J. for Global Business Advancement (41 papers in press)
Audit procedures, auditors experience and responsibility for fraud detection: a Javanese culture perspective
by Anis Chariri, Ratna Siti Nuraisya
Abstract: This study examines the relationship of audit procedures and auditors experience and auditors responsibility for fraud detection, and specifically to examine whether Javanese culture plays moderating roles in the relationship. We conduct empirical tests using data from auditors─working at eight public accounting firms located in Semarang, Indonesia─who responded to our survey. Results indicate that audit procedures positively influence auditors responsibility for fraud detection. Auditors experience also positively affects auditors responsibility for fraud detection. More importantly, this study showed that Javanese culture negatively moderates the influence of audit procedures and auditors experience on their responsibilities for fraud detection. This study contributes to accounting/auditing literature on the importance of considering culture, especially local culture when we study any issues related to auditing and frauds.
Keywords: audit procedure; auditor experience; auditor responsibility; fraud detection; Javanese culture.
The persistence of tax avoidance and its effect on the persistence of earnings
by Achmad Hizazi, Sylvia Veronica Siregar, Dwi Martani, Vera Diyanti
Abstract: This paper suggests a new measure for gauging one aspect of tax avoidance, using a time series perspective. The paper investigates the effect of the new measure of tax avoidance on earning persistence, the latter functioning as a measure of earning quality, using the same time perspective. The paper argues that tax avoidance has a persistent attribute, and that this attribute has a negative slope. We also predict that tax avoidance is negatively related to earning persistence. We derive an empirical measure for the persistence of tax avoidance by using the present value revision of coefficients from firm-specific auto-regressions of effective tax rates. We subsequently illustrate that tax avoidance is persistent, and that this persistence has a negative trend. Finally, we show that our measure of persistence of tax avoidance is negatively related to earning persistence.
Keywords: tax avoidance; persistence of tax avoidance; earning persistence; Southeast Asia.
The Toda-Yamamoto causality test for government expenditure and economic growth: a case study in Indonesia
by Sigit Harjanto, Setyo Tri Wahyudi
Abstract: This research aims to find out the causality between economic growth and government expenditure. Using Toda-Yamamoto causality test, we found unidirectional causality between economic growth and government expenditure, in which government expenditure affects economic growth, which is in accordance with Wagners law. In terms of expenditure by function, we found a relationship that supports the Keynesian approach between economic growth and government expenditure by economic function. However, there is no causality between the other functions of government expenditure and economic growth.
Keywords: economic growth; government expenditure; Toda-Yamamoto causality test.
Antecedents and Consequences of Customer Loyalty in Qatar
by Shahid Bhuian, Maha Al Balushi, Irfan Butt
Abstract: Drawing insights from the customer value-based theory, this study hypothesises and examines the relationships in the antecedents-customer loyalty-consequences process in a unique context, Qatar. Five divergent and salient antecedents and two important outcomes are incorporated in a single comprehensive study. The antecedents are innovation (a novel one), service quality, trust, satisfaction and switching cost, while the consequences are word-of-mouth communication and repeat purchase. An analysis of a sample of mobile internet subscribers reveals that the five antecedents impact customer loyalty, which, in turn, influences the two outcomes. The study extends customer loyalty theory to a region marked by unique Islamic values and beliefs. Also, the study suggests that in addition to paying attention to a number of traditional drivers of customer loyalty simultaneously, marketers seeking to build and sustain customer loyalty in the Gulf region should also focus on innovation. Implications are discussed.
Keywords: customer loyalty; innovation; service quality; trust; word-of-mouth communication; Qatar; Gulf Cooperation Council region.
The traits of success according to those who made it: a survey of successful entrepreneurs in Northeastern Thailand.
by Amornwan Rangkoon, Winai Wongsurawat, Barbara Igel
Abstract: One of the most common questions business students have is what characteristics successful business people should possess. This study interviewed 200 successful entrepreneurs in Northeastern Thailand, between 2010-11 to find their common vital characteristics. Atlas.ti software, a frequency-weighted average scores (FWA), Pareto method, and a Venn diagram were used to determine important characteristics based on five categories. Results reveal three characteristics with high FWA scores at the intersection, namely joy of developing, integrity, and striving. These three characteristics are a common vital personality of all business characteristics (male or female, age, education, length of time in business and type of business). A triangulation approach was employed with a further two groups (75 each) between 2012-13 and 2014-15, respectively, to validate the findings. The findings demonstrated the same three characteristics as outstanding personality traits of successful entrepreneurs in the region.
Keywords: characteristics of entrepreneurs; successful entrepreneurs; in-depth interview; integrity; joy of developing; striving; Thailand.
The impact of organisational culture on performance
by Maya Shayya
Abstract: Organisational culture is shaping the performance of the Lebanese bureaucracy. Performance is shaped by the culture of the organisations work unit. A questionnaire was applied to the undergraduate educational public sector to examine unit differences in performance. The results of this study show that organisational culture does play a role in shaping performance levels at the diverse units of the public sectors education, but that its role is muted. These findings suggest that other factors, including broader societal culture, are also at work. In addition to its practical dimension, the study also tests a major US theory of organisational motivation in the Lebanese context. Cross-cultural differences do influence performance, and results suggest that modifications be made to the Western theories, before they are transferred to the Middle East.
