World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development (80 papers in press)
Exploration of factors contributing towards livelihood security among fisher women (A study sponsored by ICSSR- IMPRESS, New Delhi)
by Preethi Keerthi Dsouza
Abstract: Women have historically been taking care of their families and have given major contributors to the livelihood securities of their households. It is observed that fisherwomen have been instrumental in giving livelihood security to their families and themselves. In the study, the factors contributing to livelihood security are analyzed. This study is conducted among fisherwomen of the two taluks in the state of Karnataka, in India. The explorations of the factors are done with the aid of factor analysis.
The study finds that majority of fisherwomen were content with their role in providing food, clothing, shelter, and education to their family members. However, the facets wherein they were not happy are on saving and the low involvement of the men of the household to support them economically. In the study, five factors were explored that contribute to livelihood security among the respondents.
Keywords: Livelihood Security; Factors; Fisherwomen; Health; Women; Coastal region; Fisheries.
Role of workplace happiness in achieving teachers sustainable academic performance: a study on selected private universities in Delhi NCR
by Ajay Bhatia, Farhat Mohsin
Abstract: The study was conducted with the primary objective to analyse the relationship between teachers workplace happiness and their academic performance, and identify key factors impacting teachers happiness and their academic performance, which if managed well could lead to their sustainable academic performance at higher educational institutions. Past research had studied teachers academic performance more through the prism of student outcomes and overall institutional performance. While most teachers were found to be in the low to moderate happiness zone, still a positive and significant relationship existed between teachers workplace happiness and their academic performance. Diverse factors at the workplace tend to box in the teachers by constraining them to follow the teaching rituals, instead of exploring their potential, thereby leading to lack of happiness and professional
satisfaction, and perpetuating an unsustainable academic performance model. Study recommends steps to enhance teachers workplace happiness as a means to achieve sustainable academic performance.
Keywords: workplace happiness; academic performance; higher education; Happiness Index; teacher’s engagement; life satisfaction; work-life quality; subjective well-being; sustainable performance.
The innovative potential of SMES in Kazakhstan in the course of entrepreneurial online education
by Almira Kulmaganbetova, Ziyat Kozhakhmetov, Elvira Tlessova, Bota Sharapayeva, Assel Baimbetova, Kasiya Kirdasinova, Katira Mamutova
Abstract: The increasing role of the innovative potential of small and medium-sized businesses is due to constant changes in the field of entrepreneurial and innovative education and the formation of a strategy to ensure the innovative attractiveness of the state. The purpose of the study is to assess the innovative attractiveness of small and medium-sized businesses and establish partnerships with the education system. The article presents a comparative study of students of business specialities whose training methods include or do not include web-based learning methods. The paper results show a significant increase in the innovative potential of entrepreneurs who have received online training and their greater willingness to create independent Small or Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) and introduce innovations in business. Positive changes are noted in students of all specialities in all participating universities, which makes the data more generalised.
Keywords: entrepreneurial university; innovative education; assessment; innovative potential; small and medium-sized enterprises; expert assessment; component assessment.
How can we teach young consumers to become entrepreneurs? Application of specific instruments
by Theodore Tarnanidis, Jason Papathanasiou, Demetres Subeniotis
Abstract: One of the prime objectives of entrepreneurship education is to help individuals acquire all the necessary knowledge and skills, in order to create sustainable commercial enterprise ventures. The literature suggests that the teaching of relevant courses and seminars on entrepreneurship increases peoples current and future entrepreneurial perceptions and attitudes. However, in many studies across different study domains, it was reported a variation in the educational assessment of entrepreneurship in terms of producing practically applicable programmes that provide economic and social developments. Thus, the contributions of our study are to provide a robust tool of a measurement for entrepreneurship education in the Greek context by helping graduates acquire the necessary entrepreneurial skills. Having that purpose in mind, in this research, we collected data from business administration students at the University of Macedonia and applied the Ajzens theory of planned behaviour. We found that the teaching of entrepreneurship positively impacts on the three latent variables of the students' entrepreneurial intentions inventory. Further, it was reported that entrepreneurship courses/seminars acts positively to the students decision to become entrepreneurs. What is more, based on their beliefs the optimal duration of entrepreneurship courses will be two curriculum semesters. On the other, the existing courses offered to them fail to direct the following entrepreneurial capacities (opportunity recognition, develop new products/patents/services, etc.). Based on the gender distribution, we identified that females have strong intention to start a firm after their graduation. Their skills will be improved through the acquisition of knowledge from the teaching of entrepreneurship. Thus, policy makers and academics in Greece should try to expand the horizons of the existing entrepreneurial modules, through the creation bachelors and masters degrees in entrepreneurship only. Also, pre-entrepreneurship education, when the youngs are in the age of adolescence (high school level) will help them to acquire more easily the tacit knowledge and necessary skills for the creation of startups.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial education; entrepreneurial intentions; theory of planned behaviour; gender effects; Greece.
Exploring the case of ISO26000 social responsibility standard as a pathway to a sustainable maritime
by Ioannis Fasoulis
Abstract: Sustainable Development Goals aimed at establishing a universal framework in which organisations should balance their environmental, social and economic objectives. By extension, a growing body of literature has promulgated corporate social responsibility as a suitable management model to facilitate organisations transition to sustainable development. Accordingly, the International Maritime Organisation has redefined its strategy to ensure the contribution of the maritime sector to such latest global sustainability venture. However, little research has been conducted to identify whether specific social responsibility models could contribute to SDGs achievement. Employing a content analysis method, this study explores the causative role of ISO 26000 social responsibility guidelines to SDGs realisation. The results indicated a broad range of SDGs requirements to be adequately addressed by ISO 26000 standard. In fact, this stimulates a broad range of rationales for engaging ISO 26000 guidelines in shipping, as a mean to ensure an organisations sustainable pathway.
Keywords: sustainable shipping; ISO26000 Standard; corporate social responsibility; United Nations 2030 Agenda; SDGs.
Workplace Spirituality and Organisational Commitment across Indian Edupreneurs: Examining the Mediating Role of Job Engagement and Organisation Engagement
by Alka Swami, Rajni , Pragati Hemrajani
Abstract: The purpose of the study is to add to the extant literature by focusing on edupreneurs exploring the possible relationships between Workplace Spirituality (WPS), Employee Engagement (EE) and Organisational Commitment (OC). In particular, the parallel mediating effect of Job Engagement (JE) and Organisation Engagement (OE) is discussed. A conceptual framework followed by survey method was embraced and data from 333 faculties employed in different universities/colleges of Rajasthan were collected. The results suggest a significant indirect relationship between WPS and OC Furthermore, JE and OE completely mediate the relationship between WPS and OC. It is fair to conclude, based on the results, that WPS is a critical element in enhancing the commitment level of edupreneurs.
Keywords: Edupreneurs; Workplace spirituality; Job Engagement; Organisational Engagement; Organisational Commitment.
Slums and Entrepreneurship as an Impact of Urban Poverty and Social Exclusion in Dhaka, Bangladesh
by FARAHNAZ KHADIZA CHOWDHURY, SULTANA ZAKIA RAHMAN
Abstract: Rapid urbanisation encourages rural poor to migrate into urban areas in search of better economic and living condition. In Bangladesh, alike other developing countries, these migrated people often suffer from urban poverty and social exclusion; unequal wealth and income distribution, lack or low level of entrepreneurial opportunities due to socio-economic and religious forces etc. make them marginalised urban poor. Slums, the physical manifestation of poverty and exclusions, provide shelter to this large urban poor labour force. A knowledge gap exists in Dhakas slum discourse regarding the impact of these inter-linked phenomena. The study investigates Dhakas three slum communities to understand livelihood development constraints lacking entrepreneurial prospects resulting from the vicious cycle of urban poverty and social exclusion. Empirical investigation and literature review reveal, prevailing inadequate physical environment, suppressed socio-economic or cultural capitals hinder entrepreneurial activities. Findings may facilitate future research on entrepreneurship in urban slums to reduce such social inequality.
Keywords: Slums; Entrepreneurship; Urban Poverty; Social Exclusion; Marginalisation; Dhaka.
Do social and professional relations matter when firms make decisions on export destinations? The Italian case of the Montefalco wine cluster.
by Amir Maghssudipour, Francesco Capone, Niccolò Innocenti, Luciana Lazzeretti
Abstract: A wide literature on economics and management analyses the determinants of firms decisions on export. However, few contributions investigated the role knowledge flows across firms co-localised within clusters play on decisions about export destinations.
This paper investigates the link between multiple network relationships across firms and their decisions about countries of export destination.
The analysis is based on data collected through interviews and the administration of a questionnaire to 41 wineries in the Montefalco wine cluster, Italy and data are examined using Social Network Analysis and Exponential Random Graph Models.
Results show that the friendship network, the professional network, and similarity in terms of size and experience are relevant drivers of firms decisions about where to export. The work suggests novel insights on research on export, on clusters of co-located firms, and on the wine industry.
Keywords: Export; Wine industry; Network; Cluster; ERGM; Italy.
Entrepreneurial firms and their sustainability in a VUCA world
by Meenakshi Gandhi, Manoj Joshi
Abstract: Entrepreneurship is a central theme of discussion, with 'entrepreneur' coined by Jean-Baptiste, implying one who undertook a new venture. This field has its genesis from the field of economics, sociology and economic history, agglomerating as an interplay between wealth creation, resource optimisation and economic development. It is interesting to posit 'do all entrepreneurial firms survive in a volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous (VUCA) world with a discussion on their sustainability?' We identified select papers published between 2000 and 2019 and entrepreneurial firms incepted between 2000 and 2015 but reeling under VUCA, deploying qualitative method for examining various dimensions of VUCA. We undertook a typical case of iTiffin, incepted in 2013. iTiffin has struggled to capitalise the market in VUCA times, undergoing Sustainability perspectives. Similarly, start-ups posed with vulnerability often fail to steer the rough waters of the VUCA environment. We triangulated, reducing biases and concretised evidence to address the subject.
Keywords: entrepreneurship; enterprise; entrepreneur; entrepreneurial firm; survival; sustainability; VUCA; iTiffin.
Sustainable supply chain management in the food industry: a case study of enablers and inhibitors from Greek small enterprises
by Theofilos Mastos, Katerina Gotzamani
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify the enablers and inhibitors of sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) in small food enterprises. While the focus of most studies is on specific sustainability dimensions and on single companies, this study evaluates each factor in terms of environmental, economic and social sustainability across a supply chain. The analysis followed in this research includes a case study of 8 small enterprises across a Greek meat supply chain.15 enablers and 19 inhibitors are identified as key factors and classified into firm level, supply chain level and external level. Some of the most important enablers include the adoption of health, safety and quality standards, supplier trust and external support. The lack of commitment by the top management and the suppliers, and the economic uncertainty are identified as some of the key inhibitors. The end result proposes a conceptual framework based on a set of propositions that show how food small enterprises are enabled and inhibited towards the implementation of SSCM across a supply chain. In addition to identifying and categorising the various enabling and inhibiting factors, the proposed framework contributes to a better understanding of SSCM in small enterprises, by portraying the required attention that needs to be given in specific critical areas.
