J. for Global Business Advancement (42 papers in press)
Audit procedures, auditors experience and responsibility for fraud detection: a Javanese culture perspective
by Anis Chariri, Ratna Siti Nuraisya
Abstract: This study examines the relationship of audit procedures and auditors experience and auditors responsibility for fraud detection, and specifically to examine whether Javanese culture plays moderating roles in the relationship. We conduct empirical tests using data from auditors─working at eight public accounting firms located in Semarang, Indonesia─who responded to our survey. Results indicate that audit procedures positively influence auditors responsibility for fraud detection. Auditors experience also positively affects auditors responsibility for fraud detection. More importantly, this study showed that Javanese culture negatively moderates the influence of audit procedures and auditors experience on their responsibilities for fraud detection. This study contributes to accounting/auditing literature on the importance of considering culture, especially local culture when we study any issues related to auditing and frauds.
Keywords: audit procedure; auditor experience; auditor responsibility; fraud detection; Javanese culture.
The persistence of tax avoidance and its effect on the persistence of earnings
by Achmad Hizazi, Sylvia Veronica Siregar, Dwi Martani, Vera Diyanti
Abstract: This paper suggests a new measure for gauging one aspect of tax avoidance, using a time series perspective. The paper investigates the effect of the new measure of tax avoidance on earning persistence, the latter functioning as a measure of earning quality, using the same time perspective. The paper argues that tax avoidance has a persistent attribute, and that this attribute has a negative slope. We also predict that tax avoidance is negatively related to earning persistence. We derive an empirical measure for the persistence of tax avoidance by using the present value revision of coefficients from firm-specific auto-regressions of effective tax rates. We subsequently illustrate that tax avoidance is persistent, and that this persistence has a negative trend. Finally, we show that our measure of persistence of tax avoidance is negatively related to earning persistence.
Keywords: tax avoidance; persistence of tax avoidance; earning persistence; Southeast Asia.
The Toda-Yamamoto causality test for government expenditure and economic growth: a case study in Indonesia
by Sigit Harjanto, Setyo Tri Wahyudi
Abstract: This research aims to find out the causality between economic growth and government expenditure. Using Toda-Yamamoto causality test, we found unidirectional causality between economic growth and government expenditure, in which government expenditure affects economic growth, which is in accordance with Wagners law. In terms of expenditure by function, we found a relationship that supports the Keynesian approach between economic growth and government expenditure by economic function. However, there is no causality between the other functions of government expenditure and economic growth.
Keywords: economic growth; government expenditure; Toda-Yamamoto causality test.
National culture and CSR reporting: a cross-country analysis
by Khalil Nimer, Ahmed Yamen, Ahmed Bani-Mustafa, Sameer Al Barghouthi
Abstract: This study examines the effect of national culture on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) reporting at the country level. In this paper, we aim at enhancing our understanding of what influences the level of CSR disclosure in different countries by focusing on the impact of national culture variables in general and by using the degree of countrys financial freedom and the level of IFRS adoption as control variables. Based on published data for 30 countries and by employing the GLOBE study model that considers nine cultural dimensions, the results indicate that human orientation, assertiveness and performance orientation have significant impact on the level of CSR disclosure. In addition, a countrys financial freedom reveals significant effect as a control variable, whereas the level of IFRS adoption did not affect the level of CSR disclosure. This study provides insight into the CSR literature by documenting that cultural variables would influence the degree of disclosure in general and CSR disclosure in particular and by adding two new variables to the model, namely the financial freedom and the level of IFRS adoption.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility; national culture; reporting; country-based analysis.
Antecedents and Consequences of Customer Loyalty in Qatar
by Shahid Bhuian, Maha Al Balushi, Irfan Butt
Abstract: Drawing insights from the customer value-based theory, this study hypothesises and examines the relationships in the antecedents-customer loyalty-consequences process in a unique context, Qatar. Five divergent and salient antecedents and two important outcomes are incorporated in a single comprehensive study. The antecedents are innovation (a novel one), service quality, trust, satisfaction and switching cost, while the consequences are word-of-mouth communication and repeat purchase. An analysis of a sample of mobile internet subscribers reveals that the five antecedents impact customer loyalty, which, in turn, influences the two outcomes. The study extends customer loyalty theory to a region marked by unique Islamic values and beliefs. Also, the study suggests that in addition to paying attention to a number of traditional drivers of customer loyalty simultaneously, marketers seeking to build and sustain customer loyalty in the Gulf region should also focus on innovation. Implications are discussed.
Keywords: customer loyalty; innovation; service quality; trust; word-of-mouth communication; Qatar; Gulf Cooperation Council region.
The traits of success according to those who made it: a survey of successful entrepreneurs in Northeastern Thailand.
by Amornwan Rangkoon, Winai Wongsurawat, Barbara Igel
Abstract: One of the most common questions business students have is what characteristics successful business people should possess. This study interviewed 200 successful entrepreneurs in Northeastern Thailand, between 2010-11 to find their common vital characteristics. Atlas.ti software, a frequency-weighted average scores (FWA), Pareto method, and a Venn diagram were used to determine important characteristics based on five categories. Results reveal three characteristics with high FWA scores at the intersection, namely joy of developing, integrity, and striving. These three characteristics are a common vital personality of all business characteristics (male or female, age, education, length of time in business and type of business). A triangulation approach was employed with a further two groups (75 each) between 2012-13 and 2014-15, respectively, to validate the findings. The findings demonstrated the same three characteristics as outstanding personality traits of successful entrepreneurs in the region.
