Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal (8 papers in press)
Investigation on Emission Reduction Potential of Nickel and Zinc Coated Catalytic Converters
by Subramaniam Dhanakotti, A. Murugesan, A. Avinash, N. Panneerselvam, C. Vijayakumar
Abstract: Environmental pollution is the key topic to be discussed in the present scenario. Although several alternative fuels are being discovered, their emission levels need to be controlled in order to meet the standards. In this outlook, this work attempted to investigate the effects of metal coatings on the emission reduction potential of the compression ignition engine fuelled with biodiesel. For this purpose, zinc and nickel were chosen as the catalytic materials and Calophyllum inophyllum was chosen as the feedstock for biodiesel production. Experimental results proved maximum reduction of hydrocarbon emissions by 14.8%, carbon monoxide emissions by 21.89% and smoke opacity by 13.22% for nickel coated catalytic converter. However, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides emission levels increased by 22% and 5.5%, respectively for nickel coated catalytic converter. On the other hand, zinc coated catalytic converter exhibited an increase of all emission levels except nitrogen oxides. The reduction level of nitrogen oxides with zinc coated catalytic converter was observed as 34.2%. Through this work it is revealed that nickel acts as an oxidative catalytic agent and zinc as the reducing catalyst in the catalytic converter.
Keywords: Nickel; PME; Zinc; Catalytic converter.
Special Issue on: ICPAT-19 Trends in Automotive Green Technologies
A Comparative study of performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine using various
by Rajkumar R, Gopi Kannan K, Mohanraj M
Abstract: In this study, the performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel such as cottonseed oil, castor oil, Calophyllum inophyllum oil and mustard oil by transesterification are investigated. All biodiesels are mixed together on a mass basis and allowed to transesterification is named as Totally Mixed Esterified (TMEx). Separately transesterified and mixed together on a mass basis becomes Separately Esterified Mixer (SEMx). The biodiesel test samples are prepared by a volume proportions such as 10% (SEMx10, TMEx10) and 20% (SEMx20, TMEx 20). The experiment is conducted on a single-cylinder, water-cooled, direct injection diesel engine loaded by eddy current dynamometer at different loads. The result shows that the brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption of TMEx blends are closer to diesel when compared to SEMx blends. In addition, the emission characteristics of TMEx20 is observed as less in comparison with other blends and it is suggested as a promising replacement for diesel without any engine modification.
Keywords: biodiesel; methyl ester; diesel engine; exhaust emission.
Automotive Air-Conditioning System Technology: A Review
by Shaik Sharmas Vali, Shaik Saboor, Prithivi Rajan S, T.P. Ashok Babu
Abstract: Air conditioning in the automobile has become an important area of research. The performance of an air conditioning system in an automobile depends upon three basic important factors such as compressor speed, evaporator load, and condensing temperature. How these factors when varied affects the COP of the system have been detailed in this review paper. Refrigerants are one of the important factors that determine the efficiency of the air conditioning system in automobile and as a result, many experiments and researches were carried out. The properties of refrigerants which were in use and the ones which are still in use, their pros and cons, their optimum operating conditions and how these got replaced with much more efficient alternatives have been presented. Common refrigerants used in the automotive industry like R12, R134a, R22, and their alternatives like R1234yf, CO2, and R152a are being discussed their properties, working optimum conditions, impact on the environment, etc. Several performance studies on various refrigerants (R134a, R152a, CO2 and R1234yf) used in the automotive air conditioning system operating with various conditions revealed the better COP for R152a in comparison with R134a, whereas COP of R1234yf and CO2 was observed to be slightly lower than R134a. However, safety measures must be followed while using R152a due to its slightly flammable nature (ASHRAE A2 group). In this work, various alternative air conditioning systems used for automobiles have been presented in detail.
Keywords: Alternative refrigerants; GWP; ODP; Automotive air-conditioning.
Assessment of Performance, Emission, and Combustion Characteristics of Dual-fuel Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation
by Radha Krishna Gopidesi, Anjaneyulu Kancharla, Nagarjuna Kumma, Bhaskara Rao Pathakokila
Abstract: The present investigations were carried out on the common rail diesel injection (CRDI) engine in dual-fuel mode with exhaust gas recirculation. Biogas is one of the best alternatives for conventional fuel which has several benefits with limitations. In dual-fuel mode, biogas was injected from the inlet manifold at flow rates of 4 and 5 liters per minute (lpm) as a secondary fuel and diesel was used as the primary fuel. The biogas at 5 lpm consumption gave a 6.78 % brake thermal efficiency higher than that of diesel fuel. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was used in dual-fuel mode at a flow rate of 5 lpm of biogas. The use of NOX resulted in a drastic reduction of about 50% for the 5 lpm with 5% EGR when compared with other samples. However, it led to an increase in HC emissions due to lower heat release rate. In dual-fuel mode, the flow rate of 5 lpm produced the highest in-cylinder pressure of 71.1 bars at a crank angle of 366
Keywords: biogas; dual-fuel; performance; emission; combustion.