Keywords: Sustainable supply chain management (SSCM); enablers; inhibitors; small enterprises; food industry; Greece.
The 'Journey of a Hero' and sustainable development
by Britain Stelly, John McCarroll, Monomita Nandy, Suman Lodh
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a sustainable lifestyle process for the economic agent that will lead to sustainable growth of the economy. A lack of fit between a person and their environment influences an individual to distinguish between human and non-human elements of the planet. We therefore propose that a distinction between economic agent and the planetary boundaries delays the process of achieving sustainable goals. Based on the academic literature and extensive experience of the authors, in this paper we develop the three stage Heros Journey model that with application will reduce the resistance to change by the individual, support businesses of any size and the policy makers to achieve goals for sustainability for the country in the near future. The findings of the study will contribute to the academic literature related to training, sustainability, psychology, well being and corporate finance.
Keywords: training sustainable development; P-E fit model; courage; actor network theory; planetary boundaries; resilience.
The impact of relocation or short-term business travels on the spouses' sense of sacrificing
by Hana Ornoy, Roni Segal-Moneta
Abstract: International business travels (relocation or frequent travels) demand sacrificing not only from the expatriate but also from his/her escorting spouse. Studies reveal that dissatisfaction amongst the escorting spouse is the third major reason attributing to the failure of international assignments (33%). Our hypothesis claimed that escorting spouses in relocation assignments would sense higher levels of sacrifice, compared to short frequent business travels. Results reveal that spouses sense a feeling of sacrifice, however expatriate spouses, endure a wider-range of difficulties, affecting all spheres of life, due to cultural adaptions, and career loss. Another remarkable finding reveals that expatriates believe their spouses sacrificed more than they did. This unique research, which sampled 70 couples, studied the stance of the escorting spouses and expatriates themselves, in relation to the international assignment. Conclusions may thus assist both expatriates and organisations to handle more effectively the ramifications of the international assignments on the escorting spouse.
Keywords: business travels; relocation; sacrificial sense; escorting spouses.
Corporate Social Responsibility of Small Business Entrepreneurs: A Critical Review of Stakeholders Perspective
by Vimal Srivastava, Aakanksha Uppal, Rahul Dhiman
Abstract: This paper has two purposes i) to access how small businesses entrepreneurs are involved in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and ii) to assess the knowledge and information which may be of help in understanding the current thinking and findings on the different aspect of CSR. This paper also takes into account perceptions of various stakeholders of small business enterprises. The findings of this paper reveal that entrepreneurs engaged in small business are still to find a way to move further in CSR. CSR practices of small business entrepreneurs in various nations differed in the managerial exercises. It is found that that there is more CSR doings in Northern as compared to Southern Europe. The study recommends that small businesses have to understand that CSR actions can correspond to public relations approach, predominantly in the present market surroundings in which stakeholders might have strong concern for the welfare of the society.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Small Business; Entrepreneurship; Stakeholder.
Technological entrepreneurship in healthcare management to achieve sustainability post Covid pandemic
by Barkha Kakkar, Prashant Johri
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to better understand the state of technological entrepreneurship in the healthcare sector, which has undergone significant changes in recent decades, particularly during the Covid pandemic. It has been observed that the world has experienced numerous health hazards or pandemics over time. When we are confronted with a problem like this, we instinctively look for a solution that will assist us in resolving the issue. We have listed specific health hazards that have afflicted the world over the years in this paper. We also discuss how technological entrepreneurs have aided in the resolution of such issues. We focused on the changes and improvements in the healthcare sector that have resulted from the rapid development of technology due to entrepreneurship in this paper. The findings show that entrepreneurship along with technologies such as Blockchain, Big Data, and Cloud Computing have aided in the improvement of the healthcare sector and the well-being of the general public. Some case studies on how these technologies can aid in the fight against healthcare threats such as the Corona Virus are also discussed. The study also suggests that advanced technologies be used to combat pandemics and save many lives.
Keywords: technological entrepreneurship; healthcare; internet of technology; blockchain technologies; pandemics; health hazards.
Menstrual cups: awareness and acceptability for menstrual hygiene management among women and girls in Pune city
by Prajakta Das, Nathdaporn Saenkunmuang, Ishwaree Jange, Priyanka Jaiswar
Abstract: Talking about menstrual management has always been taboo but advertisements pop up now and then about various sanitary products. Most of the sanitary products are single-use and the biggest challenge is the disposal of the same. Many women suffer from rashes and irritation during their menstruation cycle from the usage of sanitary pads. Menstrual cups can be an option as it is cost-effective and reusable. The sample size of this study is 104 females between the age group of 15 and 24. The non-probability convenience sampling method is used to collect the responses through the questionnaire. Out of 104 female students in Pune, only 1% of female students
are using a menstrual cup whilst the number of female students who are aware but not ready to is 74%, and 25% of female students are not aware of menstrual cups at all. Menstrual cups are not a new sanitary product but lack awareness and acceptance.
Keywords: menstrual cup; sanitary product; awareness; reusable; sustainable development.
Student Satisfaction as an Antecedent to Employee Engagement among Edupreneurs: A Review and Future Research Agenda
by Aakanksha Uppal, Ila Sharma, Rahul Dhiman
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify determinants that predict employee engagement and student satisfaction among the edupreneurs. This purpose is achieved by reviewing the literature of past two decades published in the subject field from 2000-2020. This paper also assesses the knowledge and information which may be of help in understanding the findings on the different aspect of employee engagement and satisfaction. The findings of review confirm that previous studies on establishing relationship of employee engagement with student satisfaction are rare.. The major drivers of employee engagement found are work environment, leadership, team and coworkers, training and career development, compensation, organisational policies, and workplace well-being. We also present future research agenda that encourage researchers to carry forward comprehensive studies in the area of employee engagement and student satisfaction
Keywords: Employee engagement; student satisfaction; education industry; workplace well-being.
What drives sustainability practices at Rangotri? The case of a textile SME venture from India
by Neetu Yadav, Leela Rani
Abstract: SMEs play an important role in the global economy today. Given the importance of sustainability, which is intricately tied to business operations, examining what factors drive SMEs to implement elements of sustainability in their practices is a worthwhile question. This paper adopts a case study approach to present and analyse the sustainability journey, key challenges and drivers of sustainability practices of Rangotri, a textile SME in Rajasthan, India. The findings reveal that a turn crisis into opportunity approach led Rangotri to adopt sustainability practices and work under SWITCH-Asia Sustainable Textiles through Sustainable Development (SUSTEX). Additionally, the values of the owner, sustainable entrepreneurship and his willingness to adopt eco-friendly processes are seen as important drivers to take the lead on the journey of environmental sustainability.
Keywords: sustainability drivers; textile SME; India; sustainability issues; challenges of SMEs; sustainable entrepreneurship.
Environmental sustainable practices among micro trading enterprises
by Dipu Varghese
Abstract: Concerns about the environment were seriously initiated by the Brundtland Report.
Keywords: Micro traders; environmental sustainability; waste generation; waste disposal.
Sustainability and structural resilience of the Indian renewable energy segment
by Deepmalya Datta, Manoj Joshi, Meenakshi Gandhi
Abstract: Isn't it that turbulence has taught us to be sustainable and resilient? Structural resilience has concerted towards sustenance, recovery, and re-alignment for a sustainable route. Borrowed from engineering sciences, the four dimensions as in Robustness, Resourcefulness, Redundancy and Rapidity, have been discussed in this paper to comprehend disaster resilience of business structure. It is endeavoured to study the pandemic induced behaviour aiming to probe if the business structure of the renewable energy segment in India has revealed resilience, because of Volatile, Uncertain, Complex and Ambiguous (VUCA) environment causing turbulence. Published resources supplemented with multiple linkages and qualitative research were used for establishing authentication. The findings attempt to decipher formative entrepreneurial steps driven by innovation and foresightedness in shaping up of the Indian renewable energy sector. This sets future scenarios for transition to cleaner energy to meet committed global sustainable goal of affordable, sustainable and clean energy for all.
Keywords: energy transition; pandemic; VUCA; renewable energy segment; India; foresightedness; innovation; entrepreneurial steps; sustainable; resilience.
Sustainability and resilient strategies by entrepreneurial firms in a VUCA world
by Shefali Singh, Manoj Joshi, Meenakshi Gandhi, Komal Malik
Abstract: Do incumbent entrepreneurs possess foresight? The Covid-19 pandemic has transformed, leaving us unshielded against unknowns. It has altered our approach becoming a prodigious volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous (VUCA) moment. The post-Covid-19 world is likely to break the classical models of existing economic theories, compelling economies, and businesses to improvise their business models for sustaining in the new normal. It requires a complex symphony between hindsight-insight-foresight combination to steer a deeper understanding. This statement embarks upon a principal research question, as to how do entrepreneurial firms muster resources in building sustainable and resilient strategies while surviving in a VUCA world? The authors deployed exploratory design, using case method for capturing insights on resilient strategies adopted by an entrepreneurial firm, Zolostays. This enterprise validated the proposition of optimal unification of entrepreneurial orientation and building resilient strategies indispensable for any organisation against the unfavourable and turbulent VUCA situations.
Keywords: entrepreneur; VUCA; Covid-19; resilience; agility; foresight; strategy; sustainable; Zolostays.
Fostering conversational artificial intelligence (CAI) for sustainable development in services: a case study of Haptik
by Deepak Singh, Balvinder Shukla, Manoj Joshi
Abstract: Conversational Artificial Intelligence (CAI) is a combination of Conversational Commerce, Chatbot, Voicebot, and Virtual Assistant. CAI has enabled interstellar opportunities for large companies, collaborating with start-ups towards sustainable development. This has to simplify the services and optimised Customer Bookings, Utility Payments, Queries, Complaints, and Resolutions. CAI aided with a framework based on Technopreneurship innovation (TIN) has been adopted at different stages of the start-up life cycle, hence, ensuring sustainable development with growth. A qualitative case study method of examination and enquiry, with an interpretive ontology, was tested for AI-based firms established between 2013-2020 across PAN India in the services sector. Through purposive sampling, the Haptik application (app) for the case study was selected for investigation deploying Inductive Reasoning. The results stated that CAI is a futuristic 'Living and is here to stay for industries like Banks, Travel, Tourism, Hospitality, Insurance, Health Care, Education, Agriculture, eCommerce, Retail, etc.
Keywords: conversational artificial intelligence; technopreneurship; sustainable development; technological innovation; entrepreneurship; chatbot; start-ups; VUCA.
