Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal (9 papers in press)
Enhancing eco-economic efficiency of mineral deposit exploration to achieve sustainable development in the mining industry of Kazakhstan
by Kashamida Tazhibekova, Aigerim Shametova, Abay Urazbekov, Bura Akhmetzhanov, Serik Akenov, Svetlana Tulupova
Abstract: The article aims to study key aspects of sustainable eco-economic improvement of mining companies in Kazakhstan. The study involves 10 of the most important companies of Kazakhstan that are engaged in ore extraction and metallurgy. In addition, a Plan-Do-Check-Act model to improve functioning of a decoupling-based analysis system was introduced. Despite high positions in a decoupling ranking, companies such as ArcelorMittal Temirtau, Vostochnoye Rudoupravleniye, Zhairem Mining & Processing Plant, and Kazphosphate LLP had plenty of room over the years to grow and reach eco-economic efficiency. The PDCA model enables companies to analyse their eco-economic management system in terms of efficiency, adequacy and feasibility at certain pre-set intervals. ArcelorMittal Temirtau and Kazphosphate tend to reduce their environmental footprints by using their current technical capacities. To improve resource consumption and sustainability of national/regional economy in the future, state and local governments of Kazakhstan should develop a system of instruments to regulate eco-economic activity of mining companies.
Keywords: corporate environmental responsibility; corporate social responsibility; CSR; eco-economic management; efficiency; decoupling factor; model.
Performance and emission analysis of variable compression ratio CI engine using biodiesel as alternate fuel produced by single step transesterification
by Prasheet Mishra, Biranchi N Padhi, Sudhansu S Sahoo, R. K. Adyanshee Pattanayak, Chandrakanta Nayak
Abstract: The transportation sector is one of the major consumers of fossil fuel and a leading source of greenhouse gas pollution. Promoting alternative fuel is the need of the hour for creating a sustainable ecology. In this regard, the use of biodiesel along with common diesel fuel (CDF) is one such solution. This paper focusses on the performance and emission analysis of a variable CI engine having biodiesel as working fluid produced from a novel process. Biodiesel prepared from two types of vegetable oils (Soybean B15, B20, and Karanja B10) in a new process of transesterification which involves the single-step production of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME). This method of fuel production is less time consuming and cost-effective. Brake power, brake mean effective pressure, brake thermal efficiency, and specific fuel consumption are measured under variable load conditions. The results show similar performance trends of various mechanical parameters like brake Power, brake mean effective pressure, brake thermal efficiency, and specific fuel consumption for the biodiesel as of CDF. Emission analysis is also carried out, which shows that there have been decreasing trends of CO and increasing trends in CO2 and NOX percentage in case of increasing load. A new correlation for thermal efficiency concerning influencing parameters has been developed.
Keywords: Biodiesel; Transesterification; Performance analysis; Emission analysis; FAME.
Clean-up treatments for syngas obtained by gasification of coal, lignocellulosic biomass or municipal residues
by Octavio Alves, Eliseu Monteiro, Paulo Brito, Maria Goncalves
Abstract: This work provides a brief overview on methodologies for the decontamination of product gas originated from the gasification of coal, lignocellulosic biomass wastes, and municipal wastes. Both conventional and emerging decontamination methods are addressed and evaluated in terms of performance and costs.
Several gas decontamination strategies were identified and ranged from pre-treatments (adjustment of gasification parameters) to post-treatments (cyclones, filters, scrubbers and catalysts, for instance). A significant effort was devoted to the development of new catalyst- and sorbent-based technologies, as well as of new chemical and thermal reactors, which were able to optimise process costs, material lifetime, or the removal of a wide range of gaseous contaminants. Further investigations were recommended to be conducted in gas preparation for fuel cells, plasma converters and co-gasification with new waste mixtures. Therefore, product gas decontamination assumes a relevant role in compliance with legislation, environmental equilibrium and gasification efficiency.
Keywords: syngas; product gas; pollutant; decontamination; gasification.
Asian Case studies on Circular Economy A Literature Review
by Rohit Panchal, Anju Singh
Abstract: Circular economy (CE) is an opportunity to change the industrial system suffering from the pressure of undesirable waste and resource scarcity. In recent years scholars have come up with insightful cases in this area, but analysis of cases on CE of an Asian region is very limited. The assessment of CE cases in Asia across different sectors, regions, countries via different cycles was done in this study to comprehend the trends. Therefore, a literature review of CE case studies in the Asian region was carried out from 2008 to 2019. The case studies were chosen from relevant company websites, articles, reports, and Circular Asia platform. The most popular method to close the CE loop includes recycling. Importantly, while much work has been done on the technical cycle of CE, future work could look at identifying ways to close the biological cycle of the CE.
Keywords: Circular economy; Asia; Case Study; Resource Recovery; Recycling; Reuse.
Foresight as an innovative tool for strategic planning of sustainable rural development
by Rasul U. Gusmanov, Eugene V. Stovba, Nabi D. Avarskii, Milyausha T. Lukyanova, Rustam R. Galiev
Abstract: The research goal is to offer specific practical recommendations to design a foresight strategy for sustainable rural development. The paper shows that foresight is one of the key innovative tools for devising and implementing sustainable rural development strategy. The work presents the foresight exercise results on the Bashkortostan Republics per capita food requirement for up to 2030. The cluster and foresight technologies formed the basis of a cluster scenario for the sustainable development of rural territories in the regions non-black soil zone. Target indicators that reflect the long-term economic development of rural territories were worked out. The main results include planning and implementing the foresight methodology of rural development, the foresight of long-term economic development of rural territories.
