International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing (25 papers in press)
On aerodynamic drag reduction of road vehicles in platoon
by Wei Gao, Zhaowen Deng, Ying Feng, Yuping He
Abstract: With the spiking of fuel price and stringent requirements on greenhouse gas emissions, we are confronted with a daunting challenge to reduce the aerodynamic drag of road vehicles. When vehicles are travelling in a platoon, the wake of the preceding vehicle can affect the aerodynamic characteristics of the following vehicle. Owing to the interaction of the airflow field of the platoon and the involved vehicles, the drag of each vehicle changes, affecting the vehicle's fuel consumption. In the study, the Motor Industry Research Association (MIRA) car models, namely notchback, fastback, and squareback, are generated. The airflow fields for these isolated single-vehicle models are imitated by CFD simulation. The numerical results of the drag coefficients are compared with wind tunnel test results. The drag coefficient errors between the simulation and the experiment results are less than 6%, implying that the simulation and the wind tunnel tests achieve a good agreement. Using CFD simulation, we explore the effects on the aerodynamic properties of vehicles in platooning due to the factors of non-uniform inter-vehicle separating distance, number of vehicles, and vehicle shape. Insightful findings derived from the study will provide guidelines for the development of intelligent transportation systems and autonomous vehicle platoons.
Keywords: automotive aerodynamics; drag reduction; platoon driving; CFD simulation; impact factors.
Study on the air flow characteristics of the in-wheel motor drive system of electric vehicles
by Di Tan, Fan Song, Shuaishuai Liu
Abstract: The in-wheel motor is installed in the wheels. The air flow field around the in-wheel motor shows strong time-variance and non-linearity with the wheel rolling, and the flow field characteristics will change with different vehicle velocities. This is quite different from the current empirical estimates, and the accuracy of the analysis results of the thermal characteristics for the in-wheel motor is further affected. Based on this, an electric vehicle driven by a rear-drive in-wheel motor is taken as the research object in this paper. Based on the development of the vehicle model with the critical components, the air flow field characteristics around the in-wheel motor and the influence of vehicle velocity are obtained by analysing the flow field of vehicle at different vehicle velocities. Meanwhile, the heat dissipation coefficient of each surface of the in-wheel motor is calculated at different velocities according to the results of the flow field analysis. The results show that the distribution trend of the flow field on each surface of in-wheel motor is basically the same when the vehicle runs at different velocities. The air flow velocity on each surface of the in-wheel motor increases linearly with the vehicle velocity, and the velocity difference on each surface of the in-wheel motor is larger. The highest and average velocities of each surface are in the order from large to small and left cover, right cover and house. This paper provides a theoretical basis on the research of heat generation and heat dissipation of the in-wheel motor drive system.
Keywords: in-wheel motor drive system; electric vehicle; flow field characteristics; heat dissipation coefficient.
Optimisation of robust and LQR control parameters for discrete car model using genetic algorithm
by Mohammed Kaleemullah, Waleed Faris
Abstract: Active suspension systems are a main feature in modern cars and will be the main stream in the future, and the optimisation of their performance requires many studies about the different types of controller. Robust H-infinity and LQR controllers are used to control the suspension system and to reduce the vibrations in the car and to improve handling. A half-car discrete model is considered in this research to study the effects on passengers due to different road profiles. The weights of the two controllers are obtained using genetic algorithm on a half-car model with two different types of common road disturbance. The design parameters of both the active controllers vary with various road profiles. This proves that particular design parameters in robust and LQR controllers do not have the ability to adapt to the variations in road surface. Furthermore, active controllers significantly improve the performance of the system in all aspects when compared with passive systems.
Keywords: vehicle dynamics; vehicle control; modelling.
Vehicle yaw stability control: literature review
by Mohamed Omar, Moustafa El-Gindy
Abstract: Vehicle dynamics control can be realised through controlling the vehicle in longitudinal, lateral and/or vertical motion. The focal point of this study is vehicle lateral dynamics control, where yaw stability control has a great influence on vehicle handling and stability performance. Vehicle dynamics control is experiencing an ongoing evolution to ensure vehicle safety and ride comfort. Consequently, several research studies have been proposed to improve vehicle lateral dynamics via yaw stability control. Based on these previous studies in the past three decades, this review paper aims to investigate the main fundamental elements of vehicle yaw stability control structure, in terms of the used vehicle models, control objectives, various control systems implemented for active chassis control and control allocation strategies.