The Italian Plastics Industries toward a Plastic-Free Society: what Possible Strategies?
by Guido Migliaccio, Veronica De Blasio
Abstract: The article studies the evolution of the economic performance of plastic manufacturers in Italy. The economic analysis will analyse the past decade, influenced by the effects of the global financial crisis and the increase in environmental problems, involving the plastics industry due to regulations aimed at reducing the environmental impacts attributed to plastics. the study demonstrates good profitability of the enterprises and an ability to answer to the stimuli of the international crises, with a good possibility of self-financing for the conversion of the productive processes, especially for small enterprises that have better values than large enterprises. The results are useful for entrepreneurs and national authorities to identify appropriate policies to support the sector and its restructuring for a sustainable world. The article is one of the rare attempts to integrate economic considerations with qualitative analysis, identifying the variables ignored and verifying the effects of these variables on enterprises.
Keywords: small; medium; and big plastic manufacturers; global crisis; profitability ratios; performance; Anova; Tuckey-Kramer test.
MODELLING SUSTAINABLE MARKET CO-MOVEMENT BETWEEN NIGERIA (NSE) AND SOUTH AFRICA STOCK MARKETS (JSE)
by Ebere Ume Kalu, Arize Augustine, Ndubuisi Udemezue
Abstract: This study evaluates the comovement and volatility transmission between the two leading stock exchanges in Africa the JSE and the NSE. Using weekly return series from January 2006 (Week 1) to December 2020 (Week 3) and adopting the BEKK variant of the multivariate Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) model, it was discovered that sustained comovement between the two markets happen more at periods of economic stability than what obtains during crises periods. It is recommended that a policy advocacy in the area of creating greater interconnectedness between the JSE and NSE while building safety net for adverse news or shock transfers.
Keywords: GARCH; BEKK model; Stock Market Volatility; JSE and NSE.
Exploring Factors Influencing Purchasing Behaviour of Consumers: An empirical study of Green Purchasing Behaviour.
by Rohit Bhagat, Vinay Chauhan
Abstract: The recent past has witnessed a tremendous growth in the behavioural intention of consumers towards purchasing of green products. Consumers with a positive attitude towards the environment have risen and more consumers are now willing to purchase green products. The paper aims at exploring the factors affecting green purchasing behaviour. The research paper has considered many behavioural models as the base and extracted factors affecting green purchasing behaviour. The study has explored environmental attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control as factors affecting the behaviour of consumers towards green products. The study further shows that consumer tends to show a positive attitude towards green products and the attitude becomes stronger when the product having tangible attributes is backed up by green attributes available in the product. A model has been suggested in the study showing the relationship among environmental attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control and its impact on green purchasing behaviour. The study also gives useful insight to the marketer in understanding the factors affecting consumers while making a green purchasing decision. The study furthermore puts forth that awareness among consumers towards eco-friendly products has changed the mindset of consumers which has led organisations to adopt environmentally sustainable ways of product manufacturing.
Keywords: Environmental attitude; Subjective Norms; Perceived Behavioural control and Green Purchasing Behaviour.
Impact Investing resurgence amid COVID-19 pandemic: A way for sustainable development
by Nirali Degda Rajyaguru, Narayan Baser
Abstract: Impact Investing is an evolving asset class that rapidly gained traction in India by creating impact through millions of lives by investing in the businesses to create social & environmental welfare. The size and scope of the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the whole world and forced human kind to think more towards sustainable development. Entrepreneurs are require to response to better deal with structural constraints and inequalities caused by pandemic. This pandemic condition highlights the relevance of Impact Investing by stimulating investors and government actions towards sustainable business outcomes with reasonable return on investment. This paper aims to delineate on the butterfly effect of COVID-19 along with rising trends in Impact Investing. It also discusses the need of formation of Impact investing community to thwart this ongoing threat of pandemic and other societal challenges. This paper concludes that Impact Investing is the only feasible solution to supply funds for early entrepreneurs to resolve the pandemic's immediate problems of sustainability. It also suggests how to encourage the Impact Investing activities in building momentum & overcoming forthcoming challenges to achieve sustainable development goals. This paper shows the way for entrepreneurs to generate ideas for sustainable consumption & production, digitalization, agriculture & food supply chain, healthcare, education, sanitization & hygiene etc. that turn into decent economic growth post-pandemic.
Keywords: COVID-19; impact investing; impact investment; sustainable finance; social enterprise; sustainability; sustainable development; SDG;.
Diagnosis Of The Economic Impacts Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Companies In The Sao Lourenco Region
by Fabricio Piurcosky, Pedro Júnior, Rodrigo Frogeri, Felipe Oliveira, Luis Henrique Almeida, Rui Castanho
Abstract: Since the arrival of the pandemic in Brazil, with the first case confirmed on February 26, 2020, several actions have been taken by governments to reduce the transmission of the disease and prepare the health system to receive the most severely infected. Among these actions are the social distancing, closure of non-essential economic activities, adoption of the home office system, suspension of in-person classes, among others. The fight against the proliferation of the pandemic brought impacts of the most varied in various sectors and segments of the economy around the world, being more profound in small businesses. The objective of this diagnosis is to demonstrate the impact caused by the pandemic on companies in the S
Keywords: Economy; Impacts; Pandemic; Covid-19; Business.
Is naturally coloured cotton a sustainable substitute for cotton textile?
by Dishoja A. S., Nisha Bharti, Sushant Malik
Abstract: There is a recent upsurge in consumption of environmentally sustainable products; one among them is the apparel segment, where cotton has the major stake. White lint cotton has to undergo processing and dyeing, which creates a hazardous impact on the environment. Therefore, the present study aims to better understand consumer behaviour towards cotton apparel and willingness to accept naturally coloured cotton, which positively impacts the environment and humans. Data collected from the respondents were analysed using decision tree and cluster analysis, which revealed that 28 per cent of respondents are genuinely interested and buying naturally coloured cotton apparel and considered paying fifteen per cent premium. This paper also highlights the most critical attributes of cotton, and it discusses which category the cotton textile is the most preferred. This will help in the adoption of naturally coloured cotton apparel by consumers.
Keywords: cotton apparel; environmental impacts; sustainability; India; cotton attributes; consumer behaviour; cluster analysis; willingness to buy.
Public Transport as a means of Sustainable Development Reasons for Adoption and Non-adoption
by Priyanka Shah, Anu Gupta, Kedar Bhatt
Abstract: As emphasised by United Nations in SDG 11, urban transport can be one of the areas to be focused to make cities inclusive and sustainable. Considering the dearth of research in emerging countries like India, this study attempts to identify reasons for adoption and non-adoption of public transport services. For this purpose, two separate studies were conducted: a) one focusing on commuters and b) the other focusing on non-commuters. The variables important for commuters were factor analysed to identify important areas to be focused. The paper also attempts to report the reasons for non-adoption of public transport service by non-commuters and to segment the non-commuters based on their reasons of non-adoption. It has strong implications for the policymakers, which have been discussed at the end.
Keywords: Public Transport; Sustainability; Sustainable Development; Commuters; Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
An examination of Internet of things in the South Korean Agricultural Industry: The case of Samsung
by Sean Watts, Alonso Guzman, Thi Thanh Hoa Nguyen, Thai Doan Dang, Wil Martens
Abstract: Fueled by the benefits of The Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI), big data, and cloud computing, South Korean consumers demand more affordable, nutritious and healthier food options. With Samsung as the market leader in IoT, a mixed methodology, qualitative action-based approach was used to identify how Samsung may expand IoT services into South Koreas industrial, agricultural sectors for efficiency and sustainability. Nonghyups representative of the South Korean Farmers Agricultural Association was surveyed, resulting in four IoT-based smart grid initiatives. It was found that despite Samsungs strong brand recognition and high product utilisation and IoTs ability to boost South Korean farming output efficiency, IoT use in South Korean agriculture is largely unknown. By merging AI and technological devices, Samsung may aid farmers to adapt its technology and build sustainability and consumers alike to enable individuals to grow food in their homes. The utilization of IoT in farming can have broad applicability in a wide variety of international agricultural markets, providing a tool to combat food security issues.
Keywords: Internet of Things; Sustainable Agriculture; Samsung; Home Farm; Nonghyup; South Korea.
Sustainable development of SMEs during the COVID-19 pandemic: a comparative study between developed and developing countries
by Demetris Vrontis, Hani El Chaarani, Sam El Nemar, Hebatallah Badawy
Abstract: This study compares the sustainability and innovation strategies implemented by SMEs in developed and developing countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research explores the impact of different innovation strategies on the profitability of SMEs to reveal the best innovation strategy that SMEs must rely on during crises. Using a sample of French and Saudi Arabia SMEs, results show that French SMEs outperformed Saudi Arabia SMEs during the pandemic period. French SMEs have also showed higher capacity to implement marketing, process, product and organizational innovative strategies than their Saudi Arabia counterparts during the lockdown period. Results revealed that modifying distribution channels and product pricing are the best innovation practices implemented by SMEs in France and Saudi Arabia. Modifying product quality had a negative and significant impact on the return of assets of SMEs during the COVID-19 period. Results show any impact of organisational and process innovation on the return of SMEs.
Keywords: Sustainable development; SMEs; COVID-19; financial performance; innovation strategy; performance strategy.
Farmers Zest for adopting Organic Basmati Rice Farming in Jammu
by Neeru Sidana, Taruna Dubey
Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to investigate factors influencing farmers to adopt organic farming. The dependence of agriculture on chemical pesticides as well as fertilisers was a major factor affecting the environment as well as the health of the public. Doubling the income of farmers is the main objective of government as well as farmers which can be fulfilled with the help of moving towards organic farming. Organic farming generates employment and is more laborious than conventional farming. Jammu farmers are practising organic as well as inorganic methods of farming but the need is to know factors that influence as well as restrict them from adopting organic farming. Jammu is organic by default but to attain more output farmers are using chemical fertilisers as well as pesticides. A cross-sectional study was conducted in R.S Pura village of the Jammu region. A sample of fifteen farmers was taken for the study and an interview was conducted for a week to have depth knowledge about the factors influencing the adoption of organic rice producers. Organic movement is required so that social protection from fatal diseases can be attained like cancer, sugar. The factors taken for the study were social, economic, environmental, cultivation, government, warehousing, perception of farmers. The study suggests that the government factor was the most influential factor in adopting organic but fear of reducing yield is the factor that restricts farmers from adopting organic farming. Government support also influences farmer as well as providing organic certification to farmer also motivate them for economic factor for organic production. Marketing is the main problem which farmers were facing and demand proper water availability as well as appropriate farm gate price. Farmers want to control price as well as good bargaining power and test their soil after a period of time for knowing the organic composition of soil for certification.
Keywords: Organic; farming; farmer; factor; basmati; economic; government.
Enhancing sustainability and performance of supply chain organisations through rationality-riskiness analysis
by Raja Roy, Soma Roychowdhury
Abstract: The rationality-riskiness issues amongst the members of the supply chain organisations (SCOs), the suppliers, the firm, and the customers, are derived from the communications theory-modified Johari window approach (MJW). The derived issues are then strategically integrated with proactive and reactive approaches being adopted by the SCOs, to model orientation-performance aspects of SCOs. Data collected from 206 participants of medium-size manufacturing organisations located in eastern India has been used to fit the proposed weakness-rationality-risk-dissatisfaction (WRRD) model using structural equation modelling. The results demonstrate acceptable fit values based on the recommended values of various fit indices. Further, the measures indicate and aid the SCOs to select and control appropriate risk integrated strategies for enhancing firms' performance and sustainability.
