Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal (19 papers in press)
Towards Sustainable Automobiles-Advancements and Challenges
by Zaid Ulllah Baba, Wani Khalid Shafi, Mir Irfan Ul Haq, Ankush Raina
Abstract: The growing energy demands and the negative ecological impact of the industrialization has led to increased focus towards sustainability. This paper presents different strategies being adopted to mitigate the environmental degradation caused due to automotive sector. A systematic approach is adopted to present all the environmental conscious technologies in vogue in the automotive sector. The paper focuses on the production processes adopted, materials used, fuels, recyclability issues and the environmental hazard mitigation during the operation of the automobiles. An overview of the potential of natural fiber reinforced composites in the automotive sector is also included. Moreover, recent advances in automobile tribology, fuel efficient engines, hybrid electric cars and technologies which aid in the treatment of the exhaust gases are also discussed. The paper also presents the scope of vegetable oils as bio-fuels and their use as sustainable lubricants. A summary of the global market trends with regard to use of greener vehicle alternatives is also provided in this work.
Keywords: Design; Automobiles; Environment; Lightweight Materials; Tribology; Engine Emissions.
Aqua-Ammonia based Thermally Activated Combined Power and Cooling System
by Kolar Deepak
Abstract: The use of aqua-ammonia-based power generating system is a promising way to utilise low temperature heat sources originating either from a renewable energy resource or industrial process waste heat up to a temperature of 150
Keywords: cogeneration; energy conversion; renewable energy; combined cycle; energy efficiency; waste heat utilisation.
AN EVALUATION OF CLASSROOM-ILLUMINATION: A CRITICAL-REQUIREMENT FOR EFFECTIVE DESIGNING AND CONSTRUCTION OF NATURALLY-ILLUMINATED SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA
by Osagie IBHADODE, Oluseyi Olarenwaju AJAYI, Abiodun Ayodeji ABIOYE, Joseph ISMAILA
Abstract: In this research paper, an attempt was made to experimentally investigate the indoor lighting-levels (illuminances) of one hundred and eighty (180) classrooms in sixty (60) public [primary and secondary] schools located in all six (6) geopolitical zones of Nigeria, from October 2012 September 2015. Consequently, twelve (12) field-studies were periodically carried-out to determine the indoor illuminances of all 180 classrooms under three (3) different sky-conditions [Clear', Partly-clear' and Overcast'] using the Hagner digital lux-meter model EC1'. The empirical data of classroom illumination-levels obtained under different sky-conditions were collated, tabulated, graphically illustrated and analyzed. From the research findings, while the Mean Indoor illuminance for tasks on desks' tops near Windows exposed to direct Sunlight and/or higher illumination () ranged from , the Mean Indoor illuminance for tasks on desks tops near Windows exposed to indirect Sunlight and/or lower illumination () ranged from , the Mean Indoor illuminance for tasks on desks tops at Center of Classroom () ranged from , and then, the Mean Indoor illuminance for tasks on boards () ranged from . Thus, based on the global standard values recommended by the CIE-ISO, IESNA, and EN, for minimal and optimal lighting-levels for classroom-activities like reading on the blackboard (= 500lux) and writing, drawing & reading etc., on the desks (= 300lux) in educational environments; it is evidently clear that the illumination-levels in majority of all investigated classrooms in the selected Nigerian schools swing to either extreme of being excessively higher or incredibly lower than the above-recommended levels. Furthermore, the Sign Test' analyses showed that the four alternative hypotheses , , and are statistically-significant and should be acceptedas a clear indication of the dangers of excessive solar irradiation and/or hazardously inadequate illumination in the classrooms of the investigated public [primary and secondary] schools in Nigeria. Hence, it is recommended that the Nigerian government should urgently address these issues by adopting the understated remedial/control measures.
Keywords: illuminance; solar irradiation; classroom lighting; naturally illuminated schools; sky condition.
