Forthcoming and Online First Articles

World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development

World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development (WREMSD)

Forthcoming articles have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication but are pending final changes, are not yet published and may not appear here in their final order of publication until they are assigned to issues. Therefore, the content conforms to our standards but the presentation (e.g. typesetting and proof-reading) is not necessarily up to the Inderscience standard. Additionally, titles, authors, abstracts and keywords may change before publication. Articles will not be published until the final proofs are validated by their authors.

Forthcoming articles must be purchased for the purposes of research, teaching and private study only. These articles can be cited using the expression "in press". For example: Smith, J. (in press). Article Title. Journal Title.

Articles marked with this shopping trolley icon are available for purchase - click on the icon to send an email request to purchase.

Online First articles are published online here, before they appear in a journal issue. Online First articles are fully citeable, complete with a DOI. They can be cited, read, and downloaded. Online First articles are published as Open Access (OA) articles to make the latest research available as early as possible.

Open AccessArticles marked with this Open Access icon are Online First articles. They are freely available and openly accessible to all without any restriction except the ones stated in their respective CC licenses.

Register for our alerting service, which notifies you by email when new issues are published online.

We also offer which provide timely updates of tables of contents, newly published articles and calls for papers.

World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development (96 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  •   Free full-text access Open AccessAll you need is...entrepreneurial attitudes": A deeper look into the propensity to start a business during the COVID-19 through a gender comparison (GEM data)
    ( Free Full-text Access ) CC-BY-NC-ND
    by Dafna Kariv, Rico Baldegger, Gaby Kashy 
    Abstract: The Covid-19 captured entrepreneurs by surprise, leaving startups shocked in the first months of the pandemic, especially women-led entrepreneurial businesses, that are thought to be at a more pronounced disadvantage during crises. Such reaction to crises can provoke a reluctance to start new businesses, while research taps into quest of startups' crisis management, the initial stages of the shock that crises induce, are still underexplored in the entrepreneurial research, though critical for the further venture creation act. The genders perceptions of opportunity, fear of failure and motivations before and during the pandemic, are employed to predict propensity to start a business during this crisis. Results comparing the GEM data between 2019 and 2020 suggest that while pandemic has been found to affect women more severely than men, refuting previous research depicting crises more pronounced effects on women than on men, women's perceived availability of opportunities during COVID-19 emerged more tightly related to financial motivations, as their main impetus to start a business. These findings reinforce the relevance of the theory of planned behaviour and bricolage to the contexts of gender and crises. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; female entrepreneurship and pandemic; entrepreneurial motivations.

  • The Influence of Corporate Social Responsibility on Share Price Before and After Tax Amnesty   Order a copy of this article
    by Josua Tarigan, Aileen Natalia, Saarce Elsye Hatane, Ferry Jie 
    Abstract: With a purpose to provide a more profound clarification in regards to socially and environmentally responsible cultures among Indonesian natural resources industry, this study highlights the empirical confirmation on the correlation between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and share price. Kinder, Lydenberg, and Dominis (KLD) measurement approach is used as a basis to assess CSR performance since it gives more social rating transparency. Panel data analysis and paired sample T test are carried out on 83 Indonesian listed firms in the natural resources industry. The study finds a significant difference in the CSR performance and Tax Amnesty between before and after tax periods. The empirical result suggests that the CSR performance serves as a tool in assisting investors to value share prices. This is the first study, which observes and proves that tax amnesty 2016 gives a significant impact on Indonesian natural resources industrys CSR and share price
    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; KLD; Share Price; Natural Resources Industry; Tax amnesty.

  • Linkage between Psychological Variable of Entrepreneur and Business Performance - An Empirical Study in Delhi & NCR with Special Reference to SMEs   Order a copy of this article
    by Gurinder Singh, Vikas Garg, Pooja Tiwari 
    Abstract: The emphasis of this paper is to understand and explore the different factors related to the traits that are internal and analysing its impact on the performance of the SMEs in Delhi & NCR. This paper aims at exploring the linkage between traits of the individual with the performance of their firm and understanding how they manage their business. This paper employs a mixed-method to collect the data from different target respondents. Data is collected with the help of a survey, i.e. questionnaire. Data has been collected with the help of convenience sampling. For the survey, entrepreneurs were selected who have their SMEs and are running successfully for the last ten years. 86 SMEs were selected to survey the area of Delhi & NCR. To analyse the data factor analysis and correlation method were used. The results of the study have indicated the strong positive association between the psychological traits of the individual and the performance of the business. Also, it indicated the level of contribution of each trait towards business success. Findings of the study it can be implied that the result of the study will surely benefit from understanding the different factors and competencies having a significant impact on the performance of the business and its survival in the market.
    Keywords: SMEs; Entrepreneurship; Psychological Variables; Business Performance.

  • Digital marketing modelling: a sustainable competitive advantage for SMEs   Order a copy of this article
    by Jugal Kishor 
    Abstract: The central aim of this study is to identify forms of digital marketing enhancing SMEs productivity, along with to recommend an action to optimise the productivity of SMEs. This study was centrally steered using survey questionnaire and complemented with relevant literature review. The proposed hypothesised model recommends that four forms of digital marketing viz social media marketing, search engine marketing, content marketing, and e-mail marketing positively affect SMEs productivity. The examination in this research depicts that SMEs productivity encouraged when employing forms of digital marketing due to its cost-effectiveness, acceptability, and availability. The research methodology adopted, and strategies derived in this study may give direction to social scientists to conduct a comparative study in other nations.
    Keywords: Digital marketing; e-mail marketing; SMEs; search engine marketing; social media marketing; entrepreneurship; content marketing.

  • Financial literacy: An imperative approach for SMEs growth   Order a copy of this article
    by Swati Sharma 
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between financial literacy, firm's growth, and access to finance among small and medium enterprises (SMEs) within Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. This study tries to find out whether financial literacy affects a firm's access to finance and growth. To get an insight of the relationship, quantitative research was carried out among 41 SMEs of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. The findings from the study are based on quantitative data collected through the use of semi-structured questionnaires. Findings reveal a positive correlation among the variables i.e. financial literacy, access to finance and firm's growth. Both financial literacy and access to finance have a substantial impact on firms' growth. This study contributes to the existing literature by justifying the role of financial literacy in the strategic decision-making process. Financial literacy not only enables the entrepreneur in decision making but also helps SMEs to develop economies. Furthermore, as SMEs play a key role in developing countries, it becomes imperative for the entrepreneurs to be sound in financial decision making which also affects the performance of the firm.
    Keywords: SMEs; Financial Literacy; Economic Growth; Access to Finance; entrepreneurship.

  • Gender, Technology, and Innovation: The Role of Women in Indian Micro Small and Medium Enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by ANURAG SINGH, Ujjwal Das, Sharad Kumar 
    Abstract: Innovation is the buzzword for all-round socio-economic development of nations, globally. It is considered as a method to increase productivity, processes new products, or services, playing a major role in socioeconomic change. Innovation becomes a tool for solving societal problems and economic development. It has also been seen as a process of qualitative change taking place in historical times. However, in innovation literature, the role of women in innovation received not much attention as its deserved to be credited in academic and practice research. Innovation-based research and practices have not focused on gender differences. The role of women in innovation activities cannot be ignored. In this article, we present the role of women in selected Indian innovative Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) and the barriers they are facing. On the basis of our findings and literature, we also put forth several policy recommendations, to promote and encourage women entrepreneurship in India, viz. Government support towards access to finance, training, and encouragement for innovation at educational and organizational levels.
    Keywords: Gender and Technology; Gender and Innovation; MSME; Women; Patents; India.

  • Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices regarding Good Agricultural Practices among Rice Farmers under the Large Agricultural Plot Scheme (LAPS) in Khlongudomchonlajorn, Chachoengsao Province, Thailand   Order a copy of this article
    by Athiwat Joedsak, Suneeporn Suwanmaneepong, Duangkamol Parnrostip 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitude and level of practice regarding good agricultural practices (GAP) of rice farmers under Large Agricultural Plot Scheme (LAPS) Khlongudomchonlajorn, Chachoengsao Province, Thailand. Data were collected by using questionnaires from 38 farmers during the period from March to July 2019, and data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The results showed that most of the farmers were male (57.9%) with an average age of 56.7 years (65.8%), had completed primary education (73.7%), were married and had an average of 4.1 household members. In terms of the farmers knowledge of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) for rice, the results showed that the knowledge levels of the respondents were medium (65.8%), high (26.3%) and low (7.9%). Regarding attitudes towards GAP for rice, it was found that most of the farmers had a positive attitude (55.3% strongly agreed and 44.7% agreed) towards GAP for rice. Regarding the level of farmers implementation of GAP for rice, farmers produced rice according to GAP standards at a high level (52.6%), the highest level (39.5%) and a moderate level (7.9%). The farmers performed practices regarding the inspection of water quality and harmful contamination (average score=2.16) and the recording of plantation area codes and information (average score=2.55) with a low level of compliance. Relevant agencies should provide training programmes on the knowledge of GAP standards for rice in every item for farmers under the Large Agricultural Plot Scheme, especially for the items concerning water inspection and planting area recording.
    Keywords: agricultural scheme; farmer’s attitude; farmer’s knowledge; good agricultural practices; rice GAP.

  • The impact of SMEs on growth prospects of North Macedonia   Order a copy of this article
    by Edrina Emini 
    Abstract: Developing countries have changed their attitudes towards developing SMEs and supporting entrepreneurship due to the importance of SMEs and Entrepreneurship in these countries. Recent studies show that SMEs highly affects economic growth, employment, export, and poverty. Considering these circumstances, this paper tries to examine the profile of SMEs and their impact on the growth prospects of North Macedonia for the period 2012-2019. The study is carried out using secondary data. The data analysis is done using SPSS software as a statistical tool. The results of the paper suggest that there is a negative correlation between SME indicators and GDP, but the empirical findings also suggest that there is a correlation between exports, and SMEs economic situation, exports, and SMEs financial situation. On the other hand, there is a significant negative correlation between the poverty index and the economic situation of SMEs, meaning that the increase of the economic situation of SMEs results in the decrease of poverty and vice versa.
    Keywords: SMEs; entrepreneurship; economic growth; export; GDP; North Macedonia.

  • Factors influencing the start-up intentions of urban women in India: A theory of planned behaviour based approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Shreya Virani, Sarika Sharma, Poornima Tapas 
    Abstract: The growth in number of women enterprises is necessary for maintaining the gender justice and equality around the globe, and specifically in developing countries. Role of female entrepreneurs is vital in innovation based ventures and entrepreneurship for social, cultural, and economic development of a country like India. This study aims to ascertain the factors influencing the start-up intentions of urban women in India. A conceptual framework is proposed through rigorous literature review and based on theory of planned behaviour. The empirical testing of the proposed model is carried out using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM). The results reveal that attitude of a person, personality traits, and awareness about ecosystem affect the start-up intentions of a person. Whereas subjective norm and perceived behaviour control do not impact. Parents business background plays a mediating role in subjective norms and start-up intentions. The conclusion is presented and the future directions for further research are provided at the end.
    Keywords: Start-up intentions; Theory of planned behaviour; Structural equation modelling; Women entrepreneurship; Entrepreneurial intentions; Female entrepreneurs; Start-up India; Attitude; Subjective norms; Perceived behavioural control; Personality traits; Start-up ecosystems.rnrn.

  • The Role of Human Resource Management in the Growth of Startups: A Multiple Case Study from the Perspective of Entrepreneurs and Employees   Order a copy of this article
    by Hasan Boudlaie, Hannan Amoozad Mahdiraji, Mina Saneie Jirandeh, Vahid Jafari-Sadeghi 
    Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the role of human resource management (HRM) in the growth of startups. Accordingly, the missions and practices of HRM in startups are identified from the perspective of entrepreneurs and employees. A multiple case study approach is used by focusing on two startups in Iran. Moreover, the data are collected by interviewing one entrepreneur and 4 employees in each company. Besides, qualitative data are analysed using thematic analysis. Results demonstrated the various types of HRM missions and practices in startups and reflect different perspectives of entrepreneurs and employees of human resources management in these companies. Finally, the results illustrated that HRM can play an important role in the growth of these companies. Although research in the field of startups has increased in recent years, the role of HRM in the growth of these companies has rarely been addressed. The present research helps to expand literature related to the role of HRM in the growth of startups by considering the different perspectives of startups' entrepreneurs and employees.
    Keywords: Human resource management missions; Human resource management practices; Growth of startups.

  • COVID-19 Pandemic and Behaviour of Indian Consumers: A sustainable transition   Order a copy of this article
    by Mosab I. Tabash 
    Abstract: In this paper, we offer some preliminary examinations of how COVID-19 pandemic affects Indian consumers behaviour. In this paper, data is collected from various Indian consumers from different cities. 300 consumers are randomly selected to fill the questionnaire. (76 responses are from a semi-urban city in Uttar Pradesh, Aligarh, 70 were from Delhi/NCR, 100 were from Hyderabad and 54 were from Bangalore). We argue that COVID-19 pandemic offers great opportunities for businesses. We also discuss some potential directions of how consumer sustainable decision making has been shifted due to this pandemic. The results show that Indian consumers interests have been shifted towards online retailing, online payments, sustainable food habits, and a sustainable lifestyle. This study will help the businesses as well the academicians in determining what consumers are preferring during this COVID-19 pandemic. This is the first study conducted in India that addressed the consumers behaviours at the best knowledge of the authors.
    Keywords: COVID 19; Consumer Behaviour; Online Retailing; Online payments; Indian markets; Sustainable Lifestyle; Sustainable Buying Habits; Sustainable food habits.