Keywords: cluster technologies; development strategy; foresight technologies; rural area; rural territories.
Special Issue on: CIEEMAT 2019 Current Trends in Environmental Entrepreneurship, Energetic Management and Technology
Performance of binary and ternary blends of gasoline, pyrogasoline and ethanol in spark ignition engines
by Luis Durao
Abstract: The aim of the present work is to study the performance of binary and ternary blends of gasoline, pyrogasoline and ethanol in a spark ignition engine. Pyrogasoline was obtained by simple distillation of a pyrolysis bio-oil produced from low-quality waste cooking oil. This biofuel was mainly composed of hydrocarbon compounds (from which 52% were aromatic), had a lower heating value of 39.4 MJ.kg-1 and an air-to-fuel ratio of 14.14. Performance tests were done in a spark ignition engine using conventional gasoline blended with 10 wt.% pyrogasoline, with 10 wt.% ethanol and with a mixture of 5 wt.% pyrogasoline + 5 wt.% ethanol. Conventional pump RON95 gasoline was also used as a standard fuel. The tests were carried out on a four-cylinder gasoline engine connected to an eddy current dynamometer to evaluate the effect of fuel composition in performance parameters, namely torque, energy consumption and efficiency. The results indicate that pyrogasoline may be used as a gasoline additive, as an alternative or complement of ethanol, contributing to increase the fraction of renewable advanced fuels used in transport. This application also provides a sustainable alternative for the valorisation of low-quality waste cooking oils that would otherwise be co-incinerated or deposited in landfills.
Keywords: Used cooking oil; pyrolysis bio-oil; pyrogasoline; ethanol; spark ignition engine.
Special Issue on: ICONEEEA-2K19 Manufacturing Technology – The Next Generation
Machine Cell Formation and Part Family Identification by Combined Algorithm
by Shunmugasundaram M, KAMALAKANNAN RAMALINGAM, Anbumalar V, Maneiah D
Abstract: Two major problems in the cell manufacturing process are machine cell formation and component family identification. A combined algorithm is proposed in this paper to improve the cellular production system. The aim of this algorithm is to maximize the effectiveness of grouping and efficacy of grouping to reduce the part's travel time and increase production. Grouping efficiency and grouping efficacy are the two most widely utilized measures of quality for the proposed cellular manufacturing systems. The proposed method integrates appropriate production data to shape the device cell and classify the component unit, compared to the well-known approaches.
Keywords: Machine cell; Part family; Cellular Manufacturing System; Combined algorithm; Grouping Efficiency; Grouping Efficacy.
A study on IoT integrated project-driven supply chain in Industry 4.0 environment
by Manavalan Ethirajan, Jayakrishna Kandasamy
Abstract: Project-based organisations are facing real-time challenges such as cost overrun, handle deviations and communication gaps to meet the customer requirements. Projects mostly do not have real-time information on labour and material shortage. From the literature, it is identified that project-driven supply chain (PDSC) activities comprise of both on-field activities (i.e., resource and equipment planning, work assignment), and off-site activities (i.e., manufacturing, transportation, and material stocking). Thus, it is imperative to make both on-field and off-site project community are connected to drive the work alignment and ensure to minimise project disruption. The IoT technology bridges the gaps in the current PDSC and assists enterprises for better project planning and implementation. The objective of the paper is to discuss the opportunities that exist with IoT technology for project-driven supply chain organisations in the Industry 4.0 environment. A case study is performed in a project-based organisation. Based on the study, recommendations are given to stakeholders to deploy IoT to track material shortages in real-time and make timely decisions, reduce equipment maintenance costs and improve workers safety with technology. Overall, IoT embedded PDSC connects the project community in real-time and improves project performance to deliver customer
Keywords: Internet of Things; IoT; project-driven supply chain; PDSC; Industry 4.0.
Special Issue on: ESChE 2019 Sustainable Energy Development and Environmental Protection
THERMAL DEGRADATION ANALYSIS OF LIGHT, MEDIUM AND SEVERE TORREFACTION OF OIL PALM PLANTATION RESIDUE
by Saidatul Shima Jamari, Yu Xun Teo, Mohd Faizal Ali
Abstract: Oil palm plantation waste is a potential renewable energy resource in terms of energy security and carbon-neutral fuel. The waste from the plantation sites, such as oil palm fronds (OPF) and oil palm trunks (OPT) is currently underutilised. In this work, the thermal degradation behaviour of the OPF and OPT, and evaluation on the kinetic and activation energy of the torrefied products are investigated. The samples undergo light (200?C), mild (250?C), and severe (300?C) torrefaction for 30 minutes in inert condition. Then, the samples are characterized using bomb calorimeter, FTIR, and TGA analyses. As a result, the calorific values of OPF and OPT improved to 22.46 MJ/kg and 25.48 MJ/kg from the raw samples. At mild torrefaction, the energy yield of the solid product was higher for both OPF and OPT. In conclusion, the mild condition process showed optimum characteristics for both OPT and OPF as the feedstock for energy application.
Keywords: Energy; Oil palm; Torrefaction; Thermal kinetics.