Forthcoming and Online First Articles

Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal

Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal (PIE)

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Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal (6 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Extraction of red seaweed (Eucheuma spinosum) as raw material of hydrogel   Order a copy of this article
    by Emi Erawati, Aisyah Nurani, Aulia Medista Navitri 
    Abstract: Seaweed is one of the main commodities of Indonesia. In this study, Eucheuma spinosum seaweed was used as the raw material to produce carrageenan. To date, local seaweed is generally exported as raw material in the form of dried seaweed, while processed seaweed in the forms of gelatin. In addition, carrageenan and alginate are still imported in considerable quantities at high prices. The aims of this research are to make carrageenan with several variations of concentration and temperature, and to investigate the influence of various concentrations of NaOH and various temperatures on the yield, water, sulfate, and ash content of carrageenan from Eucheuma spinosum. After examining the generated carrageenan, the swilling degree of hydrogel was investigated. Carrageenan can be produced by extracting seaweed in alkaline conditions by using NaOH such as KOH, NaOH, or Ca(OH)2 as the solvent. The solvent used in this study was NaOH in which its various concentrations (0.5N, 1N, and 1.5N) and extraction temperatures (85oC, 90oC, and 95oC) were examined. Initially, red seaweed was soaked in aquadest while 0.5N NaOH solution was heated until it reached 85oC. It was continued by straining the seaweed that was previously soaked in NaOH solution. The extraction was carried out for 1 hour. Subsequently, the solution was strained and the filtrate was cooled down until 30oC. The precipitation was done using 1N solution of KCl, then the precipitate was strained and dried in an oven. The steps were repeated for the temperatures of 90
    Keywords: : carrageenan; extraction; Eucheuma spinosum; red seaweed; swilling degree; yield.

  • Structural Strengthening Using Natural Fiber Composite A Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Norliana Bakar, Su Kong Ngien, Kar Sing Lim, Januar Parlaungan Siregar, Siew Choo Chin 
    Abstract: Plant-based natural fibre is a sustainable material that has recently gained a lot of attention as a feedstock to prepare a natural composite, mainly due to the high cost and the non-sustainable nature of artificial material, such as a fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP). This paper reviews the application of natural fibre for external strengthening. All aspects of natural fibres such as the physical and mechanical properties, chemical properties, standard testing, the durability of natural fibre composites as well as the performance of natural fibre composites as external strengthening on reinforced concrete (RC) beams are reviewed. It was found that most of the previous work focused on RC beams strengthening in flexure, while limited studies were performed on shear strengthening. Composite made of 30-50% of natural fibre and epoxy resin gave the highest mechanical strength followed by polyester and vinyl-ester. Strengthening natural fibre composites bonded at the bottom beam soffit along the tension zone can improve the beam capacity from 7 40% and reduce the deflection by 24%. Wrapping at full length gives the most effective strengthening configurations compared to strip wrapping. Based on the data reported in the literature, natural fibre composites have great prospects to strengthen RC beams externally.
    Keywords: external; composites; durability; natural fibre; structural strengthening; testing.

Special Issue on: CIEEMAT 2019 Current Trends in Environmental Entrepreneurship, Energetic Management and Technology

  • Performance of binary and ternary blends of gasoline, pyrogasoline and ethanol in spark ignition engines   Order a copy of this article
    by Luís Durão, Joaquim Costa, Margarida Gonçalves, F.P. Brito, Jorge Martins 
    Abstract: The present work aimed to study the performance of binary and ternary blends of gasoline, pyrogasoline and ethanol in a spark ignition (SI) engine. Pyrogasoline was obtained by simple distillation of a pyrolysis bio-oil produced from used cooking oil and had a LHV of 39.4 MJ.kg1. Performance tests were done in a SI engine comparing gasoline blended with 10 wt.% pyrogasoline, 10 wt.% ethanol and a mixture of 5 wt.% pyrogasoline + 5 wt.% ethanol with conventional gasoline as a standard fuel. The effect of fuel composition in engine performance parameters (torque, energy consumption and efficiency) was evaluated. Results indicate that pyrogasoline may be used as a gasoline additive, as an alternative or complement of ethanol, contributing to increase the fraction of renewable advanced fuels used.
    Keywords: used cooking oil; UCO; pyrolysis bio-oil; pyrogasoline; ethanol; spark ignition engine.
    DOI: 10.1504/PIE.2021.10037387
     