  • Sustainable Development through CSR Practices in the area of Community Services: Evidence from Select Indian Public and Private Manufacturing Firms   Order a copy of this article
    by Vimal Srivastava, Rahul Dhiman 
    Abstract: It is pertinent to see how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), social initiative of the Government is being undertaken by the public and private sector companies to ensure sustainable development of an enterprise. Considering the importance of CSR, this paper is an attempt to examine how CSR practices in the area of community services are being conducted by various public and private manufacturing firms. Also, this paper highlights stakeholders? perceptions and involvement in CSR projects. The findings of this study reveal that CSR has itself become a business strategy which is closely aligned to the core objectives of the companies. Also, with the increase in awareness about CSR, this has become more prominent. The data reveals that according to policymakers of private sector entities, majority of the investment in the community is oriented towards sports among the nearby community people and socio-cultural development in the surrounding areas. However, the activities of private firms are focussed towards training programmes such as computer training, tailoring, making paper bags. It is recommended that since CSR activities also improves goodwill of the company so conducting regular CSR activities may also help in the sustainable development of the selected firms.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; stakeholders’ perceptions; sustainable development.

  • Attitude towards green manufacturing by Indian SMEs: A factor Analysis Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Utkal Khandelwal, Trilok Pratap Singh 
    Abstract: Increasing environmental consciousness led to the demand for green products by consumers. This dynamic is now shifting the trend from conventional manufacturing to green manufacturing practices. The paper aims to find out the various factors measuring attitude towards green manufacturing practices by Indian SMEs. For this, the survey form was used, and data were collected online and offline. In the study of standard factors, a critical factor analysis approach can help and clarify the factors that underlie attitudes towards green manufacturing practices. It is found that factors affecting attitude towards green manufacturing practices by Indian SMEs are energy management, water conservation, green actions, waste management, and government initiatives and support. The results of this study provide valuable insights into green production in Indian SMEs for performance measures. The results metrics presented in this study help decision-makers assess their organization's awareness and significance of the green production activities.
    Keywords: Green Manufacturing; SMEs; Environmental Concern; Energy Management; Water Conservation; Environmental Consciousness; Waste Management; Government Initiatives.

  • Sanitary napkin manufacturing units: creating entrepreneurial opportunities for rural females   Order a copy of this article
    by Umesh Shrivastava, Satya Ranjan Acharya 
    Abstract: This paper focuses on an entrepreneurial solution to a daunting problem of non-usage of sanitary napkins among rural females of developing countries, and the reason behind it. It encompasses an action research to understand if there can be a viable entrepreneurial opportunity amidst the taboo of menstruation. To understand the reason for non-usage of sanitary napkins, the research draws on literature to identify independent variables which are: accessibility, affordability and awareness. A sample of 500 rural females was taken in two days. Data was collected through administered questionnaire and was nominal in nature. Chi-square and pseudo R-square tests were applied to the data and accessibility had a significant loading on the dependent variable. The finding has a significant implication on rural business development through entrepreneurial opportunity recognition.
    Keywords: green accounting; environmental disclosures; content analysis; global reporting initiatives; entrepreneurial opportunity; rural entrepreneurship; sustainable development.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2021.10039254
  • Exploration of factors contributing towards livelihood security among fisher women (A study sponsored by ICSSR- IMPRESS, New Delhi)   Order a copy of this article
    by Preethi Keerthi Dsouza 
    Abstract: Women have historically been taking care of their families and have given major contributors to the livelihood securities of their households. It is observed that fisherwomen have been instrumental in giving livelihood security to their families and themselves. In the study, the factors contributing to livelihood security are analyzed. This study is conducted among fisherwomen of the two taluks in the state of Karnataka, in India. The explorations of the factors are done with the aid of factor analysis. The study finds that majority of fisherwomen were content with their role in providing food, clothing, shelter, and education to their family members. However, the facets wherein they were not happy are on saving and the low involvement of the men of the household to support them economically. In the study, five factors were explored that contribute to livelihood security among the respondents.
    Keywords: Livelihood Security; Factors; Fisherwomen; Health; Women; Coastal region; Fisheries.

  • The impact of SMEs on Kuwait's economic sustainable economic growth: What do Pearson correlation coefficients confirm?   Order a copy of this article
    by Fayez Abdulsalam, Mohammad Zainal 
    Abstract: Several studies confirm that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an important role in developing the countries' economies in terms of increasing the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), creating new jobs and decreasing unemployment, and increasing the goods' export, and reducing the poverty. This paper provides a picture of Kuwaiti SMEs and their impact on sustainable economic development. In terms of methodology, secondary data are used for the purposes of this study. These data are taken from the State Statistical Office of Kuwait for the period 2012-2019. The study involves data for macroeconomic indicators and SMEs indicators. As a statistical tool for data analysis is used the SPSS software. Findings show that the development of SME has no significant impact on Kuwait's economic growth for the analysed period, which opens many questions and opportunities for the Kuwaiti Government with regards to their policies about SMEs support and development.
    Keywords: SMEs; GDP; Pearson correlation; multiple linear regression; indicators; development; growth; Kuwait.

  • Role of workplace happiness in achieving teachers sustainable academic performance: a study on selected private universities in Delhi NCR   Order a copy of this article
    by Ajay Bhatia, Farhat Mohsin 
    Abstract: The study was conducted with the primary objective to analyse the relationship between teachers workplace happiness and their academic performance, and identify key factors impacting teachers happiness and their academic performance, which if managed well could lead to their sustainable academic performance at higher educational institutions. Past research had studied teachers academic performance more through the prism of student outcomes and overall institutional performance. While most teachers were found to be in the low to moderate happiness zone, still a positive and significant relationship existed between teachers workplace happiness and their academic performance. Diverse factors at the workplace tend to box in the teachers by constraining them to follow the teaching rituals, instead of exploring their potential, thereby leading to lack of happiness and professional satisfaction, and perpetuating an unsustainable academic performance model. Study recommends steps to enhance teachers workplace happiness as a means to achieve sustainable academic performance.
    Keywords: workplace happiness; academic performance; higher education; Happiness Index; teacher’s engagement; life satisfaction; work-life quality; subjective well-being; sustainable performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2021.10036241
  • The innovative potential of SMES in Kazakhstan in the course of entrepreneurial online education   Order a copy of this article
    by Almira Kulmaganbetova, Ziyat Kozhakhmetov, Elvira Tlessova, Bota Sharapayeva, Assel Baimbetova, Kasiya Kirdasinova, Katira Mamutova 
    Abstract: The increasing role of the innovative potential of small and medium-sized businesses is due to constant changes in the field of entrepreneurial and innovative education and the formation of a strategy to ensure the innovative attractiveness of the state. The purpose of the study is to assess the innovative attractiveness of small and medium-sized businesses and establish partnerships with the education system. The article presents a comparative study of students of business specialties whose training methods include or do not include web-based learning methods. The paper results show a significant increase in the innovative potential of entrepreneurs who have received online training and their greater willingness to create independent small or medium-sized businesses (SMEs) and introduce innovations in business. Positive changes are noted in students of all specialties in all participating universities, which makes the data more generalized.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial university; innovative education; assessment; innovative potential; small and medium-sized enterprises; expert assessment; component assessment.

  • How can we teach young consumers to become entrepreneurs? Application of specific instruments   Order a copy of this article
    by Theodore Tarnanidis, Jason Papathanasiou, Demetres Subeniotis 
    Abstract: One of the prime objectives of entrepreneurship education is to help individuals acquire all the necessary knowledge and skills, in order to create sustainable commercial enterprise ventures. The literature suggests that the teaching of relevant courses and seminars on entrepreneurship increases peoples current and future entrepreneurial perceptions and attitudes. However, in many studies across different study domains, it was reported a variation in the educational assessment of entrepreneurship in terms of producing practically applicable programmes that provide economic and social developments. Thus, the contributions of our study are to provide a robust tool of a measurement for entrepreneurship education in the Greek context by helping graduates acquire the necessary entrepreneurial skills. Having that purpose in mind, in this research, we collected data from business administration students at the University of Macedonia and applied the Ajzens theory of planned behaviour. We found that the teaching of entrepreneurship positively impacts on the three latent variables of the students' entrepreneurial intentions inventory. Further, it was reported that entrepreneurship courses/seminars acts positively to the students decision to become entrepreneurs. What is more, based on their beliefs the optimal duration of entrepreneurship courses will be two curriculum semesters. On the other, the existing courses offered to them fail to direct the following entrepreneurial capacities (opportunity recognition, develop new products/patents/services, etc.). Based on the gender distribution, we identified that females have strong intention to start a firm after their graduation. Their skills will be improved through the acquisition of knowledge from the teaching of entrepreneurship. Thus, policy makers and academics in Greece should try to expand the horizons of the existing entrepreneurial modules, through the creation bachelors and masters degrees in entrepreneurship only. Also, pre-entrepreneurship education, when the youngs are in the age of adolescence (high school level) will help them to acquire more easily the tacit knowledge and necessary skills for the creation of startups.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurial education; entrepreneurial intentions; theory of planned behaviour; gender effects; Greece.

  • Exploring the case of ISO26000 social responsibility standard as a pathway to a sustainable maritime industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Ioannis Fasoulis 
    Abstract: Sustainable Development Goals aimed at establishing a universal framework in which organisations should balance their environmental, social and economic objectives. By extension, a growing body of literature has promulgated corporate social responsibility as a suitable management model to facilitate organisations transition to sustainable development. Accordingly, the International Maritime Organisation has redefined its strategy to ensure the contribution of the maritime sector to such latest global sustainability venture. However, little research has been conducted to identify whether specific social responsibility models could contribute to SDGs achievement. Employing a content analysis method, this study explores the causative role of ISO 26000 social responsibility guidelines to SDGs realisation. The results indicated a broad range of SDGs requirements to be adequately addressed by ISO 26000 standard. In fact, this stimulates a broad range of rationales for engaging ISO 26000 guidelines in shipping, as a mean to ensure an organisations sustainable pathway.
    Keywords: sustainable shipping; ISO26000 Standard; corporate social responsibility; United Nations 2030 Agenda; SDGs.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2021.10039199
  • Workplace Spirituality and Organisational Commitment across Indian Edupreneurs: Examining the Mediating Role of Job Engagement and Organisation Engagement   Order a copy of this article
    by Alka Swami, Rajni , Pragati Hemrajani 
    Abstract: The purpose of the study is to add to the extant literature by focusing on edupreneurs exploring the possible relationships between Workplace Spirituality (WPS), Employee Engagement (EE) and Organisational Commitment (OC). In particular, the parallel mediating effect of Job Engagement (JE) and Organisation Engagement (OE) is discussed. A conceptual framework followed by survey method was embraced and data from 333 faculties employed in different universities/colleges of Rajasthan were collected. The results suggest a significant indirect relationship between WPS and OC Furthermore, JE and OE completely mediate the relationship between WPS and OC. It is fair to conclude, based on the results, that WPS is a critical element in enhancing the commitment level of edupreneurs.
    Keywords: Edupreneurs; Workplace spirituality; Job Engagement; Organisational Engagement; Organisational Commitment.

  • Slums and Entrepreneurship as an Impact of Urban Poverty and Social Exclusion in Dhaka, Bangladesh   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Rapid urbanisation encourages rural poor to migrate into urban areas in search of better economic and living condition. In Bangladesh, alike other developing countries, these migrated people often suffer from urban poverty and social exclusion; unequal wealth and income distribution, lack or low level of entrepreneurial opportunities due to socio-economic and religious forces etc. make them marginalised urban poor. Slums, the physical manifestation of poverty and exclusions, provide shelter to this large urban poor labour force. A knowledge gap exists in Dhakas slum discourse regarding the impact of these inter-linked phenomena. The study investigates Dhakas three slum communities to understand livelihood development constraints lacking entrepreneurial prospects resulting from the vicious cycle of urban poverty and social exclusion. Empirical investigation and literature review reveal, prevailing inadequate physical environment, suppressed socio-economic or cultural capitals hinder entrepreneurial activities. Findings may facilitate future research on entrepreneurship in urban slums to reduce such social inequality.
    Keywords: Slums; Entrepreneurship; Urban Poverty; Social Exclusion; Marginalisation; Dhaka.

  • Do social and professional relations matter when firms make decisions on export destinations? The Italian case of the Montefalco wine cluster.   Order a copy of this article
    by Amir Maghssudipour, Francesco Capone, Niccolò Innocenti, Luciana Lazzeretti 
    Abstract: A wide literature on economics and management analyses the determinants of firms decisions on export. However, few contributions investigated the role knowledge flows across firms co-localised within clusters play on decisions about export destinations. This paper investigates the link between multiple network relationships across firms and their decisions about countries of export destination. The analysis is based on data collected through interviews and the administration of a questionnaire to 41 wineries in the Montefalco wine cluster, Italy and data are examined using Social Network Analysis and Exponential Random Graph Models. Results show that the friendship network, the professional network, and similarity in terms of size and experience are relevant drivers of firms decisions about where to export. The work suggests novel insights on research on export, on clusters of co-located firms, and on the wine industry.
    Keywords: Export; Wine industry; Network; Cluster; ERGM; Italy.