Keywords: waste; performance; organisational culture; public sector; professionalism; innovation; job satisfaction; public concern.
Corporate governance, a solution to the problem of family business sustainability
by Ahmad Jannoun
Abstract: This study analyses the effect of family businesses practices of corporate governance on their respective survival and sustainability. The study groups the major components and constructs impacting the family business lifecycle, and the role of the key elements of corporate governance in this respect, namely accountability, leadership, system, and transparency, on the family business 'sustainability DNA'.
Keywords: leadership; accountability; transparency; system sustainability; DBA; family business.
Political connections, opaque financial reports and stock price synchronicity
by Lukas Purwoto, Eduardus Tandelilin, Mamduh Hanafi
Abstract: From the perspective of corporate governance, stock price synchronicity can be understood as a lack of disclosure. This study investigates the effect of political connections, government majority ownership, and the opacity of financial statements on the stock price synchronicity of public companies in Indonesia. Our analysis shows that political connections and government ownership increase stock price synchronicity. Synchronicity is also positively affected by the opacity of financial statements. Furthermore, when the opacity of financial statements increases, the influence of political connections and government ownership on stock price synchronicity tends to increase. These results imply that political ties impede disclosure of firm-specific information, and poor quality of financial statement exacerbates this impediment.
Keywords: stock price synchronicity; firm-specific information; political connections; government ownership; the opacity of financial statements.
Reproduction of social class hierarchy and cultural capital effects: what does it mean for children from weaker sections?
by Ashu Kapur
Abstract: In the last two decades, the Indian educational sphere has undergone enormous changes. With the advent of a neo-liberalised urban order across the globe, the Indian educational system has witnessed profound structural and processual transformations. Drawing on India as a social unit of a case study, this article reflects upon the cleavages underlying the Indian education system marked by stratification and hierarchisation. Existing research on the relationship between education and social stratification has underscored a host of organisational, institutional, and psychosocial mechanisms concerned by market logic. It is through these mechanisms that contemporary pedagogy perpetuates the inequitable distribution of educational credentials as well as economic and social rewards that accompany them. The aim of the paper is to discuss the different ways in which cultural capital, which treats 'culture as a resource' to be capitalised for attaining advantageous positions within the formal institutional setting such as schools, matters. Cultural capital theory posits that, when children from low social class backgrounds navigate their way through schooling, it gives birth to a cultural continuity/discontinuity hypothesis. Cultural capital theory in educational institutions enjoys great currency as it displays 'the rules of the game' as to how institutions function within the nexus of power and knowledge. The dominant interpretation of cultural capital theory coalesces with the central premise that schools invariably promote the cultural capital of the dominant class allied with highbrow culture, and in this process, it seemingly fulfills the capitalist agenda in commodifying education. The present paper is based on a case study in an urban social set-up of Delhi, the capital of India, using an ethnographic methodological approach to collect data by undertaking prolonged and persistent observations of school and classroom; conducting semi-structured interviews with the principal, parents, and teachers, and gathering narratives from children. Sociological explanations are given of the social class-cultural processes and practices prevalent inside the private school setting, which can be considered typical of other suitable alternatives. How education has become an island of exclusion with privileges for only a small minority and deprivation for those belonging to economically weaker sections, lends a unique understanding on the power of dominant order. Findings reveal the divergent discourses that are evident in private schools, which tend to maintain their highbrow social class cultural character by adopting different mechanisms. The impacts such market-inclined culture have on the lives of disadvantaged children reinforces the schools hidden agenda of schooling as that of reproducing social class hierarchy by way of naturalising cultural capital effects. The purpose of this paper is to refine the cultural continuity/discontinuity hypothesis by examining the different ways in which private schools meet or do not meet the universal vision of equality and social justice.
Keywords: cultural capital; social class; school culture; privatisation; equality and inclusion.
Individual differences and turnover intentions: perspectives from the Indian IT industry
by Shivinder Nijjer, Sahil Raj, Dana-Nicoleta Lascu, Viput Ongsakul
Abstract: The world's largest IT outsourcing destination, India, accounting for 67% of the $130 billion market, is currently experiencing high employee turnover, between 13% and 15% yearly (PTI, 2018; Dasgupta, 2017). In response to the need for predictive models that provide insights on who is going to leave the firm (Elkjaer and Filmer, 2015), the present study examines turnover not from an organisational perspective, but, rather, by identifying individual differences that predict turnover, assessing variations in job attitudes which lead to turnover. The study is based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991) and Theory of Individual Differences (TID) leading to job attitudes (Cooper, 2010; Judge and Kammeyer-Mueller, 2012). TPB suggests that attitudes towards behaviour (turnover), combined with the perceived self-efficacy to conduct the behaviour, will convert into behavioural intention; and, when the individual perceives volitional control, the intention will convert into actual performance of the behaviour (Ajzen, 1991). In this study, we use turnover intention to predict turnover in the Indian IT industry (Tett and Meyer, 1993; Steel and Ovalle, 1984; Jaros, 1997). Following from TPB and the Judge et al. (2012) study, we posit that job attitude (job satisfaction and perceived person-organisation fit, in this study) leads to turnover intention. The individual differences we use are self-esteem, personality and resilience, which impact attitude, which, in turn, influences intention and may result in turnover behaviour (Motowildo et al.,1997; Judge and Bono, 2001).
