J. for Global Business Advancement (50 papers in press)
Integration of competency model into human resource systems: its impact on organisation performance and human resource function
by Asim Talukdar
In search of success factor for a sustainable macro entrepreneurship and enterprise education policy: evidence from the European Union
by Syeda-Masooda Mukhtar, Jim Redman
International joint venture marketing performance in China: a resource-based approach
by Craig C. Julian, Junqian Xu
Total quality management and its effect on SMEs performance
by Muslim Amin
Analysing the relationship between advertising and sales promotion with brand equity
by Haim Hilman Abdullah, Jalal Hanaysha
Financial Cost Benefit Analysis of high school education in Hewl
by Tara Ahmed H. Chawsheen
A review of Saudisation and the Niataqat programme to indiginise the labour market in Saudi Arabia
by Muhammad Asad Sadi
Jordanian banks perception of customer relationship management: a TAM-based investigation
by Ghazi Alkhatib, Muneer Abbad, Faten Jaber
Abstract: The main objective of this research is to investigate Jordanian banks' perception and acceptance of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) based on a technology acceptance model (TAM). The investigation was conducted in two steps. First, five external variables were added to the TAM framework, namely subjective norms, computer experience, training, self-efficacy, and top management support. In the second step, the developed model was validated using the following statistical techniques: Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy, Bartlett's Test of Sphericity, Rotated Component Matrix, and regression and correlation analysis. Furthermore, respondents demographics were correlated to the variables using chi-square testing to explore any possible relationships among them. The analysis demonstrated that all factors are related except subjective norm, which was found to be not aligned with the other external factors. Evidence from the questionnaires revealed that Jordanian banks do not use a CRM system. This led to the development of several recommendations to encourage banks to adopt a CRM system. Further research will involve modifying the model according the findings for this study and explore extension of the current research on TAM and advanced statistical techniques such as SEM.
Keywords: customer relationship management; technology acceptance model; Jordanian banks.
Audit procedures, auditors experience and responsibility for fraud detection: a Javanese culture perspective
by Anis Chariri, Ratna Siti Nuraisya
Abstract: This study examines the relationship of audit procedures and auditors experience and auditors responsibility for fraud detection, and specifically to examine whether Javanese culture plays moderating roles in the relationship. We conduct empirical tests using data from auditors─working at eight public accounting firms located in Semarang, Indonesia─who responded to our survey. Results indicate that audit procedures positively influence auditors responsibility for fraud detection. Auditors experience also positively affects auditors responsibility for fraud detection. More importantly, this study showed that Javanese culture negatively moderates the influence of audit procedures and auditors experience on their responsibilities for fraud detection. This study contributes to accounting/auditing literature on the importance of considering culture, especially local culture when we study any issues related to auditing and frauds.
Keywords: audit procedure; auditor experience; auditor responsibility; fraud detection; Javanese culture.
The persistence of tax avoidance and its effect on the persistence of earnings
by Achmad Hizazi, Sylvia Veronica Siregar, Dwi Martani, Vera Diyanti
Abstract: This paper suggests a new measure for gauging one aspect of tax avoidance, using a time series perspective. The paper investigates the effect of the new measure of tax avoidance on earning persistence, the latter functioning as a measure of earning quality, using the same time perspective. The paper argues that tax avoidance has a persistent attribute, and that this attribute has a negative slope. We also predict that tax avoidance is negatively related to earning persistence. We derive an empirical measure for the persistence of tax avoidance by using the present value revision of coefficients from firm-specific auto-regressions of effective tax rates. We subsequently illustrate that tax avoidance is persistent, and that this persistence has a negative trend. Finally, we show that our measure of persistence of tax avoidance is negatively related to earning persistence.
Keywords: tax avoidance; persistence of tax avoidance; earning persistence; Southeast Asia.
The Toda-Yamamoto causality test for government expenditure and economic growth: a case study in Indonesia
by Sigit Harjanto, Setyo Tri Wahyudi
Abstract: This research aims to find out the causality between economic growth and government expenditure. Using Toda-Yamamoto causality test, we found unidirectional causality between economic growth and government expenditure, in which government expenditure affects economic growth, which is in accordance with Wagners law. In terms of expenditure by function, we found a relationship that supports the Keynesian approach between economic growth and government expenditure by economic function. However, there is no causality between the other functions of government expenditure and economic growth.
Keywords: economic growth; government expenditure; Toda-Yamamoto causality test.
National culture and CSR reporting: a cross-country analysis
by Khalil Nimer, Ahmed Yamen, Ahmed Bani-Mustafa, Sameer Al Barghouthi
Abstract: This study examines the effect of national culture on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) reporting at the country level. In this paper, we aim at enhancing our understanding of what influences the level of CSR disclosure in different countries by focusing on the impact of national culture variables in general and by using the degree of countrys financial freedom and the level of IFRS adoption as control variables. Based on published data for 30 countries and by employing the GLOBE study model that considers nine cultural dimensions, the results indicate that human orientation, assertiveness and performance orientation have significant impact on the level of CSR disclosure. In addition, a countrys financial freedom reveals significant effect as a control variable, whereas the level of IFRS adoption did not affect the level of CSR disclosure. This study provides insight into the CSR literature by documenting that cultural variables would influence the degree of disclosure in general and CSR disclosure in particular and by adding two new variables to the model, namely the financial freedom and the level of IFRS adoption.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility; national culture; reporting; country-based analysis.