  • Entrepreneurial Firms and their sustainability in a VUCA World   Order a copy of this article
    by Meenakshi Gandhi, Manoj Joshi 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship is a central theme of discussion, with entrepreneur coined by Jean-Baptiste, implying one who undertook a new venture. This field has its genesis from the field of economics, sociology and economic history, agglomerating as an interplay between wealth creation, resource optimisation and economic development. It is interesting to posit do all entrepreneurial firms survive in a volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous (VUCA) world with a discussion on their sustainability? We identified select papers published between 2000-2019 and entrepreneurial firms incepted between 2000-2015 but reeling under VUCA, deploying qualitative method for examining various dimensions of VUCA. We undertook a typical case of iTiffin, incepted in 2013. iTiffin has struggled to capitalise the market in VUCA times, undergoing sustainability perspectives. Similarly, start-ups posed with vulnerability often fail to steer the rough waters of the VUCA environment. We triangulated, reducing biases and concretised evidence to address the subject
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Enterprise; Entrepreneur; Entrepreneurial firm; survival; sustainability; VUCA; iTiffin.

  • Sustainable supply chain management in the food industry: a case study of enablers and inhibitors from Greek small enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Theofilos Mastos, Katerina Gotzamani 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify the enablers and inhibitors of sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) in small food enterprises. While the focus of most studies is on specific sustainability dimensions and on single companies, this study evaluates each factor in terms of environmental, economic and social sustainability across a supply chain. The analysis followed in this research includes a case study of 8 small enterprises across a Greek meat supply chain.15 enablers and 19 inhibitors are identified as key factors and classified into firm level, supply chain level and external level. Some of the most important enablers include the adoption of health, safety and quality standards, supplier trust and external support. The lack of commitment by the top management and the suppliers, and the economic uncertainty are identified as some of the key inhibitors. The end result proposes a conceptual framework based on a set of propositions that show how food small enterprises are enabled and inhibited towards the implementation of SSCM across a supply chain. In addition to identifying and categorising the various enabling and inhibiting factors, the proposed framework contributes to a better understanding of SSCM in small enterprises, by portraying the required attention that needs to be given in specific critical areas.
    Keywords: Sustainable supply chain management (SSCM); enablers; inhibitors; small enterprises; food industry; Greece.

  • The 'Journey of a Hero' and sustainable development   Order a copy of this article
    by Britain Stelly, John McCarroll, Monomita Nandy, Suman Lodh 
    Abstract: In this paper, we propose a sustainable lifestyle process for the economic agent that will lead to sustainable growth of the economy. A lack of fit between a person and their environment influences an individual to distinguish between human and non-human elements of the planet. We therefore propose that a distinction between economic agent and the planetary boundaries delays the process of achieving sustainable goals. Based on the academic literature and extensive experience of the authors, in this paper we develop the three stage Heros Journey model that with application will reduce the resistance to change by the individual, support businesses of any size and the policy makers to achieve goals for sustainability for the country in the near future. The findings of the study will contribute to the academic literature related to training, sustainability, psychology, well being and corporate finance.
    Keywords: training sustainable development; P-E fit model; courage; actor network theory; planetary boundaries; resilience.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2021.10041219
  • The Impact of Relocation or Short-Term Business Travels on the Spouses Sense of Sacrificing   Order a copy of this article
    by Hana Ornoy 
    Abstract: International business travels (whether relocation, or frequent travels) demand sacrificing not only from the expatriate but also from his/her escorting spouse. We sampled 70 couples, to test our hypothesis whether the escorting spouse in relocation assignments would sense a higher level of sacrifice, compared with those who on short frequent business travels. Results reveal that both spouses sense a feeling of sacrifice, however expatriate spouse, endure a wider-range of difficulties, which affect their entire spheres of life, such as: adapting to a new culture, and sacrificing their own career life. A particular intriguing finding reveals that expatriates believe their spouses sacrificed more than they did. The implications of the study may apply to organizations who assign their employees to international assignments. Most tend to invest resources in the expatriate him/herself who is sent for the assignment, yet very little is invested in their spouses, as well as the family.
    Keywords: business travels; relocation; sacrificial sense; escorting spouses.

  • Corporate Social Responsibility of Small Business Entrepreneurs: A Critical Review of Stakeholders Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Vimal Srivastava, Aakanksha Uppal, Rahul Dhiman 
    Abstract: This paper has two purposes i) to access how small businesses entrepreneurs are involved in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and ii) to assess the knowledge and information which may be of help in understanding the current thinking and findings on the different aspect of CSR. This paper also takes into account perceptions of various stakeholders of small business enterprises. The findings of this paper reveal that entrepreneurs engaged in small business are still to find a way to move further in CSR. CSR practices of small business entrepreneurs in various nations differed in the managerial exercises. It is found that that there is more CSR doings in Northern as compared to Southern Europe. The study recommends that small businesses have to understand that CSR actions can correspond to public relations approach, predominantly in the present market surroundings in which stakeholders might have strong concern for the welfare of the society.
    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Small Business; Entrepreneurship; Stakeholder.

  • Technological entrepreneurship in healthcare management to achieve sustainability post Covid pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Barkha Kakkar, Prashant Johri 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to better understand the state of technological entrepreneurship in the healthcare sector, which has undergone significant changes in recent decades, particularly during the Covid pandemic. It has been observed that the world has experienced numerous health hazards or pandemics over time. When we are confronted with a problem like this, we instinctively look for a solution that will assist us in resolving the issue. We have listed specific health hazards that have afflicted the world over the years in this paper. We also discuss how technological entrepreneurs have aided in the resolution of such issues. We focused on the changes and improvements in the healthcare sector that have resulted from the rapid development of technology due to entrepreneurship in this paper. The findings show that entrepreneurship along with technologies such as Blockchain, Big Data, and Cloud Computing have aided in the improvement of the healthcare sector and the well-being of the general public. Some case studies on how these technologies can aid in the fight against healthcare threats such as the Corona Virus are also discussed. The study also suggests that advanced technologies be used to combat pandemics and save many lives.
    Keywords: technological entrepreneurship; healthcare; internet of technology; blockchain technologies; pandemics; health hazards.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2021.10042679
  • Menstrual cups: awareness and acceptability for menstrual hygiene management among women and girls in Pune city   Order a copy of this article
    by Prajakta Das, Nathdaporn Saenkunmuang, Ishwaree Jange, Priyanka Jaiswar 
    Abstract: Talking about menstrual management has always been taboo but advertisements pop up now and then about various sanitary products. Most of the sanitary products are single-use and the biggest challenge is the disposal of the same. Many women suffer from rashes and irritation during their menstruation cycle from the usage of sanitary pads. Menstrual cups can be an option as it is cost-effective and reusable. The sample size of this study is 104 females between the age group of 15 and 24. The non-probability convenience sampling method is used to collect the responses through the questionnaire. Out of 104 female students in Pune, only 1% of female students are using a menstrual cup whilst the number of female students who are aware but not ready to is 74%, and 25% of female students are not aware of menstrual cups at all. Menstrual cups are not a new sanitary product but lack awareness and acceptance.
    Keywords: menstrual cup; sanitary product; awareness; reusable; sustainable development.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2021.10039802
  • Student Satisfaction as an Antecedent to Employee Engagement among Edupreneurs: A Review and Future Research Agenda   Order a copy of this article
    by Aakanksha Uppal, Ila Sharma, Rahul Dhiman 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify determinants that predict employee engagement and student satisfaction among the edupreneurs. This purpose is achieved by reviewing the literature of past two decades published in the subject field from 2000-2020. This paper also assesses the knowledge and information which may be of help in understanding the findings on the different aspect of employee engagement and satisfaction. The findings of review confirm that previous studies on establishing relationship of employee engagement with student satisfaction are rare.. The major drivers of employee engagement found are work environment, leadership, team and coworkers, training and career development, compensation, organisational policies, and workplace well-being. We also present future research agenda that encourage researchers to carry forward comprehensive studies in the area of employee engagement and student satisfaction
    Keywords: Employee engagement; student satisfaction; education industry; workplace well-being.

  • What drives sustainability practices at Rangotri? The case of a textile SME venture from India   Order a copy of this article
    by Neetu Yadav, Leela Rani 
    Abstract: SMEs play an important role in the global economy today. Given the importance of sustainability, which is intricately tied to business operations, examining what factors drive SMEs to implement elements of sustainability in their practices is a worthwhile question. This paper adopts a case study approach to present and analyse the sustainability journey, key challenges and drivers of sustainability practices of Rangotri, a textile SME in Rajasthan, India. The findings reveal that a turn crisis into opportunity approach led Rangotri to adopt sustainability practices and work under SWITCH-Asia Sustainable Textiles through Sustainable Development (SUSTEX). Additionally, the values of the owner, sustainable entrepreneurship and his willingness to adopt eco-friendly processes are seen as important drivers to take the lead on the journey of environmental sustainability.
    Keywords: sustainability drivers; textile SME; India; sustainability issues; challenges of SMEs; sustainable entrepreneurship.

  • Environmental sustainable practices among micro trading enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Dipu Varghese 
    Abstract: Concerns about the environment were seriously initiated by the Brundtland Report.
    Keywords: Micro traders; environmental sustainability; waste generation; waste disposal.

  • Sustainability and Structural Resilience of the Indian Renewable Energy Segment   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Isnt it that turbulence has taught us to be sustainable and resilient? Structural resilience has concerted towards sustenance, recovery, and re-alignment for a sustainable route. Borrowed from engineering sciences, the four dimensions as in Robustness, Resourcefulness, Redundancy and Rapidity, have been discussed in this paper to comprehend disaster resilience of business structure. It is endeavoured to study the pandemic induced behaviour aiming to probe if the business structure of the renewable energy segment in India has revealed resilience, because of volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous (VUCA) environment causing turbulence. Published resources supplemented with multiple linkages and qualitative research were used for establishing authentication. The findings attempt to decipher formative entrepreneurial steps driven by innovation and foresightedness in shaping up of the Indian renewable energy sector. This sets future scenarios for transition to cleaner energy to meet committed global sustainable goal of affordable, sustainable, and clean energy for all.
    Keywords: Energy Transition; Pandemic; VUCA; Renewable Energy Segment; India; Foresightedness; Innovation; Entrepreneurial steps; Sustainable; Resilience.

  • Sustainability and resilient strategies by entrepreneurial firms in a VUCA world   Order a copy of this article
    by Shefali Singh, Manoj Joshi, Meenakshi Gandhi, Komal Malik 
    Abstract: Do incumbent entrepreneurs possess foresight? The Covid-19 pandemic has transformed, leaving us unshielded against unknowns. It has altered our approach becoming a prodigious volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous (VUCA) moment. The post-Covid-19 world is likely to break the classical models of existing economic theories, compelling economies, and businesses to improvise their business models for sustaining in the new normal. It requires a complex symphony between hindsight-insight-foresight combination to steer a deeper understanding. This statement embarks upon a principal research question, as to how do entrepreneurial firms muster resources in building sustainable and resilient strategies while surviving in a VUCA world? The authors deployed exploratory design, using case method for capturing insights on resilient strategies adopted by an entrepreneurial firm, Zolostays. This enterprise validated the proposition of optimal unification of entrepreneurial orientation and building resilient strategies indispensable for any organisation against the unfavourable and turbulent VUCA situations.
    Keywords: entrepreneur; VUCA; Covid-19; resilience; agility; foresight; strategy; sustainable; Zolostays.

  • Fostering Conversational Artificial Intelligence (CAI) for Sustainable development in Services: A Case study of Haptik   Order a copy of this article
    by Deepak Singh, Balvinder Shukla, Manoj Joshi 
    Abstract: Conversational Artificial Intelligence (CAI) is a combination of Conversational Commerce, Chatbot, Voicebot, and Virtual Assistant. CAI has enabled interstellar opportunities for large companies, collaborating with start-ups towards sustainable development. This has to simplify the services and optimised Customer Bookings, Utility Payments, Queries, Complaints, and Resolutions. CAI aided with a framework based on Technopreneurship innovation (TIN) has been adopted at different stages of the start-up life cycle, hence, ensuring sustainable development with growth. A qualitative case study method of examination and enquiry, with an interpretive ontology, was tested for AI-based firms established between 2013-2020 across PAN India in the services sector. Through purposive sampling, the Haptik application (app) for the case study was selected for investigation deploying Inductive Reasoning. The results stated that CAI is a futuristic 'Living and is here to stay for industries like Banks, Travel, Tourism, Hospitality, Insurance, Health Care, Education, Agriculture, eCommerce, Retail, etc.
    Keywords: Conversational Artificial Intelligence; Technopreneurship; Sustainable development; Technological Innovation; Entrepreneurship; Chatbot; Start-ups; VUCA.

