Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal (9 papers in press)
Towards Sustainable Automobiles-Advancements and Challenges
by Zaid Ulllah Baba, Wani Khalid Shafi, Mir Irfan Ul Haq, Ankush Raina
Abstract: The growing energy demands and the negative ecological impact of the industrialization has led to increased focus towards sustainability. This paper presents different strategies being adopted to mitigate the environmental degradation caused due to automotive sector. A systematic approach is adopted to present all the environmental conscious technologies in vogue in the automotive sector. The paper focuses on the production processes adopted, materials used, fuels, recyclability issues and the environmental hazard mitigation during the operation of the automobiles. An overview of the potential of natural fiber reinforced composites in the automotive sector is also included. Moreover, recent advances in automobile tribology, fuel efficient engines, hybrid electric cars and technologies which aid in the treatment of the exhaust gases are also discussed. The paper also presents the scope of vegetable oils as bio-fuels and their use as sustainable lubricants. A summary of the global market trends with regard to use of greener vehicle alternatives is also provided in this work.
Keywords: Design; Automobiles; Environment; Lightweight Materials; Tribology; Engine Emissions.
Aqua-Ammonia based Thermally Activated Combined Power and Cooling System
by Kolar Deepak
Abstract: The use of aqua-ammonia-based power generating system is a promising way to utilise low temperature heat sources originating either from a renewable energy resource or industrial process waste heat up to a temperature of 150
Keywords: cogeneration; energy conversion; renewable energy; combined cycle; energy efficiency; waste heat utilisation.
AN EVALUATION OF CLASSROOM-ILLUMINATION: A CRITICAL-REQUIREMENT FOR EFFECTIVE DESIGNING AND CONSTRUCTION OF NATURALLY-ILLUMINATED SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA
by Osagie IBHADODE, Oluseyi Olarenwaju AJAYI, Abiodun Ayodeji ABIOYE, Joseph ISMAILA
Abstract: In this research paper, an attempt was made to experimentally investigate the indoor lighting-levels (illuminances) of one hundred and eighty (180) classrooms in sixty (60) public [primary and secondary] schools located in all six (6) geopolitical zones of Nigeria, from October 2012 September 2015. Consequently, twelve (12) field-studies were periodically carried-out to determine the indoor illuminances of all 180 classrooms under three (3) different sky-conditions [Clear', Partly-clear' and Overcast'] using the Hagner digital lux-meter model EC1'. The empirical data of classroom illumination-levels obtained under different sky-conditions were collated, tabulated, graphically illustrated and analyzed. From the research findings, while the Mean Indoor illuminance for tasks on desks' tops near Windows exposed to direct Sunlight and/or higher illumination () ranged from , the Mean Indoor illuminance for tasks on desks tops near Windows exposed to indirect Sunlight and/or lower illumination () ranged from , the Mean Indoor illuminance for tasks on desks tops at Center of Classroom () ranged from , and then, the Mean Indoor illuminance for tasks on boards () ranged from . Thus, based on the global standard values recommended by the CIE-ISO, IESNA, and EN, for minimal and optimal lighting-levels for classroom-activities like reading on the blackboard (= 500lux) and writing, drawing & reading etc., on the desks (= 300lux) in educational environments; it is evidently clear that the illumination-levels in majority of all investigated classrooms in the selected Nigerian schools swing to either extreme of being excessively higher or incredibly lower than the above-recommended levels. Furthermore, the Sign Test' analyses showed that the four alternative hypotheses , , and are statistically-significant and should be acceptedas a clear indication of the dangers of excessive solar irradiation and/or hazardously inadequate illumination in the classrooms of the investigated public [primary and secondary] schools in Nigeria. Hence, it is recommended that the Nigerian government should urgently address these issues by adopting the understated remedial/control measures.
Keywords: illuminance; solar irradiation; classroom lighting; naturally illuminated schools; sky condition.