Keywords: rationality-riskiness analysis; Johari window; structural equation modelling; supply chain organisations; sustainability; sustainable development.
Exploring Teachers Perception Towards Sustainability in Indian Higher Educational Institutions
by Ruby Sengar, Smriti Pande, Narendra Singh Chaudhary
Abstract: This study aims to explore the views of teachers from HEIs regarding sustainability in higher education. The qualitative research methods have been employed in this study, which involved in-depth interviews via semi-structured interviews. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) has been used to study and examine in detail the personal, lived-in experiences of the respondents. The study's findings highlight the various issues and challenges preventing higher education institutions from becoming sustainable. The authors have identified and explored that blurred vision of leaders, infrequent policy reviews, unethical conduct, demotivating organization culture, lack of social contribution and huge investment demands are putting mounting pressure on the institutions and preventing them from being sustainable. Their myopic view of fulfilling short term goals and sheer focus on the profits and money minting are making situations worse. The study provides a framework and suggests ways that the HEIs can adopt to make themselves more sustainable and overcome the challenges that come their way. The present study can be utilized by the organizations and policy-making bodies to understand its various implications and accommodate necessary changes to garner the positive and remove the bottleneck that prevails. Employers can take decisions for the betterment of employees using the present study and devise appropriate policies accordingly.
Keywords: HEIs; Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA); Sustainability; Higher Education; Teachers; Qualitative Study.
Performance Appraisal System and Employee Outcome for Sustainable Development of Shipping and Logistic Industry
by Shweta Uttam, Shakti Prakash, Narendra Singh
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine how Performance Appraisal System (PAS) and Employee Outcome (EO) are important for the sustainable development of the shipping and logistic industry. This purpose has been achieved by examining the influence of PAS on employees productivity, motivation, and satisfaction level. To understand the robustness of this relationship, multiple regression, and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) has been performed by conducting a structured survey method. The findings of this paper revealed that the rewards and appreciation provided to the employees for their work performance has enhanced their motivation and confidence level to perform more challenging tasks at workplace. CFA also revealed that the PAS carries a significant impact on employee satisfaction, productivity, and motivation. The findings are useful for the practitioners to develop an action plan to achieve rationally set targets directly linked to the set goals.
Keywords: Performance Appraisal System; Motivation; Productivity; Satisfaction; Reward System; Performance based pay; Promotion; Employee Feedback.
What is Remote-rural and why is it important?
by Sayed Gilani, Naveed Yasin, Peter Duncan, Anne Smith
Abstract: The discourse related to explaining the meaning of rural, particularly in contrast to urban areas, is well established and crucial for policy as well as other decision makers. However, it can be argued that not all rural can be classified as the same. The aim of this paper is to contribute towards the understanding of the concept as well as definitions related to remote-rural, particularly (but not exclusively) in a Scottish context. Based on a conceptual literature review, key findings in this paper are introduced in the form of five dimensions of rurality. The dimensions are (1) population and population density, (2) proximity to urban areas; (3) development, (4) culture and (5) social perceptions. This paper also proposes for policymakers to consider the concept of remote-rural while formulating policy to improve broadband adoption/use in isolated/remote areas in Scotland.
Keywords: KEYWORDS: Remote-rural; rural areas; isolated areas; rural classification and rural.
DISCERNMENT OF GENERAL MASSES CONCERNING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILTY IN BUSINESS ORGANISATIONS
by Rajni Bala, Sandeep Singh, Sandhir Sharma
Abstract: From the past decade concept of sustainable development must be seen as one of the big tales of India. Corporate social responsibility is a hot item in the business world and one of the challenges for the future. Corporate environmental responsibility is an integral part of corporate social responsibility and encompasses environment commitment to continuous improvement, awareness, measuring, reporting, auditing and going beyond compliance. The study aims to brief the viewers about the ecological degradation and capturing their perception about the role of corporate houses towards a sustainable growth and eco development of the country. The present research work has been carried out to examine the factors affecting the role of corporate houses in sustainable growth and eco-development of economy in Punjab state of India. The sample of the study was 300 general masses. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the underlying factors on the primary data and seven factors were confirmed.
Keywords: Sustainable Development; Corporate Social Responsibility; Ecological Degradation; Exploratory Factor Analysis.
TRANSITIONING TOWARD TOTAL EQUALITY: A THEORY OF HYBRIDISATION AND NATURAL SELECTION
by Jeffrey Overall, Hector Gonzalez-Jimenez
Abstract: Diversity researchers have focused on asserting a relationship between equality and positive economic returns. However, a theory that can explain how and why this relationship exists, while also accounting for internationalisation, has so far been limited. To this end, we draw on natural selection and hybridisation theory to explain how equality and a natural reduction in discrimination appears to be occurring over time and why this is leading to positive economic outcomes. Using a unified structure of cases from the extant literature, we create a five-stage multilevel conceptual framework. Through this model, we show that when entities are exposed (through hybridisation) to the economic benefits that can be achieved through embracing equality, they will likely imitate these equality-embracing behaviours via natural selection. Embracing equality will become the norm in society over time, leading to a natural reduction in discrimination. This research is important because researchers and practitioners should be in an improved position to account for not only the temporal nature, but also the stages likely to follow in sequence in the transition toward total equality.
Keywords: Discrimination; diversity; equality; human resources management; hybridisation; natural selection.
AN EMPIRICAL COMPARISON BETWEEN ESG 100 & SECTORAL INDICES WITH PERSPECTIVE OF CIRCULAR ECONOMY
by Zakir Shaikh, R. Suguna
Abstract: The past decade has seen the renewed importance of Environment Social Governance (ESG) awareness raising in the financial market. In this perspective, the circular economy (CE) becomes the central relevance. This study aims to examine the impact of the circular economy on sectoral indices over the ESG100 index. To investigate ESG scores, quantitative measures are performed. Our experimental setup is designed using a python programming language. The National Stock Exchange India (NSEI) data for the period of 1 January 2011 to 28 February 2022 is obtained from public domain. By comparing the ESG 100 index with other sectoral indices, we found that the ESG 100 index portfolio has a positive impact on stock performance. Although ESG 100 index score does not express higher performance in CE, further, our analysis shows that, to date, there is no evidence that CE initiative can influence stock returns.
Keywords: Environment; Social; Governance; Sector; Correlation; Financial Market.
The Impact of Quality Management Dimensions on the Competitive Advantage
by Ayman Al Armoti, Khaled M.K. Alhyasat, Hasan Juned Bukhari
Abstract: This study examines the impact of quality management dimensions on the competitive advantage of Masafi water company in Al Ain city. Primary data was obtained by administering surveys to a target population of 568 grocery stores in Al Ain city. The importance of this study is to create value for the local and typical business entity, and pave a productive gateway for the UAE economy since it presents a strategic approach to interacting with customers while they compete with the competitors, that will increase the quality of the plans that follow eventually and will reflect on the market share positively. The analysis through SPSS was used to test the data, and the results showed that dimensions of service quality were extensively implemented by Masafi and had a positive correlation to the firms competitive advantage. However, the competitive strategy and product were insignificant on Masafis competitive advantage.
Keywords: quality management; product; service; competitive strategy; competitive advantage.
TECHNICAL SUSTAINABILITY WITH A HYBRID APPROACH IN THE TOURISM SECTOR
by Anuj Kumar, Bindu Roy, Archana Bhatia
Abstract: The global issue of the Covid-19 pandemic has brought with it its own technological milestones. It has heralded a shift and caused the stakeholders of the tourism and hospitality sector to seriously contemplate incorporating Artificial Intelligence, Virtual Reality, and Robotics into the industry. The aim of the study is to find the extent and sustenance of technological adaptation in this sector and to critically analyze the far-reaching reverberations of this adaptation in the aftermath of the pandemic. This study is based on a traditional narrative review method, with Global or International tourism being regarded as the primary area of focus. The study has made use of the Scopus database, Google Scholar, and Google to obtain invaluable insights into the context of research objectives. The findings of the study have revealed that A.I. technologies are a phenomenon in this sector, with virtual tourism being the only alternative during the pandemic. While practical usage of Robotics technology has been observed in developed countries, in developing countries, it still poses some challenges regarding internet connections and a lack of skilled personnel. In the sight of this, the researchers have designed a model of a hybrid approach for tourism sustainability which will aid and steer the tourism and hospitality stakeholders. While the reliance on technology was traced by the researcher with respect to the Covid 19 pandemic, it has been understood that in the aftermath of the pandemic, the various stakeholders of the industry shall have to assimilate these technological changes in a sustainable manner to induce a harmony between emotion and personal touch with the use of human and artificial sources.
Keywords: Post COVID-19; Tourism; Sustainability; Artificial Intelligence; Virtual Reality; Robotics.
Special Issue on: ICKSSD2019 Sustainable Consumption, Public Policy and Corporate Interventions
Consumer behaviour towards adopting sustainable alternative electronic payment methods.
by Sandeep Prabhu, Vishal Kumar
Abstract: Purpose: Alternative electronic payment methods are, the sustainable development alternative to millions of small cash transactions. Financial transactions at global levels are built-up through local adoption of payment methods. Governments are developing knowledge systems and policy network for managing financial transactions through various alternative payment methods. This research aims to identify factors that studies consumer behaviour towards various electronic payment methods.
Research Methodology: Concepts and factors of consumer behaviour towards adoption of electronic payment methods are studied from extensive literature review. The concepts are operationalized and tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), checked for validity & reliability, and then tested by Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The research employs a questionnaire with 33 items, scaled on 7-point Likert scale. Data is collected from a sample of 467 respondents having experience of alternative electronic payment methods.
Findings: CFA confirms five-factor structure of consumer behaviour towards alternative electronic payment methods as; facilitating conditions, effort expectancy, performance expectancy, perceived security, and behavioural intention. The SEM methodology suggests payment facilitating conditions and payment system performance expectancy leads to consumers effort expectancy; and effort expectancy and consumer perceived security leads to consumer behaviour towards alternative payment method.
Research Implications: The conceptual model of electronic payment method adoption can be useful in developing sustainable alternatives to cash transactions. Customer convenience ecosystem can resolve the global challenge of cash transactions locally by integrating alternative payment systems.
Novelty / Originality: The research is significant considering recent consumer shift towards alternative payment methods away from cash transaction. The nature of proposed factors can be generalised to other methods of electronic payments.
Keywords: electronic payment; consumer behaviour; confirmatory factor analysis; technology management; sustainable development; structural equation modelling; policy.