  • The Italian Plastics Industries toward a Plastic-Free Society: what Possible Strategies?   Order a copy of this article
    by Guido Migliaccio, Veronica De Blasio 
    Abstract: The article studies the evolution of the economic performance of plastic manufacturers in Italy. The economic analysis will analyse the past decade, influenced by the effects of the global financial crisis and the increase in environmental problems, involving the plastics industry due to regulations aimed at reducing the environmental impacts attributed to plastics. the study demonstrates good profitability of the enterprises and an ability to answer to the stimuli of the international crises, with a good possibility of self-financing for the conversion of the productive processes, especially for small enterprises that have better values than large enterprises. The results are useful for entrepreneurs and national authorities to identify appropriate policies to support the sector and its restructuring for a sustainable world. The article is one of the rare attempts to integrate economic considerations with qualitative analysis, identifying the variables ignored and verifying the effects of these variables on enterprises.
    Keywords: small; medium; and big plastic manufacturers; global crisis; profitability ratios; performance; Anova; Tuckey-Kramer test.

    by Ebere Ume Kalu, Arize Augustine, Ndubuisi Udemezue 
    Abstract: This study evaluates the comovement and volatility transmission between the two leading stock exchanges in Africa the JSE and the NSE. Using weekly return series from January 2006 (Week 1) to December 2020 (Week 3) and adopting the BEKK variant of the multivariate Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) model, it was discovered that sustained comovement between the two markets happen more at periods of economic stability than what obtains during crises periods. It is recommended that a policy advocacy in the area of creating greater interconnectedness between the JSE and NSE while building safety net for adverse news or shock transfers.
    Keywords: GARCH; BEKK model; Stock Market Volatility; JSE and NSE.

  • Exploring Factors Influencing Purchasing Behaviour of Consumers: An empirical study of Green Purchasing Behaviour.   Order a copy of this article
    by Rohit Bhagat, Vinay Chauhan 
    Abstract: The recent past has witnessed a tremendous growth in the behavioural intention of consumers towards purchasing of green products. Consumers with a positive attitude towards the environment have risen and more consumers are now willing to purchase green products. The paper aims at exploring the factors affecting green purchasing behaviour. The research paper has considered many behavioural models as the base and extracted factors affecting green purchasing behaviour. The study has explored environmental attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control as factors affecting the behaviour of consumers towards green products. The study further shows that consumer tends to show a positive attitude towards green products and the attitude becomes stronger when the product having tangible attributes is backed up by green attributes available in the product. A model has been suggested in the study showing the relationship among environmental attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control and its impact on green purchasing behaviour. The study also gives useful insight to the marketer in understanding the factors affecting consumers while making a green purchasing decision. The study furthermore puts forth that awareness among consumers towards eco-friendly products has changed the mindset of consumers which has led organisations to adopt environmentally sustainable ways of product manufacturing.
    Keywords: Environmental attitude; Subjective Norms; Perceived Behavioural control and Green Purchasing Behaviour.

  • Impact Investing resurgence amid COVID-19 pandemic: A way for sustainable development   Order a copy of this article
    by Nirali Degda Rajyaguru, Narayan Baser 
    Abstract: Impact Investing is an evolving asset class that rapidly gained traction in India by creating impact through millions of lives by investing in the businesses to create social & environmental welfare. The size and scope of the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the whole world and forced human kind to think more towards sustainable development. Entrepreneurs are require to response to better deal with structural constraints and inequalities caused by pandemic. This pandemic condition highlights the relevance of Impact Investing by stimulating investors and government actions towards sustainable business outcomes with reasonable return on investment. This paper aims to delineate on the butterfly effect of COVID-19 along with rising trends in Impact Investing. It also discusses the need of formation of Impact investing community to thwart this ongoing threat of pandemic and other societal challenges. This paper concludes that Impact Investing is the only feasible solution to supply funds for early entrepreneurs to resolve the pandemic's immediate problems of sustainability. It also suggests how to encourage the Impact Investing activities in building momentum & overcoming forthcoming challenges to achieve sustainable development goals. This paper shows the way for entrepreneurs to generate ideas for sustainable consumption & production, digitalization, agriculture & food supply chain, healthcare, education, sanitization & hygiene etc. that turn into decent economic growth post-pandemic.
    Keywords: COVID-19; impact investing; impact investment; sustainable finance; social enterprise; sustainability; sustainable development; SDG;.

  • Diagnosis Of The Economic Impacts Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Companies In The S   Order a copy of this article
    by Fabricio Piurcosky, Pedro Júnior, Rodrigo Frogeri, Felipe Oliveira, Luis Henrique Almeida, Rui Castanho 
    Abstract: Since the arrival of the pandemic in Brazil, with the first case confirmed on February 26, 2020, several actions have been taken by governments to reduce the transmission of the disease and prepare the health system to receive the most severely infected. Among these actions are the social distancing, closure of non-essential economic activities, adoption of the home office system, suspension of in-person classes, among others. The fight against the proliferation of the pandemic brought impacts of the most varied in various sectors and segments of the economy around the world, being more profound in small businesses. The objective of this diagnosis is to demonstrate the impact caused by the pandemic on companies in the S
    Keywords: Economy; Impacts; Pandemic; Covid-19; Business.

  • Is naturally coloured cotton a sustainable substitute for cotton textile?   Order a copy of this article
    by Dishoja A. S., Nisha Bharti, Sushant Malik 
    Abstract: There is a recent upsurge in consumption of environmentally sustainable products; one among them is the apparel segment, where cotton has the major stake. White lint cotton has to undergo processing and dyeing, which creates a hazardous impact on the environment. Therefore, the present study aims to better understand consumer behaviour towards cotton apparel and willingness to accept naturally coloured cotton, which positively impacts the environment and humans. Data collected from the respondents were analysed using decision tree and cluster analysis, which revealed that 28 per cent of respondents are genuinely interested and buying naturally coloured cotton apparel and considered paying fifteen per cent premium. This paper also highlights the most critical attributes of cotton, and it discusses which category the cotton textile is the most preferred. This will help in the adoption of naturally coloured cotton apparel by consumers.
    Keywords: cotton apparel; environmental impacts; sustainability; India; cotton attributes; consumer behaviour; cluster analysis; willingness to buy.

  • Public Transport as a means of Sustainable Development Reasons for Adoption and Non-adoption   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyanka Shah, Anu Gupta, Kedar Bhatt 
    Abstract: As emphasised by United Nations in SDG 11, urban transport can be one of the areas to be focused to make cities inclusive and sustainable. Considering the dearth of research in emerging countries like India, this study attempts to identify reasons for adoption and non-adoption of public transport services. For this purpose, two separate studies were conducted: a) one focusing on commuters and b) the other focusing on non-commuters. The variables important for commuters were factor analysed to identify important areas to be focused. The paper also attempts to report the reasons for non-adoption of public transport service by non-commuters and to segment the non-commuters based on their reasons of non-adoption. It has strong implications for the policymakers, which have been discussed at the end.
    Keywords: Public Transport; Sustainability; Sustainable Development; Commuters; Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

  • An examination of Internet of things in the South Korean Agricultural Industry: The case of Samsung   Order a copy of this article
    by Sean Watts, Alonso Guzman, Thi Thanh Hoa Nguyen, Thai Doan Dang, Wil Martens 
    Abstract: Fueled by the benefits of The Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI), big data, and cloud computing, South Korean consumers demand more affordable, nutritious and healthier food options. With Samsung as the market leader in IoT, a mixed methodology, qualitative action-based approach was used to identify how Samsung may expand IoT services into South Koreas industrial, agricultural sectors for efficiency and sustainability. Nonghyups representative of the South Korean Farmers Agricultural Association was surveyed, resulting in four IoT-based smart grid initiatives. It was found that despite Samsungs strong brand recognition and high product utilisation and IoTs ability to boost South Korean farming output efficiency, IoT use in South Korean agriculture is largely unknown. By merging AI and technological devices, Samsung may aid farmers to adapt its technology and build sustainability and consumers alike to enable individuals to grow food in their homes. The utilization of IoT in farming can have broad applicability in a wide variety of international agricultural markets, providing a tool to combat food security issues.
    Keywords: Internet of Things; Sustainable Agriculture; Samsung; Home Farm; Nonghyup; South Korea.

  • Sustainable development of SMEs during the COVID-19 pandemic: a comparative study between developed and developing countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Demetris Vrontis, Hani El Chaarani, Sam El Nemar, Hebatallah Badawy 
    Abstract: This study compares the sustainability and innovation strategies implemented by SMEs in developed and developing countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research explores the impact of different innovation strategies on the profitability of SMEs to reveal the best innovation strategy that SMEs must rely on during crises. Using a sample of French and Saudi Arabia SMEs, results show that French SMEs outperformed Saudi Arabia SMEs during the pandemic period. French SMEs have also showed higher capacity to implement marketing, process, product and organizational innovative strategies than their Saudi Arabia counterparts during the lockdown period. Results revealed that modifying distribution channels and product pricing are the best innovation practices implemented by SMEs in France and Saudi Arabia. Modifying product quality had a negative and significant impact on the return of assets of SMEs during the COVID-19 period. Results show any impact of organisational and process innovation on the return of SMEs.
    Keywords: Sustainable development; SMEs; COVID-19; financial performance; innovation strategy; performance strategy.

  • Farmers Zest for adopting Organic Basmati Rice Farming in Jammu   Order a copy of this article
    by Neeru Sidana, Taruna Dubey 
    Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to investigate factors influencing farmers to adopt organic farming. The dependence of agriculture on chemical pesticides as well as fertilisers was a major factor affecting the environment as well as the health of the public. Doubling the income of farmers is the main objective of government as well as farmers which can be fulfilled with the help of moving towards organic farming. Organic farming generates employment and is more laborious than conventional farming. Jammu farmers are practising organic as well as inorganic methods of farming but the need is to know factors that influence as well as restrict them from adopting organic farming. Jammu is organic by default but to attain more output farmers are using chemical fertilisers as well as pesticides. A cross-sectional study was conducted in R.S Pura village of the Jammu region. A sample of fifteen farmers was taken for the study and an interview was conducted for a week to have depth knowledge about the factors influencing the adoption of organic rice producers. Organic movement is required so that social protection from fatal diseases can be attained like cancer, sugar. The factors taken for the study were social, economic, environmental, cultivation, government, warehousing, perception of farmers. The study suggests that the government factor was the most influential factor in adopting organic but fear of reducing yield is the factor that restricts farmers from adopting organic farming. Government support also influences farmer as well as providing organic certification to farmer also motivate them for economic factor for organic production. Marketing is the main problem which farmers were facing and demand proper water availability as well as appropriate farm gate price. Farmers want to control price as well as good bargaining power and test their soil after a period of time for knowing the organic composition of soil for certification.
    Keywords: Organic; farming; farmer; factor; basmati; economic; government.

  • Enhancing sustainability and performance of supply chain organisations through rationality-riskiness analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by RAJA ROY, Soma Roychowdhury 
    Abstract: The rationality-riskiness issues amongst the members of the supply chain organisations (SCOs), the suppliers, the firm, and the customers, are derived from the communications theory-modified Johari window approach (MJW). The derived issues are then strategically integrated with proactive and reactive approaches being adopted by the SCOs, to model orientation-performance aspects of SCOs. Data collected from 206 participants of medium-size manufacturing organisations located in eastern India has been used to fit the proposed weakness-rationality-risk-dissatisfaction (WRRD) model using structural equation modelling. The results demonstrate acceptable fit values based on the recommended values of various fit indices. Further, the measures indicate and aid the SCOs to select and control appropriate risk integrated strategies for enhancing firms performance and sustainability.
    Keywords: Rationality-riskiness analysis; Johari window; structural equation modelling; supply chain organisations; sustainability; sustainable development.

  • Exploring Teachers Perception Towards Sustainability in Indian Higher Educational Institutions   Order a copy of this article
    by Ruby Sengar, Smriti Pande, Narendra Singh Chaudhary 
    Abstract: This study aims to explore the views of teachers from HEIs regarding sustainability in higher education. The qualitative research methods have been employed in this study, which involved in-depth interviews via semi-structured interviews. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) has been used to study and examine in detail the personal, lived-in experiences of the respondents. The study's findings highlight the various issues and challenges preventing higher education institutions from becoming sustainable. The authors have identified and explored that blurred vision of leaders, infrequent policy reviews, unethical conduct, demotivating organization culture, lack of social contribution and huge investment demands are putting mounting pressure on the institutions and preventing them from being sustainable. Their myopic view of fulfilling short term goals and sheer focus on the profits and money minting are making situations worse. The study provides a framework and suggests ways that the HEIs can adopt to make themselves more sustainable and overcome the challenges that come their way. The present study can be utilized by the organizations and policy-making bodies to understand its various implications and accommodate necessary changes to garner the positive and remove the bottleneck that prevails. Employers can take decisions for the betterment of employees using the present study and devise appropriate policies accordingly.
    Keywords: HEIs; Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA); Sustainability; Higher Education; Teachers; Qualitative Study.