Antecedents and Consequences of Customer Loyalty in Qatar
by Shahid Bhuian, Maha Al Balushi, Irfan Butt
Abstract: Drawing insights from the customer value-based theory, this study hypothesises and examines the relationships in the antecedents-customer loyalty-consequences process in a unique context, Qatar. Five divergent and salient antecedents and two important outcomes are incorporated in a single comprehensive study. The antecedents are innovation (a novel one), service quality, trust, satisfaction and switching cost, while the consequences are word-of-mouth communication and repeat purchase. An analysis of a sample of mobile internet subscribers reveals that the five antecedents impact customer loyalty, which, in turn, influences the two outcomes. The study extends customer loyalty theory to a region marked by unique Islamic values and beliefs. Also, the study suggests that in addition to paying attention to a number of traditional drivers of customer loyalty simultaneously, marketers seeking to build and sustain customer loyalty in the Gulf region should also focus on innovation. Implications are discussed.
Keywords: customer loyalty; innovation; service quality; trust; word-of-mouth communication; Qatar; Gulf Cooperation Council region.
Understanding undervalued vs. non-undervalued stocks from the firm characteristics perspective
by Irene Wei Kiong Ting, Noor Azlinna Azizan, Premjit Singh, Qian Long Kweh
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the determinants of undervalued stocks performances from the perspective of firm characteristics compared with non-undervalued stocks for the period of 20062015 (10 years). Results indicate that firm size has a significant effect only on the performance of undervalued stocks. Tangibility is insignificant for both undervalued and non-undervalued stocks. In addition, leverage and firm age have significant negative effects on the performance of both undervalued and non-undervalued stocks, whereas risk has a negative significant impact only on the performance of undervalued stocks. This analysis shows that operating cash flow has a positive significant impact on the performance of both undervalued and non-undervalued stocks. With its findings, this paper aims to further enlighten investors about undervalued stocks and identify firm characteristics that can boost the performance of such stocks. Future studies should use other firm characteristics to measure performance or compare undervalued stocks with other types of stock.
Keywords: stock performance; firm characteristics; undervalued stocks; non-undervalued stocks; Malaysia.
The traits of success according to those who made it: a survey of successful entrepreneurs in Northeastern Thailand.
by Amornwan Rangkoon, Winai Wongsurawat, Barbara Igel
Abstract: One of the most common questions business students have is what characteristics successful business people should possess. This study interviewed 200 successful entrepreneurs in Northeastern Thailand, between 2010-11 to find their common vital characteristics. Atlas.ti software, a frequency-weighted average scores (FWA), Pareto method, and a Venn diagram were used to determine important characteristics based on five categories. Results reveal three characteristics with high FWA scores at the intersection, namely joy of developing, integrity, and striving. These three characteristics are a common vital personality of all business characteristics (male or female, age, education, length of time in business and type of business). A triangulation approach was employed with a further two groups (75 each) between 2012-13 and 2014-15, respectively, to validate the findings. The findings demonstrated the same three characteristics as outstanding personality traits of successful entrepreneurs in the region.
Keywords: characteristics of entrepreneurs; successful entrepreneurs; in-depth interview; integrity; joy of developing; striving; Thailand.
Understanding consumerism within Western and Muslim-based societies: Twitter Usage of Saudi and American consumers
by Othman Althawadi, John Fraedrich, Allam Abu Farha
Abstract: Consumerism was defined and studied as protection and active participation in negative business issues that directly affect the consumer. The consumerism model is based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) using social media (Twitter) to determine any significant differences between two divergent cultures and economies: Saudi Arabia and the USA. Our results suggest a partial fit to the model. The equivalent significant findings for both samples are as follows: (1) Consumers with negative perceptions of government regulatory practices have a more positive attitude towards consumerism; (2) There is a positive relationship between attitude, intention, and behaviour and consumerism; (3) Both countries have a positive subjective norm, intention, and behavior for consumerism; (4) There is a positive relationship between perceived behavioral control and consumerist behaviour.
Our findings found that Saudi consumers have a higher level of intent to engage in consumerism behaviour via Twitter than American consumers. Finally, Saudi consumers have a negative perception of government regulatory practices that can be attributed to its restricted civil society relative to the USA.
Keywords: consumerism; consumer movement; Saudi Arabia; consumerism behaviors; Twitter; consumer protection.
The impact of organisational culture on performance
by Maya Shayya
Abstract: Organisational culture is shaping the performance of the Lebanese bureaucracy. Performance is shaped by the culture of the organisations work unit. A questionnaire was applied to the undergraduate educational public sector to examine unit differences in performance. The results of this study show that organisational culture does play a role in shaping performance levels at the diverse units of the public sectors education, but that its role is muted. These findings suggest that other factors, including broader societal culture, are also at work. In addition to its practical dimension, the study also tests a major US theory of organisational motivation in the Lebanese context. Cross-cultural differences do influence performance, and results suggest that modifications be made to the Western theories, before they are transferred to the Middle East.
Keywords: waste; performance; organisational culture; public sector; professionalism; innovation; job satisfaction; public concern.