Keywords: active chassis control; vehicle dynamics control; direct yaw control; active steering control; integrated chassis control; torque vectoring; differential braking; active front steering; active rear steering.
Research on vehicle safe speed based on real-time ramp information
by Chang Lv, Shuo Liu, Peng Liu, Qiong-qiong Liu, Jin Yan, Si-da Zhu, Xiao-ming Hu, Jun Ni, Jiang Chang
Abstract: The influence of longitudinal gradient is ignored in the ramp safe speed control of tank trucks. To solve this problem, taking CLW9390GYQA tank truck as an example, the image recognition technology is used to obtain the ramp curvature radius, transverse gradient and longitudinal gradient at one time. The model is used to calculate the safe speed, and the weight of the impact of the three ramp geometric parameters on the safe speed is calculated. Considering the influence of the longitudinal gradient, the ramp safety speed model is built by combining other ramp geometric parameters and vehicle parameters, and the safe speed is calculated in real time. Compared with the calculation result without considering longitudinal gradient, the results show that the safe speed model considering longitudinal gradient is more in line with the actual working condition of the tank truck, and the result is more accurate. The results are also applied to other vehicles and curves with universal characteristics, and provide a basis for intelligent vehicle speed control.
Keywords: tank truck; ramp; safe speed; image recognition; transverse gradient; longitudinal gradient.
Feedback linearisation and disturbance observer based path following control for autonomous ground vehicle
by Pengpeng Feng, Jianwu Zhang, Tongli Lu
Abstract: In this paper, a feedback linearisation and nonlinear disturbance observer based controller is proposed for the path following of an autonomous ground vehicle. The path following is realised through the tracking of the designed yaw rate and lateral velocity generated by a upper layer controller according to the path information. A feedback linearisation controller is designed considering the nonlinearity in the vehicle model. Then the disturbance caused by external disturbance and tyre model error is estimated by a nonlinear disturbance observer, and the corresponding compensation is added into the control input to improve the performance of the controller in disturbance rejection. The stability of the comprehensive system is proved using Lyapunov method. Simulations and comparisons performed in a Carsim-Simulink joint platform verify the effectiveness of the present controller.
Keywords: autonomous ground vehicle; path following; feedback linearisation; nonlinear disturbance observer; robust compensation.
An experimental inverse and direct kinematics analysis of multi-axial simulation table
by Deniz Sönmez
Abstract: This paper presents the inverse and direct kinematics analysis and experimental study of a parallel manipulator of Multi-Axial Simulation Table (MAST). The numerical simulation was used to predict the workspace analysis and path planning hydraulic cylinder advancement and the workspace of the centre of MAST. Following the numerical simulations, the results were compared with experimental measurements. The results indicate that the numerical and 3D CAD kinematic simulation results show good compatibility with experimental measurements obtained from MAST.
Keywords: 6-6 Stewart platforms; multi-axial simulation table; inverse and direct kinematics; Jacobian analysis; position analysis.
Study of hybrid electric vehicle energy-saving control based on a multi-agent system
by Limin Niu, Quanquan Zhang, Fentian Zhu, Jianmei Lv, Hongyuan Yang
Abstract: In order to reduce the fuel consumption of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), a multi-agent energy-saving control method is proposed. A subsystem agent model of the engine, motor, battery and other powertrain components is established, meanwhile, the powertrain coordinated control framework based on multi-agent system is built. A multi-objective optimisation algorithm of power distribution for minimum global energy cost combined with the minimum equivalent fuel consumption (ECMS) is proposed. All agents optimise their operating efficiency to limit the request torque, and the control of HEV powertrain is coordinated by the interaction between different agents about compensation torque information. The hardware in the loop simulation based on D2P (From Development to Production) system of the powertrain multi-agent system is verified. Simulation and bench test results show that the HEV powertrain multi-agent coordinated control algorithm can distribute the power according to different driving cycles adaptively, and the HEV fuel economy is improved effectively.
Keywords: energy-saving control; multi-agent system; powertrain; hybrid electric vehicle.