Special Issue on: International Conference on Women Leadership and Empowerment 2020 Women’s Empowerment

  • Gender issues faced by women and its impact on job Satisfaction across sectors   Order a copy of this article
    by Sowmya K.R, Panchanatham N 
    Abstract: Women of present-day work in various organizations across sectors, in various shifts. Women do not hesitate to work on par with men adding value to the economic growth of the country. In such condition women face a lot of issues in workplace not limited to Organizational politics, Stress, Gender discrimination, and turnover intention. The researcher has done this study among working women across sectors to understand if they face any gender issues in specific and the influence of such issue on job satisfaction. Respondents were women working in any organization in any level from whom the researcher could collect data through online method. The data collected was analysed using One-way Anova, Karl Pearsons Correlation and t-test. It was found that women working across sectors perceived gender inequality in comparison to men in workplace.
    Keywords: Job satisfaction; Organisational Politics; Turnover Intention; Gender; Gender Discrimination; Women.

  • Competency as an Enabler for Entrepreneurial Intention among female post graduates   Order a copy of this article
    by Krithika J, Sowmya K.R, Syamala Gouri P 
    Abstract: The role of Entrepreneurship and the growth of a countrys economy is inseparable. Various behavioural theories agree that intention precedes any planned behaviour. One who has a strong entrepreneurial intent becomes an entrepreneur. Ajzens theory of planned behaviour(TPB) is one of the most common psychological theories that predict human behaviour and has been successful in predicting the entrepreneurial intention of the individuals in different countries and various cultural setups. Education institutions play a crucial role in the transformation of a countrys economy as suppliers of potential entrepreneurs. One of the goals of higher education is to instil the entrepreneurial skillsets among the students. Hence the study population is selected as post graduates. Growing economies witness the increase in the number of women entrepreneurs and the governments encourage diversity in the entrepreneurial space by incentivising the women-owned start-ups. Contribution of women in entrepreneurship is inevitable for the economic growth of the country with a sex ratio of 933. Hence female post graduates were selected for the study. The purpose of the research is to study the entrepreneurial intent and competencies among the female post graduates. Does possessing the entrepreneurial competencies has relation with the intent of becoming an entrepreneur? Research model is developed by extending the theory of planned behaviour with entrepreneurial competency as an additional predictor variable. Data collected from 905 female post graduates from South India. Convenient sampling technique was adopted, which is a non-probability sampling method. The data were collected through the research instrument Questionnaire and the collected data were compiled, coded and tabulated accordingly. Correlation technique and multiple linear regression analysis were the tools used to analyse the data. Results revealed that possessing entrepreneurial competency has a positive and significant effect on the entrepreneurial intention. Perceived behavioural control is the other antecedent variable that has positive and significant effect on the intention. Based on the findings, the researchers recommend to organise Entrepreneurial Management Development Programs for the female post graduates and focus on developing the entrepreneurial competencies.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Entrepreneurial Intention; Competency; Women; Theory of Planned Behaviour; Entrepreneurial Management Development Programs.

  • Fashion Clothing - Retailers Perspective and Business Strategies focusing on Market Segmentation   Order a copy of this article
    by EASWARAMOORTHY RANGASWAMY, Girija Periyasamy, Uma Rani Srinivasan 
    Abstract: Business strategies to succeed retail markets is often focused on the consumers behavioural pattern and product involvement. There is limited research focusing on fashion clothing involvement and its related management strategies adopted by retailers including market segmentation. The study describes the management strategies presently adopted by the retailers of clothes including market segmentation to keep their customers satisfied. Structured schedules were used for collecting data from 100 retailers, selected by a stratified random sampling method in Singapore. The results showed that focusing on demographics of buyers seemed to be a preferable strategy in retail trade of clothes. Practical implications include that intensively competitive world market for clothes, growth of fashion consciousness has eradicated the impediments to fashion for the masses by making affordability and availability of varieties of products. Therefore, market segmentation based on identified factors would largely benefit retailers of clothes.
    Keywords: Fashion; Clothing; Retailer; Business Strategies; Market Segmentation; Buyer Behaviour.

  • A Study on Impact of Ageing Population on Singapore Healthcare Systems using Machine Learning Algorithms   Order a copy of this article
    by Girija Periyasamy, EASWARAMOORTHY RANGASWAMY, Uma Rani Srinivasan 
    Abstract: Ageing population has been identified as a key issue for healthcare because of its adverse impact on ageing and facilities of healthcare systems. The study is focused on ageing population which has been having widespread consequences in Singapore context. Review of the healthcare systems was done as the gap revealed the need to address the objectives of the study which is to evaluate the various improvements of healthcare systems in Singapore with respect to the ageing population requirements and analyse the various factors related to ageing population that influences the health care systems in Singapore. Analysis included ANOVA, Correlation, along with Machine Learning Algorithms like Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine and Logistic Regression. The results, discussions along with findings are also provided with links to the literature and research objectives. Suggestions were provided for various healthcare systems initiatives and needs that are required to transform to cope with ageing population.
    Keywords: Ageing; Healthcare; Healthcare Systems; Healthcare Facilities; Machine Learning.

  • Work-life happiness among non-academic staff of institutions of higher learning: A demographic study   Order a copy of this article
    by Anita Sikandar, Sikandar Mohd. Abdul 
    Abstract: Happiness plays an important role in human life and career. Continuous engagement, happiness and satisfaction at the workplace have a positive impact on health that enhances productivity and performance of an employee in organisations. Happiness is generally termed as a positive emotion by psychologists. It is believed in society at large that happiness is a state of mind and the happy people can achieve success in their career through positivity. The present study investigates the level of work-life happiness (WLH) among non-academic staff from select higher educational institutions in India and to find out whether or not the demographic factors influence WLH. The results reveal that the demographic factors significantly influence the level of work-life happiness and their well-being in organisations.
    Keywords: employee commitment; employee engagement; employee wellbeing; work-life balance; workplace collaboration; work-life happiness.

  • Organisational Politics and Turnover Intention Challenges faced by women in Leadership positions   Order a copy of this article
    by Sowmya KR, Krithika J, Jagannathan K 
    Abstract: Holding leadership positions are not an exception to women off late. Women have started getting hold of the top most positions across industries and across countries. However, it is not an easy journey that they go through which therefore influences their stay in the positions peacefully. The discussed leadership challenges in this study are organisational politics and Turnover intention. Women find it tricky to handle these two issues and are found continuing to either live with these challenges or they leave the organisation and the leadership position for betterment in life. The researcher has chosen 120 respondents holding top positions from India for this study. Judgement or purposive sampling by non-probability method was used to choose the respondents. Their perception was studied and analysed using Exploratory factor analysis, and Karl Pearsons Correlation. The factors influencing women perception of organisational politics was identified and summarised that women did work with turnover intention in their job however successful positions they were holding.
    Keywords: Organisational Politics; Turnover intention; Women; Leadership; Challenges faced by women; Leadership Issues.

    by Punniyamoorthy Ramasamy, Vijayarani Sampath 
    Abstract: MSME has its ability to generate sustainability for the people by providing opportunities for steady growth, thereby giving a competitive advantage to its products by reducing the cost through technology up gradation and grab the new opportunities (Klewitz and Hansen ,2014). MSME plays a vital role in enhancing sustainable development by promoting sustainable growth in economy through careful investments, advancing sustainability in industrialisation and encouraging development and diminishing pay imbalances, several programs and services are provided to support MSME to activate their participations in reaching sustainable development are as through workable business model that could help a win-win strategy (Abraham et al.,2014 ; Belu et al .,2018). Many policies recommendations were concluded to support SMEs sector as a key driver for sustainable development in developed and developing countries in addition to emerging economies (Meyer D.F and N.Meyer, 2017). Supplier base develops and harvest the benefits on receiving quality products in a long term (Khan and Ede, 2009; Banarjee and Lahiri, 2018). It can be understood by the suppliers and if adhered they can reach different levels of operation to compete with global sources (Brentand Labuschagne ,2006;Nidumolu et al .,2009).
    Keywords: Sustainability; quality conscious; Environment protection; supplier; Technology Development ; Profitability and Fund Management.

  • Evidence of moral hazard in employee performance: an empirical analysis of contract theory   Order a copy of this article
    by Preetha G. Panicker, R. Amudha 
    Abstract: Incentive schemes in organisations are generally based on the self-interest and willingness of the employees rather than coercion. But in most of the organisation's compensation system is designed by themselves as per their interests to motivate and induce an extra effort from the agent side. But this may create certain problems in employer-employee trust which should be taken care of. The Nobel Prize won theory in Economics named Contract theory describes about the problems and issues that arise and exist in incomplete incentive contracts and suggests the possible solutions too. This research article attempts to assess the impact of the two associated paradigms, 'moral hazard' and 'risk aversion' existing in the relationship between the principal and the agent on their employment contracts that leads to the effectiveness of the employees performance based on their incentive schemes. The study attempts to analyse with appropriate statistical tools to assess the association and impact on the dependent and independent variables identified for the study. The results indicate the conformity of the contract theory and contribute to its significance to assist the decision-making and implementation of the incentive system by the corporates.
    Keywords: risk aversion; moral hazard; employee performance; contract theory; optimal incentive scheme; asymmetric information.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2021.10042650
  • Impact of Goods and Service Tax on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Shetty Deepa Thangam Geeta, S.P. Mathiraj 
    Abstract: Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises in India plays a vital role in developing a country where many public depends on micro and small enterprises. India's Gross Domestic Product largely influence by the Growth of MSMEs and present contribution in manufacturing sectors is 6.11%, and Services sectors are 24.63%. Also, more than 120 million persons are employed in these sectors. It acts as an engine in creating jobs for a developing country like India. The study is purely centred on secondary data to evaluate MSMEs performance in various parameters and bring out the impact of Goods and Service Tax on MSMEs. The main purpose of the paper is to focus on growth and opportunities of MSMEs and to find impact of GST from date of its implementation on MSMEs in parameters such as number of enterprises, employment, exports and fixed investment applying the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression method. The finding of paper shows that the share of MSME in GVA and GDP are stagnated from 2012-13 to 2017-18 and 2017-18 share of MSME in GVA increased by 0.02% which shows positive impact of GST on Gross value-added and Working enterprises and Market value of fixed assets are positively influenced by the indirect taxes on MSMEs has. This paper will help the entrepreneurs of MSMEs to overcome the challenges posed by GST implementation.
    Keywords: MSMEs; Gross Domestic Product; Nation Manufacturing Policy; Growth of MSMEs; Performance of MSMEs; Impact of GST on MSMEs.

  • Female entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance: with special reference to Sri Lanka   Order a copy of this article
    by H.M.T.S. Herath 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine how entrepreneurial orientation influences firm performance of female entrepreneurs in Sri Lanka. The proposed conceptual model delineates the direct relationship between innovativeness, proactiveness, risk-taking, autonomy and competitive aggressiveness the five dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance of female-owned entrepreneurial firms. This study used a randomly selected sample of 267 female-owned entrepreneurial firms in Sri Lanka to test the hypothesised relationships between the constructs; structural equation modelling was performed. The findings of this study confirmed that entrepreneurial orientation has a positive effect on firm performance of female-owned entrepreneurial firms in Sri Lanka. Particularly, findings confirm that all five dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation: innovativeness, proactiveness, risk-taking, autonomy and competitive aggressiveness have a positive impact on the performance of these firms. Thus, entrepreneurial orientation is a mechanism and a strategy for the success and the survival of female-owned entrepreneurial firms.
    Keywords: female-entrepreneurs; entrepreneurial orientation; firm performance; innovativeness; proactiveness; risk-taking; autonomy; competitive aggressiveness.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2021.10041953
    by T. Chellammal, K. Sathya Bama, Ravichandran Krishnamoorthy 
    Abstract: Teaching can turn into transformative when teachers and students are generating information clearly. In effective teaching educators grasp all the significant things in an effective manner. Educators can create such potential way of critical learning to their children, in which students were motivated and engaged their abilities to analyze such critical situation. This article explains about challenges faced by educators while adopting online technology such as knowledge to use the technology, attitude, time taken, mental stress, family hindrance etc. The study found that online teaching method is the effective one even though it has some difficulties also. The study also reveals that, Professors are faced some difficulties in handling online classes such as headache/migraine, family hindrance etc, how to handle the online tools etc. They feel that these are the problems they met while entering into digitalized teaching.
    Keywords: Challenges; Technology; Educators; Indian education system; Students; Pedagogical tools; Teachers attitude; Differences between conventional vs. online education; education institution; Social media; Problems.rnrn.

    by R. Samundeswari, K. Sathya Bama, Ravichandran Krishnamoorthy 
    Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic appears to have us heard in a new change in education systems around the world. Digital learning is the modus operandi of professionals looking to improve their skills in an increasingly automated world. Online learning has found a place in the curriculum of schools and universities to ensure academic continuity. Access to online learning is highly dependent on the subject and the tools the students are familiar with. This research report looks at different aspects of the challenges in the form of an online learning questionnaire. The study shows that most of the younger generations are very familiar with the use of online platforms, but use them as part of their daily academic activities, but are faced with many attitude problems that drive them to behave differently, which can be further elaborated in the findings of this study.
    Keywords: Online learning; challenges; learners; technology; classroom; digital; pedagogy; conventional; higher education; infrastructure.