Special Issue on: BAVT-2019 Agile Strategies for the VUCA World
Do the e-commerce and digital marketing curriculum of Indian B-schools embrace employability skills?
by Girish Taneja, Anu Bala
Abstract: The marketing curriculum must evolve with the changing technological environment and the skills demanded by prospective employers. Management graduates want to earn skills to enhance their prospects of employment. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the curriculum of e-commerce, digital and social media marketing management courses studied in the post-graduate management programs of the top 100 National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) listed management Indian institutes/colleges. This paper compared the curriculum with the skills demanded by the companies for entry-level e-commerce and digital marketing jobs. An analysis of program structure and syllabi of digital marketing, e-business/e-commerce and social media marketing was undertaken. Researchers identified the various skills required by the employers through the various job portals like naukri.com, shine.com, indeed.co.in, fresherworld.com and placementindia.com. This study will help Indian institutes to take a fresh look and re-design their program and courses of the e-commerce, digital and social media marketing to make it skill-oriented. This study can be considered as the first serious attempt to evaluate the curriculum of e-commerce, digital and social media marketing offered by Indian management institutes with regards to employability skills demanded by the industry.
Keywords: digital marketing; social media marketing; e-business; employability skills; digital marketing curriculum; e-commerce syllabi; e-commerce syllabi; digital marketing syllabi; e-business syllabi; e-business curriculum.
Supervisory Power and Reverse Incremental Influence: An Investigative Approach
by Gowhar Rasool, Anjali Pathania
Abstract: Power Dynamics at workplace has emerged as a progressive area of organisational scholarship. The present study examined the diverse dimensions of supervisory power at the workplace and its influence on employee job outcomes. Unlike most of the studies in this area, the present research considered the revised power taxonomy and comprehensive job outcome variables. Based on theory as well as empirical investigations on influence of power and organisational behaviour, the study predicted positive incremental influence (either powers treated separately or in additive combination) on employee job outcomes. This hypothesis was tested in a field study in an Indian context. The field study comprised the employees of two multinational information technology companies, as it belongs to an industry which has constantly faced daunting HR challenges while embracing change. The analysis revealed that negative forms of expert and referent power explained approximately 89% of power as an independent construct. The results bring out a newer dimension to this field of study by looking at the contrasting effects of idiosyncratic negative referent and expert power in combination with nomothetic coercive power, which unlike creating a positive incremental influence resulted in reverse (negative) incremental influence. Further, the study also discussed the implications of the findings and future research direction.
Keywords: Power Influence; Change; Negative Expert; Negative Referent; Reverse Incremental Influence.
Food apps to create competitive advantage and enhance customer satisfaction
by Shamsher Singh
Abstract: Online food ordering by using food apps is becoming a trend in urban area in India mainly in metropolitan cities where working family are in large number. They are short of time but have high income to spend. This study is based on the application of technology in especially food apps to create competitive advantage and enhance customer satisfaction. Primary and secondary data both have been used. Survey was conducted to collect primary data from 100 respondents to find satisfaction level and understand the use of food apps. Frequency Analysis and ANOVA was used for analyzing the data in SPSS.
Keywords: Food apps; technology application; customer satisfaction; competitive advantage.
Association of mindfulness, subjective well-being and coping up with stress among university students
by Priyanka Nema, Shruti Sinha
Abstract: Graduating from a university has various personal, academic, and social challenges due to which the life of a student could be highly stressful. The goal of this research study is to understand if being mindful helps students/ individuals to cope up with stress better. Contributing to the literature this paper describes the relationship between how being mindful leads to achieving life satisfaction which often helps in coping with the stress in the university student. The study establishes the linkages between coping with stress strategy and mindfulness and also tries to assess the role of subjective well being in their relationship. The data for the study has been collected from 238 students aged in the range of 18-25 years. The data has been analyzed using SPSS 20. The model of the study utilizes Baron and Kenny's Mediation analysis. Research finding suggests that subjective wellbeing partially mediates the relationship between mindfulness and coping up with stress.
Keywords: mindfulness; wellbeing; stress; mediation analysis.
Does insured health care affects economic growth in India? an application of cointegration approach
by Tushinder Preet Kaur, Pooja Kansra
Abstract: The present paper has explored the association between health insurance and GDP in India using co- integration approach. This technique has investigated relationship between the health insurance, GDP per-capita, organised employment and claim ratio for the period of 2001-2018. The resulting co- integrating vectors clearly depicts that health insurance and GDP per capita are associated with each other in long run. Further, the increase in organised employment and improvement in claim ratio have positive impact on health insurance. The study also finds long run relationship between per capita income and health insurance. It has been found that with the rise in GDP per capita income, the health insurance premium is found to be rising. This result associates that as the basic needs of the individuals are satisfied then their orientation towards secondary needs i.e financing of health, education and housing etc. increases. As a precaution to ensure minimum stability in income, savings and investments, the individuals generally need insurance of his health as good health not only enable him to ensure his healthy life style and income generation but also prevent erosion of savings and investments that individual has done in previous time periods.
Keywords: economic growth; GDP per capita; health insurance; premium; employment; claim ratio; cointegration.
FLEXIBLE WORK ARRANGEMENTS PERCEIVED FLEXIBILITY AND MOTIVATION TO USE FWAs
AN INDIAN PERSPECTIVE
by Sourabh Kumar, Sankersan Sarkar
Abstract: Work arrangements play an important role in work-life integration. This research attempts to measure the perceived flexibility and usability of different work arrangements for managing work-life and analyse the motivational and demotivational factors associated with the usage of flexible work arrangements (FWAs) in the Indian context. Survey data was collected from 446 employees working in Indian organisations. Study shows that organisations offer different FWAs in formal and informal ways. Perceived flexibility for part-time work option was highest followed by work from home/alternate work location and flexible timing. Motivational and demotivational factors for usage of FWAs discussed which will help in designing the policy for different work options to get maximum advantage of employee satisfaction, productivity, and balance in work and life. The study will provide a base to design and implement FWAs in different work environments. Future research on FWAs is suggested with industry-specific, organisational, and demographic variables.
Keywords: Flexibility; Flexi-time; flexi-place; perceived flexibility; Work-life balance; Work-life enrichment.
Analysing the effect of cause-related advertisement on attitude towards brand
by Rajesh Poonia, Mithilesh Pandey
Abstract: Consumers have been critical of the firms using a lot of natural and social resources for its growth. Firms started giving back to society by supporting certain social causes considering it as an opportunity for commercial gains and thus taking it as an investment. This social cause of the firms is propagated through the cause related advertisements. In the age of heavy media exposure, the customer tends to ignore the traditional/similar ads. Cause related ads may be useful to break the ad clutter and give headway to the said firm over its competitors. The limited awareness about the CRM ads attracts publics vulnerability to deception. The present study tries to understand the role of emotional appeal and message content and cause interest in the effectiveness of CRM ads. This effectiveness was measured for consumer attitude towards brand. Structured questionnaire method has been be used in the study and a response of 244 people across the population has been recorded. Structure equation modelling with the help of Smart PLS has been used to analyse the data. The analysis done with the help of Smart PLS has shown that Cause Interest, Content and emotional appeal are significant for CRM advertisement effectiveness.
Keywords: cause related marketing; cause interest; advertisement; emotional appeal; content consumer attitude; brand; social cause.
Impact of different dimensions of globalisation on firms' performance: an unbalanced panel-data study of firms operating in India
by Balraj Verma, Amit Srivastava
Abstract: The present study, based on three unbalanced panel data models, analyses the impact of the economic, political and social dimensions of globalisation on the performance of firms operating in India using ROA, ROCE and ROI as a proxy of firm's financial performance. To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first study of its kind not only for India but also for the extensiveness of the sectors used. The study is based on the financial data from 2000 to 2017 of 912 companies ranging into 14 different sectors of the economy. The result showed the significant positive and significant negative effect of the economic and political dimensions of globalisation respectively on firms performance. Yet positive but social dimension failed to establish a significant impact on firm performance. Out of the 14 selected sectors, only 3 sectors- Textiles, Communication and Transport Services, showed lower growth in comparison to other sectors.
Keywords: globalisation; panel data; differential intercept coefficients; firm performance; KOF Index; ROA; ROCE; ROI.
Stumbling blocks in developing entrepreneurship through industrial growth centre, Lassipora: an exploration
by Ajaz Ahmad Ganaie, Anjali Mehra, Jinny Sharma
Abstract: To promote the development of industrially backward areas Government of India announced setting up of 71 Industrial Growth Centres in 1988, one of which was set up at Lassipora in Jammu and Kashmir. The present study focuses on the development of entrepreneurial spirit and the obstacles faced by the entrepreneurs while setting up their units at Lassipora. The results showed that setting up of (IGC) Lassipora not only encouraged the local entrepreneurs but also increased employment opportunities. Through the use of Garrett ranking technique, it was seen that the budding entrepreneurs faced inadequate technical consultancy as the major hurdle, followed by inadequate financial assistance, corrupt practices, delay in acquiring land, delay in getting power, delay in getting registration order, shortage of labour, delay in machinery, shortage of raw material and slackness of market, which hindered their development efforts.
Keywords: industrial growth centre; Lassipora; entrepreneurship development; industries.
Factor Influencing the Adoption of Mobile Banking Services: A Cross Sectional Analysis
by Pooja Kansra, Pawan Kumar, Nongthangba Thangjam
Abstract: With an advancement of technology, consumers nowadays have more alternatives over their preferences in banking. Thus, present study examined the factors influencing the adoption of mobile banking in Punjab. A structured questionnaire based survey was performed in the state of Punjab, with a multi-stage stratified random sample of 200 respondents. The data was analysed with descriptive statistics and Logit regression. It was observed that 59 percent of the respondents were aware of the mobile banking. The factors which influence the adoption of the mobile banking were convenience, risk, reliability and cost effectiveness. The results of Logit regression indicated a relationship between demographic variables and adoption of mobile banking. The study suggested the need to strengthen the security and privacy concerns as it will help to go a long way to expand mobile services among the general masses.
Keywords: Mobile banking; awareness; factors; risk; security; convenience; willingness to adopt; gender; income; education.
Can claims on food packages build purchase intention? Assessing serial mediation impact of nutrition information and trust
by Pavleen Soni, Kiranjot Kaur
Abstract: Purpose- The present study investigates whether the sequential use of food claims and nutrition facts panel leads to trust and purchase intention. Design/Methodology-The study has been carried out using primary responses from 600 consumers from Punjab (India). Serial mediation has been used through Process macro to assess the role of nutrition facts panel and trust in building purchase intention.Findings-The results suggest that use of nutrition information and trust sequentially mediate the relationship between use of claims and purchase intention. Practical Implications-Marketers may shift focus from using claims and increase readability of nutrition facts panel as it is importantly read by consumers in order to verify claims. Consumers may be guided to view the nutrition facts panel directly from the point where claims are made on food packages for building trust and expediting consumer purchase decision making.
Originality- This research work identifies antecedents to consumers packaged food purchase intention using sequential mediation. It therefore makes a theoretical as well as practical contribution.
Keywords: Nutrition information; claims; trust; serial mediation; moderation; India.