Keywords: characteristics of entrepreneurs; successful entrepreneurs; in-depth interview; integrity; joy of developing; striving; Thailand.
Understanding consumerism within Western and Muslim-based societies: Twitter Usage of Saudi and American consumers
by Othman Althawadi, John Fraedrich, Allam Abu Farha
Abstract: Consumerism was defined and studied as protection and active participation in negative business issues that directly affect the consumer. The consumerism model is based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) using social media (Twitter) to determine any significant differences between two divergent cultures and economies: Saudi Arabia and the USA. Our results suggest a partial fit to the model. The equivalent significant findings for both samples are as follows: (1) Consumers with negative perceptions of government regulatory practices have a more positive attitude towards consumerism; (2) There is a positive relationship between attitude, intention, and behaviour and consumerism; (3) Both countries have a positive subjective norm, intention, and behavior for consumerism; (4) There is a positive relationship between perceived behavioral control and consumerist behaviour.
Our findings found that Saudi consumers have a higher level of intent to engage in consumerism behaviour via Twitter than American consumers. Finally, Saudi consumers have a negative perception of government regulatory practices that can be attributed to its restricted civil society relative to the USA.
Keywords: consumerism; consumer movement; Saudi Arabia; consumerism behaviors; Twitter; consumer protection.
The impact of organisational culture on performance
by Maya Shayya
Abstract: Organisational culture is shaping the performance of the Lebanese bureaucracy. Performance is shaped by the culture of the organisations work unit. A questionnaire was applied to the undergraduate educational public sector to examine unit differences in performance. The results of this study show that organisational culture does play a role in shaping performance levels at the diverse units of the public sectors education, but that its role is muted. These findings suggest that other factors, including broader societal culture, are also at work. In addition to its practical dimension, the study also tests a major US theory of organisational motivation in the Lebanese context. Cross-cultural differences do influence performance, and results suggest that modifications be made to the Western theories, before they are transferred to the Middle East.
Keywords: waste; performance; organisational culture; public sector; professionalism; innovation; job satisfaction; public concern.
Corporate governance, a solution to the problem of family business sustainability
by Ahmad Jannoun
Abstract: This study analyses the effect of family businesses practices of corporate governance on their respective survival and sustainability. The study groups the major components and constructs impacting the family business lifecycle, and the role of the key elements of corporate governance in this respect, namely accountability, leadership, system, and transparency, on the family business 'sustainability DNA'.
Keywords: leadership; accountability; transparency; system sustainability; DBA; family business.
Sustaining corporate performance through the happy worker influence
by Stefane Kabene, Said Baadel
Abstract: Happy workers tend to be more productive, so it would be beneficial for managers to understand what factors tend to predict happiness to assess where the most potentially productive worker pools are located around the world. The current study aims to examine the relationship between multiple factors and happiness. Twelve countries have been selected and data relating to nine different factors of each country have been used to determine the sum impact. All variable factors have been statistically correlated to happiness to predict the factor(s) that could be linked strongly with happiness. An intensive statistical analysis has been used to evaluate the significance of these relations. This study suggests that most of the variables that have been used in the study are significantly correlated with happiness. While some factors may be distant from being a standard for evaluating happiness, other factors showed a strong relationship with happiness. Our paper shows that the Hofstede, cultural, and diversity variables are not effective in determining a countrys happiness index, while the happiness without carbon footprint factor is a more accurate measure of personal happiness.
Keywords: corporate performance; cultural differences; life expectancy; happiness index; happiness index without carbon footprint; peace index.
Political connections, opaque financial reports and stock price synchronicity
by Lukas Purwoto, Eduardus Tandelilin, Mamduh Hanafi
Abstract: From the perspective of corporate governance, stock price synchronicity can be understood as a lack of disclosure. This study investigates the effect of political connections, government majority ownership, and the opacity of financial statements on the stock price synchronicity of public companies in Indonesia. Our analysis shows that political connections and government ownership increase stock price synchronicity. Synchronicity is also positively affected by the opacity of financial statements. Furthermore, when the opacity of financial statements increases, the influence of political connections and government ownership on stock price synchronicity tends to increase. These results imply that political ties impede disclosure of firm-specific information, and poor quality of financial statement exacerbates this impediment.
Keywords: stock price synchronicity; firm-specific information; political connections; government ownership; the opacity of financial statements.
Reproduction of social class hierarchy and cultural capital effects: what does it mean for children from weaker sections?