Sustainable technologies in tourist accommodation;A qualitative review
by Angeliki N. Menegaki, George Agiomirgianakis
Abstract: Comprising all the aspects of the hotel sustainable technologies in a single state of the art paper is something missing from up-to-date tourist literature. Information on the subject is fragmented in various articles, web resources and the records of relevant tourism institutions and organizations. Sustainability in a hotel, besides its financial status which lies beyond the scope of this paper, comprises both environmental, social and technological data. The purpose of this paper is to review the sustainable featuresrnof the Greek hotels from a qualitative point of view. Due to space considerations, the quantitative point of view will become available in another paper that succeeds the current one. The reason we focus on Greek hotels is the importance of tourism for the Greek economy. It is envisaged that this review would help, first, hoteliers providing them with a benchmark in their businesses and an ideal sustainable reference point and second it may also help policy makers to obtain a qualitative overview of hotel sustainability in Greece and thus equip them with knowledge in designing policy measures aiming at the promotion and improvement of sustainability in Greek hotels. rn
Keywords: Greece; green technologies sustainable hotel; qualitative; review;.
The tribological potential of graphene growth from solid waste
by Mat Tahir Noor Ayuma, Abdollah Mohd Fadzli Bin, Tamaldin Noreffendy, Amiruddin Hilmi, Mohamad Zin Mohd Rody Bin, Tokoroyama Takayuki, Umehara Noritsugu
Abstract: This study aimed to identify the tribological potential of graphene growth from solid waste products on 99% copper (Cu) substrate via the Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) method. The study focused on graphene growth employing two types of solid waste sources; fruit cover plastic waste and oil palm fibre. The coated surface was examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy embedded with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and Raman Spectroscopy. The coated surface was tested in a Ball-on-Disc tester to determine its tribological properties, and the hardness test was performed using a Nano-indenter test machine on both the worn and unworn surfaces. From the peak findings obtained from the Raman spectrum analysis, graphene was successfully grown from both sources. However, the oil palm fibre produced higher carbon content compared to the fruit cover plastic waste. Meanwhile, the tribological study found that both coatings showed a higher coefficient of friction compared to pure copper. However, the wear rate was contradicted by the coefficient of friction where the wear rates were found to be 60% and 75% lower for Fruit Cover Plastic Waste (FCPW) and Oil Palm Fibre (OPF), respectively. Finally, the hardness analysis revealed that the coating was damaged at 100 m sliding as the surface hardness increased.
Keywords: Graphene; Coating; Friction,.
Special Issue on: TMREES Technological Innovation for Sustainable Development
The Effects of Copper Additives on the Glass transition temperature and Hardness for Epoxy Resin
by Kareem Jasim, Rihab Fadhil, Auday Shaban, Harith Jaafar, Bushra Maiyaly, Suad Aleabi, Ebtisam Salman
Abstract: Abstract: The polymeric composites material considered as one of the most isolated materials, but they have a good mechanical flexibility. The main idea of modifying these materials to be one of the applicable materials in environmental aspects. Reducing the temperature inside buildings by coating them with the modified materials will give very good results in decreasing the electrical power used. In this study , polymeric composites material were prepared a by hand- layup technique from epoxy resin (EP) as a matrix and Copper (Cu) powder with average diameter (240.91 nm) as fillers with different weight percentage (5%, 15%,25%, 35%, and 45%) to resin. Glass transition temperature and Hardness testing were investigated. The results show the maximum Glass transition temperature (Tg) of (EP/Cu) composites were the value (58.949oC) at (65%EP+35%Cu). Increase hardness with Copper concentration increase, and it has maximum values of (83.9) for (55%EP+45%Cu). This composite can be used in the coating surfaces and floors to match the temperature of our country warm in summer.
Keywords: Copper,; Glass transition temperature,; Epoxy,; hardness.