Kinematics and compliance analysis using a 14 DOF virtual vehicle model: developing a software for simulation and post-processing
by Cádmo Dias, Janes Landre Jr
Abstract: This paper aims to develop software to analyse the influence of the variation of vehicle suspension angles. To do so, a model with 14 degrees of freedom was integrated with a graphical user interface that allows the user to define some parameters of the suspension and the environment. At the end of the work, it was possible to observe that the behaviour of caster bump for vehicles with different caster values is the same. Another conclusion that was already expected and validated the model and the software for this type of analysis is that when the left wheel of a suspension is excited, the load passed to the right side will be much greater if the suspension is dependent than if it is independent. The third and final analysis showed that the MacPherson strut has better responses than the double wishbone suspension when it comes to minimising bump effects.
Keywords: software development; automotive engineering; vehicle dynamics; virtual simulation; virtual vehicle models.
Research on the shift rule of two-speed transmission in a pure electric van
by Long Haiyang, Wang ZhiTao, Wang Jiajun, Li Yongpo, Hui Xuewen, Tan Senqi
Abstract: To balance the dynamic and economic performance of pure electric vehicles, an optimal shift schedule is proposed in this paper for a pure electric van equipped with a two-speed gearbox. The driving motor parameters are calculated based on the vehicle dynamic requirements, and the driving motor characteristic curve is used to establish the optimal shift schedule. To analyse the dynamics of the whole vehicle, the maximum acceleration method is adopted and the relationship between acceleration and speed under different throttle opening degrees is obtained, thus the optimal dynamic shift point is determined. To generate motor efficiency MAP offline, the law of economic shift is obtained using table lookup, thus the optimum economic shift point is determined. The comprehensive dynamic and economic shift schedule is obtained, which considers both dynamic and economic factors. Dynamic and economic simulation verification is performed in MATLAB Simulink, the results show that the integrated shift schedule can meet the dynamic and economic requirements of electric vehicles, and provide a theoretical reference for the formulation of the shift schedule of electric vehicles.
Keywords: pure electric vehicle; dynamic shifting schedule; economical shift schedule; comprehensive shift schedule.
Research on power transmission optimisation of dual motor coupling drive for pure electric car based on genetic algorithm
by Qingyong Zhang, Xingjian Wu, Yiqing Yuan, Saiyun Xu, Zhenfei Lu
Abstract: Based on a pure electric vehicle, we have adopted a new dual motor coupling drive system to realise a smooth switch between the single motor and dual motor modes, without experiencing power interruption, and a switch between dual motor and single motor modes without experiencing power interruption and with minimum impact. Also, the structural characteristics and working mode are analysed, and the parameter matching and control strategy of the new power system is studied. Taking the 100 km power consumption as the optimisation goal, a non-dominated sequencing genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) with elite strategy is adopted to optimise the coupling drive system. The results of the experiment show that the control strategy of the dual motor multi-mode drive system improves the vehicle economy by 12%.
Keywords: control strategy of dual motor coupling drive system; parameter optimisation; CRUISE; NSGA-II.
Control system for determining real driving range in electric vehicles
by Carlos Armenta-Deu, Erwan Cattin
Abstract: The main goal of this project is the design of a control system to determine real energy consumption in electric vehicles, thus to calculate the remaining driving distance. The control system uses specific developed software that takes into account real driving conditions. Data for the software calculation are taken either from a database or from online operating driving conditions. the system is adaptive, thus valid for all electric vehicles, driving conditions, way of driving and type of the road. The system also includes specific hardware to calculate parameter values for the input simulation. The theoretical approach has been correlated to experimental tests within 96% accuracy, thus proving the validity of the proposed method. The new protocol represents a useful tool to determine not only the driving range of electric vehicles, but also the remaining driving distance.
Keywords: electric vehicles; control system design; software design; electronic devices; energy consumption; driving range.