by Ashu Kapur
Abstract: In the last two decades, the Indian educational sphere has undergone enormous changes. With the advent of a neo-liberalised urban order across the globe, the Indian educational system has witnessed profound structural and processual transformations. Drawing on India as a social unit of a case study, this article reflects upon the cleavages underlying the Indian education system marked by stratification and hierarchisation. Existing research on the relationship between education and social stratification has underscored a host of organisational, institutional, and psychosocial mechanisms concerned by market logic. It is through these mechanisms that contemporary pedagogy perpetuates the inequitable distribution of educational credentials as well as economic and social rewards that accompany them. The aim of the paper is to discuss the different ways in which cultural capital, which treats 'culture as a resource' to be capitalised for attaining advantageous positions within the formal institutional setting such as schools, matters. Cultural capital theory posits that, when children from low social class backgrounds navigate their way through schooling, it gives birth to a cultural continuity/discontinuity hypothesis. Cultural capital theory in educational institutions enjoys great currency as it displays 'the rules of the game' as to how institutions function within the nexus of power and knowledge. The dominant interpretation of cultural capital theory coalesces with the central premise that schools invariably promote the cultural capital of the dominant class allied with highbrow culture, and in this process, it seemingly fulfills the capitalist agenda in commodifying education. The present paper is based on a case study in an urban social set-up of Delhi, the capital of India, using an ethnographic methodological approach to collect data by undertaking prolonged and persistent observations of school and classroom; conducting semi-structured interviews with the principal, parents, and teachers, and gathering narratives from children. Sociological explanations are given of the social class-cultural processes and practices prevalent inside the private school setting, which can be considered typical of other suitable alternatives. How education has become an island of exclusion with privileges for only a small minority and deprivation for those belonging to economically weaker sections, lends a unique understanding on the power of dominant order. Findings reveal the divergent discourses that are evident in private schools, which tend to maintain their highbrow social class cultural character by adopting different mechanisms. The impacts such market-inclined culture have on the lives of disadvantaged children reinforces the schools hidden agenda of schooling as that of reproducing social class hierarchy by way of naturalising cultural capital effects. The purpose of this paper is to refine the cultural continuity/discontinuity hypothesis by examining the different ways in which private schools meet or do not meet the universal vision of equality and social justice.
Keywords: cultural capital; social class; school culture; privatisation; equality and inclusion.
Individual differences and turnover intentions: perspectives from the Indian IT industry
by Shivinder Nijjer, Sahil Raj, Dana-Nicoleta Lascu, Viput Ongsakul
Abstract: The world's largest IT outsourcing destination, India, accounting for 67% of the $130 billion market, is currently experiencing high employee turnover, between 13% and 15% yearly (PTI, 2018; Dasgupta, 2017). In response to the need for predictive models that provide insights on who is going to leave the firm (Elkjaer and Filmer, 2015), the present study examines turnover not from an organisational perspective, but, rather, by identifying individual differences that predict turnover, assessing variations in job attitudes which lead to turnover. The study is based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991) and Theory of Individual Differences (TID) leading to job attitudes (Cooper, 2010; Judge and Kammeyer-Mueller, 2012). TPB suggests that attitudes towards behaviour (turnover), combined with the perceived self-efficacy to conduct the behaviour, will convert into behavioural intention; and, when the individual perceives volitional control, the intention will convert into actual performance of the behaviour (Ajzen, 1991). In this study, we use turnover intention to predict turnover in the Indian IT industry (Tett and Meyer, 1993; Steel and Ovalle, 1984; Jaros, 1997). Following from TPB and the Judge et al. (2012) study, we posit that job attitude (job satisfaction and perceived person-organisation fit, in this study) leads to turnover intention. The individual differences we use are self-esteem, personality and resilience, which impact attitude, which, in turn, influences intention and may result in turnover behaviour (Motowildo et al.,1997; Judge and Bono, 2001).
Keywords: theory of planned behaviour; individual differences; IT industry; turnover; self-esteem; personality; resilience; job satisfaction; person-organisation fit.
Policy synthesis for sustainable trade: a panel data gravity model approach of India with European Union and ASEAN countries
by Shikha Singh
Abstract: More than 26 years of economic and trade reforms have helped the Indian economy to increase trade volumes. This paper reviews Indias free trade agreements (FTAs) with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries and its proposed FTA with the European Union (EU). Annual data for Indias exports, imports, and trade volume with EU and ASEAN countries is employed to study the gravity model. Variables studied include distance, population, FTA (dummy variable), and gross domestic product of EU and ASEAN countries for a period of 19 years from 1996 to 2014. The panel ordinary least squares regression method is applied to analyse the relationship between different variables. With the available dataset, experiments signify the gravity model for India with EU and ASEAN countries. Different factors are found with respect to both the blocs, and the results are as per the synthesis in this theory.
Keywords: international trade; free trade area; Association of Southeast Asian Nations; European Union; India; gravity model.
Tour guides as a supportive tool for the experiential image of Jordans destination: a French tourists perspective
by Maher Alshamaileh, Mohammad Abuhjeeleh, Hamzah Elrehail
Abstract: Tour guides as representatives for any destination play a vital role in supporting destinations' experiential image (EI), and they could be a successful service recovery tool for improving EI. The purpose of this paper is to assess the experiential image of Jordan as a destination and how this destination is perceived by the French tourists, as well as the role played by tour guides as a supporting tool for the image of destinations. A structured questionnaire was distributed to the French tourists after theyd spent a few days in Jordan. The main findings of this paper revealed that both hypotheses received empirical support. This study highlights the importance of tour guides in destination EI studies. Implications and future venues discussed.
Keywords: destination image; service recovery; tour guides; experiential image.
Do company size and strategy matter in the choice of partial or full acquisitions?
by Kashif Ahmed, Ralf Bebenroth
Abstract: This paper is aimed at relating size and strategy of cross-border acquirers to their acquisition behaviour by investigating the choices made by acquirers to take over their targets partially or fully. We divided a sample of Japanese cross-border acquirers into firms with consistent or flexible strategies. Based on various arguments from strategy literature and international business literature, we hypothesised and empirically validated that there was an interaction effect between the size and strategy of the acquirer vis-
Keywords: strategy; strategic consistency; strategic flexibility; partial acquisitions; full acquisitions; M&A; acquirer size; Japan.
