs.

  • Female entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance: With special reference to Sri Lanka   Order a copy of this article
    by Tishani Herath 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine how entrepreneurial orientation influences firm performance of female entrepreneurs in Sri Lanka. The proposed conceptual model delineates the direct relationship between innovativeness, proactiveness, risk-taking, autonomy and competitive aggressiveness the five dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance of female-owned entrepreneurial firms. This study used a randomly selected sample of 267 female-owned entrepreneurial firms in Sri Lanka to test the hypothesized relationships between the constructs; structural equation modelling was performed. The findings of this study confirmed that entrepreneurial orientation has a positive effect on firm performance of female-owned entrepreneurial firms in Sri Lanka. Particularly, findings confirm that all five dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation: innovativeness, proactiveness, risk-taking, autonomy and competitive aggressiveness have a positive impact on the performance of these firms. Thus, entrepreneurial orientation is a mechanism and a strategy for the success and the survival of female-owned entrepreneurial firms.
    Keywords: Female-entrepreneurs; Entrepreneurial orientation; Firm performance; Innovativeness; Proactiveness; Risk-taking; Autonomy; Competitive aggressiveness.

Special Issue on: BAVT-2019 Agile Strategies for the VUCA World

    by Girish Taneja, Anu Bala 
    Abstract: The marketing curriculum must evolve with the changing technological environment and the skills demanded by prospective employers. Management graduates want to earn skills to enhance their prospects of employment. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the curriculum of E-commerce, Digital and Social Media Marketing Management courses studied in the post-graduate management programs of the top 100 National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) listed management Indian Institutes/colleges. This paper compared the curriculum with the skills demanded by the companies for entry-level E-commerce and Digital Marketing jobs. An analysis of program structure and syllabi of Digital Marketing, E-business/E-commerce, and Social Media Marketing was undertaken. Researchers identified the various skills required by the employers through the various job portals like,,, and This study will help Indian Institutes to take a fresh look and re-design their program and courses of the E-commerce and Digital and social media marketing to make it skill-oriented. This study can be considered as the first serious attempt to evaluate the curriculum of E-commerce, Digital and Social media marketing offered by Indian management Institutes with regards to employability skills demanded by the industry.
    Keywords: E-commerce; Digital Marketing; Social media marketing; E-business; Employability skills; Digital Marketing Curriculum; E-commerce syllabi; E-commerce syllabi; Digital Marketing syllabi; E-business syllabi; E-business curriculum.

  • Supervisory Power and Reverse Incremental Influence: An Investigative Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Gowhar Rasool, Anjali Pathania 
    Abstract: Power Dynamics at workplace has emerged as a progressive area of organisational scholarship. The present study examined the diverse dimensions of supervisory power at the workplace and its influence on employee job outcomes. Unlike most of the studies in this area, the present research considered the revised power taxonomy and comprehensive job outcome variables. Based on theory as well as empirical investigations on influence of power and organisational behaviour, the study predicted positive incremental influence (either powers treated separately or in additive combination) on employee job outcomes. This hypothesis was tested in a field study in an Indian context. The field study comprised the employees of two multinational information technology companies, as it belongs to an industry which has constantly faced daunting HR challenges while embracing change. The analysis revealed that negative forms of expert and referent power explained approximately 89% of power as an independent construct. The results bring out a newer dimension to this field of study by looking at the contrasting effects of idiosyncratic negative referent and expert power in combination with nomothetic coercive power, which unlike creating a positive incremental influence resulted in reverse (negative) incremental influence. Further, the study also discussed the implications of the findings and future research direction.
    Keywords: Power Influence; Change; Negative Expert; Negative Referent; Reverse Incremental Influence.

  • Food apps to create competitive advantage and enhance customer satisfaction   Order a copy of this article
    by Shamsher Singh 
    Abstract: Online food ordering by using food apps is becoming a trend in urban area in India mainly in metropolitan cities where working family are in large number. They are short of time but have high income to spend. This study is based on the application of technology in especially food apps to create competitive advantage and enhance customer satisfaction. Primary and secondary data both have been used. Survey was conducted to collect primary data from 100 respondents to find satisfaction level and understand the use of food apps. Frequency Analysis and ANOVA was used for analyzing the data in SPSS.
    Keywords: Food apps; technology application; customer satisfaction; competitive advantage.