Sustainable technologies in tourist accommodation;A qualitative review
by Angeliki N. Menegaki, George Agiomirgianakis
Abstract: Comprising all the aspects of the hotel sustainable technologies in a single state of the art paper is something missing from up-to-date tourist literature. Information on the subject is fragmented in various articles, web resources and the records of relevant tourism institutions and organizations. Sustainability in a hotel, besides its financial status which lies beyond the scope of this paper, comprises both environmental, social and technological data. The purpose of this paper is to review the sustainable featuresrnof the Greek hotels from a qualitative point of view. Due to space considerations, the quantitative point of view will become available in another paper that succeeds the current one. The reason we focus on Greek hotels is the importance of tourism for the Greek economy. It is envisaged that this review would help, first, hoteliers providing them with a benchmark in their businesses and an ideal sustainable reference point and second it may also help policy makers to obtain a qualitative overview of hotel sustainability in Greece and thus equip them with knowledge in designing policy measures aiming at the promotion and improvement of sustainability in Greek hotels. rn
Keywords: Greece; green technologies sustainable hotel; qualitative; review;.
The tribological potential of graphene growth from solid waste
by Mat Tahir Noor Ayuma, Abdollah Mohd Fadzli Bin, Tamaldin Noreffendy, Amiruddin Hilmi, Mohamad Zin Mohd Rody Bin, Tokoroyama Takayuki, Umehara Noritsugu
Abstract: This study aimed to identify the tribological potential of graphene growth from solid waste products on 99% copper (Cu) substrate via the Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) method. The study focused on graphene growth employing two types of solid waste sources; fruit cover plastic waste and oil palm fibre. The coated surface was examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy embedded with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and Raman Spectroscopy. The coated surface was tested in a Ball-on-Disc tester to determine its tribological properties, and the hardness test was performed using a Nano-indenter test machine on both the worn and unworn surfaces. From the peak findings obtained from the Raman spectrum analysis, graphene was successfully grown from both sources. However, the oil palm fibre produced higher carbon content compared to the fruit cover plastic waste. Meanwhile, the tribological study found that both coatings showed a higher coefficient of friction compared to pure copper. However, the wear rate was contradicted by the coefficient of friction where the wear rates were found to be 60% and 75% lower for Fruit Cover Plastic Waste (FCPW) and Oil Palm Fibre (OPF), respectively. Finally, the hardness analysis revealed that the coating was damaged at 100 m sliding as the surface hardness increased.
Keywords: Graphene; Coating; Friction,.
Management of material and product circularity potential as an approach to operationalise circular economy
by Tetiana Shevchenko, Jakub Kronenberg
Abstract: To make the general action plan more specific, a circular economy must introduce obligations for producers to use recycled materials. The present study suggests not only to restrict manufacturers access to use primary resources for certain products, but also to establish the only possible access to the material of a particular turnover, thereby creating demand for these or other outputs and maximising the number of uses of the same material. This article focuses on the development of a new approach for the operationalisation of a circular economy based on the management of material and product circularity potential by the following phases: (1) allocation of the explicit available potential, (2) fullest use of materials, and (3) building-up of new circularity potential for specific material and product in combination. In particular, the allocation of the explicit available potential reflects the aspect of restricting access to primary resources for manufacturers of certain products. The findings presented and discussed in this article provide a theoretical basis for the development of new metrics for measuring progress towards zero-waste and circular economy aimed at identifying and monitoring all the possible forms of the circularity potential such as opportunities, reserves, available resources, rather than the available resources only which were primarily considered in the past attempts at the operationalisation of circular economy.
Keywords: circular economy; operationalisation; circularity potential; measuring circularity; material cycle; resource cycle; closing loop; slowing loop; electrical and electronic products.