Effect of V, in and Cu Doping on Properties of P- type ZnSe/Si Heterojunction Solar Cell
by Bushra Hussein, Iman Khudayer, Mohammed Hamid, Auday Shaban
Abstract: Abstract: The enhancement of ZnSe/Si Heterojunction by adding some elements (V, In and Cu) as impurities is the main goal, because they contributes the manufacturing of renewable energies equipments, such as solar cells. This paper describes the preparation of thin films ZnSe with V, In and Cu doped using thermal evaporation method with vacuum of 10-5 Torr. The thin film were obtained from this work could be applied in heterojunction solar cell because of several advantages including high absorption coefficient value and direct band gap. The samples prepared on a glass and n type -Si wafer substrate. These films have been annealed for one hour in 450K. X-ray diffraction XRD results indicated that ZnSe thin film possesses poly-crystalline structure after doping with preferential orientation (111) and the atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to examine the surface morphology. Optical studies were done using UV-Visible spectroscopy and the band gap energy was found to decrease with doping. Hall measurements showed that all the films are p-type with high carriers concentration (3.26 x 1017 cm-3) in ZnSe:Cu thin film. The built in potential was determined from the CV measurements which revealed an abrupt junction for all heterojunction samples. The conversion efficiency calculated from dark and illuminated I-V characteristics of ZnSe/Si solar cell pure and doping. The chances for achieve type of doping can be improved by designing growth conditions that destabilize the formation of compensating centers, which is important for optical device applications, the effect of doping on main different factors such as open-circuit voltage , short-circuit current density, fill factor, photovoltaic conversion efficiency of ZnSe pure and doped. The results reveals high efficiency for ZnSe:Cu heterojunction solar cell.
Keywords: ZnSe:Cu heterojunction ; photovoltaic ; AFM ; conversion efficiency.
Energetic transition within thermal machines and co-generation: Effect of mass flux on Critical heat flux
by Mohamed Mebarkia, Messaoud Louafi, Zoubir Aoulmi
Abstract: Topics associated with the critical heat flux in industry sector are at the heart of the hot interesting issues on the global agenda. In this paper, we introduce a new method of energy analysis of heat transfer in new generation heat exchangers applicable to the innovative sector of energy recovery. A statistical analysis is performed to study the effect of mass flux on the critical heat flux of an evaporator boiler. Assessment of critical heat flux is essential for conception and safety analysis of numerous industrial thermal transfer machinery like boilers, heat exchangers, and heated pipes...etc. The aim of the present study is to provide insights into the effect of mass flux on the critical heat flux (CHF) when porous tubes are used. Independent sets of full 23 factorial designs with 3 central points were employed in case of porous coated tubes. Results revealed that the CHF could be influenced by some factors which were dominated in the studied conditions. More specifications of CHF and its relation with the input variables were detailed in this paper. Significance evaluation and testing of results revealed that CHF increases with the increase of mass flux for low L/D values in case of porous tubes.
Keywords: CHF (critical heat flux ); design of experiments; porous coated; Mass flux; round vertical Tubes; Ultra low consumption thermal machines; renewable energies; co-generation.
Hybrid control strategy for wind turbine system driven Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator
by Youssef Errami, Abdellatif Obbadi, Smail Sahnoun, Mohammed Ouassaid, Mohamed Maaroufi
Abstract: This paper investigates control algorithms for wind turbine systems driven Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). Direct Torque Control (DTC) method and Backstepping approach are used. Also, generator side and grid-side converter with filter are used as the interface between the wind turbine and grid. The generator side rectifier controls the velocity of the PMSG with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique. The grid-side converter is used to inject the extracted power into the electrical network and to sustain the DC-bus voltage. Lyapunov stability theory is employed to found the conditions for the existence of the Backstepping approach. The simulation results using MATLAB/Simulink verify the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.
Keywords: Variable speed-wind energy system; Permanent magnet synchronous generator; Maximum power point tracking; Direct torque control; Backstepping; Lyapunov theory; grid.