Hydrogen Storage System integrated with fuel cell
by Saumen Dutta, Sri Harshith Dosapati
Abstract: Fossil fuels in the earth are depleting at an alarming rate and hence we are switching towards renewables sources of energy such as solar, wind, etc. The need for renewable sources of energy is an absolute necessity, especially in the automotive industry. Electric vehicles are a promising venture to provide transportation in the future. Electric vehicles currently are being powered by either a battery or a fuel cell, and later seems to be more efficient. But for a fuel cell vehicle, the major drawback is to provide a viable solution for storing hydrogen fuel, which powers the fuel cell. In this paper, the authors aim to provide a feasible solution for storing hydrogen fuel. The authors have coupled the hydrogen storage system with a fuel cell to observe the power developed when hydrogen is released from the storage. From our experiment, we have obtained hydrogen uptake of 1.1428 wt. % at 50 MPa pressure and 283 K for Ge-doped CNT (7,8). The same CNT structure when coupled with a fuel cell, provided a constant flow rate of hydrogen and developed 10.057 kW of power from the fuel cell.
Keywords: Carbon nanotubes; Hydrogen; Fuel Cell vehicle; Adsorption; Storage system; Doping; Power; Equivalent battery.
Experimental investigation on lean burn spark ignition engine using alcohol - gasoline blends
by RAVI Krishnaiah, Suresh Devunuri, Jim Alexander, Porpatham E
Abstract: This study discusses the effects of addition of small amount of alcohols on performance and emission behavior of a gasoline fuelled lean burn SI engine. Experiments were carried out in a single cylinder diesel engine, which is made to operate as SI engine on lean condition with gasoline as a fuel. The engine was operated at wide open throttle at a compression ratio of 10.5:1 and 1500 rpm at diverse equivalent ratios by injecting the fuel into manifold. The test outcomes stipulate that use of ethanol-gasoline blend (10% by volume) was better compared with methanol-gasoline blend (10% by volume) and pure gasoline. The test results also revealed that there was 2.5% and 7.5% improvement in brake thermal efficiency with M10 and E10 blends and apparent extension in the lean limit of operation with alcohol-gasoline blends. In emission front, reduction in hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were observed. However, carbon dioxide and nitric oxide emissions were increased due to better combustion and high in-cylinder temperature. On the whole it is concluded that small alcohol addition to gasoline improves performance and reduce emissions for lean operating SI engine.
Keywords: Methanol; Ethanol; Lean burn; Performance; Emissions; Combustionrn.
Special Issue on: ICONEEEA-2K19 Manufacturing Technology – The Next Generation
A study on IoT integrated project-driven supply chain in Industry 4.0 environment
by Manavalan Ethirajan, Jayakrishna K, Kalaiarasan G, Aravind Raj Shakthivel, Abdul Zubar
Abstract: In the complex business environment, project-based organizations need to overcome the common challenges faced in the industry such as cost overrun, handle deviations and communication gaps to meet the customer requirements. In addition, the stakeholders in project supply chain mostly do not have real-time information on labor shortage, underperforming projects, environment sustainability and profit margins. The technology IoT overcomes these challenges and assists enterprises with better resource planning and implementation all through the project lifespan. The research paper discusses the opportunities that exist in IoT with the latest trends to digitalize the project supply chain. The objective of the study is to investigate on various IoT applications, which can be leveraged in the Industry 4.0 environment to achieve on-time delivery, ensure real-time and accurate progress of the project, plan for optimal utilization of equipment. This research reported explores the opportunities with IoT that can be integrated with the project-driven supply chain, which helps the organization to foresee material shortages, alert the stakeholders to avoid unexpected delays, reduce risk from scope changes. The versatile IoT technology allows the stakeholders to improve supply chain network, perceptual real-time information sharing to take right decisions and adhere to committed milestones. Overall IoT embedded with project supply chain improves the cost performance by driving accountability and reduces project overhead cost.
Keywords: internet of things; project-driven supply chain; industry 4.0; supply chain network; overhead cost; risk reduction.
Machine Cell Formation and Part Family Identification by Combined Algorithm
by Shunmugasundaram M, KAMALAKANNAN RAMALINGAM, Anbumalar V, Maneiah D
Abstract: Two major problems in the cell manufacturing process are machine cell formation and component family identification. A combined algorithm is proposed in this paper to improve the cellular production system. The aim of this algorithm is to maximize the effectiveness of grouping and efficacy of grouping to reduce the part's travel time and increase production. Grouping efficiency and grouping efficacy are the two most widely utilized measures of quality for the proposed cellular manufacturing systems. The proposed method integrates appropriate production data to shape the device cell and classify the component unit, compared to the well-known approaches.
Keywords: Machine cell; Part family; Cellular Manufacturing System; Combined algorithm; Grouping Efficiency; Grouping Efficacy.