  • Association of mindfulness, subjective well-being and coping up with stress among university students   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyanka Nema, Shruti Sinha 
    Abstract: Graduating from a university has various personal, academic, and social challenges due to which the life of a student could be highly stressful. The goal of this research study is to understand if being mindful helps students/ individuals to cope up with stress better. Contributing to the literature this paper describes the relationship between how being mindful leads to achieving life satisfaction which often helps in coping with the stress in the university student. The study establishes the linkages between coping with stress strategy and mindfulness and also tries to assess the role of subjective well being in their relationship. The data for the study has been collected from 238 students aged in the range of 18-25 years. The data has been analyzed using SPSS 20. The model of the study utilizes Baron and Kenny's Mediation analysis. Research finding suggests that subjective wellbeing partially mediates the relationship between mindfulness and coping up with stress.
    Keywords: mindfulness; wellbeing; stress; mediation analysis.

  • Does insured health care affects economic growth in India? an application of cointegration approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Tushinder Preet Kaur, Pooja Kansra 
    Abstract: The present paper has explored the association between health insurance and GDP in India using co- integration approach. This technique has investigated relationship between the health insurance, GDP per-capita, organised employment and claim ratio for the period of 2001-2018. The resulting co- integrating vectors clearly depicts that health insurance and GDP per capita are associated with each other in long run. Further, the increase in organised employment and improvement in claim ratio have positive impact on health insurance. The study also finds long run relationship between per capita income and health insurance. It has been found that with the rise in GDP per capita income, the health insurance premium is found to be rising. This result associates that as the basic needs of the individuals are satisfied then their orientation towards secondary needs i.e financing of health, education and housing etc. increases. As a precaution to ensure minimum stability in income, savings and investments, the individuals generally need insurance of his health as good health not only enable him to ensure his healthy life style and income generation but also prevent erosion of savings and investments that individual has done in previous time periods.
    Keywords: economic growth; GDP per capita; health insurance; premium; employment; claim ratio; cointegration.

    by Sourabh Kumar, Sankersan Sarkar 
    Abstract: Work arrangements play an important role in work-life integration. This research attempts to measure the perceived flexibility and usability of different work arrangements for managing work-life and analyse the motivational and demotivational factors associated with the usage of flexible work arrangements (FWAs) in the Indian context. Survey data was collected from 446 employees working in Indian organisations. Study shows that organisations offer different FWAs in formal and informal ways. Perceived flexibility for part-time work option was highest followed by work from home/alternate work location and flexible timing. Motivational and demotivational factors for usage of FWAs discussed which will help in designing the policy for different work options to get maximum advantage of employee satisfaction, productivity, and balance in work and life. The study will provide a base to design and implement FWAs in different work environments. Future research on FWAs is suggested with industry-specific, organisational, and demographic variables.
    Keywords: Flexibility; Flexi-time; flexi-place; perceived flexibility; Work-life balance; Work-life enrichment.

  • Analysing the Effect of Cause Related Advertisement on Attitude towards Brand   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajesh Poonia, Mithilesh Pandey 
    Abstract: Consumers have been critical of the firms using a lot of natural and social resources for its growth. Firms started giving back to society by supporting certain social causes considering it as an opportunity for commercial gains and thus taking it as an investment. This social cause of the firms is propagated through the cause related advertisements. In the age of heavy media exposure, the customer tends to ignore the traditional/similar ads. Cause related ads may be useful to break the ad clutter and give headway to the said firm over its competitors. The limited awareness about the CRM ads attracts publics vulnerability to deception. The present study tries to understand the role of emotional appeal and message content and cause interest in the effectiveness of CRM ads. This effectiveness was measured for consumer attitude towards brand. Structured questionnaire method has been be used in the study and a response of 244 people across the population has been recorded. Structure equation modelling with the help of Smart PLS has been used to analyse the data. The analysis done with the help of Smart PLS has shown that Cause Interest, Content and emotional appeal are significant for CRM advertisement effectiveness.
    Keywords: Cause related advertisements; emotional appeal; message content; advertisement effectiveness; brand.

  • Impact of Different Dimensions of Globalisation on Firms Performance: An Unbalanced Panel-Data Study of Firms Operating in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Balraj Verma, Amit Srivastava 
    Abstract: The present study, based on three unbalanced panel data models, analyses the impact of the economic, political and social dimensions of globalisation on the performance of firms operating in India using ROA, ROCE and ROI as a proxy of firm's financial performance. To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first study of its kind not only for India but also for the extensiveness of the sectors used. The study is based on the financial data from 2000 to 2017 of 912 companies ranging into 14 different sectors of the economy. The result showed the significant positive and significant negative effect of the economic and political dimensions of globalisation respectively on firms performance. Yet positive but social dimension failed to establish a significant impact on firm performance. Out of the 14 selected sectors, only 3 sectors- Textiles, Communication and Transport Services, showed lower growth in comparison to other sectors.
    Keywords: Globalisation; panel data; Differential Intercept Coefficients; Firm Performance; KOF Index; ROA; ROCE; ROI.