Gender diversity: an approach towards agile women employees in the VUCA business environment
by Anjali Sharma, Priyanka Chhibber
Abstract: In today's diverse and competitive world, maintaining workplace diversity is as important as earning profits. Researchers have highlighted the importance of workplace diversity and how it plays an imperative role in the overall growth of an organisation. The study reflects the importance of workplace diversity, role of women and also gives an insight as to how the journey of women runs in an organisation. Gender diversity in the workplace is an important element across the world in todays era, India is no different, where women are gradually holding leadership and managerial positions. Results are from Indian, as well as outside of India, it probes into the policies organisation possesses, in order to support gender diversity and if not, what all are the measures an organisation can take to have a better working environment for all employees, especially for its female employees. Research was conducted in Siemens Ltd. Gurgaon, India and Malawi Housing Corporation, based in Malawi, South-Eastern Africa.
Keywords: workplace diversity; gender diversity; imperative role; leadership; India; Africa; women leadership; volatility; uncertainty; complexity; ambiguity; VUCA.
Foreign Direct Investment Led Economic Growth: An Analysis of BRICS Economies using Panel Data
by Divya Budhia, TushinderPreet Kaur
Abstract: BRICS are the fast growing emerging economies and have become most favoured destination for the foreign investors. Present paper endeavours to study the effect of capital formation, employment and foreign direct investment inflows on GDP in BRICS countries with panel data for the time period, 2001-2017. Gross Domestic Product was taken as explained variable, and GFCF (Gross Fixed Capital Formation), Employment and Foreign Direct Investment inflows were taken as explanatory variables. Two different models i.e. FEM and REM were used for the analysis. Hausman test revealed that FEM model was applicable to the data. We found that all the three explanatory variables enhanced GDP. The results are in agreement with previous literature and strengthen the argument of giving a fillip to capital, labour and FDI to boost economic growth in BRICS countries.
Keywords: BRICS; FDI; GDP; panel regression.
The accomplishment of Organisation Agility through Transformational Leadership and Organisation Citizenship Behaviour
by Annu Bala, Megha Mehta
Abstract: The ability of a corporation to change or adapt swiftly in response to social or commercial changes is referred to as organisational agility. Organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) is a person's voluntary engagement inside an organisation beyond the specified work to attain a shared goal because of persuasive leadership. The study's major goal is to investigate the impact of OCB and leadership on organisational agility to increase employee performance. In this study in the education industry, 50 department heads from colleges across Punjab are evaluated. The information was gathered from department heads and faculty members who worked under them at random, i.e., one department head and one faculty member. A questionnaire was utilised to collect data, which included the OCB scale, leadership, and organisational agility. The tool reliability research use Cronbach's Alpha, whereas the validity study employs content and construct validity techniques. According to the findings of the research, leaders create an atmosphere that promotes organisational agility, which in turn leads to organisational stability.
Keywords: Organisation Agility; Leadership; Organisation Citizenship Behaviour; OCB; education sector; organisational stability.
Special Issue on: International Conference of College of Social and Management Sciences 2020 and CU-ICE 2020 Sustainable Business Models for the Growth of Indigenous Businesses in Africa
EFFECT OF INNOVATION ON AGRICULTURAL-BASED MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES SURVIVAL IN NIGERIA
by Benneth Eze
Abstract: This study examines the effect of innovation, particularly process innovation, product innovation and market innovation, on the survival of agricultural-based MSMEs in Nigeria. Survey research design was employed, by administering questionnaires on some selected chief executives of agricultural-based MSMEs in Lagos, Kano and Anambra states. The findings revealed that product innovation, process innovation and market innovation have a positive and significant individual effect on the survival of agricultural-based MSMEs, with coefficients and probability values of ?1= 3.049, P-value<0.05; ?2= 5.152, P-value<0.05; ?3= 4.919, P-value<0.05 for product innovation, process innovation and market innovation respectively. The F-stat (22.803, P-value<0.05) shows that innovative elements are good predictors of enterprise survival of the selected agricultural-based MSMEs. The Adjusted R2 suggested that a 35.6% variation in agricultural-based MSMEs survival is accounted for by the innovative elements. Therefore, it can be concluded that innovativeness has a significant effect on agricultural-based MSMEs survival, particularly, process innovation, market innovation and product innovation. It is recommended that agricultural-based MSMEs should be innovative, particularly as regards their process, market and product innovations, as this tends to enhance their survival. Furthermore, the small and medium enterprises development agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN), Ministry of Agriculture and other MSMEs supporting ministries, departments and agencies (MDAs) should encourage agricultural-based MSMEs to be innovative.
Keywords: Agriculture; Innovation; Market Innovation; MSMEs; Process Innovation; Product Innovation.
The Role of Skill Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development in Improving Economic Independence among Serving Corp Members in Ibadan North Local Government, Oyo State
by Tomisin Aruleba, Medinah Hamid
Abstract: The broad objectives of the study are to: determine the extent to which NYSC Corp members' enrol for skill acquisition training during their service year; know the extent to which NYSC Corp members utilizes skills acquisition to enhance their economic independence and; ascertain the extent to which the skills acquired by NYSC Corps members' enhance their economic independence in Ibadan North Local Government area of Oyo State. A descriptive cross-sectional survey research design was adopted. The population (1166) consist of batch A, B and C 2017-2018 serving National Youth Service Corp (NYSC) members in Ibadan North Local government area of Oyo State. The sample size is 300. Simple random sampling was also adopted as the sampling technique. It was revealed that enrolment of corps members into vocational skill training during their service year is to a high extent of enrolment. Also, the skills acquired during the national service year has been utilized properly. And the skills acquired through the NYSC SAED have enhanced economic independence. The study recommended that the Government should give support to serving corps members who have undergone the training programme and willing to practice. NYSC SAED should appraise the programme and seek feedback from corps members to know the areas of the programme to be improved.
Keywords: Skill Acquisition; Entrepreneurship Development; Vocational skill; self-sustaining; Training Programme; Economic Independence.
Obstacles facing women-owned enterprises: A case for Sub-Sahara African women
by Oyedele Ogundana
Abstract: Women-owned enterprises face several obstacles. However, it is not clear which of these challenges are the most severe within Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify and rank the obstacles facing women-owned enterprises in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This knowledge is crucial for planning and allocating resources in a way that can better support the development of women-owned enterprises in SSA. This paper utilises secondary data collected by the World Bank Enterprise Surveys from 40 countries within SSA. A total of 2341 female business owners were interviewed between 2006 to 2018. This data was downloaded and analysed using exploratory data analysis. The findings showed that the lack of access to finance is the biggest obstacle facing women-owned enterprises in SSA. This is followed by the absence of electricity, practices of the informal sectors, tax-related issues and political volatility. Overall, the barriers militating against women-owned enterprises in SSA are largely exogenous, which means that women have little or no control over them. This study contributes to the literature on gender and entrepreneurship by ranking the obstacles that confront women-owned enterprises in a developing country region such as the SSA. It contributes to the knowledge that policymakers require for policy development and effective resource allocation within SSA and other developing countries. For women entrepreneurs, this study unravels endogenous barriers that are within the scope of female business owners. Therefore, women entrepreneurs can take innovative steps to resolve such barriers rather than wait for external assistance, which frequently never arrives.
Keywords: obstacles; Sub-Saharan Africa; women entrepreneurs; women-owned enterprises.
TECHNO-ENTREPRENEURSHIP: PATHWAY TO SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS PERFORMANCE; EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM SMEs IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA
by Ola Olusegun Oyedele, Mutiu Adebowale Oyero
Abstract: This study examines how techno-entrepreneurship, measured as Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) and Research, Development and Innovation (R, D & I), impacts sustainable business performance in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A random sample of 126 respondents was taken from purposively selected agro-businesses for a survey and responses were analyzed using linear regression. The study results demonstrate significant and positive impact of techno-entrepreneurship on the profitability and earned revenue of SMEs, thus suggesting a techno-entrepreneurship model - nexus of drivers, constructs and prospects - as a solution to drive sustainable business performance. Based on findings, the study recommends that businesses should possess or sell and commercialize IPRs and practice open innovation (R, D & I). Finally, policy makers primarily the government - should formulate & implement supportive policies, strategies and as well create an enabling environment for techno-entrepreneurship to thrive, towards growth of SMEs and the larger economy.
Keywords: Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Research; Development and Innovation (R; D & I); Knowledge transfer; Commercialisation; Business Performance; Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs); Growth; Science & Technology; Government; Nigeria.
Assessment of Capital, Investment and Trade Flows in West Africa: Direction for Economic Efficiency
by Oluwabunmi Adejumo, Akintoye Adejumo
Abstract: The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) was established to actualize the harmonization, coordination of national policies, and the promotion of integration programmes within the union. Thus, given the 1986 policy-shifts for liberal economic system and integration, this study assesses the extent to which there has been pay-offs or otherwise using the macroeconomic indicators of trade, investment and capital flows within the union. This is with a view to ascertaining if there has been any direction for economic efficiency as well as establishing directions for future sustainability of ECOWAS as a union. Using a dataset of 1980-2018, productivity growth ascertains the rate of efficiency within the sub-region; while the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) determines the direction of causality, the extent of (in) economic efficiency vis-
Keywords: Growth; Efficiency; Development; Integration; Economic.
Contributions of Industry 4.0 to the Performance of Entrepreneurship in Katsina State, Nigeria
by Lukman Oladejo Gbolagade, Bashir Alao Babatunde, Munir Shehu Mashi
Abstract: The study investigates the contributions of industry 4.0 to entrepreneurship performance in Katsina State. The study adopts a longitudinal survey research approach and a structured questionnaire to collect its primary data. 200 entrepreneurs that specialized in manufacturing, trading, construction, poultry farming, and private hospitals in the state were selected using multistage sampling method. Data was analysed using Multiple Regression and Simple Pair t-test. The study found that industry 4.0 is an intensifying revolution for better improvement in the performance of entrepreneurs that have fully embraced the use of technologies and automation as brought by the forth industrial revolution. It was amazing that they experienced more business expansion, generated more profit and employed more labour than those that are yet to embrace the use of automation. The study therefore recommended among others that there should be general enlightenment on the adoption of technologies introduced by this industry 4.0 by all entrepreneurs.
Keywords: Industry 4.0; technologies and entrepreneurship performance.
SUSTAINING ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AN ENTREPRENEURSHIP AGRICULTURAL DYNAMIC CURRICULUM
by Kayode OBANIYI
Abstract: This study examines various components of Entrepreneurship Agricultural Dynamic Curriculum (EADC) which can help to sustain entrepreneurship now and in the future. This paper used qualitative data from review and inspirational thought to emphasize the contribution of neglect agricultural sector to entrepreneurship. This finding of this study include; inclusion of agricultural curriculum to entrepreneurial study in primary , secondary, and tertiary institutions, practical agriculture in areas of agronomy, aquaculture, forestry, apiculture, hydroponic, horticulture, animal production, soil management, climate change management, marketing, record keeping, agribusiness and others.. Moreover, lecturers, teachers and trainers should be involved in the development of the new entrepreneurship curriculum (EADC). In conclusion, government and non-governmental organization should support the restructuring of old curriculum and formation and implementation of the new curriculum through sponsorship and capacity building of the resource personnel who engaged in the development of entrepreneurship agricultural dynamic and sustainable curriculum
Keywords: Agriculture; Entrepreneurship; Education; Curriculum; Sustainable development; Primary; Secondary; Tertiary; Lecturers; Government ; Non Government.