From traditional banking to technology-enabled banking services in India: a study of bank customers perceptive
by Liaqat Ali, Simran Jit Kaur
Abstract: Technology has made a tremendous contribution in the banking industry in terms of increased market share of banks, and easy and quick accessibility of banking services to customers. The present study concentrates on understanding customers overall perspective about technology-enabled banking services (TEBS). The survey was conducted among 337 users of TEBS selected from public and private sector banks in the states of Punjab, Haryana and Union Territory of Chandigarh. Data collection was done through a self-administered questionnaire. The study revealed three significant factors measuring the consumers perception of TEBS in India namely: perceived ease of use, convenience and accessibility, and prior experience of technology through factor analysis. Further, the ANOVA technique was employed to analyse the association between the identified factor of customers perception and demographic variables. The results of this study highlight that age and internet availability have a significant association with all the factors, but gender appears to have no impact on customers perception. The study provides customer perspective on TEBS and assists practitioners to improve the accessibility of the services.
Keywords: banking services; bank customers; perception; banking technology; India.
Effect of earnings smoothness on the Indian IT industry
by Shikhil Munjal, Gurcharan Singh
Abstract: The aim of this study is to empirically examine the impact of earnings smoothness on the IT industry of India. India is one of the promising markets in the world and an empirical examination is needed to justify the institutional and accounting structures of the country. Earning quality can be measured by different indicators such as accrual quality, smoothness, persistence, predictability, etc. To measure the performance of National Stock Exchange (NSE)-listed IT companies of India, the study used earning smoothness as an indicator of earnings quality. The time period of the study is 20132017 and the sample used for the study is listed IT companies. The results found that earning smoothness does not affect the companys operational performance and market performance significantly. These results are consistent with the study conducted by Yandiatri (2013) and Ririk (2011) and are on contrary with the study done by Mahmod et al., (2009).
Keywords: earning quality; smoothness; National Stock Exchange; return on asset; Tobin’s Q.
Efficiency in higher education: a contextual framework and relevant issues based on a literature review
by Sarbjeet Kaur
Abstract: This paper aims to provide an overview of the literature regarding the efficiency of higher education institutions. This paper presents a scheme that identifies the gaps in the literature and proposes future research directions. It also summarises and reviews previously reported useful resources, such as inputs and outputs, as well as other important related variables, such as methodology in the field of efficiency in higher education institutions. Furthermore, it analyses papers that reported efficiency of universities employing data envelopment analysis methodology. Various studies from developed countries have reported efficiency in higher education institutions. However, there is a dearth of studies regarding the effectiveness of higher education organizations in developing countries. This paper presents a literature review evaluating one of the themes found in the literature. A systematic review of the literature on efficiency identified 68 important journal articles in ABDC-indexed journals. Selected papers mainly focused on research and teaching efficiency. This paper presents an inclusive literature review and analysis of efficiency in higher education institutions. It might be a supportive source for researchers and academicians who ought to understand the importance of efficiency in higher education organizations and conduct further research. It also provides important information regarding the key indicators of input and output for researchers. This paper concludes with some realistic guidelines and direction for potential researchers in the field of higher education.
Keywords: efficiency; inputs; outputs; DEA; funnel.
The determinants of export behaviour: a study of food processing industry in India
by G.R. Navyashree, Savita Bhat
Abstract: The study examines the factors that determine the export behaviour of food processing firms operating in India based on data from the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) Prowess Database for 20112016. It examines the effect of three technological variables on the export behaviour of firms: information and communication technology (ICT) investment, in-house research and development (R&D), and the import of embodied technologies. Further, it tries to understand if the technological activities of affiliated firms have any effect on their export performance. Using the Heckman two-step sample selection analysis, it reveals that technology investments are important determinants for the export behaviour of firms. Other control variables such as firm size, firm age, and the capitallabour ratio were also found to be important in determining the export behaviour of food processing firms. The study gives policy suggestions for improving the global competitiveness of firms in this industry.
Keywords: exports; ICT; food processing; RBV; Heckman; sample selection; affiliation; technological activities; developing country; India.
Complaint handling and service recovery factors in relation to customer satisfaction: a study of e-commerce
by Parveen Kumari
Abstract: E-commerce is an electronic method of providing a cheaper and wide distribution supply chain for a product. In the modern era, e-commerce is an important method of purchasing and selling of services through the internet. The present study aims to examine the factors affecting customer satisfaction with respect to complaint handling and service recovery in e-commerce. Snowball sampling technique was used to collect data through a structured questionnaire from 235 respondents from North India having a 6-month exposure to e-commerce and who had registered a complaint regarding service recovery. The final sample size of 211 respondents was considered for data analysis, with an accurate response of 82%. Factor analysis indicated that the complaint handling procedure, complaint solution policy, compensation policy, and the guarantee of the quality of service are the most important factors that affect customer satisfaction. In addition, it was also observed that response time after filing complaints and website FAQ system plays a supportive role in complaint handling and service recovery.
Keywords: service recovery; satisfaction; complaint handling; compensation policy; electronic commerce.