Special Issue on: Modern Managerial and Social Practices for the Sustainable Development of Society

  • Active Aging: A way for Social Sustainability in ageing Indian society   Order a copy of this article
    by Shikha Kumari, Alka Sharma 
    Abstract: The 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda sets out a universal action plan for achieving sustainable development in a balanced way and seeks to promote human rights of all people, for all sections of society, at all ages, with a specific focus on the most vulnerable section, i.e., older people. The segment of older people in India has been increasing at a high rate lately, and this pattern will be the same in the coming years. The objective of this study is to examine the role of active ageing in achieving social sustainability of older people. For the conceptual framework of the study, two key components of social sustainability, i.e., well-being and social justice, has been taken into consideration. Data is collected from elderly respondents in residential colonies of NCR, India, through semi-structured interviews. The analysis shows social sustainability is the natural outcome of the various engagements of the active aged individuals.
    Keywords: Sustainable development; Social Sustainability; Active Aging; elderly; well-being engagements; case study.

  • Linking Non-Financial Motivators of Women Entrepreneurs with Entrepreneurial Satisfaction: A Cluster Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Radha Yadav, Dharmendra Kumar 
    Abstract: Women entrepreneurs confronted with several obstacles while managing their business houses and dealt firmly developing successful ventures over time. The long term sustainability of their business reflects their entrepreneurial skills. The existence of certain forces empowered entrepreneurial drive of women entrepreneurs leading to their satisfaction and engagement in their ventures. The present investigation evaluated the antecedents of womens entrepreneurial satisfaction by examining 405 women entrepreneur participants using confirmatory factor analysis and cluster analysis techniques. This study comprises only micro and small businesses of women. The non-monetary determinants emerged out as the significant determinants of satisfaction of women entrepreneurs. The results revealed four clusters of women entrepreneurs based on motivational theory such as Micro achievers, Entrepreneurial team, liberal and Socialist Feminism, and optimism. The results also indicated that the clusters of women entrepreneurs' respond distinctively towards various dimensions of entrepreneurial satisfaction i.e. Quality of married life, overall venture satisfaction, achieved innovation, achieved freedom, team orientation, achieved recognition and identity, and achieved employee trust.
    Keywords: Women Entrepreneurship; Non-Financial Motivators; Entrepreneurial team; Quality of Married Life; Recognition and Identity; Education; Experience; Venture satisfaction.

    Abstract: Despite an impressive growth performance of the agriculture sector in India, the sector has always been a very unequal affair. The green revolution in India left India with uneven effects of growth on products, regions and classes of people. With this growing concern about increasing inequality, the spatial dimensions of inequality have begun to attract considerable policy interest. However, there is remarkably little systematic documentation of the facts of what has happened to Indian agriculture sector with respect to spatial and regional inequality over the past three decades. The present paper in this regard, is an attempt to focus the extent of disparity that exists in the agricultural sector among the fifteen major states of India; to identify the major factors in explaining this disparity and finally to suggest policy interventions to narrow down it for a sustainable development of the sector across the states of India. On the basis of data collected from various secondary sources for the period 1981- 2015, the paper presents strong evidence of inequality in agricultural income across states of India. The study confirms that the gap between poorer and richer states has grown in the post reform period. Empirical results show that the variation in the agricultural NSDP is significantly and positively affected by the variations in fertilizer use and variation in length of pucca road. The results also confirm that variation in the number of tractors use and variation in the cropping intensity have positive impact on the variation in agricultural income though not statistically significant.
    Keywords: Agriculture; Disparity; Inequality; Spatial and Regional Inequality,Sustainable Development.

  • Farmer Producer Organisations for Sustainable Development of Tribal Communities   Order a copy of this article
    by Sushant Malik, Dharmesh K. Mishra, Dipen Paul, Joel Noronha 
    Abstract: In the present context, agriculture has lost relevance for small and marginal farmers. The case is even worse for marginal communities like tribals. Producer Organisations are considered a solution for transforming the lives of farmers, reducing transactional costs, providing better collective marketing platforms, creating employment opportunities, improving income generation and capacitating human resource in terms of market competitiveness. This paper explores the potential of Farmer Producer Organisations (FPOs) as a communitarian institution in the context of tribals of Nandurbar district through the study of Yaha Aadivasi Navapur Farmer Producer Company Ltd., Nesu Parisar Farmer Producer Company Ltd. and Bahugunit Farmer Producer Company Ltd., Nandurbar and evaluates these community based organisations on the parameters of Financial Services, Input Supply, Procurement & Packaging, Marketing, Insurance Services, Technical Services, Convenience and Consultancy Services.
    Keywords: Sustainable Agriculture; Tribals; Community Based Organisations; Producer Organisations; Marginal Communities.