Keywords: theory of planned behaviour; individual differences; IT industry; turnover; self-esteem; personality; resilience; job satisfaction; person-organisation fit.
Policy synthesis for sustainable trade: a panel data gravity model approach of India with European Union and ASEAN countries
by Shikha Singh
Abstract: More than 26 years of economic and trade reforms have helped the Indian economy to increase trade volumes. This paper reviews Indias free trade agreements (FTAs) with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries and its proposed FTA with the European Union (EU). Annual data for Indias exports, imports, and trade volume with EU and ASEAN countries is employed to study the gravity model. Variables studied include distance, population, FTA (dummy variable), and gross domestic product of EU and ASEAN countries for a period of 19 years from 1996 to 2014. The panel ordinary least squares regression method is applied to analyse the relationship between different variables. With the available dataset, experiments signify the gravity model for India with EU and ASEAN countries. Different factors are found with respect to both the blocs, and the results are as per the synthesis in this theory.
Keywords: international trade; free trade area; Association of Southeast Asian Nations; European Union; India; gravity model.
Tour guides as a supportive tool for the experiential image of Jordans destination: a French tourists perspective
by Maher Alshamaileh, Mohammad Abuhjeeleh, Hamzah Elrehail
Abstract: Tour guides as representatives for any destination play a vital role in supporting destinations' experiential image (EI), and they could be a successful service recovery tool for improving EI. The purpose of this paper is to assess the experiential image of Jordan as a destination and how this destination is perceived by the French tourists, as well as the role played by tour guides as a supporting tool for the image of destinations. A structured questionnaire was distributed to the French tourists after theyd spent a few days in Jordan. The main findings of this paper revealed that both hypotheses received empirical support. This study highlights the importance of tour guides in destination EI studies. Implications and future venues discussed.
Keywords: destination image; service recovery; tour guides; experiential image.
Do company size and strategy matter in the choice of partial or full acquisitions?
by Kashif Ahmed, Ralf Bebenroth
Abstract: This paper is aimed at relating size and strategy of cross-border acquirers to their acquisition behaviour by investigating the choices made by acquirers to take over their targets partially or fully. We divided a sample of Japanese cross-border acquirers into firms with consistent or flexible strategies. Based on various arguments from strategy literature and international business literature, we hypothesised and empirically validated that there was an interaction effect between the size and strategy of the acquirer vis-
Keywords: strategy; strategic consistency; strategic flexibility; partial acquisitions; full acquisitions; M&A; acquirer size; Japan.
From traditional banking to technology-enabled banking services in India: a study of bank customers perceptive
by Liaqat Ali, Simran Jit Kaur
Abstract: Technology has made a tremendous contribution in the banking industry in terms of increased market share of banks, and easy and quick accessibility of banking services to customers. The present study concentrates on understanding customers overall perspective about technology-enabled banking services (TEBS). The survey was conducted among 337 users of TEBS selected from public and private sector banks in the states of Punjab, Haryana and Union Territory of Chandigarh. Data collection was done through a self-administered questionnaire. The study revealed three significant factors measuring the consumers perception of TEBS in India namely: perceived ease of use, convenience and accessibility, and prior experience of technology through factor analysis. Further, the ANOVA technique was employed to analyse the association between the identified factor of customers perception and demographic variables. The results of this study highlight that age and internet availability have a significant association with all the factors, but gender appears to have no impact on customers perception. The study provides customer perspective on TEBS and assists practitioners to improve the accessibility of the services.
Keywords: banking services; bank customers; perception; banking technology; India.
Effect of earnings smoothness on the Indian IT industry
by Shikhil Munjal, Gurcharan Singh
Abstract: The aim of this study is to empirically examine the impact of earnings smoothness on the IT industry of India. India is one of the promising markets in the world and an empirical examination is needed to justify the institutional and accounting structures of the country. Earning quality can be measured by different indicators such as accrual quality, smoothness, persistence, predictability, etc. To measure the performance of National Stock Exchange (NSE)-listed IT companies of India, the study used earning smoothness as an indicator of earnings quality. The time period of the study is 20132017 and the sample used for the study is listed IT companies. The results found that earning smoothness does not affect the companys operational performance and market performance significantly. These results are consistent with the study conducted by Yandiatri (2013) and Ririk (2011) and are on contrary with the study done by Mahmod et al., (2009).
Keywords: earning quality; smoothness; National Stock Exchange; return on asset; Tobin’s Q.
Efficiency in higher education: a contextual framework and relevant issues based on a literature review
by Sarbjeet Kaur
Abstract: This paper aims to provide an overview of the literature regarding the efficiency of higher education institutions. This paper presents a scheme that identifies the gaps in the literature and proposes future research directions. It also summarises and reviews previously reported useful resources, such as inputs and outputs, as well as other important related variables, such as methodology in the field of efficiency in higher education institutions. Furthermore, it analyses papers that reported efficiency of universities employing data envelopment analysis methodology. Various studies from developed countries have reported efficiency in higher education institutions. However, there is a dearth of studies regarding the effectiveness of higher education organizations in developing countries. This paper presents a literature review evaluating one of the themes found in the literature. A systematic review of the literature on efficiency identified 68 important journal articles in ABDC-indexed journals. Selected papers mainly focused on research and teaching efficiency. This paper presents an inclusive literature review and analysis of efficiency in higher education institutions. It might be a supportive source for researchers and academicians who ought to understand the importance of efficiency in higher education organizations and conduct further research. It also provides important information regarding the key indicators of input and output for researchers. This paper concludes with some realistic guidelines and direction for potential researchers in the field of higher education.