Assessing the impact of psychological commitment to team on Indian Premier League attendees cognitive, affective and behavioural outcomes
by Jaskirat Rai, Apar Singh
Abstract: The study involved two teams, Kings Eleven Punjab (KXIP) and Royal Challenger Bangalore (RCB), of the Indian Premier League (IPL), with their two sponsors (HTC and Kingfisher and Gionee and Kingfisher). Structural equation modelling has been used to measure the impact of attendees' psychological commitment to team on their cognitive (product knowledge), affective (attitude toward sponsor) and behavioural (purchase intention) outcomes, as well as the impact of each outcome on the others. The study found a positive impact of attendees' team commitment on their cognitive (product knowledge) and affective (attitude toward the sponsor brand) outcomes, but a negative correlation with their behaviour (purchase intention) outcomes for both the teams and their sponsors. The study also found a positive association between the attendees' product knowledge, attitude toward sponsor brands and their purchase intentions. After examining actual sponsors, this study provides useful insights for managers that can influence the outcomes of attendees' using sports sponsorship.
Keywords: psychological commitment to team; product knowledge; attitude toward sponsor; purchase intention; sports sponsorship; structural equation modelling.
Factors affecting turnover intention of logisticians: empirical evidence from Pakistan
by Sehrish Huma, Tooba Javaid, Sehar Ishtiaque
Abstract: This research is conducted to analyse the factors that affect turnover intention of logistics worker in an organisation. This paper is based on a comprehensive literature review that consists of 160 filled questionnaire from logistics companies. The relationships among one dependent variable, i.e. turnover intention, and independent variables, namely interpersonal relationship, salary level and job satisfaction, are analysed using SPSS software. A result of the reliability test indicated that the items of all variables and collected responses are reliable. Factor analysis result also confirm the grouping of adopted questioner. Results of regression analysis indicates a significant negative relationship between salary level and job satisfaction with turnover intention. However, there is one surprising difference, which is that interpersonal relationship showed a significant but positive relationship with turnover intention. The novelty of this paper is for logistics companies where there is no literature available regarding turnover intention of logisticians.
Keywords: logisticians; interpersonal relationship; salary level; job satisfaction; turnover intention; logistics companies.
Cultural intelligence: research field analysis through VOSviewer and CiteSpace software
by Carlos Henrique Da Silva Mesquita, Cintia Loos Pinto, Ricardo Teixeira Veiga
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to elucidate the studies related to cultural intelligence, aiming to highlight a new and promising theme that unites several areas, mainly management, through a bibliometric analysis. The research focuses on a time period between 1998 and 2018 and includes 356 articles published on the Web of Science. The software CiteSpace and VOSviewer were used to develop the analyses. The results pointed out a significant increase in publications in this context recently, mainly from 2015, 2017 being the year with the highest number of publications. Alfred Presbitero is highlighted as a significant researcher, and the country with the greatest number of researchers is the United States. The most important article cited in the bibliographic references of other articles was Ang, S., et al. (2007).
Keywords: cultural intelligence; bibliometric analysis; CiteSpace; VOSviewer; Web of Science.
Jordan banks perception of customer relationship management:
a TAM-based investigation
by Muneer Abbad, Ghazi Alkhatib, Kholoud Al Qeisi, Faten Jaber
Abstract: The main objective of this study is to empirically analyse customer relationship management adoption by the banking sector based on the technology acceptance model. Five external variables are added to the original technology acceptance model framework, namely user training, computer anxiety, self-efficacy, top management support, and technical support. The model generated 13 hypotheses related to the links between the external factors and the original internal factors of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavioural intention to use. The developed model was tested using a two-step approach of structural equation modelling: estimating measurement and structural models. Seven hypotheses were accepted based on the confirmed model. Respondents are mainly young educated married males. Overall, the analysis revealed the importance of some factors in the study. Perceived usefulness has the highest impact on the behavioural intention, and all other factors, including the perceived ease of use could affect the intention to use through the perceived usefulness.
Keywords: CRM; customer relationship management; TAM; technology acceptance model; Jordanian banks.
Relationship intention, customer-firm association length and customer satisfaction: a multi-country exploration
by Pierre Mostert, Derik Steyn, Pamela Rogers, Cornelia Du Toit, Wena Van Niekerk
Abstract: Customer-firm association length is used frequently as an indicator for identifying relational customers. This study explores rather using customers relationship intentions by also considering the relationships between customer satisfaction and both association length and relationship intention. Data were collected from 1915 cell phone customers for the United States, South Africa, and the Philippines. Results confirm for all three samples: the measure is valid and reliable; three distinct relationship intention groups; similarity between corresponding relationship intention groups across the three countries; no relationship between customer-firm association length and customer satisfaction; and a direct relationship between satisfaction and relationship intention.
Keywords: relationship marketing; relationship intention; customer-firm association length; satisfaction; cell phone networks; multi-country comparison.
Factors affecting higher education demand in India: an interpretive review
by Jan e Alam
Abstract: Indias higher education system is vast, diverse, complex, and experiencing growing demand which is influenced by multifarious factors. This study identifies ten factors influencing this demand from literature review and expert opinion and develops a conceptual framework through Modified total interpretive structural modelling (TISM) to interpret significant causal and hierarchical linkages. Although the findings indicate all identified factors to be critical, the variables family educational background and globalisation are found to have the most influence on higher education demand in India. The study also reveals several links that are not clearly visible using plain observation. The study breaks fresh ground considering that the existing literature has investigated the subject at the institutional or sectoral level, while this study examines it at the national level. The study provides fresh insights into the interrelationships of these factors while untangling the logic behind their linkages. The results are of value to policy planners and scholars alike.