  • Endeavor towards sustainability: An empirical study of an Indian Electronics Retail Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Deepika Joshi 
    Abstract: This exploratory study seeks to examine the reverse supply chain as a source of sustainability in retail firms of India. The determinants of sustainability are discerned using data collected from 302 consumer electronics retailers. The findings reveal that at retailers level, sustainability is embedded in planning for reverse collection process, monitoring the information, dealing with uncertainties, supply chain responsiveness for productivity and decision making at strategic level. The reverse supply chain strategies implemented by Indian electronic retailers is a distinctive contribution of the presented research. The retailers practice different approaches to achieve benefits of their eco-friendly strategies. But certain institutional and structural constraints limit their intent. Such concerns are highlighted and viable solutions are suggested for immediate industry practice.
    Keywords: Sustainability; organizational practice; reverse supply chain; consumer electronics retailers; India.

  • Green accounting and its application: a study on reporting practices of environmental accounting in India   Order a copy of this article
    by K.R. Gola, Priyam Mendiratta, Gaurav Gupta, Mridul Dharwal 
    Abstract: Green Accounting is an important device for understanding the role of business ventures in the economy towards environmental security and welfare. It is a well-known term for environment and natural resources accounting. Many companies all over the world have initiated the practices of making environmental disclosures in their annual reports. However, these practices are still largely voluntary in nature. The objective of this research paper is to study the environment-related disclosures of companies taken from Nifty 50 based on the summary of Global Reporting Standards. Content Analysis, both sector-wise and keyword-wise is used on the annual reports of 29 sample companies using MAXQDA software. A high count of the formulated keywords is observed in some relevant sectors of Energy, Cement and Metals.
    Keywords: green accounting; environmental disclosures; global reporting initiatives; content analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2021.10035128
  • Exploring Espoused Competencies from Management Teachers for Sustainability of Indian Business Schools   Order a copy of this article
    by Kanupriya Misra Bakhru, Naseem Abidi 
    Abstract: The growth and development of management education in India is challenged by various factors. This research paper explores espoused competencies from management teachers in leading Indian business schools. Required professional and personal competencies of teachers were identified by systematic literature review, then experience survey was used to adapt them for management teaching, and primary data was collected through questionnaire, on how frequently these competencies are being practiced by the management teachers in different categories of B-Schools in National Capital Region, Delhi in India. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), descriptive statistics and Analysis of Variance were used to analyse the data. Results show that most practiced competencies by management teachers are related to knowledge, intelligence and creativity and category of business schools differ significantly on all the three identified factors based on personal competencies. Business schools of state universities were found low on average score on almost all explored competency factors.
    Keywords: Espoused Competencies; Management Teachers; Indian Business School; Exploratory Factor Analysis.

Special Issue on: International Conference of College of Social and Management Sciences 2020 and CU-ICE 2020 Sustainable Business Models for the Growth of Indigenous Businesses in Africa

    by Benneth Eze 
    Abstract: This study examines the effect of innovation, particularly process innovation, product innovation and market innovation, on the survival of agricultural-based MSMEs in Nigeria. Survey research design was employed, by administering questionnaires on some selected chief executives of agricultural-based MSMEs in Lagos, Kano and Anambra states. The findings revealed that product innovation, process innovation and market innovation have a positive and significant individual effect on the survival of agricultural-based MSMEs, with coefficients and probability values of ?1= 3.049, P-value<0.05; ?2= 5.152, P-value<0.05; ?3= 4.919, P-value<0.05 for product innovation, process innovation and market innovation respectively. The F-stat (22.803, P-value<0.05) shows that innovative elements are good predictors of enterprise survival of the selected agricultural-based MSMEs. The Adjusted R2 suggested that a 35.6% variation in agricultural-based MSMEs survival is accounted for by the innovative elements. Therefore, it can be concluded that innovativeness has a significant effect on agricultural-based MSMEs survival, particularly, process innovation, market innovation and product innovation. It is recommended that agricultural-based MSMEs should be innovative, particularly as regards their process, market and product innovations, as this tends to enhance their survival. Furthermore, the small and medium enterprises development agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN), Ministry of Agriculture and other MSMEs supporting ministries, departments and agencies (MDAs) should encourage agricultural-based MSMEs to be innovative.
    Keywords: Agriculture; Innovation; Market Innovation; MSMEs; Process Innovation; Product Innovation.