Keywords: efficiency; inputs; outputs; DEA; funnel.
The determinants of export behaviour: a study of food processing industry in India
by G.R. Navyashree, Savita Bhat
Abstract: The study examines the factors that determine the export behaviour of food processing firms operating in India based on data from the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) Prowess Database for 20112016. It examines the effect of three technological variables on the export behaviour of firms: information and communication technology (ICT) investment, in-house research and development (R&D), and the import of embodied technologies. Further, it tries to understand if the technological activities of affiliated firms have any effect on their export performance. Using the Heckman two-step sample selection analysis, it reveals that technology investments are important determinants for the export behaviour of firms. Other control variables such as firm size, firm age, and the capitallabour ratio were also found to be important in determining the export behaviour of food processing firms. The study gives policy suggestions for improving the global competitiveness of firms in this industry.
Keywords: exports; ICT; food processing; RBV; Heckman; sample selection; affiliation; technological activities; developing country; India.
Assessing the impact of psychological commitment to team on Indian Premier League attendees cognitive, affective and behavioural outcomes
by Jaskirat Rai, Apar Singh
Abstract: The study involved two teams, Kings Eleven Punjab (KXIP) and Royal Challenger Bangalore (RCB), of the Indian Premier League (IPL), with their two sponsors (HTC and Kingfisher and Gionee and Kingfisher). Structural equation modelling has been used to measure the impact of attendees' psychological commitment to team on their cognitive (product knowledge), affective (attitude toward sponsor) and behavioural (purchase intention) outcomes, as well as the impact of each outcome on the others. The study found a positive impact of attendees' team commitment on their cognitive (product knowledge) and affective (attitude toward the sponsor brand) outcomes, but a negative correlation with their behaviour (purchase intention) outcomes for both the teams and their sponsors. The study also found a positive association between the attendees' product knowledge, attitude toward sponsor brands and their purchase intentions. After examining actual sponsors, this study provides useful insights for managers that can influence the outcomes of attendees' using sports sponsorship.
Keywords: psychological commitment to team; product knowledge; attitude toward sponsor; purchase intention; sports sponsorship; structural equation modelling.
Factors affecting turnover intention of logisticians: empirical evidence from Pakistan
by Sehrish Huma, Tooba Javaid, Sehar Ishtiaque
Abstract: This research is conducted to analyse the factors that affect turnover intention of logistics worker in an organisation. This paper is based on a comprehensive literature review that consists of 160 filled questionnaire from logistics companies. The relationships among one dependent variable, i.e. turnover intention, and independent variables, namely interpersonal relationship, salary level and job satisfaction, are analysed using SPSS software. A result of the reliability test indicated that the items of all variables and collected responses are reliable. Factor analysis result also confirm the grouping of adopted questioner. Results of regression analysis indicates a significant negative relationship between salary level and job satisfaction with turnover intention. However, there is one surprising difference, which is that interpersonal relationship showed a significant but positive relationship with turnover intention. The novelty of this paper is for logistics companies where there is no literature available regarding turnover intention of logisticians.
Keywords: logisticians; interpersonal relationship; salary level; job satisfaction; turnover intention; logistics companies.
Cultural intelligence: research field analysis through VOSviewer and CiteSpace software
by Carlos Henrique Da Silva Mesquita, Cintia Loos Pinto, Ricardo Teixeira Veiga
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to elucidate the studies related to cultural intelligence, aiming to highlight a new and promising theme that unites several areas, mainly management, through a bibliometric analysis. The research focuses on a time period between 1998 and 2018 and includes 356 articles published on the Web of Science. The software CiteSpace and VOSviewer were used to develop the analyses. The results pointed out a significant increase in publications in this context recently, mainly from 2015, 2017 being the year with the highest number of publications. Alfred Presbitero is highlighted as a significant researcher, and the country with the greatest number of researchers is the United States. The most important article cited in the bibliographic references of other articles was Ang, S., et al. (2007).
Keywords: cultural intelligence; bibliometric analysis; CiteSpace; VOSviewer; Web of Science.
Jordan banks perception of customer relationship management:
a TAM-based investigation
by Muneer Abbad, Ghazi Alkhatib, Kholoud Al Qeisi, Faten Jaber
Abstract: The main objective of this study is to empirically analyse customer relationship management adoption by the banking sector based on the technology acceptance model. Five external variables are added to the original technology acceptance model framework, namely user training, computer anxiety, self-efficacy, top management support, and technical support. The model generated 13 hypotheses related to the links between the external factors and the original internal factors of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavioural intention to use. The developed model was tested using a two-step approach of structural equation modelling: estimating measurement and structural models. Seven hypotheses were accepted based on the confirmed model. Respondents are mainly young educated married males. Overall, the analysis revealed the importance of some factors in the study. Perceived usefulness has the highest impact on the behavioural intention, and all other factors, including the perceived ease of use could affect the intention to use through the perceived usefulness.