Keywords: demand for higher education; higher education; critical factors; total interpretive structural modelling; Indian education system; globalisation; family education background; MICMAC analysis.
TISM modelling of social enterprise ecosystem: a study in Indian context
by Mukesh Jain, Sanjay Dhir, Tran Khoa
Abstract: Social entrepreneurship is a new, emerging field challenged by competing definitions of the subject. Often evidenced by success stories across the world in diverse fields (health, education, finance, culture, etc.), the concept has become increasingly popular in academic discourses and policy making. Some major changes in socio-economic, political and cultural forces across the world have driven the recent acceleration in the growth of socially entrepreneurial discourses and practices. Market failures in the provision of welfare services led to new opportunities for social entrepreneurs (in health, education, etc.). A combination of the proliferation of not-for-profits and other civil society organisations and several economic recessions lead to a growing mismatch between the supply and demand of resources to sustain social organisations. India has seen a rapid emergence of social enterprises as a potential alternative development channel.
Keywords: social enterprise; India; MICMAC analysis; TISM.
Internet of things and agriculture relationship: a bibliometric analysis
by Surabhi Singh, Farha Haneef, Sumit Kumar, Viput Ongsakul
Abstract: With the advent of internet of things in agriculture, the number of articles showing a new direction in agriculture research is growing. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview on the relationship between internet of things and agriculture. The bibliometric analysis is performed to synthesise the literature. The keywords such as agriculture and IoT or internet of things were used to perform the search in Scopus database. This study analyses 489 articles published from 2012 to 2019. The review found that the literature in internet of things and agriculture is tremendously growing. This study documents and synthesizes the research. Using bibliometric analysis, the literatures impact is analysed using highest cited articles, most productive journals, most influential authors, most productive institutions, articles citing internet of things and agriculture literature, total citation and publication trends, keyword co-occurrences analysis and co-citation analysis. The identified key themes will act as a reference point and guide scholars for future study.
Keywords: internet of things; farm management; smart farming; cloud computing; agriculture; IoT in agriculture.
Examining market orientation, new product development, and performance
by Craig C. Julian, Osman Mohamad, Chutima Wangbenmad
Abstract: This study examines the empirical links between the dimensions of market orientation and the stages of new product development (NPD) with new product performance in Thai export ventures. Data were gathered via a self-administered mail survey directed to the managing director of 201 Thai export ventures based in Thailand. The sample came from the electronics and electrical industries. The findings indicate that all independent variables, namely, market intelligence generation, dissemination and responsiveness, new product idea development, opportunity analysis, technical development, pre-test and commercialisation, were able to significantly discriminate between high and low new product performance. There is limited empirical evidence in the literature on the relationship between the different dimensions of market orientation and new product performance, together with limited empirical evidence on the relationship between the different stages of NPD and new product performance. This studys finding overcomes this void in the literature. A limitation is perhaps that the findings are limited to the electronics and electrical industries.
Keywords: market intelligence generation; dissemination; responsiveness; new product development; new product performance.
Drivers of strategic collaboration for e-governance in India: a qualitative study
by Jitendra Pandey, Prakeep Kumar Suri
Abstract: In this paper, it has been attempted to identify dominating factors that drive e-governance collaboration and propose a conceptual research framework for its testing and validation. A questionnaire based survey has been conducted to obtain expert opinions. A qualitative research tool, Total Interpretive Structural Modeling (TISM), has been applied for conducting the analysis. Four TISM models namely, TISM-I, TISM-II, TISM-III and TISM-IV are developed. TISM-I contains three macro drivers of e-governance collaboration, i.e. Value-creation, Cost-effectiveness, and Technology-usage. The outcome of this model reveals Cost-effectiveness as the dominating factor. TISM-II consist of six micro constituents of Value-creation wherein Enhanced service delivery has emerged as dominant constituent. TISM-III comprise of four micro constituents of Cost-effectiveness wherein Savings of money paid to middlemen has emerged as the dominant one. TISM-IV comprise of six micro constituents amongst which Usefulness of e-governance services has emerged as dominant. The study has iimplications for practitioners as well as researchers.
Keywords: collaborative e-governance; e-governance; interpretive structural modelling; strategic collaboration; total interpretive structural modelling; e-governance in India.
Mapping responsive retailing to identify future research trajectories
by Deepika Sharma, Sunali Bindra, Rashi Taggar, Sanjay Dhir, Tran Tien Khoa Khoa
Abstract: Responsiveness as the subject area has gained the attention of numerous researchers during the last few decades. The subject area has been discussed mostly at the manufacturing and supply chain levels. However, with the emergence of customer centricity, the focus of the subject area has shifted towards the retail chain. This paper aims to explore the present theories epistemologically from the prior research conducted in the area. Furthermore, its purpose is to identify the theories (T), characteristics (C), context (C), and methodologies (M) used in the domain since its inception to advance the science and practice of marketing discipline. A comprehensive dataset with 633 articles from 1969 to 2020 has been created and analysed for the study. Moreover, the authors have proposed significant propositions based on the findings of the study for future empirical tests and theory inventiveness.
Keywords: bibliometrics; consumer behaviour; performance; retail chain; retailer responsiveness; responsive retailing; responsiveness; supply chain; systematic literature review; TCCM.