  • The Role of Skill Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development in Improving Economic Independence among Serving Corp Members in Ibadan North Local Government, Oyo State   Order a copy of this article
    by Tomisin Aruleba, Medinah Hamid 
    Abstract: The broad objectives of the study are to: determine the extent to which NYSC Corp members' enrol for skill acquisition training during their service year; know the extent to which NYSC Corp members utilizes skills acquisition to enhance their economic independence and; ascertain the extent to which the skills acquired by NYSC Corps members' enhance their economic independence in Ibadan North Local Government area of Oyo State. A descriptive cross-sectional survey research design was adopted. The population (1166) consist of batch A, B and C 2017-2018 serving National Youth Service Corp (NYSC) members in Ibadan North Local government area of Oyo State. The sample size is 300. Simple random sampling was also adopted as the sampling technique. It was revealed that enrolment of corps members into vocational skill training during their service year is to a high extent of enrolment. Also, the skills acquired during the national service year has been utilized properly. And the skills acquired through the NYSC SAED have enhanced economic independence. The study recommended that the Government should give support to serving corps members who have undergone the training programme and willing to practice. NYSC SAED should appraise the programme and seek feedback from corps members to know the areas of the programme to be improved.
    Keywords: Skill Acquisition; Entrepreneurship Development; Vocational skill; self-sustaining; Training Programme; Economic Independence.

  • Obstacles facing women-owned enterprises: A case for Sub-Sahara African women   Order a copy of this article
    by Oyedele Ogundana 
    Abstract: Women-owned enterprises face several obstacles. However, it is not clear which of these challenges are the most severe within Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify and rank the obstacles facing women-owned enterprises in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This knowledge is crucial for planning and allocating resources in a way that can better support the development of women-owned enterprises in SSA. This paper utilises secondary data collected by the World Bank Enterprise Surveys from 40 countries within SSA. A total of 2341 female business owners were interviewed between 2006 to 2018. This data was downloaded and analysed using exploratory data analysis. The findings showed that the lack of access to finance is the biggest obstacle facing women-owned enterprises in SSA. This is followed by the absence of electricity, practices of the informal sectors, tax-related issues and political volatility. Overall, the barriers militating against women-owned enterprises in SSA are largely exogenous, which means that women have little or no control over them. This study contributes to the literature on gender and entrepreneurship by ranking the obstacles that confront women-owned enterprises in a developing country region such as the SSA. It contributes to the knowledge that policymakers require for policy development and effective resource allocation within SSA and other developing countries. For women entrepreneurs, this study unravels endogenous barriers that are within the scope of female business owners. Therefore, women entrepreneurs can take innovative steps to resolve such barriers rather than wait for external assistance, which frequently never arrives.
    Keywords: obstacles; Sub-Saharan Africa; women entrepreneurs; women-owned enterprises.

    by Ola Olusegun Oyedele, Mutiu Adebowale Oyero 
    Abstract: This study examines how techno-entrepreneurship, measured as Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) and Research, Development and Innovation (R, D & I), impacts sustainable business performance in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A random sample of 126 respondents was taken from purposively selected agro-businesses for a survey and responses were analyzed using linear regression. The study results demonstrate significant and positive impact of techno-entrepreneurship on the profitability and earned revenue of SMEs, thus suggesting a techno-entrepreneurship model - nexus of drivers, constructs and prospects - as a solution to drive sustainable business performance. Based on findings, the study recommends that businesses should possess or sell and commercialize IPRs and practice open innovation (R, D & I). Finally, policy makers primarily the government - should formulate & implement supportive policies, strategies and as well create an enabling environment for techno-entrepreneurship to thrive, towards growth of SMEs and the larger economy.
    Keywords: Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Research; Development and Innovation (R; D & I); Knowledge transfer; Commercialisation; Business Performance; Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs); Growth; Science & Technology; Government; Nigeria.

  • Assessment of Capital, Investment and Trade Flows in West Africa: Direction for Economic Efficiency   Order a copy of this article
    by Oluwabunmi Adejumo, Akintoye Adejumo 
    Abstract: The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) was established to actualize the harmonization, coordination of national policies, and the promotion of integration programmes within the union. Thus, given the 1986 policy-shifts for liberal economic system and integration, this study assesses the extent to which there has been pay-offs or otherwise using the macroeconomic indicators of trade, investment and capital flows within the union. This is with a view to ascertaining if there has been any direction for economic efficiency as well as establishing directions for future sustainability of ECOWAS as a union. Using a dataset of 1980-2018, productivity growth ascertains the rate of efficiency within the sub-region; while the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) determines the direction of causality, the extent of (in) economic efficiency vis-
    Keywords: Growth; Efficiency; Development; Integration; Economic.