Study of composite load-bearing characteristics of the Uptis non-pneumatic tyre
by Xuemeng Liang, Hongxun Fu, Yan Wang, Laiyun Ku, Huanbo Qiao, Ning Li
Abstract: In order to investigate the basic mechanical properties of the Uptis non-pneumatic tyre, this paper refers to the Uptis prototype tyre for modelling and its composite load-bearing characteristics are studied in depth. Based on ABAQUS software, the three-dimensional model and numerical analysis model of the Uptis non-pneumatic tyre are established, and the mechanical properties are analysed under the radial force only, and under the composite force. The results show that the stiffness characteristics, grounding pressure distribution law, and the stress-deformation characteristics of the flexible spoke non-pneumatic tyre ensure that the tyre has both cushioning and damping performance on the basis of excellent load-bearing characteristics. The research work of this paper provides a certain theoretical reference for the structural optimisation and practical application of the Uptis non-pneumatic tyre.
Keywords: non-pneumatic tyre; Uptis non-pneumatic tyre; mechanical properties; composite load-bearing characteristics; numerical analysis; stiffness characteristics; radial stiffness; lateral stiffness; longitudinal stiffness; grounding pressure distribution law; stress-deformation characteristics.
Variable transmission ratio and active steering control for steer-by-wire steering
by Bin Zhao, XiaoBin Fan, GengXin Qi
Abstract: Steering-by-wire is different from traditional mechanical steering. It cancels the mechanical connection between the steering wheel and the steering mechanism and can freely design the transmission ratio. This paper uses CarSim and Simulink co-simulation to establish a vehicle model with steer-by-wire based on the yaw angle gain. The ideal transmission ratio is designed with constant weight and constant lateral acceleration gain. The fuzzy control design is adopted at high speed, and the sliding mode control algorithm of active steering is designed based on the ideal transmission ratio. Finally, it is verified by simulation experiments that the vehicle stability and handling after variable transmission ratio are better than traditional mechanical steering, which effectively reduces the operating burden of the driver.
Keywords: steer-by-wire; yaw angle gain constant; weighted design; ideal transmission ratio; fuzzy control; sliding mode control.
Static analysis of the carcass geometry influence on an automotive radial tyre using finite element model
by Marcos Campolina, Cádmo Dias, Pedro Américo Jr, Jánes Landre Jr
Abstract: The use of finite element models has been a great ally in product development, especially in the automotive industry in order to predict and obtain product improvements, in the case of this paper focused on tyre development. This paper describes a finite element model, from the elaboration of the tyre computer-aided design model up to the tyre service conditions for a static analysis of the tyre and with special attention to the effect of changing the geometry of the carcass from mono-ply to bi-ply and the way that it affects directly the structure stiffness of the tyre. The model allows a greater number of analyses to be carried out in less time than the development and testing of one industrial prototype. Descriptions of the model structure and construction procedure is provided, including inflation and footprint analyses and lateral, longitudinal and vertical stiffness.
Keywords: tyre model and forces; pneumatic tyres; finite element model; vehicle dynamics; virtual simulation.
Improved models of vehicle differential mechanisms using various approaches
by Maxym Diachuk, Said Easa
Abstract: The mathematical modelling of the branched automotive drivetrain is mainly based on various configurations of the differential mechanisms (DM). This paper proposes variant mathematical methods for modelling DM's dynamics. The symmetric (open) DM is considered first. Two mathematical methods based on ODE and DEA problems are applied. The asymmetric self-locking inter-axle differential with proportional friction moments is then considered. Three variants of the mathematical models for this DM type are represented. The linearised model uses the shortest description based on a previous step solution. Two other nonlinear models are formed by mixing with ODE and DEA approaches. The Simulink blocks for implementing developments were composed. The models were validated by comparing the results under the same conditions to prove their mathematical coherence. The analysis of the proposed variants was carried out regarding structural complexity, usability, computational speed, and relative accuracy. Conclusions about their usability in drivetrain dynamics and active control were made.
Keywords: symmetric differential; self-locking differential; friction clutch; differential efficiency.
Influence of road and rider characteristics on durability of motorcycles
by Aptin Haerian, Kemal Öztürk, Robert Liebich
Abstract: The present work deals with the virtualisation of motorcycle customer behaviour. First, a method was found to identify design-relevant customers based on collected onboard signals. For vertical excitations, the roughness of the road and ridden velocities were examined with multi-body simulations (MBS). A measurement of a real motorcycle equipped with wheel load transducers and data-logging devices on a test track was used for validation. Using a similar dataset, an approach is presented with which virtual tracks are created. A measured speed profile and scatter for the vertical excitation were considered to obtain precise loads via MBS. Besides the virtualisation of the road, a novel algorithm was developed to generate speed profiles based on rider characteristics. Different synthetic rider types from beginner to expert were defined and compared. The developed methods enable the identification of design-relevant customers and the simulation of load profiles resulting from real customer usage.