The impact of the microcredit interest rate on capital creation in Bangladesh
by Sheikh Prince, Shivan Patel, Tanmay Borman, Hamdan Al. Fazari
Abstract: This research examined how microcredit and its interest rate affect capital creation in Bangladesh. Theories and ideas from the literature review were applied, and variables to detect the knowledge gap were identified. The studys conceptual model was developed to resolve the gap, and the theory of planned behaviour is used to explain the model. Using stratified random sampling, sample data of 364 clients were collected from a microfinance institution located in Lalmonirhat region, and AMOS graphics and PROCESS Macro in SPSS were applied to generate the results. The findings indicate that although microcredit generates capital, the excessive interest rates inhibit the creation of capital to the desired level in Bangladesh. The research extends the existing literature by demonstrating that the interest rate mediates the relation between microcredit and its capital creation. The research findings will assist organisations and the government in enhancing poverty alleviation and rural employment policies and programmes in Bangladesh.
Keywords: microcredit; microcredit interest rate; capital creation; theory of planned behaviour; Bangladesh.
An investigative study of influencer marketing: nuances, challenges and impact
by Yukti Ahuja, Indu Loura
Abstract: With the expansion and evolution of social media platforms, industry has changed and adapted new ways of reaching out to the customers. One of these ways has been influencer marketing. This study is designed to explore the emergence of influencer marketing as a strategy in the context of Indian business. This paper reports a qualitative study comprising in-depth interviews from three different categories: (1) advertising and PR industry experts from SMEs; (2) influencers including both micro and macro bloggers: and (3) academicians working in the area of consumer socialisation. This unique multi-perspective study reveals insights relevant for practitioners as well as contributes to theory development. To maintain originality and authenticity, all interviews were recorded. Findings reveal issues such as influencer choice, approach, brand fit, influencer expectations and nuances of the approach with theory of consumer socialisation and electronic word-of-mouth. The work has takeaways for researchers, academicians, digital marketers and marketing professionals, deliberating on using influencer marketing as a part of their communication strategy.
Keywords: influencer marketing ; social media marketing; digital marketing; influencers.
Effects of strategic orientations on early internationalising SMEs from an emerging market
by Mohammad Falahat, Yan Yin Lee, Zizah Che Senik, Shyue Chuan Chong
Abstract: The influence of different orientations on firm performance has been widely analysed in developed countries, but little is known on how strategic orientations affect new market entry and internationalisation speed in the distinctive operating environment of emerging markets. To address this gap, this study investigates how strategic orientation affects firms new market entry and early internationalisation in the emerging market of Malaysia. We interviewed key representatives of 14 internationalised SMEs, focusing on the critical components of strategic orientation that facilitate a firms new market entry and early internationalisation. The findings reveal that entrepreneur and market orientation are critical for new market entry through management commitment and market selection. Learning and networking orientations are critical for internationalisation speed through firm competencies. Managers can accelerate their firms internationalisation process by cultivating similar characteristics.
Keywords: entrepreneur orientation; market orientation; learning orientation; networking orientation; early internationalisation; emerging market.
System solutions for the circular economy on the regional level: the case of Green Lungs of Poland
by Nina Drejerska, Demetris Vrontis, Evangelia Siachou, Jaros?aw Go??biewski
Abstract: This study provides a comprehensive review of the literature within the last five years to capture the main concepts, features, perspectives and approaches of the circular economy, which has gained increasing worldwide attention. Systems theory is the theoretical basis of the research, and the antecedents to the circular economy are defined as mandatory elements of successful waste management systems alongside production, consumption, secondary raw materials and horizontal actions (innovation, investment and monitoring). The study looks at the waste management system at the regional level, namely the Podlasie region of Poland, and reveals dysfunctions of the traditional waste management system, such as local monopolies and limited freedom of business activity. Study findings suggest implementing the circular economy in the traditional waste management system in order to approach the latter holistically and encourage interaction between stakeholders rather than isolated actions and individual actors. The study provides implications for both theory and practice.
Keywords: circular economy; region; waste management; systems theory.
High performance work system and employee performance: the moderating and mediating role of power distance
by Ishraat Saira Wahid, Sheikh Ashiqurrahman Prince
Abstract: The telecom industry of Bangladesh has been considered to be one of the fastest growing service sectors in the country. Owing to its rapid growth and intense competition, employees play a pivotal role in the success of organisations. Culture is one of the most widely covered topics in the international business arena. It is evident that cultural differences between countries may increase or decrease the relationship between high performance work system (HPWS) and performance. The present research aims to discover the impact that HPWS has on employee performance. The study has established a conceptual framework based on the knowledge gap identified. The results indicate that HPWS has a positive impact on employee performance, and that power distance mediates and moderates the relationship between HPWS and employee performance. In light of the above evidence, the paper raises the alarming issue of 'brain drain' regarding the Bangladeshi context.
Keywords: high performance work system; multinational corporations; ability-motivation-opportunity theory; resource-based view; human resource management; power distance; Bangladesh.
An exploration of the Halal food export potential for Bangladesh
by Shahriar Kabir, Md Yunus Ali
Abstract: The global Halal market has been growing faster than other consumer segments in the world, which has created an ample export opportunity for many exporting nations. However, the international trade literature is scarce in explaining the trade potentials of the OIC member countries in this fast-growing market. This paper contributes to the literature by reporting the empirical findings of a study that explores the Halal food export potential for Bangladesh in the global Halal market. Our investigation of 21 food and food related export commodities from Bangladesh, using FAOSTAT published trade data from 2000 to 2016, finds that Bangladesh has high export potential for expansion of 11 commodities to the global Halal market. This paper concludes with contributions to the literature, policy guidelines for enhancing Halal food exports from Bangladesh to this market, and future directions for further research.