Keywords: CRM; customer relationship management; TAM; technology acceptance model; Jordanian banks.
The Effects of Psychological Factors on Green Behaviour Engagement: A Malaysian Perspective
by Marhana Anuar, Maznah Wan Omar, Jumadil Saputra
Abstract: The objective of this study is to examine the effects of psychological factors on green behaviour engagement among students in Malaysia. This study has integrated the theory of planned behaviour and value-attitude-behaviour model to develop a framework in order to predict green behaviour engagement among students. A self-administered survey was conducted among students from two top green campuses in Malaysia. The results indicate that green values have positive influences on students’ attitude towards the environment. Subjective norms and perceived consumer effectiveness have significant impacts on green behaviour engagement, whereas attitude towards the environment has no significant influence on green behaviour engagement. The model developed in this study is helpful in predicting the factors that influence green behaviour engagement. The results of this study provide useful information and guidance for green campus administrators to plan for green campus initiatives in the future.
Keywords: Green behaviour engagement, green campus, green values, psychological factors, Malaysia
Sustainable Development Status of Zakat Recipients: Empirical Investigation based on Malaysia’s Kedah State
by Norazlina Abd Wahab, M Ashraf Al Haq, Siti Aznor Ahmad
Abstract: Zakat is compulsory charity in Islam to fight poverty and inequality, but there is a gap in literature concerning the performance of zakat in terms of achieving sustainable development for its recipients. Therefore, this study intends to assess the role of zakat in achieving the sustainable development status for recipients. This study collected primary data through a questionnaire survey among 440 zakat recipients from the Kedah State in Malaysia. The data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The findings reveal that zakat helps to improve the overall sustainable development status of its recipients, but the economic aspect improves more than the social and environmental aspects. Therefore, to ensure the success of zakat in line with the goals of achieving sustainable development for recipients as advocated by the United Nations, the policymakers and zakat administrators around the world and particularly in Malaysia need to focus on redesigning the zakat management program.
Keywords: Zakat; Sustainable Development; Poverty; Muslim; Malaysia; Structural Equation Modelling (SEM-PLS)
A Qualitative Study and a Measurement and Evaluation of Public Relations Social Media Campaigns in Cyprus
by Marcos Komodromos, Andreas Masouras, Nicholas Nicoli
Abstract: This qualitative study was conducted with the purpose of (a) understanding the objectives of public relations practitioners in Cyprus; (b) identifying the manner public relation practitioners measure and evaluate the effectiveness of social media campaigns; and (c) finding the factors that hinder effective measurement and evaluation of public relations social media campaigns. Data were collected from 86 public relations practitioners in Cyprus using a four-item open-ended interview protocol. It was identified that public relations practitioners in the country focus on creating mutual relationships with the public and planning communication to support the organisation’s objectives. Public relations practitioners in Cyprus use benefit-cost ratio; cost-effectiveness analysis; and brand awareness, knowledge, and information-gathering surveys to measure and evaluate public relations social media campaigns.In Cyprus, the processes are hindered by a lack of (a) adequate budget allocation, (b) consensus on the measurement and evaluation approaches, and (c) tested theories or models.
Keywords: Measurement, evaluation, public relations, social media campaigns, Cyprus, excellence theory, benefit-cost ratio, cost-effectiveness analysis, public relations metrics, qualitative study.
Special Issue on: International Business and Finance in the Information and Digital Age
Corporate social responsibility for potential resource acquisition An empirical evidence in Vietnam
by Hong Thu Nguyen, Van Chien Nguyen, Thu Thuy Nguyen
Abstract: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has greatly contributed to the business performance in both developed and emerging economies. This study focused on CSR related to business organisation image, employees respect, satisfaction, especially remuneration policy, and evaluating their effects on potential resource acquisition in the businesses. To conduct this, a data sample of 524 respondents at 13 universities in six Vietnamese provinces has been selected. Results demonstrate that CSR related to business organisation image can positively affect potential resource acquisition. A higher level in CSR related to employees respect can positively promote a greater potential resource acquisition. In addition, CSR related to employees remuneration policy has greatly impacted on potential resource acquisition.
Keywords: CSR; business; resource acquisition.
Special Issue on: Business Research Touching New Heights in Contemporary India
Box office collection of sequel movies: exploring brand extension effect
by Prem Dewani
Abstract: The ever-increasing popularity of Hindi Cinema, also called Bollywood, provides a tremendous opportunity for both existing and new production houses and studios. This study aims to examine the role that sequels play in this multibillion-dollar industry. Past literature points towards sequels being brand extensions of existing movies and thus inheriting certain brand strengths. This study tries to understand whether these strengths translate to monetary and cognitive dividends for the sequels. In the first study, we analyse earnings for both sequels and non-sequels released during last three years (between Jan 2017 to Dec 2019), while accounting for various parameters that could potentially affect a movie's performance. In the second study, we conduct an experiment to capture customers perceptions of precursors of purchase behaviour. Results indicated that, overall, sequels perform better than non-sequels, and have higher ratings on precursors of purchase behaviour than non-sequels. We also found that Word of Mouth (WOM) publicity would be positive and higher for a sequel than for a non-sequel. Further, brand extensions through sequels not only provide a product with existing brand equity but also help to take the load off the pre-release marketing budget. With entertainment now being streamed directly onto personal devices, the research also opens up avenues into fields other than movies, such as television series, web series, and books.