  • Application of adsorbent materials to remove heavy metals in leachate from a municipal landfill treatment plant   Order a copy of this article
    by Jonathan Cardoso, Marina Fernández-Delgado, Maria T. Vertonha, David Cabral, Adriano S. Silva, Fernanda F. Roman, José L. Díaz De Tuesta, Margarida Arrobas, Mónica Coca, Paulo Brito, Helder T. Gomes 
    Abstract: To treat and reduce the content on heavy metals in leachate byproducts from the biological treatment of waste treatment plants, adsorption is one of the most efficient techniques. Due to the composition of leachates, which contains not only nutrients, but also hazardous metals, adsorption is the focus discussed in this work. The use of different adsorbents such as activated carbons, clays and ion-exchange resins is studied to adequate the requirements of leachates for use as commercial fertilizers according to the regulations. This study concluded that the TOC presented in the leachate fulfill the EU requirements after a simple concentration process. The results of experimental design obtained for removal of heavy metals from the leachate show that a suitable combination of pH of 9 and ion exchange resins, especially Lewatit TP207 with a mass ratio of 0.4g of resin per 20 mL of leachate, could reach the objectives of heavy metal content. However, the leachate cannot be used as a commercial fertilizer using only this treatment because of the lack of Cr VI specific determination, which requires a crucial and deeper study, using as a starting point the optimal conditions obtained in this work.
    Keywords: leachates; fertilizers; wastes; heavy metals removal; adsorbents.

  • Clean-up treatments for syngas obtained by gasification of coal, lignocellulosic biomass or municipal residues   Order a copy of this article
    by Octavio Alves, Eliseu Monteiro, Paulo Brito, Maria Goncalves 
    Abstract: This work provides a brief overview on methodologies for the decontamination of product gas originated from the gasification of coal, lignocellulosic biomass wastes, and municipal wastes. Both conventional and emerging decontamination methods are addressed and evaluated in terms of performance and costs. Several gas decontamination strategies were identified and ranged from pre-treatments (adjustment of gasification parameters) to post-treatments (cyclones, filters, scrubbers and catalysts, for instance). A significant effort was devoted to the development of new catalyst- and sorbent-based technologies, as well as of new chemical and thermal reactors, which were able to optimise process costs, material lifetime, or the removal of a wide range of gaseous contaminants. Further investigations were recommended to be conducted in gas preparation for fuel cells, plasma converters and co-gasification with new waste mixtures. Therefore, product gas decontamination assumes a relevant role in compliance with legislation, environmental equilibrium and gasification efficiency.
    Keywords: syngas; product gas; pollutant; decontamination; gasification.

  • The influence of domestic heating systems in indoor air quality in homes of a region of northeastern Portugal   Order a copy of this article
    by Manuel Feliciano, Fabiane Lira, Leonardo Furst, Rafael Arioli 
    Abstract: The monitoring of indoor air quality in homes is important for improving the quality of life and reducing health risk factors. The worsening of indoor air quality is mainly perceived in the colder months when low air exchange rates and increased use of heating systems contribute to increase indoor air pollutants concentrations. In this context, the present work aimed at evaluating the influence of different heating systems on indoor air quality in different dwellings in the city of Braganca, northeast of Portugal. The study involved the monitoring of particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in 25 dwellings with different heating systems. The highest concentrations of pollutants were observed in dwellings with open fireplaces, observing maximum hourly concentrations of 1,500 ug/m3 and 80 ppm for PM2.5 and CO, respectively. NMVOCs levels were mostly associated with burning incense, air fresheners, and cleaning products application.
    Keywords: air monitoring; heating systems; particulate matter; gaseous contaminants; open fireplaces.
    DOI: 10.1504/PIE.2022.10046858