Effects of different Charging and Discharging Strategies of Electric Vehicles under various Pricing Policies in a Smart Microgrid
by Georgios Vokas, Anestis Anastasiadis, Georgios Kondylis, Apostolos Polyzakis
Abstract: Over the recent years, more and more policies that encourage the development and proliferation of Electrical Vehicles (EVs) are being followed. EVs present the advantage of battery use; therefore, they constitute emission-free mobility. The large penetration of electrical vehicles is expected to have multiple advantages for both the electricity grid and the Distribution System Operator (DSO), as well as the owner. Moreover, it has the ability to contribute to further increase of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). These advantages originate from the double role of the electrical vehicles battery. Thus, it may constitute firstly a controllable load that we are able to optimally control at convenient time frames and secondly, it may store and inject energy, acting as a storage device. Nowadays, a significant number of EVs use power grids around the world to charge and discharge their batteries. The effects of the incorporation of EVs have to be taken into consideration with care, since it may result in unfeasible operations for the grids (especially for the Smart Microgrids). Smart Microgrids (SMs) seem to be the best solution for the management of modern Low Voltage (LV) grids with Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Furthermore, when the SMs operation is focused on the economic optimization of its DER, it becomes crucial to know for example where and how many EVs could connect, when it would be better to connect and under what rules they should charge/discharge and which is the best charging technology. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of different EVs charging and discharging strategies in a SM. With EVs and absence of DERs and therefore satisfaction of the full load from the upstream network, is considered as the base case. For each scenario, six different charging technologies are examined (Dump Charging, Dual Tariff Charging, Smart Charging, Vehicle-To-Grid (V2G), Dump Charging-Dual Connection, Vehicle To Grid-Dual Connection). In addition, three different pricing policies based on System Marginal Price (SMP) are considered. All different cases are compared between them to determine which one is the most advantageous in terms of operational cost. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is carried out in order to determine how the variation of some parameters such as batteries size, EVs number, charging and discharging limits etc. changes the results. All data are taken from Hellenic Distribution/Transmission System Operators and Hellenic Operator of Electricity Market. Matlab software is used for all cases of studies.
Keywords: Smart Microgrid; Electric Vehicles; Batteries; Pricing Policies; DER; System Marginal Price; Charging techniques.
Evaluation, Comparison and Selection of Photovoltaic Systems
by Olga Shepovalova
Abstract: A general method of comparison, evaluation and selection of photovoltaic (PV) systems of the same type is presented. The method is based on provided or inferred from specifications systems technical parameters. Stand-alone and grid backed up (with no feed to the utilities) PV systems have been considered. General requirements for PV system selection and evaluation ensuring required system operability and operational efficiency have been presented. Generic principles of determination and evaluation of PV systems characteristics have been considered. The described method is mainly targeting at PV engineers and customers considering purchasing of PV systems. It can be also applied to PV projects evaluation, used for feasibility studies or bidding on PV systems, etc.
Keywords: photovoltaic (PV) systems; comparison; evaluation and selection; off-grid PV systems; stand-alone PV systems; grid backed up PV systems; sustainable development; general requirements; selection criterions; significant output parameters; characteristic days.
Special Issue on: Advancements in Renewable Energy
Performance, Emission, and Combustion analysis of diesel engine fuelled with Emulsified biodiesel
by Radha Krishna Gopidesi, Premkartikkumar SR
Abstract: The present investigation is mainly focused on the reduction of NOX emissions from the diesel engine. In this experimental work the diesel engine has initially run by diesel alone, secondly 10% cottonseed methyl ester biodiesel (B10) and finally emulsion of 10% water with B10 (WiB10E) in combination. The emulsified biodiesel WiB10E shows the maximum reduction of NOX emissions in comparison with the pure diesel and B10 fuel operations. Also due to the cooling effect provided by the water in the combustion chamber, the WiB10E shows the slight increase of the HC and CO emissions. Since WiB10E fuel has boiling point difference, it leads to secondary atomization. The WiB10E has shown the higher cylinder pressure of 65.92 bars at a crank angle of 366
Keywords: biodiesel; combustion; emissions; emulsion; performance; Emulsified Biodiesel.