Special Issue on: BAVT-2019 Agile Strategies for the VUCA World

  • Do the e-commerce and digital marketing curriculum of Indian B-schools embrace employability skills?   Order a copy of this article
    by Girish Taneja, Anu Bala 
    Abstract: The marketing curriculum must evolve with the changing technological environment and the skills demanded by prospective employers. Management graduates want to earn skills to enhance their prospects of employment. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the curriculum of e-commerce, digital and social media marketing management courses studied in the post-graduate management programs of the top 100 National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) listed management Indian institutes/colleges. This paper compared the curriculum with the skills demanded by the companies for entry-level e-commerce and digital marketing jobs. An analysis of program structure and syllabi of digital marketing, e-business/e-commerce and social media marketing was undertaken. Researchers identified the various skills required by the employers through the various job portals like,,, and This study will help Indian institutes to take a fresh look and re-design their program and courses of the e-commerce, digital and social media marketing to make it skill-oriented. This study can be considered as the first serious attempt to evaluate the curriculum of e-commerce, digital and social media marketing offered by Indian management institutes with regards to employability skills demanded by the industry.
    Keywords: digital marketing; social media marketing; e-business; employability skills; digital marketing curriculum; e-commerce syllabi; e-commerce syllabi; digital marketing syllabi; e-business syllabi; e-business curriculum.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2022.10043954
  • Supervisory Power and Reverse Incremental Influence: An Investigative Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Gowhar Rasool, Anjali Pathania 
    Abstract: Power Dynamics at workplace has emerged as a progressive area of organisational scholarship. The present study examined the diverse dimensions of supervisory power at the workplace and its influence on employee job outcomes. Unlike most of the studies in this area, the present research considered the revised power taxonomy and comprehensive job outcome variables. Based on theory as well as empirical investigations on influence of power and organisational behaviour, the study predicted positive incremental influence (either powers treated separately or in additive combination) on employee job outcomes. This hypothesis was tested in a field study in an Indian context. The field study comprised the employees of two multinational information technology companies, as it belongs to an industry which has constantly faced daunting HR challenges while embracing change. The analysis revealed that negative forms of expert and referent power explained approximately 89% of power as an independent construct. The results bring out a newer dimension to this field of study by looking at the contrasting effects of idiosyncratic negative referent and expert power in combination with nomothetic coercive power, which unlike creating a positive incremental influence resulted in reverse (negative) incremental influence. Further, the study also discussed the implications of the findings and future research direction.
    Keywords: Power Influence; Change; Negative Expert; Negative Referent; Reverse Incremental Influence.

  • Food apps to create competitive advantage and enhance customer satisfaction   Order a copy of this article
    by Shamsher Singh 
    Abstract: Online food ordering by using food apps is becoming a trend in urban area in India mainly in metropolitan cities where working family are in large number. They are short of time but have high income to spend. This study is based on the application of technology in especially food apps to create competitive advantage and enhance customer satisfaction. Primary and secondary data both have been used. Survey was conducted to collect primary data from 100 respondents to find satisfaction level and understand the use of food apps. Frequency Analysis and ANOVA was used for analyzing the data in SPSS.
    Keywords: Food apps; technology application; customer satisfaction; competitive advantage.

  • Association of mindfulness, subjective well-being and coping up with stress among university students   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyanka Nema, Shruti Sinha 
    Abstract: Graduating from a university has various personal, academic, and social challenges due to which the life of a student could be highly stressful. The goal of this research study is to understand if being mindful helps students/ individuals to cope up with stress better. Contributing to the literature this paper describes the relationship between how being mindful leads to achieving life satisfaction which often helps in coping with the stress in the university student. The study establishes the linkages between coping with stress strategy and mindfulness and also tries to assess the role of subjective well being in their relationship. The data for the study has been collected from 238 students aged in the range of 18-25 years. The data has been analyzed using SPSS 20. The model of the study utilizes Baron and Kenny's Mediation analysis. Research finding suggests that subjective wellbeing partially mediates the relationship between mindfulness and coping up with stress.
    Keywords: mindfulness; wellbeing; stress; mediation analysis.

  • Does insured health care affects economic growth in India? an application of cointegration approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Tushinder Preet Kaur, Pooja Kansra 
    Abstract: The present paper has explored the association between health insurance and GDP in India using co- integration approach. This technique has investigated relationship between the health insurance, GDP per-capita, organised employment and claim ratio for the period of 2001-2018. The resulting co- integrating vectors clearly depicts that health insurance and GDP per capita are associated with each other in long run. Further, the increase in organised employment and improvement in claim ratio have positive impact on health insurance. The study also finds long run relationship between per capita income and health insurance. It has been found that with the rise in GDP per capita income, the health insurance premium is found to be rising. This result associates that as the basic needs of the individuals are satisfied then their orientation towards secondary needs i.e financing of health, education and housing etc. increases. As a precaution to ensure minimum stability in income, savings and investments, the individuals generally need insurance of his health as good health not only enable him to ensure his healthy life style and income generation but also prevent erosion of savings and investments that individual has done in previous time periods.
    Keywords: economic growth; GDP per capita; health insurance; premium; employment; claim ratio; cointegration.

    by Sourabh Kumar, Sankersan Sarkar 
    Abstract: Work arrangements play an important role in work-life integration. This research attempts to measure the perceived flexibility and usability of different work arrangements for managing work-life and analyse the motivational and demotivational factors associated with the usage of flexible work arrangements (FWAs) in the Indian context. Survey data was collected from 446 employees working in Indian organisations. Study shows that organisations offer different FWAs in formal and informal ways. Perceived flexibility for part-time work option was highest followed by work from home/alternate work location and flexible timing. Motivational and demotivational factors for usage of FWAs discussed which will help in designing the policy for different work options to get maximum advantage of employee satisfaction, productivity, and balance in work and life. The study will provide a base to design and implement FWAs in different work environments. Future research on FWAs is suggested with industry-specific, organisational, and demographic variables.
    Keywords: Flexibility; Flexi-time; flexi-place; perceived flexibility; Work-life balance; Work-life enrichment.

  • Analysing the Effect of Cause Related Advertisement on Attitude towards Brand   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajesh Poonia, Mithilesh Pandey 
    Abstract: Consumers have been critical of the firms using a lot of natural and social resources for its growth. Firms started giving back to society by supporting certain social causes considering it as an opportunity for commercial gains and thus taking it as an investment. This social cause of the firms is propagated through the cause related advertisements. In the age of heavy media exposure, the customer tends to ignore the traditional/similar ads. Cause related ads may be useful to break the ad clutter and give headway to the said firm over its competitors. The limited awareness about the CRM ads attracts publics vulnerability to deception. The present study tries to understand the role of emotional appeal and message content and cause interest in the effectiveness of CRM ads. This effectiveness was measured for consumer attitude towards brand. Structured questionnaire method has been be used in the study and a response of 244 people across the population has been recorded. Structure equation modelling with the help of Smart PLS has been used to analyse the data. The analysis done with the help of Smart PLS has shown that Cause Interest, Content and emotional appeal are significant for CRM advertisement effectiveness.
    Keywords: Cause related advertisements; emotional appeal; message content; advertisement effectiveness; brand.

  • Impact of Different Dimensions of Globalisation on Firms Performance: An Unbalanced Panel-Data Study of Firms Operating in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Balraj Verma, Amit Srivastava 
    Abstract: The present study, based on three unbalanced panel data models, analyses the impact of the economic, political and social dimensions of globalisation on the performance of firms operating in India using ROA, ROCE and ROI as a proxy of firm's financial performance. To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first study of its kind not only for India but also for the extensiveness of the sectors used. The study is based on the financial data from 2000 to 2017 of 912 companies ranging into 14 different sectors of the economy. The result showed the significant positive and significant negative effect of the economic and political dimensions of globalisation respectively on firms performance. Yet positive but social dimension failed to establish a significant impact on firm performance. Out of the 14 selected sectors, only 3 sectors- Textiles, Communication and Transport Services, showed lower growth in comparison to other sectors.
    Keywords: Globalisation; panel data; Differential Intercept Coefficients; Firm Performance; KOF Index; ROA; ROCE; ROI.

  • Stumbling blocks in developing entrepreneurship through industrial growth centre, Lassipora: an exploration   Order a copy of this article
    by Ajaz Ahmad Ganaie, Anjali Mehra, Jinny Sharma 
    Abstract: To promote the development of industrially backward areas Government of India announced setting up of 71 Industrial Growth Centres in 1988, one of which was set up at Lassipora in Jammu and Kashmir. The present study focuses on the development of entrepreneurial spirit and the obstacles faced by the entrepreneurs while setting up their units at Lassipora. The results showed that setting up of (IGC) Lassipora not only encouraged the local entrepreneurs but also increased employment opportunities. Through the use of Garrett ranking technique, it was seen that the budding entrepreneurs faced inadequate technical consultancy as the major hurdle, followed by inadequate financial assistance, corrupt practices, delay in acquiring land, delay in getting power, delay in getting registration order, shortage of labour, delay in machinery, shortage of raw material and slackness of market, which hindered their development efforts.
    Keywords: industrial growth centre; Lassipora; entrepreneurship development; industries.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2022.10044379
  • Factor Influencing the Adoption of Mobile Banking Services: A Cross Sectional Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Pooja Kansra, Pawan Kumar, Nongthangba Thangjam 
    Abstract: With an advancement of technology, consumers nowadays have more alternatives over their preferences in banking. Thus, present study examined the factors influencing the adoption of mobile banking in Punjab. A structured questionnaire based survey was performed in the state of Punjab, with a multi-stage stratified random sample of 200 respondents. The data was analysed with descriptive statistics and Logit regression. It was observed that 59 percent of the respondents were aware of the mobile banking. The factors which influence the adoption of the mobile banking were convenience, risk, reliability and cost effectiveness. The results of Logit regression indicated a relationship between demographic variables and adoption of mobile banking. The study suggested the need to strengthen the security and privacy concerns as it will help to go a long way to expand mobile services among the general masses.
    Keywords: Mobile banking; awareness; factors; risk; security; convenience; willingness to adopt; gender; income; education.

  • Can claims on food packages build purchase intention? Assessing serial mediation impact of nutrition information and trust   Order a copy of this article
    by Pavleen Soni, Kiranjot Kaur 
    Abstract: Purpose- The present study investigates whether the sequential use of food claims and nutrition facts panel leads to trust and purchase intention. Design/Methodology-The study has been carried out using primary responses from 600 consumers from Punjab (India). Serial mediation has been used through Process macro to assess the role of nutrition facts panel and trust in building purchase intention.Findings-The results suggest that use of nutrition information and trust sequentially mediate the relationship between use of claims and purchase intention. Practical Implications-Marketers may shift focus from using claims and increase readability of nutrition facts panel as it is importantly read by consumers in order to verify claims. Consumers may be guided to view the nutrition facts panel directly from the point where claims are made on food packages for building trust and expediting consumer purchase decision making. Originality- This research work identifies antecedents to consumers packaged food purchase intention using sequential mediation. It therefore makes a theoretical as well as practical contribution.
    Keywords: Nutrition information; claims; trust; serial mediation; moderation; India.

  • Gender diversity: an approach towards agile women employees in the VUCA business environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Anjali Sharma, Priyanka Chhibber 
    Abstract: In today's diverse and competitive world, maintaining workplace diversity is as important as earning profits. Researchers have highlighted the importance of workplace diversity and how it plays an imperative role in the overall growth of an organisation. The study reflects the importance of workplace diversity, role of women and also gives an insight as to how the journey of women runs in an organisation. Gender diversity in the workplace is an important element across the world in todays era, India is no different, where women are gradually holding leadership and managerial positions. Results are from Indian, as well as outside of India, it probes into the policies organisation possesses, in order to support gender diversity and if not, what all are the measures an organisation can take to have a better working environment for all employees, especially for its female employees. Research was conducted in Siemens Ltd. Gurgaon, India and Malawi Housing Corporation, based in Malawi, South-Eastern Africa.
    Keywords: workplace diversity; gender diversity; imperative role; leadership; India; Africa; women leadership; volatility; uncertainty; complexity; ambiguity; VUCA.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2021.10043899
  • Foreign Direct Investment Led Economic Growth: An Analysis of BRICS Economies using Panel Data   Order a copy of this article
    by Divya Budhia, TushinderPreet Kaur 
    Abstract: BRICS are the fast growing emerging economies and have become most favoured destination for the foreign investors. Present paper endeavours to study the effect of capital formation, employment and foreign direct investment inflows on GDP in BRICS countries with panel data for the time period, 2001-2017. Gross Domestic Product was taken as explained variable, and GFCF (Gross Fixed Capital Formation), Employment and Foreign Direct Investment inflows were taken as explanatory variables. Two different models i.e. FEM and REM were used for the analysis. Hausman test revealed that FEM model was applicable to the data. We found that all the three explanatory variables enhanced GDP. The results are in agreement with previous literature and strengthen the argument of giving a fillip to capital, labour and FDI to boost economic growth in BRICS countries.
    Keywords: BRICS; FDI; GDP; panel regression.