Keywords: brand extension; movie; sequel.
Delineating the outcomes of fans' psychological commitment to sports teams: product knowledge, attitude towards the sponsor, and purchase intentions
by Jaskirat Rai, Maher Itani, Apar Singh, Amanpreet Singh
Abstract: This study aims to examine the relationship between fans' psychological commitment to team (PCT) with three outcomes to sponsors; i.e., cognitive (product knowledge), affective (attitude towards sponsors), and behavioural (purchase intentions). The covariance-based structural equation modelling (CBSEM) technique was used to examine the consequences of fans' team commitment on sponsors, as well as the influence of each outcome of fans' commitment on one another. Findings from this study provide evidence that PCT has a significant impact on cognitive and affective outcomes, but a negative or no impact was found on behavioural outcome. This implies PCT did not work as a motivational factor and failed to alter attendees' purchase intentions. When it comes to consumption decisions, consumers prefer to make these decisions according to their own life experience rather than being psychologically attached to their team. Such finding helps sport management to extend their knowledge of sponsorship in professional sports setting.
Keywords: attitude toward sponsor brand; product knowledge; sports sponsorship; team commitment.
Dynamics of Punjab State's tourist image: a social media analytics perspective
by Viput Ongsakul, Tanveer Kajla, Uju Violet Alola, Sahil Raj, Tran Tien Khoa
Abstract: This study is part of the major research project funded by the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR). This research examined the dynamics of Punjab State's tourist image from the standpoint of social media analytics. This study analyses data available over social media platforms such as Twitter and TripAdvisor, for analysing user-generated content. The social media data was pre-processed for removing unwanted data that does not contribute to the analysis and reduces the accuracy of the results. By probing techniques such as word cloud, keyword frequency counts and word association, this study is able to find various motivations for popularity of Punjab State's tourist attractions among its consumers (tourists). Punjab State's destination management organisations, its leaders and managers could benefit from our analysis. The findings provide suggestions on how to market the state's tourist attractions across the country and the world at large more strategically in the foreseeable future.
Keywords: social media; Twitter; TripAdvisor; social media analytics; Word Cloud; tourist image; Punjab State; India.
Scale development of customer satisfaction with complaint handling and service recovery in an e-commerce setting
by Parveen Kumari, Satinder Kumar, Maher N. Itani
Abstract: This study explores the dimensionality of customer satisfaction with complaint handling in the service failure and recovery context. It provides evidence of construct validity for a new multi-item measure of e-commerce customer satisfaction. Items for this measure were developed by reviewing the literature on complaint handling and service recovery. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a five-factor structure to this measure: 1) recovery and return 2) employee dealing and timely response, 3) complaint resolution, 4) payment and security, and 5) website-related information. The structural equation also demonstrated predicted validity for the e-commerce customer satisfaction dimensions of complaint handling and service recovery as each of these five factors was verified to have a positive relationship with overall complainant satisfaction. The study concluded that online businesses should develop service recovery strategies that encompass monetary rewards in the context of a solution to the complaint.
Keywords: e-commerce; complaint handling; complaint resolution; customer satisfaction; compensation; response time; recovery and replace; employee dealing; website security.
Effect of earnings smoothness on firm performance: a study of Indian National Stock Exchange
by Shikhil Munjal, Gurcharan Singh, Bashir Tijjani
Abstract: The aim of this study is to empirically examine the impact of earnings smoothness on operational and market performance of the Indian National Stock Exchange (NSE) using panel data. The dynamic generalised method of moment is used in this study. The study covers a period of seven years (2013 to 2019) and the sample firms were drawn from companies listed on the NSE 500 Index. The results revealed a significant effect of earning smoothing on companies' operational as well as market performance. These results are consistent with a number of prior studies, which found that both ROA and Tobin's Q affect the earning smoothness. Similarly, firms with non-smooth earnings are significantly affected by only ROA. Findings from this study will enable researchers to understand the role of earnings quality in shaping company decisions, not only in the Indian context, but also for the rest of the world.
Keywords: earning quality; smoothness; Indian National Stock Exchange; return on asset; Tobin’s Q.
Special Issue on: Enhancing Business Practices Across Different Cultures Creating Value From The External Environment
Understanding consumerism within Western and Muslim-based societies: Twitter usage by Saudi and American consumers
by Othman Althawadi, John Fraedrich, Allam Abu Farha
Abstract: Consumerism was defined and studied as protection and active participation in negative business issues that directly affect the consumer. The consumerism model is based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) using social media (Twitter) to determine any significant differences between two divergent cultures and economies: Saudi Arabia and the USA. Our results suggest a partial fit to the model. The equivalent significant findings for both samples are as follows: (1) Consumers with negative perceptions of government regulatory practices have a more positive attitude towards consumerism; (2) There is a positive relationship between attitude, intention, and behaviour and consumerism; (3) Both countries have a positive subjective norm, intention, and behavior for consumerism; (4) There is a positive relationship between perceived behavioral control and consumerist behaviour.