  • Contributions of Industry 4.0 to the Performance of Entrepreneurship in Katsina State, Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Lukman Oladejo Gbolagade, Bashir Alao Babatunde, Munir Shehu Mashi 
    Abstract: The study investigates the contributions of industry 4.0 to entrepreneurship performance in Katsina State. The study adopts a longitudinal survey research approach and a structured questionnaire to collect its primary data. 200 entrepreneurs that specialized in manufacturing, trading, construction, poultry farming, and private hospitals in the state were selected using multistage sampling method. Data was analysed using Multiple Regression and Simple Pair t-test. The study found that industry 4.0 is an intensifying revolution for better improvement in the performance of entrepreneurs that have fully embraced the use of technologies and automation as brought by the forth industrial revolution. It was amazing that they experienced more business expansion, generated more profit and employed more labour than those that are yet to embrace the use of automation. The study therefore recommended among others that there should be general enlightenment on the adoption of technologies introduced by this industry 4.0 by all entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: Industry 4.0; technologies and entrepreneurship performance.

    by Kayode OBANIYI 
    Abstract: This study examines various components of Entrepreneurship Agricultural Dynamic Curriculum (EADC) which can help to sustain entrepreneurship now and in the future. This paper used qualitative data from review and inspirational thought to emphasize the contribution of neglect agricultural sector to entrepreneurship. This finding of this study include; inclusion of agricultural curriculum to entrepreneurial study in primary , secondary, and tertiary institutions, practical agriculture in areas of agronomy, aquaculture, forestry, apiculture, hydroponic, horticulture, animal production, soil management, climate change management, marketing, record keeping, agribusiness and others.. Moreover, lecturers, teachers and trainers should be involved in the development of the new entrepreneurship curriculum (EADC). In conclusion, government and non-governmental organization should support the restructuring of old curriculum and formation and implementation of the new curriculum through sponsorship and capacity building of the resource personnel who engaged in the development of entrepreneurship agricultural dynamic and sustainable curriculum
    Keywords: Agriculture; Entrepreneurship; Education; Curriculum; Sustainable development; Primary; Secondary; Tertiary; Lecturers; Government ; Non Government.

  • Interrogating the challenges and opportunities for entrepreneurs in the Fourth Industrial Revolution: A developing country perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Oyebanjo Ogunlela, Robertson Tengeh 
    Abstract: The world is on the cusp of an epoch known as the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR). Despite the much-publicised promise of enhanced productivity, flexibility, efficiency and improved quality, Industry 4.0 is a daunting prospect for less-developed nations without the human labour to cope with and embrace the anticipated technological advancement. The paper explores the various opportunities and challenges associated with entrepreneurship in the fourth industrial revolution in developing countries to ascertain their readiness. An in-depth, systematic literature review was conducted. In doing that, we were mindful of the coverage, and data collection was carried out through a rigorous process to ensure accuracy of findings while keeping in mind the objective of the study (Snyder, 2019).This paper argues for entrepreneurs to rethink and initiate the development of strategies that would make them relevant in the future, through innovation of business models, in preparation for possible disruptions with the evolution of Industry 4.0, while also advocating that more should be done to address the causes of policy and institutional failures.
    Keywords: Fourth industrial revolution; 4IR; Industry 4.0; Entrepreneurship; Economy; Innovation; Opportunities; Developing countries.

  • Economic Growth and Unemployment in Nigeria: An Empirical Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Timothy Aderemi, Lydia Ojelade, Odunayo Ogunsanwo, Olowo Samson 
    Abstract: In the past decades, the Nigerian economy had experienced substantial economic growth before the economy slipped into recession in 2015. It is highly paradoxical that economic growth has not metamorphosed into employment generation in the country over the years. This study empirically examined the short run and long relationship between economic growth and unemployment in Nigeria from 1990 to 2015 within the framework of ARDL and ECM. Consequently, the findings that originated from study could be summarized as follows; firstly, 57% of disequilibrium due to shock in the previous year to equilibrium in the current year is corrected in the model. However, Economic growth and unemployment rate have a significant positive relationship in the short run. This implies that the Nigerian economy experienced jobless growth in the short run but reverse is the case in the long run. Similarly, money supply and unemployment rate have an insignificant positive relationship in the short run but positive in the long run. Trade openness and unemployment rate have a significant positive relationship in the short run but the relationship is not significant in the long run. In addition, inflation rate and unemployment rate have an insignificant negative relationship in the short run. Whereas the relationship becomes positive in the long run. Finally, the vital findings that originated in this study led to the following recommendations; if inclusive growth (unemployment reduction) is the goal of the policy makers in Nigeria, policies that will ensure increasing productivity in all the sectors of the economy and discouraging importation should be embarked upon in the country.
    Keywords: Economic Growth: Unemployment: Jobless Growth: ARDL: ECM: Nigeria.