Corporate governance, a solution to the problem of family business sustainability
by Ahmad Jannoun
Abstract: This study analyses the effect of family businesses practices of corporate governance on their respective survival and sustainability. The study groups the major components and constructs impacting the family business lifecycle, and the role of the key elements of corporate governance in this respect, namely accountability, leadership, system, and transparency, on the family business 'sustainability DNA'.
Keywords: leadership; accountability; transparency; system sustainability; DBA; family business.
Strategic management: the case of Saudi non-profits
by Mohammed Aboramadan
Abstract: The aim of this research is to examine strategic management in Saudi non-profits. This research investigates the level of application of strategic management in Saudi non-profits, the challenges they face while they implement strategy, and whether a link between strategic management and non-profits' performance exists. Online questionnaires were used to collect data from 296 managers of Saudi non-profits. The study found that the application of strategy implementation and evaluation tools in Saudi non-profits is limited. Satisfying donors requirements is the main driver for non-profits to engage in a strategic management process. Lack of time and financial resources are the main strategy implementation challenges in Saudi non-profits. The study also found positive correlations between strategic management and nonprofits performance. None of the strategic management practices was significant in predicting financial transparency and partnership. Saudi non-profits need to invest in strategic management and pay attention to their strategy implementation and evaluation tools.
Keywords: fundraising; Saudi non-profits; strategic management; performance; projects.
Sustaining corporate performance through the happy worker influence
by Stefane Kabene, Said Baadel
Abstract: Happy workers tend to be more productive, so it would be beneficial for managers to understand what factors tend to predict happiness to assess where the most potentially productive worker pools are located around the world. The current study aims to examine the relationship between multiple factors and happiness. Twelve countries have been selected and data relating to nine different factors of each country have been used to determine the sum impact. All variable factors have been statistically correlated to happiness to predict the factor(s) that could be linked strongly with happiness. An intensive statistical analysis has been used to evaluate the significance of these relations. This study suggests that most of the variables that have been used in the study are significantly correlated with happiness. While some factors may be distant from being a standard for evaluating happiness, other factors showed a strong relationship with happiness. Our paper shows that the Hofstede, cultural, and diversity variables are not effective in determining a countrys happiness index, while the happiness without carbon footprint factor is a more accurate measure of personal happiness.
Keywords: corporate performance; cultural differences; life expectancy; happiness index; happiness index without carbon footprint; peace index.
The implication of consumer knowledge of technology and consumer behaviour with technology-based products: empirical evidence from US and Indian consumers
by Angelica Bahl, Gregory Black, Bhausaheb R. Londhe
Abstract: This study introduces constructs, such as a technological novelty and technological benefits of a product, with technology-based products and then analyses variables (choice confusion, impulse buying, price consciousness, risk attraction, status consumption, and time pressure) to examine how consumer knowledge of technology affects their behaviour. The findings were derived from American and Indian samples. While a product's novelty and the importance of underlying technology of a product are the most important factors for technologically knowledgeable consumers, the importance of technological benefits and willingness to wait for a new version of the technology do not directly impact consumers in either sample. This study shows that risk attraction and status consumption are significant characteristics for Indian consumers. We explore the technological sector within the American and the Indian contexts keeping in mind that insights could be useful in the future as they could be used by both technology-based consumers and firms.
Keywords: consumer knowledge of technology; technology-based product; consumer behaviour.
Political connections, opaque financial reports and stock price synchronicity
by Lukas Purwoto, Eduardus Tandelilin, Mamduh Hanafi
Abstract: From the perspective of corporate governance, stock price synchronicity can be understood as a lack of disclosure. This study investigates the effect of political connections, government majority ownership, and the opacity of financial statements on the stock price synchronicity of public companies in Indonesia. Our analysis shows that political connections and government ownership increase stock price synchronicity. Synchronicity is also positively affected by the opacity of financial statements. Furthermore, when the opacity of financial statements increases, the influence of political connections and government ownership on stock price synchronicity tends to increase. These results imply that political ties impede disclosure of firm-specific information, and poor quality of financial statement exacerbates this impediment.
Keywords: stock price synchronicity; firm-specific information; political connections; government ownership; the opacity of financial statements.
A model for the competitiveness development of manufacturing firms in entrepreneurial exports
by Jaleh Farzaneh, Vahid Nasehifar
Abstract: The present study is one of the few carried out to test a model for developing the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from the dynamic capabilities perspective and considering international entrepreneurship, especially in the food industry. The existing research using the dynamic capabilities perspective has focused more on multinational corporations and has been undertaken in developed countries. Therefore, the context of our study, SMEs in Iran, is new. In addition, in this study we quantitatively assess the competitiveness development model of manufacturing firms in entrepreneurial exports achieved via qualitative research based on grounded theory. The statistical population was composed of SMEs in food industries. The sampling was conducted using a judgmental purposive approach. Responses to the questionnaires sent out provided a statistical sample of 210 subjects, of which 193 questionnaires were diagnosed as qualified for analysis. Following initial analysis, a structural equations model was implemented using the software Smart PLS. The results indicate that five out of seven aspects of identifying and seizing opportunity capability are effective on configuration capability, while the macro environment adversely affects it. Nevertheless, the micro environment plays a moderating role between the two variables. Moreover, configuration capability is effective on entrepreneurial exports, while governments can build the required infrastructure for entrepreneurial export development based on four aspects. Finally, entrepreneurial exports were proven to impact firms competitiveness. The paper suggests how SMEs can develop their competitiveness with dynamic capabilities and which capabilities can help them in this regard
Keywords: competitiveness; international entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial exports; non-oil exports; food industries.