Improving the performance and emission of CI engine using bio-fuel (botricoccus)
by Kuberan Jayaraman, N.ALAGUMURTHI Alagumurthi
Abstract: In this modern world the technology is developing day by day and hence the demand on fossil fuels and power keeps on increasing. Since the demand is very high, it is impossible to power up the entire world using petrol and diesel. The depletion of fossil fuels and the worst impact on environmental pollution have led to the search for renewable clean energies. Micro algae are presently the favourable source of biofuels for the substitution of fossil fuels. The micro algae oil is used as the bio fuel in the direct injection (DI) diesel engine. There are different species of micro algae among which the bio-oil extracted from the botricoccus sp algae has high lipid content, this is possible by using pyrolysis method. The 90% diesel is blended with 10% Botricoccus algae oil and the test was carried out to analyze the effect of diesel-biofuel on the engine performance, emission and properties such as specific fuel consumption, Brake thermal efficiency, Calorific value, CO, NOx, and HC. The experiment was conducted on a single cylinder four stroke diesel engine with diesel and bio-fuel blend at varying loads. The performance and emission results of the blended bio- fuel and diesel were compared, and the performance results, shows the bio-fuel blend is almost closer to the diesel, and the bio-fuel gives less emission than the diesel
Keywords: Botricoccus algae; Pyrolysis; Diesel; Bio-fuel; and Diesel Engine.
Improvement in Wind Energy Production through Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbine Blades Using Vibration Signatures and ARMA Features: A Data-Driven Approach
by Joshuva A, Sugumaran Vaithiyanathan
Abstract: The main objective of this study is to improve the wind energy productivity by implementing the condition monitoring technique for wind turbine blades through vibration source. The fault detection and the isolation of the fault which affects the wind energy productivity were carried using machine learning algorithms. In this study, a three bladed horizontal axis wind turbine was chosen and the faults like blade bend, blade cracks, hub-blade loose connection, blade erosion and pitch angle twist were considered as these are the faults which affect the turbine blade. Initially, vibration sources were collected from the wind turbine using piezoelectric accelerometer and from that vibration source; needed features are extracted using ARMA through MATLAB. From the extracted feature, the dominating feature is selected using J48 decision tree algorithm and with the selected features, fault classification has been carried out. The fault classifications were carried out using Bayesian, Function and Lazy classifiers.
Keywords: Condition monitoring; wind turbine blade; ARMA features; machine learning; vibration signals.
Selection of a Meta Classifier-Data Model for Classifying Wind Turbine Blade Fault Conditions Using Histogram Features and Vibration Signals: A Data-Mining Study
by Sugumaran Vaithiyanathan, Joshuva A
Abstract: The modern developments in wind turbine fault diagnosis and condition monitoring are urged in recent times. This paper aims to identify different types of faults which occur on wind turbine blade as they are prone to vibration stress due to environmental and weather condition. The fault diagnosis problem was carried out using machine learning approach. This study was carried out using vibration sources which has been acquired from good and other fault condition blades using data acquisition system. From the recorded signals, histogram features were extracted and classified using Meta classifiers. From the classifiers, a better data-model is suggested for a multi-class problem in wind turbine blade fault diagnosis.
Keywords: Condition monitoring; wind turbine blade; histogram features; machine learning; Meta classifiers; vibration signals.
Consequences of exhaust gas temperature on emissions in CI engine fueled with calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester blends with diesel
by L. Saravana Kumar, B.R. Ramesh Bapu, R. Prakash
Abstract: In todays world, the applications of diesel engines are gradually increased in the area of agricultural and especially in commercial vehicle sectors. The present scenario emphasizes necessarily for the development of better techniques to improve the efficiency of the diesel engine and also the adverse effect of fossil fuels on the environment. The alternate solutions to avoid such problem, use of biofuel for diesel engines, which can be derived from plant oils. Biofuel has shown a promising alternative to fossil fuels and the application of newer technology for the production of biodiesel is highly related to energy demands. The purpose of this work is to investigate the consequence of biodiesel blends with diesel on exhaust gas temperature and emission characteristics. The exhaust gas temperatures were measured for the various loads for the given blends to measure the NOx emissions. In this work, the exhaust emissions and exhaust gas temperatures were measured in a 4 stroke, single cylinder, and constant speed diesel engine fueled with Calophyllum Inophyllum Methyl Ester (CIME) and its blends with diesel. The different blends such as B20, B40, B60, B80 of CIME blends with diesel and B100 (CIME) and diesel (100%) were used for this test run. The test results of different blends were compared with diesel fuel and presented in this paper.