Economic Growth and Unemployment in Nigeria: An Empirical Perspective
by Timothy Aderemi, Lydia Ojelade, Odunayo Ogunsanwo, Olowo Samson
Abstract: In the past decades, the Nigerian economy had experienced substantial economic growth before the economy slipped into recession in 2015. It is highly paradoxical that economic growth has not metamorphosed into employment generation in the country over the years. This study empirically examined the short run and long relationship between economic growth and unemployment in Nigeria from 1990 to 2015 within the framework of ARDL and ECM. Consequently, the findings that originated from study could be summarized as follows; firstly, 57% of disequilibrium due to shock in the previous year to equilibrium in the current year is corrected in the model. However, Economic growth and unemployment rate have a significant positive relationship in the short run. This implies that the Nigerian economy experienced jobless growth in the short run but reverse is the case in the long run. Similarly, money supply and unemployment rate have an insignificant positive relationship in the short run but positive in the long run. Trade openness and unemployment rate have a significant positive relationship in the short run but the relationship is not significant in the long run. In addition, inflation rate and unemployment rate have an insignificant negative relationship in the short run. Whereas the relationship becomes positive in the long run. Finally, the vital findings that originated in this study led to the following recommendations; if inclusive growth (unemployment reduction) is the goal of the policy makers in Nigeria, policies that will ensure increasing productivity in all the sectors of the economy and discouraging importation should be embarked upon in the country.
Keywords: Economic Growth: Unemployment: Jobless Growth: ARDL: ECM: Nigeria.
Small-scale enterprise: exploring social adaptation of survival among traders in Akure, Nigeria
by Damilola John Micah, Ezekiel Tunde Omolayo
Abstract: This study examined creative and socio-cultural characteristics exhibited by small scale traders which predicted success and survival in entrepreneurial activities in the city of Akure, Nigeria. Using Weber and Kalbergs Rationality, 600 traders were sampled in descriptive design, multistage sampling and quantitative and qualitative method. Respondents mean age was 39.5. Sixty-six percent earned less than N50, 000 monthly incomes. Creativity skills like customer relationship (68.7%), complimentary cards (45.3%), decent dressing (68.7%) and brand name (31.2%) retained patronage. Apprenticeship (49.7%) contributed to creative knowledge. Cultural factors like spouses partnership (31.5%), family size (63.0%), religion (69.0%) and age (62.0%) contributed to success. Interpersonal relationship (x2=64.5; P<0.000); dress code (x2=24.3; P<0.021); and apprenticeship (x2=31.8; P<0.030) were significant and predicted entrepreneurship success. Respondents showed that cultural and creative abilities served as social capital which drive patronage and adaptation of ventures. Social capital is required as prerequisite and recipe for success in small ventures.
Keywords: social capital; creative skills; cultural value; success; entrepreneurship; social adaptation; economic capital; traders; patronage; apprenticeship; small-scale enterprise.
E-service quality dimensions and customer satisfaction among users of automated saving platforms in a typical developing economy
by Ebuka Christian Ezenwafor, Adeola A. Ayodele, Blankson Governor Esiti
Abstract: This study assesses the nexus between e-SQ model and customer satisfaction among the users of automated saving platforms in Nigeria. In a bid to achieve this objective, survey research design and quota sampling were used as research design and sampling method, respectively. A questionnaire was used while the study population comprises of active users of automated saving platforms that reside in Anambra state. Validity and reliability of the study were carried out using content validity and Cronbachs alpha coefficient, respectively. Formulated hypotheses were tested using multiple regressions via SPSS. The finding of this study revealed that website design, reliability, personalisation, ease of use and trust have appreciable effect on customer satisfaction while responsiveness does not have a significant impact on customer satisfaction. It was recommended that automated saving platforms' service providers should modify their technology to ensure that an average customer can easily access and navigable website the site with no glitch.
Keywords: e-service quality; customer satisfaction; automated saving platform; Nigeria.
Innovative Leadership Styles: Innovative Entrepreneurial Leadership and Sustainable Economy A Case Study of Asia, Europe And America
by Mercy OGBARI, Favour OLAREWAJU, Edokpayi ARASOMWAN, Chy NWUNDE
Abstract: Prevalent problems of scarce resources, countless needs, globalisation, rising and evolving competition have necessitated the need for entrepreneurial and innovative leaders who can go beyond building and sustaining economies. As such, this study seeks to investigate the most promising innovative leadership style and its unique characteristics for sustaining business entrepreneurs and the world at large. An integrative literature review is adopted for this analytical paper as this is directed at gathering sufficient information and facts from reality to appropriately answer the research questions. Several leadership styles are observed including autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire, hierarchal, psychological, participative, directive, transactional and transformational/soft leadership to shed more light on which is more suitable for the current world that we live in today. The behavioural theory of Blake-Mouton Leadership Grid is an appropriate theoretical foundation for discussing transformational soft leadership. This is backed up with empirical evidence of distinguished leaders from three of the worlds most advanced countries - Asia, Europe and America who have made a lasting impact in society. It is concluded that transformational and participative leadership should be combined to yield optimum outcomes within our society. Hence, policy implications entail trust among other factors as key mediators for SCL and PL to induce desired effects in firms and countries as well as knowledge sharing and learning platforms for choosing levels of consultation and joint decision-making styles for unique contexts given the ineffectiveness of one-size-fits-all strategy.
Keywords: Keywords: Leadership; Innovative; Entrepreneurial; Sustainable Economy.
Operational efficiency in higher education in Nigeria: a scale development
by Busola E. Kehinde, Olaleke Oluseye Ogunnaike, Omotayo A. Adegbuyi, Oladele J. Kehinde, Ayodotun Stephen Ibidunni, Daniel E. Ufua, Simon O. Ilogho, Segun Isaac Kehinde
Abstract: This research paper presents a scale development of operational efficiency construct within the Higher Education Institution, specifically, in the Nigerian University context. The present study setting included the teaching staff of Covenant University Nigeria. This study adopted a multi-stage development of scale process using a survey method in which seven dimensions of operational efficiency were identified. These dimensions include; teaching, research and publication, recruitment and selection, community service, technology, training and development and effective communication. The results showed that there exists a multi-stage nature of operational efficiency within the Higher Educational Institution. The study, therefore, provided evidence of the scale's reliability and validity. The findings from the study propose a new approach to measure, evaluate operational efficiency within the higher educational institution system in Nigeria. It also shows the need to go beyond the traditional approach to efficiency.
Keywords: operational efficiency; technology; recruitment and selection; teacher quality; Nigerian higher educational sector; operational scale development.
Special Issue on: International Conference on Women Leadership and Empowerment 2020 Women’s Empowerment
Gender issues faced by women and its impact on job Satisfaction across sectors
by Sowmya K.R, Panchanatham N
Abstract: Women of present-day work in various organizations across sectors, in various shifts. Women do not hesitate to work on par with men adding value to the economic growth of the country. In such condition women face a lot of issues in workplace not limited to Organizational politics, Stress, Gender discrimination, and turnover intention. The researcher has done this study among working women across sectors to understand if they face any gender issues in specific and the influence of such issue on job satisfaction. Respondents were women working in any organization in any level from whom the researcher could collect data through online method. The data collected was analysed using One-way Anova, Karl Pearsons Correlation and t-test. It was found that women working across sectors perceived gender inequality in comparison to men in workplace.
Keywords: Job satisfaction; Organisational Politics; Turnover Intention; Gender; Gender Discrimination; Women.
Competency as an Enabler for Entrepreneurial Intention among female post graduates
by Krithika J, Sowmya K.R, Syamala Gouri P
Abstract: The role of Entrepreneurship and the growth of a countrys economy is inseparable. Various behavioural theories agree that intention precedes any planned behaviour. One who has a strong entrepreneurial intent becomes an entrepreneur. Ajzens theory of planned behaviour(TPB) is one of the most common psychological theories that predict human behaviour and has been successful in predicting the entrepreneurial intention of the individuals in different countries and various cultural setups. Education institutions play a crucial role in the transformation of a countrys economy as suppliers of potential entrepreneurs. One of the goals of higher education is to instil the entrepreneurial skillsets among the students. Hence the study population is selected as post graduates. Growing economies witness the increase in the number of women entrepreneurs and the governments encourage diversity in the entrepreneurial space by incentivising the women-owned start-ups. Contribution of women in entrepreneurship is inevitable for the economic growth of the country with a sex ratio of 933. Hence female post graduates were selected for the study. The purpose of the research is to study the entrepreneurial intent and competencies among the female post graduates. Does possessing the entrepreneurial competencies has relation with the intent of becoming an entrepreneur? Research model is developed by extending the theory of planned behaviour with entrepreneurial competency as an additional predictor variable. Data collected from 905 female post graduates from South India. Convenient sampling technique was adopted, which is a non-probability sampling method. The data were collected through the research instrument Questionnaire and the collected data were compiled, coded and tabulated accordingly. Correlation technique and multiple linear regression analysis were the tools used to analyse the data. Results revealed that possessing entrepreneurial competency has a positive and significant effect on the entrepreneurial intention. Perceived behavioural control is the other antecedent variable that has positive and significant effect on the intention. Based on the findings, the researchers recommend to organise Entrepreneurial Management Development Programs for the female post graduates and focus on developing the entrepreneurial competencies.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Entrepreneurial Intention; Competency; Women; Theory of Planned Behaviour; Entrepreneurial Management Development Programs.
Fashion Clothing - Retailers Perspective and Business Strategies focusing on Market Segmentation
by EASWARAMOORTHY RANGASWAMY, Girija Periyasamy, Uma Rani Srinivasan
Abstract: Business strategies to succeed retail markets is often focused on the consumers behavioural pattern and product involvement. There is limited research focusing on fashion clothing involvement and its related management strategies adopted by retailers including market segmentation. The study describes the management strategies presently adopted by the retailers of clothes including market segmentation to keep their customers satisfied. Structured schedules were used for collecting data from 100 retailers, selected by a stratified random sampling method in Singapore. The results showed that focusing on demographics of buyers seemed to be a preferable strategy in retail trade of clothes. Practical implications include that intensively competitive world market for clothes, growth of fashion consciousness has eradicated the impediments to fashion for the masses by making affordability and availability of varieties of products. Therefore, market segmentation based on identified factors would largely benefit retailers of clothes.
Keywords: Fashion; Clothing; Retailer; Business Strategies; Market Segmentation; Buyer Behaviour.