Reproduction of social class hierarchy and cultural capital effects: what does it mean for children from weaker sections?
by Ashu Kapur
Abstract: In the last two decades, the Indian educational sphere has undergone enormous changes. With the advent of a neo-liberalised urban order across the globe, the Indian educational system has witnessed profound structural and processual transformations. Drawing on India as a social unit of a case study, this article reflects upon the cleavages underlying the Indian education system marked by stratification and hierarchisation. Existing research on the relationship between education and social stratification has underscored a host of organisational, institutional, and psychosocial mechanisms concerned by market logic. It is through these mechanisms that contemporary pedagogy perpetuates the inequitable distribution of educational credentials as well as economic and social rewards that accompany them. The aim of the paper is to discuss the different ways in which cultural capital, which treats 'culture as a resource' to be capitalised for attaining advantageous positions within the formal institutional setting such as schools, matters. Cultural capital theory posits that, when children from low social class backgrounds navigate their way through schooling, it gives birth to a cultural continuity/discontinuity hypothesis. Cultural capital theory in educational institutions enjoys great currency as it displays 'the rules of the game' as to how institutions function within the nexus of power and knowledge. The dominant interpretation of cultural capital theory coalesces with the central premise that schools invariably promote the cultural capital of the dominant class allied with highbrow culture, and in this process, it seemingly fulfills the capitalist agenda in commodifying education. The present paper is based on a case study in an urban social set-up of Delhi, the capital of India, using an ethnographic methodological approach to collect data by undertaking prolonged and persistent observations of school and classroom; conducting semi-structured interviews with the principal, parents, and teachers, and gathering narratives from children. Sociological explanations are given of the social class-cultural processes and practices prevalent inside the private school setting, which can be considered typical of other suitable alternatives. How education has become an island of exclusion with privileges for only a small minority and deprivation for those belonging to economically weaker sections, lends a unique understanding on the power of dominant order. Findings reveal the divergent discourses that are evident in private schools, which tend to maintain their highbrow social class cultural character by adopting different mechanisms. The impacts such market-inclined culture have on the lives of disadvantaged children reinforces the schools hidden agenda of schooling as that of reproducing social class hierarchy by way of naturalising cultural capital effects. The purpose of this paper is to refine the cultural continuity/discontinuity hypothesis by examining the different ways in which private schools meet or do not meet the universal vision of equality and social justice.
Keywords: cultural capital; social class; school culture; privatisation; equality and inclusion.
Individual differences and turnover intentions: perspectives from the Indian IT industry
by Shivinder Nijjer, Sahil Raj, Dana-Nicoleta Lascu, Viput Ongsakul
Abstract: The world's largest IT outsourcing destination, India, accounting for 67% of the $130 billion market, is currently experiencing high employee turnover, between 13% and 15% yearly (PTI, 2018; Dasgupta, 2017). In response to the need for predictive models that provide insights on who is going to leave the firm (Elkjaer and Filmer, 2015), the present study examines turnover not from an organisational perspective, but, rather, by identifying individual differences that predict turnover, assessing variations in job attitudes which lead to turnover. The study is based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991) and Theory of Individual Differences (TID) leading to job attitudes (Cooper, 2010; Judge and Kammeyer-Mueller, 2012). TPB suggests that attitudes towards behaviour (turnover), combined with the perceived self-efficacy to conduct the behaviour, will convert into behavioural intention; and, when the individual perceives volitional control, the intention will convert into actual performance of the behaviour (Ajzen, 1991). In this study, we use turnover intention to predict turnover in the Indian IT industry (Tett and Meyer, 1993; Steel and Ovalle, 1984; Jaros, 1997). Following from TPB and the Judge et al. (2012) study, we posit that job attitude (job satisfaction and perceived person-organisation fit, in this study) leads to turnover intention. The individual differences we use are self-esteem, personality and resilience, which impact attitude, which, in turn, influences intention and may result in turnover behaviour (Motowildo et al.,1997; Judge and Bono, 2001).
Keywords: theory of planned behaviour; individual differences; IT industry; turnover; self-esteem; personality; resilience; job satisfaction; person-organisation fit.
Policy synthesis for sustainable trade: a panel data gravity model approach of India with European Union and ASEAN countries
by Shikha Singh
Abstract: More than 26 years of economic and trade reforms have helped the Indian economy to increase trade volumes. This paper reviews Indias free trade agreements (FTAs) with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries and its proposed FTA with the European Union (EU). Annual data for Indias exports, imports, and trade volume with EU and ASEAN countries is employed to study the gravity model. Variables studied include distance, population, FTA (dummy variable), and gross domestic product of EU and ASEAN countries for a period of 19 years from 1996 to 2014. The panel ordinary least squares regression method is applied to analyse the relationship between different variables. With the available dataset, experiments signify the gravity model for India with EU and ASEAN countries. Different factors are found with respect to both the blocs, and the results are as per the synthesis in this theory.