Special Issue on: TMREES 2018 Advanced Material and Energy Flow Impact on Sustainability
3D Image Reconstruction from its 2D Projection A Simulation Study
by Hawraa Al-waelly, Hameed Abduljabbar
Abstract: A simulation study of using 2D tomography to reconstruction a 3D object is presented. The 2D Radon transform is used to create a 2D projection for each slice of the 3D object at different heights. The 2D Back-Projection and the Fourier Slice Theorem methods are used to reconstruction each 2D projection slice of the 3D object. The results showed the ability of the Fourier Slice Theorem method to reconstruct the general shape of the body with its internal structure, unlike the 2D Radon method, which was able to reconstruct the general shape of the body only because of the blurring artifact, Beside that the Fourier Slice Theorem could not remove all blurring artifact, therefore, this research, suggested the threshold technique to eliminate the excessive points due to the blurring artifact.
Keywords: Tomography; 2D Projections; 3D Reconstruction; Fourier Slice Theorem; Radon Transform.
Preparation of Nanocompounds Materials by Combustion Method using Urea as Fuel
by Alyaa Abdulrazzak, Mohammad Haider
Abstract: LiNiCoO2 (LCNO) has been prepared using Combustion method with urea as the igniter and glycerol as the binding material due to its high activity. Urea, used as fertilizer, can be produced by way of sequence chemical approaches by means of the usage of H2, N2 and CO2.It is good performance hydrogen and carbon dioxide as storage medium due to high energy density (16.9 M*J *L−1, 10.1 weight percent of H2) for direct urea fuel cell (DUFC). Nitrates of Li+,Co+2 and Ni+2 had been combined together to shape a homogenous medium . Re- quired quantities of urea and glycerol have been brought to combination and made good a paste. This paste are heated to 400◦C for 2 h. The as-synthesized fabric used to be subjected to thermo- gravimetric (TGA) analysis to decide the top of the line varies of annealing temperatures. This mixtures were headed at (800, and 900) ˚C for 2 h in an air and various in the structural, morphological properties were studied. The structural of (LCNO) as powder had been studied with the aid of potential of X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. From the structure analysis suggests that all the powders are crystallized in the layered shape (R - 3m). The product bought was once subjected to infrared bands of solids are normally assigned to vibration of ions in the crystal lattice FTIR of LCNO pure section was once recorded vary of (3500-500) cm*-1. The particle size of the nano particles was estimated with results during post annealing and the average sizes of the LiNiCoO2 structure is found to be (62-75) nm from SEM measurement. LiNiCoO2 is used as nano-batteries (storage energy) to prevent smoke from cars and vehicles that have a negative impact on the sustainability of the environment.
Keywords: Nanoparticle; LiCoNiO2; DUFC; FTIR;X-ray diﬀraction; characterization.
Preparation and study of a superconducting composite based on superconducting ceramic system
by Abdul Hameed Al –Sarraf
Abstract: Heat pollution could be through decreasing the electrical resistance of wire conductors. The main approach of this research is to modify the superconducting ceramic Y-Ba-Ca-Cu-(Hg, Ag)-O system.The composite samples consisting of YBa2Ca2Cu2.8(Ag,Hg)0.2 O7-δ superconductor ceramic and epoxy have been prepared. The stander four probe techniques and contactless induction based on Meissner effect were used to study the superconducting properties of sintered ceramic Y-Ba-Ca-Cu-(Hg,Ag)-O system and composite samples. The results showed that in all composite samples which were prepared by the addition of the ceramic superconducting powder as filler to the epoxy polymer ,there was no decrease in the Tc of ceramic superconductor YBa2Ca2Cu2.8Ag, Hg)0.2O7-δ precursor filler; a very slight change was observed. The superconductive nature is very sensitive to microstructure, represented by the porosity, density, grain size and consequently the granular specific surface area. The partial replacement of Cu ion by either Ag and Hg ions was found to modify the superconductive nature. And, the ability of mercury ion to play an important role as an oxygen donor is due to its high free energy of oxide formation compared to that of copper ion. Also, the advantage of using composite material is providing a high efficiency and low loss, which have not impeded the development of its applications.
Keywords: High temperature superconductor; Magnetization; Tc; porosity; density; Grain size Epoxy polymeric composites.