Special Issue on: International Conference of College of Social and Management Sciences 2020 and CU-ICE 2020 Sustainable Business Models for the Growth of Indigenous Businesses in Africa

    by Benneth Eze 
    Abstract: This study examines the effect of innovation, particularly process innovation, product innovation and market innovation, on the survival of agricultural-based MSMEs in Nigeria. Survey research design was employed, by administering questionnaires on some selected chief executives of agricultural-based MSMEs in Lagos, Kano and Anambra states. The findings revealed that product innovation, process innovation and market innovation have a positive and significant individual effect on the survival of agricultural-based MSMEs, with coefficients and probability values of ?1= 3.049, P-value<0.05; ?2= 5.152, P-value<0.05; ?3= 4.919, P-value<0.05 for product innovation, process innovation and market innovation respectively. The F-stat (22.803, P-value<0.05) shows that innovative elements are good predictors of enterprise survival of the selected agricultural-based MSMEs. The Adjusted R2 suggested that a 35.6% variation in agricultural-based MSMEs survival is accounted for by the innovative elements. Therefore, it can be concluded that innovativeness has a significant effect on agricultural-based MSMEs survival, particularly, process innovation, market innovation and product innovation. It is recommended that agricultural-based MSMEs should be innovative, particularly as regards their process, market and product innovations, as this tends to enhance their survival. Furthermore, the small and medium enterprises development agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN), Ministry of Agriculture and other MSMEs supporting ministries, departments and agencies (MDAs) should encourage agricultural-based MSMEs to be innovative.
    Keywords: Agriculture; Innovation; Market Innovation; MSMEs; Process Innovation; Product Innovation.

  • The Role of Skill Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development in Improving Economic Independence among Serving Corp Members in Ibadan North Local Government, Oyo State   Order a copy of this article
    by Tomisin Aruleba, Medinah Hamid 
    Abstract: The broad objectives of the study are to: determine the extent to which NYSC Corp members' enrol for skill acquisition training during their service year; know the extent to which NYSC Corp members utilizes skills acquisition to enhance their economic independence and; ascertain the extent to which the skills acquired by NYSC Corps members' enhance their economic independence in Ibadan North Local Government area of Oyo State. A descriptive cross-sectional survey research design was adopted. The population (1166) consist of batch A, B and C 2017-2018 serving National Youth Service Corp (NYSC) members in Ibadan North Local government area of Oyo State. The sample size is 300. Simple random sampling was also adopted as the sampling technique. It was revealed that enrolment of corps members into vocational skill training during their service year is to a high extent of enrolment. Also, the skills acquired during the national service year has been utilized properly. And the skills acquired through the NYSC SAED have enhanced economic independence. The study recommended that the Government should give support to serving corps members who have undergone the training programme and willing to practice. NYSC SAED should appraise the programme and seek feedback from corps members to know the areas of the programme to be improved.
    Keywords: Skill Acquisition; Entrepreneurship Development; Vocational skill; self-sustaining; Training Programme; Economic Independence.

  • Obstacles facing women-owned enterprises: A case for Sub-Sahara African women   Order a copy of this article
    by Oyedele Ogundana 
    Abstract: Women-owned enterprises face several obstacles. However, it is not clear which of these challenges are the most severe within Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify and rank the obstacles facing women-owned enterprises in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This knowledge is crucial for planning and allocating resources in a way that can better support the development of women-owned enterprises in SSA. This paper utilises secondary data collected by the World Bank Enterprise Surveys from 40 countries within SSA. A total of 2341 female business owners were interviewed between 2006 to 2018. This data was downloaded and analysed using exploratory data analysis. The findings showed that the lack of access to finance is the biggest obstacle facing women-owned enterprises in SSA. This is followed by the absence of electricity, practices of the informal sectors, tax-related issues and political volatility. Overall, the barriers militating against women-owned enterprises in SSA are largely exogenous, which means that women have little or no control over them. This study contributes to the literature on gender and entrepreneurship by ranking the obstacles that confront women-owned enterprises in a developing country region such as the SSA. It contributes to the knowledge that policymakers require for policy development and effective resource allocation within SSA and other developing countries. For women entrepreneurs, this study unravels endogenous barriers that are within the scope of female business owners. Therefore, women entrepreneurs can take innovative steps to resolve such barriers rather than wait for external assistance, which frequently never arrives.
    Keywords: obstacles; Sub-Saharan Africa; women entrepreneurs; women-owned enterprises.

    by Ola Olusegun Oyedele, Mutiu Adebowale Oyero 
    Abstract: This study examines how techno-entrepreneurship, measured as Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) and Research, Development and Innovation (R, D & I), impacts sustainable business performance in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A random sample of 126 respondents was taken from purposively selected agro-businesses for a survey and responses were analyzed using linear regression. The study results demonstrate significant and positive impact of techno-entrepreneurship on the profitability and earned revenue of SMEs, thus suggesting a techno-entrepreneurship model - nexus of drivers, constructs and prospects - as a solution to drive sustainable business performance. Based on findings, the study recommends that businesses should possess or sell and commercialize IPRs and practice open innovation (R, D & I). Finally, policy makers primarily the government - should formulate & implement supportive policies, strategies and as well create an enabling environment for techno-entrepreneurship to thrive, towards growth of SMEs and the larger economy.
    Keywords: Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Research; Development and Innovation (R; D & I); Knowledge transfer; Commercialisation; Business Performance; Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs); Growth; Science & Technology; Government; Nigeria.

  • Assessment of Capital, Investment and Trade Flows in West Africa: Direction for Economic Efficiency   Order a copy of this article
    by Oluwabunmi Adejumo, Akintoye Adejumo 
    Abstract: The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) was established to actualize the harmonization, coordination of national policies, and the promotion of integration programmes within the union. Thus, given the 1986 policy-shifts for liberal economic system and integration, this study assesses the extent to which there has been pay-offs or otherwise using the macroeconomic indicators of trade, investment and capital flows within the union. This is with a view to ascertaining if there has been any direction for economic efficiency as well as establishing directions for future sustainability of ECOWAS as a union. Using a dataset of 1980-2018, productivity growth ascertains the rate of efficiency within the sub-region; while the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) determines the direction of causality, the extent of (in) economic efficiency vis-
    Keywords: Growth; Efficiency; Development; Integration; Economic.

  • Contributions of Industry 4.0 to the Performance of Entrepreneurship in Katsina State, Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Lukman Oladejo Gbolagade, Bashir Alao Babatunde, Munir Shehu Mashi 
    Abstract: The study investigates the contributions of industry 4.0 to entrepreneurship performance in Katsina State. The study adopts a longitudinal survey research approach and a structured questionnaire to collect its primary data. 200 entrepreneurs that specialized in manufacturing, trading, construction, poultry farming, and private hospitals in the state were selected using multistage sampling method. Data was analysed using Multiple Regression and Simple Pair t-test. The study found that industry 4.0 is an intensifying revolution for better improvement in the performance of entrepreneurs that have fully embraced the use of technologies and automation as brought by the forth industrial revolution. It was amazing that they experienced more business expansion, generated more profit and employed more labour than those that are yet to embrace the use of automation. The study therefore recommended among others that there should be general enlightenment on the adoption of technologies introduced by this industry 4.0 by all entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: Industry 4.0; technologies and entrepreneurship performance.

    by Kayode OBANIYI 
    Abstract: This study examines various components of Entrepreneurship Agricultural Dynamic Curriculum (EADC) which can help to sustain entrepreneurship now and in the future. This paper used qualitative data from review and inspirational thought to emphasize the contribution of neglect agricultural sector to entrepreneurship. This finding of this study include; inclusion of agricultural curriculum to entrepreneurial study in primary , secondary, and tertiary institutions, practical agriculture in areas of agronomy, aquaculture, forestry, apiculture, hydroponic, horticulture, animal production, soil management, climate change management, marketing, record keeping, agribusiness and others.. Moreover, lecturers, teachers and trainers should be involved in the development of the new entrepreneurship curriculum (EADC). In conclusion, government and non-governmental organization should support the restructuring of old curriculum and formation and implementation of the new curriculum through sponsorship and capacity building of the resource personnel who engaged in the development of entrepreneurship agricultural dynamic and sustainable curriculum
    Keywords: Agriculture; Entrepreneurship; Education; Curriculum; Sustainable development; Primary; Secondary; Tertiary; Lecturers; Government ; Non Government.

  • Economic Growth and Unemployment in Nigeria: An Empirical Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Timothy Aderemi, Lydia Ojelade, Odunayo Ogunsanwo, Olowo Samson 
    Abstract: In the past decades, the Nigerian economy had experienced substantial economic growth before the economy slipped into recession in 2015. It is highly paradoxical that economic growth has not metamorphosed into employment generation in the country over the years. This study empirically examined the short run and long relationship between economic growth and unemployment in Nigeria from 1990 to 2015 within the framework of ARDL and ECM. Consequently, the findings that originated from study could be summarized as follows; firstly, 57% of disequilibrium due to shock in the previous year to equilibrium in the current year is corrected in the model. However, Economic growth and unemployment rate have a significant positive relationship in the short run. This implies that the Nigerian economy experienced jobless growth in the short run but reverse is the case in the long run. Similarly, money supply and unemployment rate have an insignificant positive relationship in the short run but positive in the long run. Trade openness and unemployment rate have a significant positive relationship in the short run but the relationship is not significant in the long run. In addition, inflation rate and unemployment rate have an insignificant negative relationship in the short run. Whereas the relationship becomes positive in the long run. Finally, the vital findings that originated in this study led to the following recommendations; if inclusive growth (unemployment reduction) is the goal of the policy makers in Nigeria, policies that will ensure increasing productivity in all the sectors of the economy and discouraging importation should be embarked upon in the country.
    Keywords: Economic Growth: Unemployment: Jobless Growth: ARDL: ECM: Nigeria.

  • Small-scale enterprise: exploring social adaptation of survival among traders in Akure, Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Damilola John Micah, Ezekiel Tunde Omolayo 
    Abstract: This study examined creative and socio-cultural characteristics exhibited by small scale traders which predicted success and survival in entrepreneurial activities in the city of Akure, Nigeria. Using Weber and Kalbergs Rationality, 600 traders were sampled in descriptive design, multistage sampling and quantitative and qualitative method. Respondents mean age was 39.5. Sixty-six percent earned less than N50, 000 monthly incomes. Creativity skills like customer relationship (68.7%), complimentary cards (45.3%), decent dressing (68.7%) and brand name (31.2%) retained patronage. Apprenticeship (49.7%) contributed to creative knowledge. Cultural factors like spouses partnership (31.5%), family size (63.0%), religion (69.0%) and age (62.0%) contributed to success. Interpersonal relationship (x2=64.5; P<0.000); dress code (x2=24.3; P<0.021); and apprenticeship (x2=31.8; P<0.030) were significant and predicted entrepreneurship success. Respondents showed that cultural and creative abilities served as social capital which drive patronage and adaptation of ventures. Social capital is required as prerequisite and recipe for success in small ventures.
    Keywords: social capital; creative skills; cultural value; success; entrepreneurship; social adaptation; economic capital; traders; patronage; apprenticeship; small-scale enterprise.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2021.10039889
  • E-service quality dimensions and customer satisfaction among users of automated saving platforms in a typical developing economy   Order a copy of this article
    by Ebuka Christian Ezenwafor, Adeola A. Ayodele, Blankson Governor Esiti 
    Abstract: This study assesses the nexus between e-SQ model and customer satisfaction among the users of automated saving platforms in Nigeria. In a bid to achieve this objective, survey research design and quota sampling were used as research design and sampling method, respectively. A questionnaire was used while the study population comprises of active users of automated saving platforms that reside in Anambra state. Validity and reliability of the study were carried out using content validity and Cronbachs alpha coefficient, respectively. Formulated hypotheses were tested using multiple regressions via SPSS. The finding of this study revealed that website design, reliability, personalisation, ease of use and trust have appreciable effect on customer satisfaction while responsiveness does not have a significant impact on customer satisfaction. It was recommended that automated saving platforms' service providers should modify their technology to ensure that an average customer can easily access and navigable website the site with no glitch.
    Keywords: e-service quality; customer satisfaction; automated saving platform; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2021.10042747
  • Innovative Leadership Styles: Innovative Entrepreneurial Leadership and Sustainable Economy A Case Study of Asia, Europe And America   Order a copy of this article
    by Mercy OGBARI, Favour OLAREWAJU, Edokpayi ARASOMWAN, Chy NWUNDE 
    Abstract: Prevalent problems of scarce resources, countless needs, globalisation, rising and evolving competition have necessitated the need for entrepreneurial and innovative leaders who can go beyond building and sustaining economies. As such, this study seeks to investigate the most promising innovative leadership style and its unique characteristics for sustaining business entrepreneurs and the world at large. An integrative literature review is adopted for this analytical paper as this is directed at gathering sufficient information and facts from reality to appropriately answer the research questions. Several leadership styles are observed including autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire, hierarchal, psychological, participative, directive, transactional and transformational/soft leadership to shed more light on which is more suitable for the current world that we live in today. The behavioural theory of Blake-Mouton Leadership Grid is an appropriate theoretical foundation for discussing transformational soft leadership. This is backed up with empirical evidence of distinguished leaders from three of the worlds most advanced countries - Asia, Europe and America who have made a lasting impact in society. It is concluded that transformational and participative leadership should be combined to yield optimum outcomes within our society. Hence, policy implications entail trust among other factors as key mediators for SCL and PL to induce desired effects in firms and countries as well as knowledge sharing and learning platforms for choosing levels of consultation and joint decision-making styles for unique contexts given the ineffectiveness of one-size-fits-all strategy.
    Keywords: Keywords: Leadership; Innovative; Entrepreneurial; Sustainable Economy.

    by Busola Kehinde, Olaleke Ogunnaike, Omotayo Adegbuyi, Oladele Kehinde, Ayodotun Ibidunni, Daniel Ufua 
    Abstract: This research paper presents a scale development of operational efficiency construct within the Higher Education Institution, specifically, in the Nigerian University context. The present study setting included the teaching staff of Covenant University Nigeria. This study adopted a multi-stage development of scale process using a survey method in which seven dimensions of operational efficiency were identified. These dimensions include; teaching, research and publication, recruitment and selection, community service, technology, training and development and effective communication. The results showed that there exists a multi-stage nature of operational efficiency within the Higher Educational Institution. The study, therefore, provided evidence of the scale's reliability and validity. The findings from the study propose a new approach to measure, evaluate operational efficiency within the higher educational institution system in Nigeria. It also shows the need to go beyond the traditional approach to efficiency.
    Keywords: Operational efficiency; Technology; Recruitment and selection; Teacher quality; Nigerian higher educational sector; Operational scale development.