Keywords: international trade; free trade area; Association of Southeast Asian Nations; European Union; India; gravity model.
Tour guides as a supportive tool for the experiential image of Jordans destination: a French tourists perspective
by Maher Alshamaileh, Mohammad Abuhjeeleh, Hamzah Elrehail
Abstract: Tour guides as representatives for any destination play a vital role in supporting destinations' experiential image (EI), and they could be a successful service recovery tool for improving EI. The purpose of this paper is to assess the experiential image of Jordan as a destination and how this destination is perceived by the French tourists, as well as the role played by tour guides as a supporting tool for the image of destinations. A structured questionnaire was distributed to the French tourists after theyd spent a few days in Jordan. The main findings of this paper revealed that both hypotheses received empirical support. This study highlights the importance of tour guides in destination EI studies. Implications and future venues discussed.
Keywords: destination image; service recovery; tour guides; experiential image.
Do company size and strategy matter in the choice of partial or full acquisitions?
by Kashif Ahmed, Ralf Bebenroth
Abstract: This paper is aimed at relating size and strategy of cross-border acquirers to their acquisition behaviour by investigating the choices made by acquirers to take over their targets partially or fully. We divided a sample of Japanese cross-border acquirers into firms with consistent or flexible strategies. Based on various arguments from strategy literature and international business literature, we hypothesised and empirically validated that there was an interaction effect between the size and strategy of the acquirer vis-
Keywords: strategy; strategic consistency; strategic flexibility; partial acquisitions; full acquisitions; M&A; acquirer size; Japan.
Determinants of awareness and disposal habits of households for effective municipal solid waste management
by Saurabh Srivastava, Divya Singh Jamwal
Abstract: Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) touches upon the various aspects of environment, society and economy, creating interdependencies of the municipal authorities as service providers, and various other stakeholders (households, commercial establishments, hotels, etc.) as the service users. This article is based on an exploratory survey of 804 households for the determination of their awareness level and habits of solid waste disposal. The paper highlights the theoretical paradigm of factors affecting the solid waste disposal behaviour of the household segment with the relevant statistical tools and techniques. The paper derives from the theory of planned behaviour and confirms the factors that would support the planning for effective management of solid waste. The findings of the present study support the need for a well-defined comprehensive and participative plan of action for resolving the issue of MSWM that can be implemented with defined objectives and timeline by the concerned municipal bodies.
Keywords: strategic approach; stakeholders' engagement; municipal solid waste management; awareness level and habit; solid waste disposal behaviour.
A framework for linking entrepreneurial ecosystem with institutional factors: a modified total interpretive structural modelling approach
by Shiwangi Singh, Shuchi Sinha, V. Mukunda Das, Anuj Sharma
Abstract: This paper presents a model of the interactions among and between different institutional and entrepreneurial ecosystem factors, based on a modified total interpretive structure modelling (m-TISM) approach. Previous literature holds diverse views about the influence of institutional factors on the entrepreneurial ecosystem. This necessitates a comprehensive understanding of the interrelationships among and between various factors that can impact a countrys entrepreneurial ecosystem positively. The literature review identifies four institutional and three entrepreneurial ecosystem factors. The m-TISM followed by MICMAC analysis is performed for studying and analysing the mutual interaction between identified factors, and to know the driver-dependent relationships. The results identify four levels of institutional and entrepreneurial ecosystem factors, and establish the hierarchy among them. The ease of paying taxes, starting business, and resolving insolvency are the dependent factors and are in the levels I and II of hierarchy. Political stability acts as an interlinkage factor. The regulatory quality, rule of law, and government effectiveness are the independent factors at level IV in m-TISM hierarchy. The relationship between the factors are drawn on the basis of literature inferences, and may not reflect the scenario of every country.
Keywords: interaction; institutional factors; TISM; entrepreneurial ecosystem.
Strategic innovation factors in startups: results of a cross-case analysis of Indian startups
by Kamala Kannan Dinesh, Sushil Sushil
Abstract: Entrepreneurship practices include strategic management aspects and innovation for improving stability and survival in the highly competitive digital environment. Startups are supported directly or indirectly by strategic innovations which help them to sustain their growth in a turbulent and dynamically competitive market. The success of a startup naturally depends on its profit measures but also on its ability to promote and foster creativity and innovation to gain a competitive edge over other players in the market. As a primary goal, strategic innovation has several basic factors that can be defined in the context of startups and small businesses. This paper helps to understand and make use of the various strategic innovation factors as means to success for startups and small firms. Our investigation has wider implications for the business community, but also practical suggestions for managers looking to promote a climate of strategic innovation in a startup. It is an accepted fact that startups become successful in a competitive market predominantly when they are backed up by continuing access to strategic innovations. Wise entrepreneurs know that sustainable growth and wealth generation can only come from deliberate planning for innovation by tapping into their employees creativity. We used a case-study approach in this investigation to study and understand the factors of strategic innovations in two startups, where the factors have been identified and obtained from the literature related to small firms and startups. Two different cases from two different startups were cross-compared for each factor. Open-ended questions were asked in the interviews to collect data from the founders and top-level employees of the firms. The data were used to analyze and understand the connection between the various strategic innovation factors and successful entrepreneurship. Data from both cases were used for cross-comparison of each factor to understand the different roles they play in the two different startups.