Keywords: virtual environment; motorcycle; driver behaviour; durability; multi-body systems; driver-vehicle systems.
Special and misuse events for motorcycles
by Aptin Haerian, Kemal Öztürk, Robert Liebich
Abstract: The present work deals with the topic of special and misuse events for motorcycles. First, a novel approach was found to define these events based on signal characteristics related to durability engineering. Furthermore, a multi-body simulation (MBS) model of a motorcycle was created to determine loads for special events. A suitable tyre model and relevant control systems were integrated for co-simulations. To validate the virtual model, wheel forces and selected onboard signals were compared with measurements of a real motorcycle ridden on a proving ground. The model showed sufficient agreement as the maximum wheel forces could be predicted with accuracies between 80% and over 99%. Afterwards, the loads were used to define representative special events. The kerb, sleeper, and bumper impacts were the most important events as they led to the highest forces. The gained perceptions enable a faster and more target-oriented definition of design loads while additionally saving costs.
Keywords: special events; multi-body simulation; motorcycle; durability; misuse events; impact.
Non-pneumatic tyre-road interaction using finite element analysis
by Charanpreet Singh Sidhu, Zeinab El-Sayegh, Moustafa El-Gindy
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to identify the important characteristics of the Non-Pneumatic (NP) tyre by relating the structural stiffness of the wheel to the contact conditions. Based on experimental and published data, the NP tyre model will be validated under different conditions. A successful outcome of this research would increase the efficiency of the tyre design, while providing a better understanding of NP tyre behaviour under different contact conditions. In this study, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was used to develop a NP tyre-road interaction model. An analytical model of NP tyre was then validated in static and dynamic response using several virtual tests. The validated NP tyre model was then used to evaluate the tyre-road interaction characteristics using rolling resistance test under different operating conditions.
Keywords: non-pneumatic tyre; rolling resistance; finite element analysis; drum cleat; PAM-Crash; first mode of vibration; contact area; shear beam.
On rolling resistance of bicycle tyres with ambient temperature in focus
by Malte Rothhamel
Abstract: Two sets of bicycle tyres were tested with a one-degree-of-freedom two-wheeled pendulum, a portable rolling resistance test bed. The vertical load affected the rolling resistance coefficient only to a minor degree. The wider tyre showed an about 10% lower rolling resistance coefficient in comparison to a narrow tyre of the same type. Tyre inflation pressure and temperature are the major influencing factors for rolling resistance. Both of them affect by a factor of two to three in the relevant range. Based on the data about temperature and inflation
pressure, a simple model is suggested.
Keywords: rolling resistance; tyres; bicycle; ambient temperature; inflation pressure; tyre width; vertical load.
Tyre-terrain interaction modelling and analysis: a literature survey
by Fatemeh Gheshlaghi, Subhash Rakheja, Moustafa El-Gindy
Abstract: Depending on whether the vehicle is used off-road or on-road, the terrain on which it operates can range from hard surfaces to deformable surfaces, such as soil and snow. It is well known that the soft terrain characteristics have a significant impact on off-road vehicle performance, therefore modelling and analysing the soils and tyres is critical. This paper reviews the available published work related to tyre-terrain interaction modelling and testing. The tyre mechanics fundamentals, as well as the modelling and validation methods used for developing the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) tyres, are discussed in detail. The techniques used for soil modelling and calibration such as FEA, and smoothed particle hydrodynamics are also discussed. In addition, the tyre-terrain contact algorithm is addressed.
Keywords: tyre modelling; soil modelling; tyre-soil interaction; smoothed-particle hydrodynamic; finite element analysis.