Keywords: Bangladesh; Halal commodities; trade; Halal market.
Spillover effects of Covid-19 uncertainty on noniperforming loans of the Turkish agricultural sector on bank performance
by Lukman Olorogun
Abstract: In this era of Covid-19 pandemic, the world has been reduced to its lowest level in all manners. The pandemic has negatively affected all economic sectors at national and global levels, without the exemption of the agricultural and banking sectors. Here, this study explored spillover effects on the connectedness between non-performing loans (NPLs) of the Turkish agricultural sector and the Covid-19 global pandemic on the banking system. The data for this research includes a monthly time series dataset obtained from the Turkish Banking Regulatory and Supervisory Association and the geopolitical index data obtained from World Uncertainty Index covering the period between December 2004 and April 2020. All sectors data were agricultural non-performing loans ratio of aggregate non-performing loans in the banking industry. To perform the statistical analysis, descriptive statistics, a correlation matrix, and the Diebold and Yilmaz index were adopted to uncover the level of connectedness among the group. The descriptive statistics results of the group reveal that all the variables under study were contributing factors to the increase of NPLs of the banking sector in general. Specifically, the agricultural sectors NPLs have a significant effect on the banking sectors aggregate NPLs. The correlation analysis indicated that there is a higher correlation between NPLs and agriculture, fishing and timber, and a moderate average correlation between NPLs and hunting. Similarly, there was a moderately high correlation amongst individual agricultural sectors, i.e. hunting, fishing, agriculture, and timber, as well as a higher correlation between ROA and ROE that are under consideration. This shows that there is some acceptable interconnectedness among the group. The results of the spillover index effects through the Diebold and Yilmaz procedure revealed a total spillover effect of 57.3%. Another unexplained effect in this study is 43.7%, which might be a result of random noise in the dataset due to the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic. This research is significant as it is the first of its kind providing proof of spillover from the empirical viewpoint as related to Turkey.
Keywords: non-performing loans; Covid-19; Diebold and Yilmaz index; Turkey agricultural sector; banking sector; spillover Effects.
Globalisation, foreign demand, real exchange rate and Bangladesh exports: some empirical tests
by Anisul Islam
Abstract: Using unit root testing, multivariate cointegration and vector error correction modelling and the longest annual time-series data for the period from 1972 to 2017 ever used in previous studies, this study was conducted to estimate the long-run equilibrium relationship between real exports and foreign demand, real effective exchange rate and degree of trade globalisation. The cointegration tests and the associated short-run dynamic analysis confirm the existence of a long-run relationship among the variables. The system is found stable with a short-run speed of adjustment at the rate of about 18% per year. The dominant positive effects on exports came from foreign demand and the countrys global integration. However, the real effective exchange rate variable displayed results that were not consistent with the traditional hypothesis for Bangladesh. The results indicate that the policy-makers need to focus more on global integration through further policy reforms, try to open up new country markets and new product markets through diplomatic efforts and trade missions, and to diversify its export base to increase foreign demand for home export goods rather than trying to keep the real effective exchange rate stable or depreciated. Further, more studies incorporating additional variables along with the use of disaggregated data would be helpful to reconfirm the results.
Keywords: foreign demand; real exchange rate; co-integration; vector error correction; exports; Bangladesh.
Determinants of intellectual capital disclosure of financial institutions in an emerging economy
by Syed A. Mamun, Alima Aktar, Md. Safiuddin
Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to examine the determinants of intellectual capital disclosures of financial institutions in an emerging economy, namely Bangladesh. The study develops an intellectual capital disclosure index based on the disclosure of intellectual capital information in the annual reports of 53 listed financial institutions in Bangladesh. The study applies both parametric and non-parametric tests to examine the relationship of different company characteristics with intellectual capital index. Results suggest that profitability and riskiness of firms are important determinants of intellectual capital disclosures. These findings will help regulators and company policy-makers to formulate appropriate strategy to create intellectual capital and disseminate the information about intellectual capital which, in turn, increases the competitive strength of financial institutions and reduces the information asymmetry problems as well. Results of this study also contribute to the theoretical understanding of intellectual capital reporting by highlighting the lack of comprehensive use of agency theory in explaining the relationship between different company characteristics and intellectual capital disclosure in the context of financial institutions of Bangladesh.
Keywords: intellectual capital reporting; profitability; risk; company age; company size; board size; board independence.
HRM practices, employee engagement, organisational commitment and work-related social support
by Alima Aktar, Faizuniah Pangil
Abstract: The term 'employee engagement' (EE) has become one of the leading foci in human resource development and employee behaviour literature. Both conceptual as well as empirical research on EE are studied to explore the multiple aspects of engagement and its predictors. The outcomes of previous studies have sometimes been unsystematic and inconsistent. There is also confusion concerning the concept and overlaps between commitment and engagement. The present study tackles these gaps with a theoretical model suggesting the mediating and moderating role of the HRM-engagement linkage. It further explains the relationships of the research framework under the norms of social exchange theory and gives guidance for future research.
Keywords: employee engagement; human resource management; organisational commitment; work related social support; social exchange theory.