A Study on Impact of Ageing Population on Singapore Healthcare Systems using Machine Learning Algorithms
by Girija Periyasamy, EASWARAMOORTHY RANGASWAMY, Uma Rani Srinivasan
Abstract: Ageing population has been identified as a key issue for healthcare because of its adverse impact on ageing and facilities of healthcare systems. The study is focused on ageing population which has been having widespread consequences in Singapore context. Review of the healthcare systems was done as the gap revealed the need to address the objectives of the study which is to evaluate the various improvements of healthcare systems in Singapore with respect to the ageing population requirements and analyse the various factors related to ageing population that influences the health care systems in Singapore. Analysis included ANOVA, Correlation, along with Machine Learning Algorithms like Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine and Logistic Regression. The results, discussions along with findings are also provided with links to the literature and research objectives. Suggestions were provided for various healthcare systems initiatives and needs that are required to transform to cope with ageing population.
Keywords: Ageing; Healthcare; Healthcare Systems; Healthcare Facilities; Machine Learning.
CHALLENGES FACED BY EDUCATORS IN ADOPTING ONLINE TECHNOLOGY
by T. Chellammal, K. Sathya Bama, Ravichandran Krishnamoorthy
Abstract: Teaching can turn into transformative when teachers and students are generating information clearly. In effective teaching educators grasp all the significant things in an effective manner. Educators can create such potential way of critical learning to their children, in which students were motivated and engaged their abilities to analyze such critical situation. This article explains about challenges faced by educators while adopting online technology such as knowledge to use the technology, attitude, time taken, mental stress, family hindrance etc. The study found that online teaching method is the effective one even though it has some difficulties also. The study also reveals that, Professors are faced some difficulties in handling online classes such as headache/migraine, family hindrance etc, how to handle the online tools etc. They feel that these are the problems they met while entering into digitalized teaching.
Keywords: Challenges; Technology; Educators; Indian education system; Students; Pedagogical tools; Teachers attitude; Differences between conventional vs. online education; education institution; Social media; Problems.rnrn.
ONLINE LEARNING DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
by R. Samundeswari, K. Sathya Bama, Ravichandran Krishnamoorthy
Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic appears to have us heard in a new change in education systems around the world. Digital learning is the modus operandi of professionals looking to improve their skills in an increasingly automated world. Online learning has found a place in the curriculum of schools and universities to ensure academic continuity. Access to online learning is highly dependent on the subject and the tools the students are familiar with. This research report looks at different aspects of the challenges in the form of an online learning questionnaire. The study shows that most of the younger generations are very familiar with the use of online platforms, but use them as part of their daily academic activities, but are faced with many attitude problems that drive them to behave differently, which can be further elaborated in the findings of this study.
Keywords: Online learning; challenges; learners; technology; classroom; digital; pedagogy; conventional; higher education; infrastructure.
Work-life happiness among non-academic staff of institutions of higher learning: A demographic study
by Anita Sikandar, Sikandar Mohd. Abdul
Abstract: Happiness plays an important role in human life and career. Continuous engagement, happiness and satisfaction at the workplace have a positive impact on health that enhances productivity and performance of an employee in organisations. Happiness is generally termed as a positive emotion by psychologists. It is believed in society at large that happiness is a state of mind and the happy people can achieve success in their career through positivity. The present study investigates the level of work-life happiness (WLH) among non-academic staff from select higher educational institutions in India and to find out whether or not the demographic factors influence WLH. The results reveal that the demographic factors significantly influence the level of work-life happiness and their well-being in organisations.
Keywords: employee commitment; employee engagement; employee wellbeing; work-life balance; workplace collaboration; work-life happiness.
Organisational Politics and Turnover Intention Challenges faced by women in Leadership positions
by Sowmya KR, Krithika J, Jagannathan K
Abstract: Holding leadership positions are not an exception to women off late. Women have started getting hold of the top most positions across industries and across countries. However, it is not an easy journey that they go through which therefore influences their stay in the positions peacefully. The discussed leadership challenges in this study are organisational politics and Turnover intention. Women find it tricky to handle these two issues and are found continuing to either live with these challenges or they leave the organisation and the leadership position for betterment in life. The researcher has chosen 120 respondents holding top positions from India for this study. Judgement or purposive sampling by non-probability method was used to choose the respondents. Their perception was studied and analysed using Exploratory factor analysis, and Karl Pearsons Correlation. The factors influencing women perception of organisational politics was identified and summarised that women did work with turnover intention in their job however successful positions they were holding.
Keywords: Organisational Politics; Turnover intention; Women; Leadership; Challenges faced by women; Leadership Issues.
TECHNOLOGY READINESS OF MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES
by Punniyamoorthy Ramasamy, Vijayarani Sampath
Abstract: MSME has its ability to generate sustainability for the people by providing opportunities for steady growth, thereby giving a competitive advantage to its products by reducing the cost through technology up gradation and grab the new opportunities (Klewitz and Hansen ,2014). MSME plays a vital role in enhancing sustainable development by promoting sustainable growth in economy through careful investments, advancing sustainability in industrialisation and encouraging development and diminishing pay imbalances, several programs and services are provided to support MSME to activate their participations in reaching sustainable development are as through workable business model that could help a win-win strategy (Abraham et al.,2014 ; Belu et al .,2018). Many policies recommendations were concluded to support SMEs sector as a key driver for sustainable development in developed and developing countries in addition to emerging economies (Meyer D.F and N.Meyer, 2017). Supplier base develops and harvest the benefits on receiving quality products in a long term (Khan and Ede, 2009; Banarjee and Lahiri, 2018). It can be understood by the suppliers and if adhered they can reach different levels of operation to compete with global sources (Brentand Labuschagne ,2006;Nidumolu et al .,2009).
Keywords: Sustainability; quality conscious; Environment protection; supplier; Technology Development ; Profitability and Fund Management.
Evidence of moral hazard in employee performance: an empirical analysis of contract theory
by Preetha G. Panicker, R. Amudha
Abstract: Incentive schemes in organisations are generally based on the self-interest and willingness of the employees rather than coercion. But in most of the organisation's compensation system is designed by themselves as per their interests to motivate and induce an extra effort from the agent side. But this may create certain problems in employer-employee trust which should be taken care of. The Nobel Prize won theory in Economics named Contract theory describes about the problems and issues that arise and exist in incomplete incentive contracts and suggests the possible solutions too. This research article attempts to assess the impact of the two associated paradigms, 'moral hazard' and 'risk aversion' existing in the relationship between the principal and the agent on their employment contracts that leads to the effectiveness of the employees performance based on their incentive schemes. The study attempts to analyse with appropriate statistical tools to assess the association and impact on the dependent and independent variables identified for the study. The results indicate the conformity of the contract theory and contribute to its significance to assist the decision-making and implementation of the incentive system by the corporates.
Keywords: risk aversion; moral hazard; employee performance; contract theory; optimal incentive scheme; asymmetric information.
Impact of Goods and Service Tax on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in India
by Shetty Deepa Thangam Geeta, S.P. Mathiraj
Abstract: Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises in India plays a vital role in developing a country where many public depends on micro and small enterprises. India's Gross Domestic Product largely influence by the Growth of MSMEs and present contribution in manufacturing sectors is 6.11%, and Services sectors are 24.63%. Also, more than 120 million persons are employed in these sectors. It acts as an engine in creating jobs for a developing country like India. The study is purely centred on secondary data to evaluate MSMEs performance in various parameters and bring out the impact of Goods and Service Tax on MSMEs. The main purpose of the paper is to focus on growth and opportunities of MSMEs and to find impact of GST from date of its implementation on MSMEs in parameters such as number of enterprises, employment, exports and fixed investment applying the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression method. The finding of paper shows that the share of MSME in GVA and GDP are stagnated from 2012-13 to 2017-18 and 2017-18 share of MSME in GVA increased by 0.02% which shows positive impact of GST on Gross value-added and Working enterprises and Market value of fixed assets are positively influenced by the indirect taxes on MSMEs has. This paper will help the entrepreneurs of MSMEs to overcome the challenges posed by GST implementation.
Keywords: MSMEs; Gross Domestic Product; Nation Manufacturing Policy; Growth of MSMEs; Performance of MSMEs; Impact of GST on MSMEs.
Female entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance: with special reference to Sri Lanka
by H.M.T.S. Herath
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine how entrepreneurial orientation influences firm performance of female entrepreneurs in Sri Lanka. The proposed conceptual model delineates the direct relationship between innovativeness, proactiveness, risk-taking, autonomy and competitive aggressiveness the five dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance of female-owned entrepreneurial firms. This study used a randomly selected sample of 267 female-owned entrepreneurial firms in Sri Lanka to test the hypothesised relationships between the constructs; structural equation modelling was performed. The findings of this study confirmed that entrepreneurial orientation has a positive effect on firm performance of female-owned entrepreneurial firms in Sri Lanka. Particularly, findings confirm that all five dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation: innovativeness, proactiveness, risk-taking, autonomy and competitive aggressiveness have a positive impact on the performance of these firms. Thus, entrepreneurial orientation is a mechanism and a strategy for the success and the survival of female-owned entrepreneurial firms.
Keywords: female-entrepreneurs; entrepreneurial orientation; firm performance; innovativeness; proactiveness; risk-taking; autonomy; competitive aggressiveness.
Special Issue on: International Conference of College of Social and Management Sciences 2020 and CU-ICE 2020 Sustainable Business Models for the Growth of Indigenous Businesses in Africa
Does Entrepreneurship Financing Contribute to Industrial Development in Nigeria? Evidence from Small and Medium Scale Enterprises
by Timothy Aderemi, Ishola Aransiola, Lucas Ojo, James Ojo
Abstract: Underdevelopment of industrial sector has been one of the critical challenges confronting Nigeria in the last few decades. Against this backdrop, the objective of this study focuses on the relationship between entrepreneurship financing and industrial development in Nigeria between 1990 and 2018. Data were collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin in which Dynamic Ordinary Least Square and Granger causality techniques were utilized to address the objective of the study. The following are the crucial findings that originated from the study. Manufacturing and food processing business financing and industrial output have an insignificant positive relationship. Broad money supply and
industrial output have a significant positive relationship. Also, aggregate commercial banks financing has a significant positive impact on industrial output. Meanwhile, manufacturing and food processing business financing Granger caused industrial output in the country. It could be concluded that manufacturing and food processing business financing has the potential of bringing development to industrial sector of the Nigerian economy. In view of the pertinent findings put forward in this study, the following recommendations are made for the policymakers in Nigeria. If the goal of the Nigerian policy makers is industrial development, manufacturing and food process SMEs business financing should be encouraged by all the financial institutions especially deposit money banks in disbursement of loans and advances. In the same vein, the Central Bank of Nigeria should implement appropriate policies that will redirect the deposit money banks/commercial banks lending to manufacturing subsector of the Nigerian economy.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Finance; Industrial Development; SMEs; Nigeria.