Keywords: strategic innovation; entrepreneurship; cross-case analysis; startup.
Predicting entrepreneurial satisfaction: the role of non-financial incentive factors and quality of life among women digital entrepreneurs
by Tanusree Chakraborty, Madhurima Ganguly, Ashok Natarajan
Abstract: Although women entrepreneurs have faced various obstacles in running their business, they have not immediately quit: they sustain their business. Beyond financial returns, these women entrepreneurs expect something that makes them satisfied and engaged in their businesses. This study thus explores factors in womens entrepreneurship. It studied a sample of 120 women digital entrepreneurs through a questionnaire method and telephone interview. The results show that non-monetary determinants are significant predictors of entrepreneurial satisfaction among women digital entrepreneurs. This study also found that founders vary in their levels of satisfaction with regard to their achievements in factors such as revenue, material comfort achieved, optimism, business satisfaction, innovation, recognition and employee trust.
Keywords: digital entrepreneurs; non-financial incentive; incentive motivation; quality of work life; women entrepreneurs; entrepreneurial satisfaction.
Factors that drive development of technological entrepreneurship in South Asia
by Nakul Parameswar, Zuby Hasan, Sanjay Dhir, Viput Ongsakul
Abstract: Numerous studies have explored the growth and development of entrepreneurship in general and technological entrepreneurship (TE) specifically in South Asia. Many of these studies empirically validate the influence of different factors in the development of TE. This study attempts to explore the factors influencing development of TE and develop a model using Total Interpretive Structural Modelling (TISM) technique to depict factors affecting a dependent factor hierarchically using data collected from focus group discussions undertaken with the founders of TE. The results add value to the findings of empirical studies undertaken in this area.
Keywords: technological entrepreneurship; entrepreneurship; total interpretive structural modelling.
From traditional banking to technology-enabled banking services in India: a study of bank customers perceptive
by Liaqat Ali, Simran Jit Kaur
Abstract: Technology has made a tremendous contribution in the banking industry in terms of increased market share of banks, and easy and quick accessibility of banking services to customers. The present study concentrates on understanding customers overall perspective about technology-enabled banking services (TEBS). The survey was conducted among 337 users of TEBS selected from public and private sector banks in the states of Punjab, Haryana and Union Territory of Chandigarh. Data collection was done through a self-administered questionnaire. The study revealed three significant factors measuring the consumers perception of TEBS in India namely: perceived ease of use, convenience and accessibility, and prior experience of technology through factor analysis. Further, the ANOVA technique was employed to analyse the association between the identified factor of customers perception and demographic variables. The results of this study highlight that age and internet availability have a significant association with all the factors, but gender appears to have no impact on customers perception. The study provides customer perspective on TEBS and assists practitioners to improve the accessibility of the services.
Keywords: banking services; bank customers; perception; banking technology; India.
Strategic use of patents by an entrepreneurial multinational organisation in an Indian context
by Sutopa Roy Lahiry, Krishnamachari Rangarajan
Abstract: Entrepreneurial organisations have innovation and opportunism embedded in their work culture. In their aim to create economic or social value they traverse through a natural cycle. Patenting is an expensive activity. A patent portfolio for a company is one of its core strategic asset. They are well-classified and up-to-date collection of technical know-how on new and innovative knowledge. The biotechnology sector in India is in its sunrise phase and has the ultimate objective of narrowing the bio-economic divide. This study analyses the use of patents by an Indian biotechnology entrepreneurial company Biocon. Biocon has taken a strategic and long-term view of patenting. To understand this, the study evaluates the journey of Biocon as an entrepreneurial organisation. It then analyses how the company uses its patents as a strategic lever in this journey. For this after analysing the core competencies of Biocon an analysis of the patent portfolio of the company is done. Further, the strategic moves taken by the company, which helped to generate its Intellectual Property (IP) wealth from its extensive research and development (R&D), in order to enable it to move up the drug discovery and development value chain are discussed with the example of insulin manufacturing (where the company has carved its niche) . Here, Biocon is studied to examine how the patents can be used, for targeting a product line and the role played by the patents in enabling it to do so and then further the ways in which the company uses its patents to obtain and sustainable competitive advantage. Finally, with the example of Biocon, the study elaborates on how the patents can be used as a strategic lever in the natural cycle of an entrepreneurial multinational enterprise.
Keywords: patents ; strategy ; entrepreneurial organisations.
Effect of earnings smoothness on the Indian IT industry
by Shikhil Munjal, Gurcharan Singh
Abstract: The aim of this study is to empirically examine the impact of earnings smoothness on the IT industry of India. India is one of the promising markets in the world and an empirical examination is needed to justify the institutional and accounting structures of the country. Earning quality can be measured by different indicators such as accrual quality, smoothness, persistence, predictability, etc. To measure the performance of National Stock Exchange (NSE)-listed IT companies of India, the study used earning smoothness as an indicator of earnings quality. The time period of the study is 20132017 and the sample used for the study is listed IT companies. The results found that earning smoothness does not affect the companys operational performance and market performance significantly. These results are consistent with the study conducted by Yandiatri (2013) and Ririk (2011) and are on contrary with the study done by Mahmod et al., (2009).
Keywords: earning quality; smoothness; National Stock Exchange; return on asset; Tobin’s Q.