Keywords: Calophyllum Inophyllum Methyl Ester; Biodiesel; exhaust gas temperature; NOx; CO; HC; smoke; emission;.
Influence of tilt angle on energy yields and performance ratios of grid connected photovoltaic generators in Southeast Asia
by Nallapaneni Manoj Kumar, Farah Shabila Dinniyah
Abstract: This study aims to analyze the influence of tilt angle on energy yields and performance ratio of photovoltaic (PV) systems with three PV technologies over the selected cities in Southeast Asia. 10 kWp grid connected PV generator is proposed with net-metering option in Jakarta, Jayapura, Kuala Lumpur, Singapore, and Bangkok. Simulation is carried for three different PV technologies positioned at tilt angle (0
Keywords: Solar energy; Photovoltaics; PV technologies; Si-mono; Si-poly; Si-amorph; Orientation; Tilt angle; Performance ratio; Energy performance; Grid connected photovoltaics; PV performance in Southeast Asia.
Experimental Investigation on a Coconut Coir Packed Humidifier for a Solar Desalination Plant
by Chiranjeevi Chalasani
Abstract: Desalination by humidification dehumidification processes is a promising simple, cost effective and low maintenance concept. It works on the principle of air humidification at high temperature and dehumidification at relatively low temperatures. The present study is for evaluating the performance of the humidifier with coconut coir as packing material used for air humidification in the solar humidification dehumidification (HDH) desalination plant. Experiments were carried out on the humidifier packing for different flow rates of water and its temperature. Humidifier range, effectiveness and efficiency, evaporation rate of water, heat and mass transfer rates are studied by experimentally for different flow rates of hot water and its temperature. The hot water flow rate is varied from 125 to 225 LPH with an increment of 25 LPH and water temperature from 38 to 54
Keywords: air; humidification; packing material; effectiveness; desalination; range.
Special Issue on: TMREES 2018 Advanced Material and Energy Flow Impact on Sustainability
Preparation and study of a superconducting composite based on superconducting ceramic system
by Abdul Hameed Al –Sarraf
Abstract: Heat pollution could be through decreasing the electrical resistance of wire conductors. The main approach of this research is to modify the superconducting ceramic Y-Ba-Ca-Cu-(Hg, Ag)-O system.The composite samples consisting of YBa2Ca2Cu2.8(Ag,Hg)0.2 O7-δ superconductor ceramic and epoxy have been prepared. The stander four probe techniques and contactless induction based on Meissner effect were used to study the superconducting properties of sintered ceramic Y-Ba-Ca-Cu-(Hg,Ag)-O system and composite samples. The results showed that in all composite samples which were prepared by the addition of the ceramic superconducting powder as filler to the epoxy polymer ,there was no decrease in the Tc of ceramic superconductor YBa2Ca2Cu2.8Ag, Hg)0.2O7-δ precursor filler; a very slight change was observed. The superconductive nature is very sensitive to microstructure, represented by the porosity, density, grain size and consequently the granular specific surface area. The partial replacement of Cu ion by either Ag and Hg ions was found to modify the superconductive nature. And, the ability of mercury ion to play an important role as an oxygen donor is due to its high free energy of oxide formation compared to that of copper ion. Also, the advantage of using composite material is providing a high efficiency and low loss, which have not impeded the development of its applications.
Keywords: High temperature superconductor; Magnetization; Tc; porosity; density; Grain size Epoxy polymeric composites.