  • Small Scale Enterprise: Exploring Social Adaptation of Survival among Traders in Akure, Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Damilola Micah, Ezekiel Omolayo 
    Abstract: This study examined creative and socio-cultural characteristics exhibited by small scale traders which predicted success and survival in entrepreneurial activities in the city of Akure, Nigeria. Using Weber and Kalbergs Rationality, 600 traders were sampled in descriptive design, multistage sampling and quantitative and qualitative method. Respondents mean age was 39.5. Sixty-six percent earned less than N50, 000 monthly incomes. Creativity skills like customer relationship (68.7%), complimentary cards (45.3%), decent dressing (68.7%) and brand name (31.2%) retained patronage. Apprenticeship (49.7%) contributed to creative knowledge. Cultural factors like spouses partnership (31.5%), family size (63.0%), religion (69.0%) and age (62.0%) contributed to success. Interpersonal relationship (x2=64.5; P<0.000); dress code (x2=24.3; P<0.021); and apprenticeship (x2=31.8; P<0.030) were significant and predicted entrepreneurship success. Respondents showed that cultural and creative abilities served as social capital which drive patronage and adaptation of ventures. Social capital is required as prerequisite and recipe for success in small ventures.
    Keywords: Social capital; creative skills; cultural value; success; entrepreneurship; social adaptation; economic capital; traders; patronage; apprenticeship; small scale enterprise.

  • E-Service Quality Dimensions and Customer Satisfaction among Users of Automated Saving Platforms in a Typical Developing Economy   Order a copy of this article
    by Ebuka Christian Ezenwafor, Adeola A. Ayodele, Blankson Governor Esiti 
    Abstract: This study assesses the nexus between e-SQ model and customer satisfaction among the users of automated saving platforms in Nigeria. Although a plethora of studies has been conducted on saving behaviour, studies that investigate this model among the users of automated saving platforms is grossly under-reported, especially in a typical developing economy like Nigeria. Sequel to this, this examination aimed to empirically investigate the nexus between e-service quality dimensions and consumer satisfaction. In a bid to achieve this objective, survey research design and quota sampling were used as research design and sampling method respectively. A questionnaire was used in getting information from respondents while the study population comprises of active users of automated saving platforms that reside in Anambra state. Validity and reliability of the study were carried out using content validity and Cronbachs alpha coefficient respectively. Formulated hypotheses were tested using multiple regressions via SPSS. The finding of this study revealed that website design, reliability, personalization, ease of use and trust appreciable effect on customer satisfaction while responsiveness does not have a significant impact on customer satisfaction among the users of automated saving platforms. It was recommended that automated saving platforms operators should effectively modify their technology to ensure that an average customer can easily access the site with no glitch. That the operators of the automated saving platform should inculcate an easily navigable website to ensure that customer effortlessly surf the website, which enhances satisfaction among others.
    Keywords: E-Service Quality; Customer Satisfaction; Automated Saving Platform; Nigeria; regression; Website design; Reliability; Ease of use; Personalization; Trust; Responsiveness rn.

Special Issue on: MRCON2020 Sustainable Competitive Edge Future Challenges

  • Role of Workplace Happiness in Achieving Teachers Sustainable Academic Performance: A Study on Selected Private Universities in Delhi NCR   Order a copy of this article
    by Ajay Bhatia, Farhat Mohsin 
    Abstract: From a national, regional or an Institutions perspective, standards of quality education and sustainable competitive edge, can only be attained when teachers are happy, professionally satisfied, and continuously remain engaged and fully committed to the cause of education. Past research on teachers happiness index had not focused much on the teachers academic performance, as distinct from just student outcomes and overall institutional performance. The study was conducted with the primary objective to analyze the relationship between teachers workplace happiness and their academic performance, and to identify the key factors impacting teachers happiness and their academic performance, which if managed well could lead to their sustainable academic performance at higher educational institutions. The study was conducted during the period Dec 2019 to Feb 2020 and used a descriptive analytical survey design. It covered teachers with minimum six months of experience at the four higher educational institutions in National Capital Territory of Delhi. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze with SPSS software. Although the study discovered a positive and significant relationship between teachers workplace happiness and their academic performance, however, a significant proportion of teachers were found to be in the low to moderate happiness zone. The study also identified critical factors impacting both teachers workplace happiness and their academic performance. Through analysis of teachers workload and subjective feedback of the survey participants, it was found that the multiplicity of factors at the workplace, were tending to box in the teachers by constraining them to follow the teaching rituals, instead of exploring potential, thereby leading to lack of happiness and professional satisfaction, which was perpetuating an unsustainable academic performance model. The study also gives specific recommendations to do course-correction and enhance teachers workplace happiness as a means to achieve sustainable academic performance.
    Keywords: workplace happiness; academic performance; higher education; Happiness Index; teacher’s engagement; life satisfaction; work-life quality; subjective well-being; sustainable performance.