Efficiency in higher education: a contextual framework and relevant issues based on a literature review
by Sarbjeet Kaur
Abstract: This paper aims to provide an overview of the literature regarding the efficiency of higher education institutions. This paper presents a scheme that identifies the gaps in the literature and proposes future research directions. It also summarises and reviews previously reported useful resources, such as inputs and outputs, as well as other important related variables, such as methodology in the field of efficiency in higher education institutions. Furthermore, it analyses papers that reported efficiency of universities employing data envelopment analysis methodology. Various studies from developed countries have reported efficiency in higher education institutions. However, there is a dearth of studies regarding the effectiveness of higher education organizations in developing countries. This paper presents a literature review evaluating one of the themes found in the literature. A systematic review of the literature on efficiency identified 68 important journal articles in ABDC-indexed journals. Selected papers mainly focused on research and teaching efficiency. This paper presents an inclusive literature review and analysis of efficiency in higher education institutions. It might be a supportive source for researchers and academicians who ought to understand the importance of efficiency in higher education organizations and conduct further research. It also provides important information regarding the key indicators of input and output for researchers. This paper concludes with some realistic guidelines and direction for potential researchers in the field of higher education.
Keywords: efficiency; inputs; outputs; DEA; funnel.
The determinants of export behaviour: a study of food processing industry in India
by G.R. Navyashree, Savita Bhat
Abstract: The study examines the factors that determine the export behaviour of food processing firms operating in India based on data from the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) Prowess Database for 20112016. It examines the effect of three technological variables on the export behaviour of firms: information and communication technology (ICT) investment, in-house research and development (R&D), and the import of embodied technologies. Further, it tries to understand if the technological activities of affiliated firms have any effect on their export performance. Using the Heckman two-step sample selection analysis, it reveals that technology investments are important determinants for the export behaviour of firms. Other control variables such as firm size, firm age, and the capitallabour ratio were also found to be important in determining the export behaviour of food processing firms. The study gives policy suggestions for improving the global competitiveness of firms in this industry.
Keywords: exports; ICT; food processing; RBV; Heckman; sample selection; affiliation; technological activities; developing country; India.
Assessing the entrepreneurial intention of undergraduate students in a rapidly changing economy
by Abdulla Hamad M A Fetais, Waleed R.U. Ulruhman, Othman Mohammed O Al Thawadi
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop and test a comprehensive model incorporating insights from three distinct approaches namely behavioral and contextual factors, aiming to identify significant variables influencing entrepreneurial intention among undergraduate students in Qatar. This research was developed by involving a sample of undergraduate students enrolled in Qatar University. Data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire containing several group of questions related to behavioral, psychological, and contextual constructs and entrepreneurial intention. In addition, two new factors that are pertinent to the region was measured. The result show that personal attitude and perceived behavioral control significantly influence entrepreneurial intention. In addition, other variables in the model influence entrepreneurial intention indirectly. This is the first study of its kind that aims to assess entrepreneurial intention from more than one approach. Also, two new factors are introduced which have the potential to explain entrepreneurial activity.
Keywords: entrepreneurial intention; behavioral approach; contextual approach; personal attitude; perceived behavioral control.
Cultural diversity as a competitive tool: trust and knowledge sharing from a Malaysian perspective
by Thirunava Navendra, Sri Beldona
Abstract: A recent race-relations study found that contrary to government claims, racism ran deep among the ethnic groups in Malaysia (Merdeka Center for Opinion Research, 2015). Diversity training is not viewed as a trust-building competitive tool. In this paper, we argue that diversity training, shared values, and cultural collectivism influence intra-organisation trust within multi-national corporations operating in Malaysia. From an economic perspective, shared values and diversity awareness induced trust can arguably result in the positive spillover of knowledge-sharing. Studies in knowledge-based view of the firm show that strategic use of knowledge-sharing creates organisational value and is catalytic to a firm's competitive advantage (Fey and Furu, 2008; Wang and Noe, 2010). This paper highlights both the challenges facing Malaysian MNEs and the latent opportunities for improved collaboration, innovation, and firm performance through diversity and trust.
Keywords: cultural diversity; cultural collectivism; trust; shared values; knowledge sharing.
Impact of stress on nurses in the healthcare industry
by Demetris Vrontis, Hani El-Chaarani, Sam El Nemar, Dounia Khalaf
Abstract: Employee performance has become an important factor in a company's success and development. Facing occupational stress in various working fields, especially nursing, seems to be an increasing challenge lately. This research investigates the environmental, situational, and individual factors that affect nurses' level of stress. It also measures the impact of stress on nurses' work performance. The data collected from 100 nurses in different hospitals shows a positive relationship between environmental and situational factors and a nurse's stress and a non-significant correlation between personal factors and nurse stress is found. The results also reveal a positive correlation between stress and overall nurse performance.
Keywords: stress; nurses; performance; hospitals.