Special Issue on: International Conference of College of Social and Management Sciences 2020 and CU-ICE 2020 Sustainable Business Models for the Growth of Indigenous Businesses in Africa

  • Does Entrepreneurship Financing Contribute to Industrial Development in Nigeria? Evidence from Small and Medium Scale Enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Timothy Aderemi, Ishola Aransiola, Lucas Ojo, James Ojo 
    Abstract: Underdevelopment of industrial sector has been one of the critical challenges confronting Nigeria in the last few decades. Against this backdrop, the objective of this study focuses on the relationship between entrepreneurship financing and industrial development in Nigeria between 1990 and 2018. Data were collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin in which Dynamic Ordinary Least Square and Granger causality techniques were utilized to address the objective of the study. The following are the crucial findings that originated from the study. Manufacturing and food processing business financing and industrial output have an insignificant positive relationship. Broad money supply and industrial output have a significant positive relationship. Also, aggregate commercial banks financing has a significant positive impact on industrial output. Meanwhile, manufacturing and food processing business financing Granger caused industrial output in the country. It could be concluded that manufacturing and food processing business financing has the potential of bringing development to industrial sector of the Nigerian economy. In view of the pertinent findings put forward in this study, the following recommendations are made for the policymakers in Nigeria. If the goal of the Nigerian policy makers is industrial development, manufacturing and food process SMEs business financing should be encouraged by all the financial institutions especially deposit money banks in disbursement of loans and advances. In the same vein, the Central Bank of Nigeria should implement appropriate policies that will redirect the deposit money banks/commercial banks lending to manufacturing subsector of the Nigerian economy.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Finance; Industrial Development; SMEs; Nigeria.

Special Issue on: Modern Managerial and Social Practices for the Sustainable Development of Society

  • Active Aging: A way for Social Sustainability in ageing Indian society   Order a copy of this article
    by Shikha Kumari, Alka Sharma 
    Abstract: The 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda sets out a universal action plan for achieving sustainable development in a balanced way and seeks to promote human rights of all people, for all sections of society, at all ages, with a specific focus on the most vulnerable section, i.e., older people. The segment of older people in India has been increasing at a high rate lately, and this pattern will be the same in the coming years. The objective of this study is to examine the role of active ageing in achieving social sustainability of older people. For the conceptual framework of the study, two key components of social sustainability, i.e., well-being and social justice, has been taken into consideration. Data is collected from elderly respondents in residential colonies of NCR, India, through semi-structured interviews. The analysis shows social sustainability is the natural outcome of the various engagements of the active aged individuals.
    Keywords: Sustainable development; Social Sustainability; Active Aging; elderly; well-being engagements; case study.

  • Green accounting and its application: a study on reporting practices of environmental accounting in India   Order a copy of this article
    by K.R. Gola, Priyam Mendiratta, Gaurav Gupta, Mridul Dharwal 
    Abstract: Green Accounting is an important device for understanding the role of business ventures in the economy towards environmental security and welfare. It is a well-known term for environment and natural resources accounting. Many companies all over the world have initiated the practices of making environmental disclosures in their annual reports. However, these practices are still largely voluntary in nature. The objective of this research paper is to study the environment-related disclosures of companies taken from Nifty 50 based on the summary of Global Reporting Standards. Content Analysis, both sector-wise and keyword-wise is used on the annual reports of 29 sample companies using MAXQDA software. A high count of the formulated keywords is observed in some relevant sectors of Energy, Cement and Metals.
    Keywords: green accounting; environmental disclosures; global reporting initiatives; content analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2021.10035128
  • Linking Non-Financial Motivators of Women Entrepreneurs with Entrepreneurial Satisfaction: A Cluster Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Radha Yadav, Dharmendra Kumar 
    Abstract: Women entrepreneurs confronted with several obstacles while managing their business houses and dealt firmly developing successful ventures over time. The long term sustainability of their business reflects their entrepreneurial skills. The existence of certain forces empowered entrepreneurial drive of women entrepreneurs leading to their satisfaction and engagement in their ventures. The present investigation evaluated the antecedents of womens entrepreneurial satisfaction by examining 405 women entrepreneur participants using confirmatory factor analysis and cluster analysis techniques. This study comprises only micro and small businesses of women. The non-monetary determinants emerged out as the significant determinants of satisfaction of women entrepreneurs. The results revealed four clusters of women entrepreneurs based on motivational theory such as Micro achievers, Entrepreneurial team, liberal and Socialist Feminism, and optimism. The results also indicated that the clusters of women entrepreneurs' respond distinctively towards various dimensions of entrepreneurial satisfaction i.e. Quality of married life, overall venture satisfaction, achieved innovation, achieved freedom, team orientation, achieved recognition and identity, and achieved employee trust.
    Keywords: Women Entrepreneurship; Non-Financial Motivators; Entrepreneurial team; Quality of Married Life; Recognition and Identity; Education; Experience; Venture satisfaction.

  • Exploring Espoused Competencies from Management Teachers for Sustainability of Indian Business Schools   Order a copy of this article
    by Kanupriya Misra Bakhru, Naseem Abidi 
    Abstract: The growth and development of management education in India is challenged by various factors. This research paper explores espoused competencies from management teachers in leading Indian business schools. Required professional and personal competencies of teachers were identified by systematic literature review, then experience survey was used to adapt them for management teaching, and primary data was collected through questionnaire, on how frequently these competencies are being practiced by the management teachers in different categories of B-Schools in National Capital Region, Delhi in India. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), descriptive statistics and Analysis of Variance were used to analyse the data. Results show that most practiced competencies by management teachers are related to knowledge, intelligence and creativity and category of business schools differ significantly on all the three identified factors based on personal competencies. Business schools of state universities were found low on average score on almost all explored competency factors.
    Keywords: Espoused Competencies; Management Teachers; Indian Business School; Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    Abstract: Despite an impressive growth performance of the agriculture sector in India, the sector has always been a very unequal affair. The green revolution in India left India with uneven effects of growth on products, regions and classes of people. With this growing concern about increasing inequality, the spatial dimensions of inequality have begun to attract considerable policy interest. However, there is remarkably little systematic documentation of the facts of what has happened to Indian agriculture sector with respect to spatial and regional inequality over the past three decades. The present paper in this regard, is an attempt to focus the extent of disparity that exists in the agricultural sector among the fifteen major states of India; to identify the major factors in explaining this disparity and finally to suggest policy interventions to narrow down it for a sustainable development of the sector across the states of India. On the basis of data collected from various secondary sources for the period 1981- 2015, the paper presents strong evidence of inequality in agricultural income across states of India. The study confirms that the gap between poorer and richer states has grown in the post reform period. Empirical results show that the variation in the agricultural NSDP is significantly and positively affected by the variations in fertilizer use and variation in length of pucca road. The results also confirm that variation in the number of tractors use and variation in the cropping intensity have positive impact on the variation in agricultural income though not statistically significant.
    Keywords: Agriculture; Disparity; Inequality; Spatial and Regional Inequality,Sustainable Development.

  • Farmer Producer Organisations for Sustainable Development of Tribal Communities   Order a copy of this article
    by Sushant Malik, Dharmesh K. Mishra, Dipen Paul, Joel Noronha 
    Abstract: In the present context, agriculture has lost relevance for small and marginal farmers. The case is even worse for marginal communities like tribals. Producer Organisations are considered a solution for transforming the lives of farmers, reducing transactional costs, providing better collective marketing platforms, creating employment opportunities, improving income generation and capacitating human resource in terms of market competitiveness. This paper explores the potential of Farmer Producer Organisations (FPOs) as a communitarian institution in the context of tribals of Nandurbar district through the study of Yaha Aadivasi Navapur Farmer Producer Company Ltd., Nesu Parisar Farmer Producer Company Ltd. and Bahugunit Farmer Producer Company Ltd., Nandurbar and evaluates these community based organisations on the parameters of Financial Services, Input Supply, Procurement & Packaging, Marketing, Insurance Services, Technical Services, Convenience and Consultancy Services.
    Keywords: Sustainable Agriculture; Tribals; Community Based Organisations; Producer Organisations; Marginal Communities.

  • Endeavor towards sustainability: An empirical study of an Indian Electronics Retail Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Deepika Joshi 
    Abstract: This exploratory study seeks to examine the reverse supply chain as a source of sustainability in retail firms of India. The determinants of sustainability are discerned using data collected from 302 consumer electronics retailers. The findings reveal that at retailers level, sustainability is embedded in planning for reverse collection process, monitoring the information, dealing with uncertainties, supply chain responsiveness for productivity and decision making at strategic level. The reverse supply chain strategies implemented by Indian electronic retailers is a distinctive contribution of the presented research. The retailers practice different approaches to achieve benefits of their eco-friendly strategies. But certain institutional and structural constraints limit their intent. Such concerns are highlighted and viable solutions are suggested for immediate industry practice.
    Keywords: Sustainability; organizational practice; reverse supply chain; consumer electronics retailers; India.

  • Pricing challenge in servitisation: can servitisation improve ecological sustenance?   Order a copy of this article
    by V.T. Rakesh, Preetha Menon 
    Abstract: Servitisation is a business strategy adopted by companies worldwide. This paper attempts to find out whether servitisation is a runaway success and if not, the reasons for holding it. Further it is explored whether servitisation help improve the ecological well-being of a country. Methodology adopted was a systematic literature review. Results show that servitisation has been successful but not to the extent of companies adopting it as a blind strategy. Among the factors that led to its failure, pricing was the prominent factor as branded companies compete with local unorganised service providers. A pricing model incorporating brand equity would make it possible for branded companies to price their services right the first time itself. Researches show that the current cases of servitisation do not add much value towards the cause of ecological sustenance. But they also say that servitisation and sustainability complement each other, and commercial success of servitisation will enhance sustainability and therefore circular economy.
    Keywords: servitisation; brand equity; customer equity; pricing models; industrial services; services marketing; deservitisation; circular economy; sustainability; ecological sustenance.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2021.10042891
  • Sustainable spare parts inventory control-using companywide interchangeability technique: perspective to petroleum & fertiliser industries   Order a copy of this article
    by Sandeep Sharda, Sanjeev Mishra 
    Abstract: Industries are using the conventional method for spare parts inventory control. The current practise leads to duplication and overstocking of spare parts on annual basis. This research aims to provide a sustainable approach for spare parts inventory control to nullify overstocking and account for leftover non-recommended spare parts. The framework includes a macro-level review to reflect the maximum level of total spare parts inventory and its associated cost for the existing factory warehouse. A proposed Inventory Control Matrix Model (ICMM) is used for the above analysis and is derived from Boston Consulting Group (BCG). During the project stage, sustainable procurement of spare parts can also be done using Companywide Interchangeability Implementation Model (CIIM). Six hypotheses are derived and tested statistically based on obtained responses of experts for the suitability of this framework. The approach is also validated with a real case of the industry with indicative sustainable stock levels over conventional policies.
    Keywords: sustainable spare parts inventory; companywide interchangeability; BCG; Boston Consulting Group; inventory control matrix model; companywide interchangeability implementation model; sustainable stock level; inventory management; entrepreneurship.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2021.10041785
  • Integrating Strategic Flexibility and Marketing System to achieve Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Conceptual Refinement and Framework   Order a copy of this article
    by Kumar Shalender, Naman Sharma 
    Abstract: The purpose of the research is to integrate strategic flexibility and the marketing system of an organization. Using the extant literature, the study redefines the importance of the relationship between strategic flexibility and the marketing system of the firm. Further, with the help of real-world cases from the passenger vehicle (PV) segment of the Indian automobile industry, the study highlights the competitive advantage an automobile firm can have owing to this integration. Authors then propose an integrative model comprising strategic flexibility and marketing system in pivotal positions while describing prerequisites that are required to achieve such a successful integration. The integrative model also features a mediating factor of environment turbulence which could either amplify or attenuates the degree of integration required between strategic flexibility and marketing system. The study has implications for both academia and industry which are discussed in the concluding section of the research.
    Keywords: Automobile; Customers; Flexibility; Marketing; Performance; Strategy; Sustainability.