Our findings found that Saudi consumers have a higher level of intent to engage in consumerism behaviour via Twitter than American consumers. Finally, Saudi consumers have a negative perception of government regulatory practices that can be attributed to its restricted civil society relative to the USA.
Keywords: consumerism; consumer movement; Saudi Arabia; consumerism behaviors; Twitter; consumer protection.
Breaking down the export barriers for small and medium-sized enterprises: a focus group study across Vietnam
by Ali Salman Saleh, Jerome Donovan, Viet Le, Arsalan Safari
Abstract: This paper attempts to empirically analyse the motivations and barriers among Vietnamese businesses in undertaking export activities. The study applies a thematic analysis method and categorisations developed from extant literature to examine six focus groups among SMEs, chosen from the three regions in Vietnam. The findings suggest that Vietnamese SMEs experience significant difficulties in coping with tariff and non-tariff barriers, in accessing information about overseas markets, and in recruiting and maintaining skilled workforces necessary for penetrating international markets. The research findings help in understanding some of the key drivers of SME export activities in Vietnam and assists policymakers to develop the current SME ecosystem. Additionally, the results offer new evidence on firm-level perceptions about export challenges for Vietnamese SMEs. The findings are in line with the recent economic reforms launched in Vietnam, along with the increased FDI inflows into the country in the last twenty-five years.
Keywords: export barriers; focus group; international business; SMEs; Vietnam; export performance.
Review and replication of three existing measurement scales of consumer cosmopolitanism: an empirical study in the Vietnamese young segment
by Nhu-Ty Nguyen, Thai-Ngoc Pham
Abstract: In today's globalised market, the priority of companies pursuing international achievements is how to identify segments that are favorable foreign products. Consumer cosmopolitanism represents a promising group for implementing successfully cross-cultural strategies. Scholars agree that the formation process of how to become consumer cosmopolitan varies country-by-country. The study provides a review and replication of the reliability and validity of available measurement scales of consumer cosmopolitanism in Vietnamese young consumers. The findings highlight a necessity for a new measurement scale of consumer cosmopolitanism applying in the Vietnamese young market and provides a theoretical distinction among related constructs: cosmopolitanism, cosmopolitan, and consumer cosmopolitanism. Theoretical contributions and future recommendations are suggested in this study.
Keywords: consumer cosmopolitanism; cosmopolitanism; cosmopolitan.
Enabling and disenabling boundary conditions of export marketing assistance: an interdisciplinary framework
by Anisur R. Faroque, Lasse Torkkeli, Hasan Mahmud, Olli Kuivalainen
Abstract: Government-sponsored export marketing assistance programmes exert positive effects on the export performance of firms. However, the literature ignores the central concepts of international business (i.e. psychic distance and network), international marketing (i.e. export market orientation) and international entrepreneurship (i.e. international entrepreneurship orientation and prior international experience) when describing the use and effectiveness of export marketing assistance and its enabling and disenabling boundary conditions. This study develops an interdisciplinary framework for export marketing assistance for early internationalising small- and medium-sized enterprises by relating these pretermitted concepts. We suggest entrepreneurs prior international experience determines their use of export marketing assistance, while psychic distance moderates this relationship favourably and network unfavourably. Export market orientation strengthens the relationship between export marketing assistance and export performance, while international entrepreneurial orientation weakens the relationship. Policymakers and managers can use this model in ascertaining the optimal use of export marketing assistance.
Keywords: export marketing assistance; international entrepreneurial orientation; export market orientation; psychic distance; network; export performance; international entrepreneurship; international business; entrepreneurial experience.
Sustainable values and willingness to pay: an analysis of an analytical technique
by Sri Beldona, Jeffrey Radighieri, Herbert Remidez
Abstract: The concept of sustainability has become popular in today's business environment as environmental concerns remain a top priority for consumers. With the US consumer market projected to spend over USD 150 billion by 2021 in the sustainability segment, the importance of offering sustainable products has taken a renewed interest. Today, the agenda for sustainability has gained more traction among small and medium-sized businesses. However, such resource-constrained companies do not typically have access to sophisticated tools to discern the drivers of consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for sustainable products. In this paper we study the factors that influence consumers' WTP for sustainable products in the grocery industry. We show how traditional techniques of analysis, such as regression analysis, fail to bring out deeper insights that can be gained by using no-code machine learning. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed in detail.
Keywords: sustainability; branding; green; organic; machine learning; willingness to pay.
Entrepreneurial characteristics and internationalisation of new ventures: a study of cognitive factors
by Abrar Saiyed, Antonin Ricard
Abstract: Researchers (Acedo and Jones, 2007; Acedo and Florin, 2006b; Zahra et al., 2005) have argued that the impact of entrepreneurs' cognition in INV has been an under-researched area though it has been studied in the field of entrepreneurship. This study examines the impact of various cognitive factors, attitude, tolerance for ambiguity, proactivity, intuition and international orientation, on speed of internationalisation in new ventures. Primary data was collected from 149 French and 98 Indian SMEs. The results showed that decision makers with attitude towards internationalisation affect firms' early internationalisation, it was found positive in India but negative in France. Interestingly, decision makers with high intuition were found first to focus on domestic markets and later to enter into international markets. International orientation is very important for early internationalisation in new ventures in France.