Technology spillovers in the electronics and mechanical industries: the roles of ownership structure and wage and training costs in Vietnam
by Phuong V. Nguyen, Khoa T. Tran, Hanh Canh Phuong Le, Hoa Doan Xuan Trieu, Hien Thi Ngoc Huynh
Abstract: Few studies have investigated the impacts of foreign direct investment (FDI) on technology transfer in specific industries of the host country. This paper addresses this gap using firm-level panel data obtained from the General Statistics Office of Vietnam to examine the magnitude of technology spillovers from FDI in Vietnam's electronics and mechanical industries during the 2007-2015 period. The findings reveal positive and significant backward spillover, with no evidence for horizontal linkage. Firms with lower wage and training costs received greater beneficial spillover in terms of backward linkages than firms with higher costs. The positive and significant impact of vertical spillovers was greatest for fully foreign-owned firms, while no impact was found for joint stock firms. Furthermore, forward spillover occurred in state-owned enterprises. Finally, private firms were least likely to reap beneficial technology transfers from FDI. These findings imply that the wide technology gap in Vietnam hinders benefits from FDI spillovers.
Keywords: technology spillover; FDI; foreign direct investment; ownership structures; electronics and mechanical industries; wage and training expenses.
Global business shunning hospitality jobs: a disguised power struggle?
by Chrystalla Vassou, Michael Christofi, Aspasia Simillidou, Demetris Vrontis
Abstract: The hospitality industry has been portrayed as producing precarious workers by recruiting foreigners who are willing to work for lower salaries, under unregulated working conditions, and with limited opportunities for development and career progression. This situation has earned the industry a negative image among the host population, triggered by the belief that hospitality jobs are low-status and should be avoided. This study explored the mechanisms of this phenomenon in order to provide a more in-depth understanding of its emergence. Informed by intergroup conflict theory and in-depth interviews, this study shows that perceived threat lies at the heart of prejudice formation, which is the host population's mechanism to remove competition. Adding to this, the findings also show that long-term challenges entailed in hospitality employment cannot be understood unless structural issues are taken into account. The managerial and policy implications of these results are discussed.
Keywords: hospitality industry; intergroup conflict; human resource management; interviews; power struggle.
Entrepreneurial orientation of SMEs in the creative fashion industry
by Popy Rufaidah
Abstract: The difference in SME scale business owners based on their extended operations in the business seen from the EO dimension has not been a priority for researchers. This study measures the difference in entrepreneurial orientation (EO) of two groups of SME scale business owners in the creative fashion industry, namely, Group 1 (SMEs that have been operating for lesser than a year), and Group 2 (SMEs that have been operating between 1 to 5 years). The sampling method used is simple random sampling. The research was conducted towards 328 entrepreneurs or SMEs of creative fashion industry in the cities and regencies in Indonesia. The novelty of the author's contribution from this study is that this study is one of the first to examine EO measurements simultaneously in two SME scale business groups in terms of the length of their business operations by understanding the dimensions of the EO.
Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation; SMEs and ANOVA test.
The brand image model in digital media industry
by Sukardi Silalahi, Popy Rufaidah, Ernie Tisnawati Sule, Umi Kaltum
Abstract: The concept of brand image has been a long-time topic of discussion as a significant factor in marketing interest. However, the amount of research on marketing process in telecommunication industry is still limited; therefore it is necessary to conduct research on this topic. The present research aims to fill the gap of this underrated topic. It proposes a brand image model to be examined as a measurement scale employing 212 active digital customers spread across five broadband cities. The model is examined using exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and the SEM model to analyse the data. The findings indicate that brand associations, brand identity, brand personality, brand attitude, brand behaviour, brand benefit, brand competence, and brand dynamism are considered as determining factors of brand image.
Keywords: brand associations; brand identity; brand personality; brand attitude; brand behaviour; brand benefit; brand competence; brand dynamism.
Determinants of key facets of job satisfaction in the banking sector: applying SMART PLS and artificial neural networks
by Sahil Raj, Shivinder Nijjer, Viput Ongsakul, Harpreet Singh
Abstract: Job satisfaction is closely associated with life satisfaction and important workplace behaviours (Judge and Kammeyer-Mueller, 2012). Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire (MSQ) or job description ındex (JDI) (Castanheira, 2014; Saane et al., 2003) are widely used to measure job satisfaction. However, since these instruments cannot be generalised to all industrial sectors (Khalilzadeh et al., 2013), this two-part study attempted to manifest the facets of job satisfaction of public sector bank employees in India through factor identification using systematic literature review, exploratory factor analysis and statistical mode, followed by partial least squares (PLS) modelling of the problem using SmartPLS and comparing the outcome to artificial neural networks (ANN) output. The study has important implications for policy recommendations to banking sector to promote satisfaction among employees. Secondly, it is able to demonstrate which of the two techniques is better - PLS or ANN.
Keywords: ANNs; artificial neural networks; partial least squares modelling; job satisfaction; banking sector; exploratory factor analysis; SMART PLS; SQL Server 2012.
Special Issue on: BUSINESS CHALLENGES IN EMERGING MARKETS
Issues in the rehabilitation of failed residential projects in Malaysia: clash between the interests of purchasers and secured creditor chargee
by Nuarrual Hilal Md. Dahlan
The implementation of knowledge management techniques to enhance operations in the Jordanian healthcare sector
by Suzan Al-Najjar, Ibrahim Tabsh, Ahmad Shariah
Special Issue on: Special issue
The similarities in job satisfaction across cultures
by Bassem Maamari
Special Issue on: Xxx
A causal relationship between exports, foreign direct investment and income for Malaysia
by P.R. Bhatt