A simplified tyre classification method for indirect tyre pressure monitoring systems using experimental modal analysis
by Fabiano Indicatti, Marcelo Alves, Leandro Piersanti
Abstract: Tyre pressure has been shown to have a considerable impact on emissions, tyre lifetime, and vehicle driveability. The indirect Tyre Pressure Monitoring System (iTPMS) is a maintenance-free and more cost-efficient alternative for direct measuring systems (dTPMS) that ensures vehicle driving with correct tyre pressure. However, the application of iTPMS in new vehicle platforms requires a longer process and higher engineering effort. This paper presents a new simplified approach using experimental modal analysis to improve the efficiency of iTPMS application process by classifying tyres regarding their frequency response. The developed approach allows the evaluation of the tyre sensitivity at an early stage with a relatively straightforward test setup. Tyre excitation is performed with an impact hammer, and a single piezoelectric accelerometer records the vibrational response. Six different tyres were tested to validate the potential advantages of the modal analysis and its correlation with driving test measurements.
Keywords: iTPMS; tyre sensitivity; tyre vibrational behaviour; first torsional mode; modal analysis.
Investigation of thermal and structural response of disc brake of electric two-wheeler for optimum performance
by Sachin Thakre, Achal Shahare, G.K. Awari
Abstract: The increase in temperature of disc brake owing to application of brake, results in thermal distortion, brake fading, and braking fluid vaporisation, among other things. As a result, predicting the temperature rise of a brake system and assessing its thermal performance is critical for the vehicle's and passengers' safety. This study creates a new test rig for evaluating the performance of disc brakes on electric two-wheelers. Three distinct discs with same diameter, each with a different mass and structure, were chosen for research. The FEM software ANSYS R18.2 workbench was used to do the numerical study of rotor temperature, which included thermal and structural analysis. The numerical results are examined, analysed, and validated against experimental data. The numerical and experimental values are very close to one another. The average percentage of error between experimental and computed numerical data for rotor temperature is found to be 6.49%.
Keywords: disc brake; electric two-wheeler; structural analysis; thermal analysis; FEM software.
INVESTIGATION OF ANTILOCK BRAKING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE UNDER TYRE-ROAD INTERACTION PARAMETERS USING CARSIM
by P BASKAR, Sarthak Murarka, Rahul Jain, Dhananjay Poddar
Abstract: The performance of a braking system is affected by a variety of tire-road characteristics like the tread pattern, the depth of the tread, road conditions, and tire pressure; all these parameters will have a direct impact on braking distance. Aquaplaning can occur in severe rain with substantial water build-up on the road surface, even with relatively fresh tires with minimal sipes. To reduce this risk, wet weather tires contain unique rubber formulations and tread patterns. Vehicle accidents hold greater severity both in terms of damage to the vehicle and loss of life. Therefore, car manufacturers prioritize vehicle and occupant safety over other additional features. An investigation has been carried out to simulate the functioning of an anti-lock braking system and evaluate its performance under these various tire-road interaction parameters. The results show that the performance of ABS was greatly influenced by tread patterns, tire inflation, vehicle weight, and road conditions.
Keywords: Anti-lock braking system; Regenerative braking system; braking distance; tyre inflation pressure; tyre tread pattern
Development of a rolling truck tyre model using an automatic model regeneration algorithm
by Shahram Shokouhfar, Subhash Rakheja, Moustafa El-Gindy
Abstract: A three-dimensional finite element model of a rolling radial-ply truck tyre is developed to predict its vertical and cornering properties at relatively high speeds. The model includes a detailed representation of the tyre complex geometry and multi-layered composite structure including the carcass and belt plies, bead fillers and tread. LS-DYNA, a nonlinear finite element code, is used as the simulation tool. An algorithm is developed for efficient formulation of the model for parametric analyses. The validity of the proposed tyre model is demonstrated by comparing the predicted load-deflection, cornering and free vertical vibration characteristics with the reported experimental data. The simulation results revealed robust behaviour of the tyre model up to rolling speeds of 100 km/h. The verified tyre model is subsequently employed to study the influences of various operating parameters, namely, the inflation pressure, vertical load, rolling speed and road friction on the tyre vertical and cornering properties.
Keywords: rolling truck tyre models; multi-layered tyre structure; vertical tyre properties; cornering properties; parametric studies; finite element method; FEM; LS-DYNA; automatic model regeneration; truck tyres; tyre modelling; radial-ply tyres; carcass plies; belt plies; bead fillers; tyre tread; simulation; rolling speed; load deflection; free vertical vibration; tyre inflation pressure; vertical load; road friction; radial tyres.