Keywords: international new ventures; cognitive factors; emerging economies; India.
Special Issue on: Self-Directed Voluntary Actions and Sustainable Business
Driving forces affecting the adoption of certifications in the forest-based industries: a systematic literature review
by Emanuela Lombardo, Maria Crescimanno, Demetris Vrontis, Antonino Galati
Abstract: Several forest certification schemes have become increasingly popular over the last few decades as voluntary mechanisms to tackle sustainability in the forest-based industries to an environmental, social, and economic paradigm. This study aims to systematically review the economic literature on the main motivational factors affecting the adoption of FSC and PEFC certifications in order to perform a broadly theoretical assessment of this research field and identify the most relevant driving forces affecting the adoption of third-party certification in the forest-based industries. Results reveal that the most relevant mechanisms are linked to both market pressure and the opportunity to communicate social and environmental commitment. Other driving forces, such as moral and legal ones, have been little explored, although they play a key role in the entrepreneurs choices, emphasising the need to explore more deeply the behavioral intention of forest owners and managers, adopting different theoretical lenses or developing new conceptual frameworks
Keywords: drivers; motivations; Forest Stewardship Council; Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification; forest landowners; forest industries.
Giving power to those having less power: NGOs, YouTube and virality
by Aikaterini Avgeropoulou, Yioula Melanthiou
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine a promising, but yet unexplored relationship between cinematography, consumer behaviour and viral marketing. The main purpose is to provide a deeper understanding of how certain practices and tools can become universal drivers of virality in the context of YouTube for application by non-governmental organisations. In order to achieve this research goal, Netnography was used aiming to compare the content of two viral and two non-viral campaigns, so as to draw specific insights regarding how and if the different uses of various elements such as montage and content, impact on these videos likeability and viewing. This research suggests specific techniques for non-governmental organisations to achieve engaging content through a free social medium.
Keywords: viral marketing; NGOs; consumer behaviour; YouTube; audio-visual appeal; aesthetic appeal; content appeal; cinematography; Netnography.
Employee Social Media Usage in the Workplace: Internal Marketing's New Found friend
by Georgia Sakka, Ioanna Papasolomou, Alkis Thrassou, Naziyet Uzunboylu
Abstract: This article reviews the literature on social media to develop an understanding of the underlying principles for employees to use social media. The authors suggest that employees use of social media can have a strong positive impact in the workplace by strengthening internal communication amongst colleagues, an integral part of internal marketing and employee satisfaction. The authors suggest that social media can be used by employees as an internal communications tool and incorporate it into an internal marketing strategy. We propose that social media usage among employees is viewed not as an independent uncontrollable phenomenon, but as a primary internal marketing executive tool to be encouraged and managed in and beyond the workplace, an instrument to be used towards achieving job-related activities, providing development opportunities to employees and instilling strong social ties among organisational members to attain internal, and ultimately, external customer satisfaction.
Keywords: social media; employees; internal marketing; internal communication; internal customer; external customer satisfaction.
The behavioural perspective of cause-related marketing: a conceptual framework of behavioural antecedents and outcomes
by Suja R. Nair, S. M. Riad Shams, Evangelia Siachou, Demetris Vrontis
Abstract: Growing consumer awareness of social, cause-oriented consumption has prompted many marketers to use the concept of cause-related marketing to increase consumers participation in socially responsible consumerism. Cause-related marketing involves a mutually beneficial collaborative partnership between a for-profit brand and a non-for-profit organisation, based on a charitable or social cause. While cause-related marketing is widely studied in varying contexts and implemented across different market regions, a literature review identified gaps in its conceptualisation and implementation, and variables, including socio-demographics, consumer perception and attitudes towards the cause-brand fit, that make consumers sceptical, affecting their purchase behaviour and cause-related effectiveness. To address this, we build on the applied theory of organisational behaviour modification, suggesting antecedents that create positive reinforcements that modify consumers behaviour towards cause-related marketing offerings. Organisations could, thus, achieve cause-related marketing effectiveness by minimizing consumers skepticism by shaping their behaviour towards cause-related campaigns and the respective offerings.
Keywords: cause-related marketing; organisational behaviour modification; scepticism; reinforcements; cause-related marketing effectiveness.
The consumption behaviour of beginner voluntary simplifiers: an exploratory study
by Raquel Rebouças, Ana Soares
Abstract: Voluntary simplicity is a lifestyle characterised by consumption reduction, sustainability, and a focus on intrinsic values. There is a dearth of studies of this consumption profile, and in particular of consumers first taking steps towards voluntary life simplification. This study focuses on this segment and attempts to understand the values, motivations, and meanings of consumption, with the aim of better understanding the process of change and outcomes of this lifestyle. This article presents narratives of consumers in the initial stage of voluntary simplicity, exploring their consumption behaviour through in-depth interviews using the critical incident technique and focus group, shedding light on the consumption patterns and perceptions of lifestyle transformation of this group. The findings highlight multiple manifestations of voluntary simplicity as well as obstacles to adopting sustainable consumption, and indicate practices to overcome such barriers. Implications and suggestions for future research on beginner voluntary simplifiers buying-decision process are discussed.
Keywords: voluntary simplicity; beginner voluntary simplifiers; consumption behaviour.