Special Issue on: Corporate Social Responsibility across Entrepreneurial Perception

    by Pinar Isildar 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to integrate environmental entrepreneurships in hotels with the corporate social responsibility model adopted as a sustainable business model and to gather them under a common structure with a holistic perspective. In this context, by integrating environmental initiatives carried out in hotels into Caroll's corporate social responsibility model, a sustainable holistic structure was tried to be created in hotels. To research the integration of environmental entrepreneurship in CSR sustainable business models in depth, explorative methodology was used and qualitative research method was adopted. Findings suggest that environmental initiatives in hotel businesses are gathered under the economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic dimensions determined in the corporate social responsibility model. Among the environmental initiatives classified according to the results obtained, the most striking environmental initiatives were the environmental initiatives that provided economic benefit with 49.64%. Later, they were classified as environmental initiatives that provided a positive image with 28.35%, provided legal obligations with 15.44%, and were completely carried out with voluntary donations at 6.61%.
    Keywords: Environmental Entrepreneurship; Sustainable Business Model; Corporate Social Responsibility.

  • Integrating Corporate Social Responsibility(CSR)and Sustainability Linkages with Stakeholders Perceptions and Competence- Mediating Role of CSR Culture   Order a copy of this article
    by Suchitra Pandey, Parul Rishi, Shruti Sinha 
    Abstract: The study examines the effect of CSR culture, on the relationship between CSR strategy-sustainability linkages and ethics and the CSR outcomes in public sector organizations of India. Using a sample of two hundred lower, middle and upper-level CSR managers, a mediation model by Baron and Kenny was outlined and tested. Results demonstrate that CSR strategy-sustainability linkages and ethics had a positive relationship with CSR culture and CSR outcomes. Further, CSR culture has a positive relationship with CSR outcomes of employees CSR perceptions and competence. While CSR culture fit fully mediated the relationship between ethics and competence, partial mediation was found in all other cases. Thus, adoption of strategic and sustainable CSR not only leads to desirable CSR outcomes, but it is also associated with the better fit between CSR and culture. Hence, strategic and sustainable CSR and organizational ethics are must to facilitate greater congruence between CSR and organizational culture.
    Keywords: CSR strategy-sustainability linkages; ethics; CSR culture; employee CSR perceptions; CSR competence; India.

Special Issue on: International Conference of College of Social and Management Sciences 2020 and CU-ICE 2020 Sustainable Business Models for the Growth of Indigenous Businesses in Africa

  • Does Entrepreneurship Financing Contribute to Industrial Development in Nigeria? Evidence from Small and Medium Scale Enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Timothy Aderemi, Ishola Aransiola, Lucas Ojo, James Ojo 
    Abstract: Underdevelopment of industrial sector has been one of the critical challenges confronting Nigeria in the last few decades. Against this backdrop, the objective of this study focuses on the relationship between entrepreneurship financing and industrial development in Nigeria between 1990 and 2018. Data were collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin in which Dynamic Ordinary Least Square and Granger causality techniques were utilized to address the objective of the study. The following are the crucial findings that originated from the study. Manufacturing and food processing business financing and industrial output have an insignificant positive relationship. Broad money supply and industrial output have a significant positive relationship. Also, aggregate commercial banks financing has a significant positive impact on industrial output. Meanwhile, manufacturing and food processing business financing Granger caused industrial output in the country. It could be concluded that manufacturing and food processing business financing has the potential of bringing development to industrial sector of the Nigerian economy. In view of the pertinent findings put forward in this study, the following recommendations are made for the policymakers in Nigeria. If the goal of the Nigerian policy makers is industrial development, manufacturing and food process SMEs business financing should be encouraged by all the financial institutions especially deposit money banks in disbursement of loans and advances. In the same vein, the Central Bank of Nigeria should implement appropriate policies that will redirect the deposit money banks/commercial banks lending to manufacturing subsector of the Nigerian economy.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Finance; Industrial Development; SMEs; Nigeria.