Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing

International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing (IJVSMT)

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International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing (8 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Feedback linearisation and disturbance observer based path following control for autonomous ground vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Pengpeng Feng, Jianwu Zhang, Tongli Lu 
    Abstract: In this paper, a feedback linearisation and nonlinear disturbance observer based controller is proposed for the path following of an autonomous ground vehicle. The path following is realised through the tracking of the designed yaw rate and lateral velocity generated by a upper layer controller according to the path information. A feedback linearisation controller is designed considering the nonlinearity in the vehicle model. Then the disturbance caused by external disturbance and tyre model error is estimated by a nonlinear disturbance observer, and the corresponding compensation is added into the control input to improve the performance of the controller in disturbance rejection. The stability of the comprehensive system is proved using Lyapunov method. Simulations and comparisons performed in a Carsim-Simulink joint platform verify the effectiveness of the present controller.
    Keywords: autonomous ground vehicle; path following; feedback linearisation; nonlinear disturbance observer; robust compensation.

  • Research on ABS control strategy of cornering braking of electric vehicle with four in-wheel motors   Order a copy of this article
    by Kun Yang, Jinzhao Xiao, Di Tan, Chao Ma, Zhaoqiao Gao, Jilei Wang 
    Abstract: To solve the problem of increased wheel inertia and significantly different wheel target slip rates during cornering braking of the electric vehicle with four-wheel-motors, the target slip rates were optimized by particle swarm algorithm, and a braking stability control strategy is proposed. The upper controller calculated the required compensating yaw moment and slip rate increment, the lower controller used a logic threshold value ABS control algorithm to control the wheel-braking force using three schemes: single-wheel control, single-side control, and no turn control applied, respectively. The control strategy was verified based on a condition with an initial speed of 90 km/h, a front wheel turning angle of 5.7
    Keywords: electric vehicle with four in-wheel motors; anti-lock braking system; cornering braking; logic threshold; orthogonal test; particle swarm optimization algorithm.

  • Real consumption protocol for driving range determination in electric vehicles: application to urban routes   Order a copy of this article
    by Carlos Armenta-Deu, Hernán Cortés 
    Abstract: This paper is focused on the development of a customised protocol to determine the real driving range of electric vehicles under variable driving conditions. The method is based on the WLTP protocol but allows the user specific customisation instead of using a standard protocol. The protocol uses standard dynamic equations to develop the mathematical model, taking into account not only the energy consumption but also the energy recovery from regenerative braking. The methodology has been applied to specific urban routes combining downtown and peripheral paths, and the results have been compared to those obtained from the application of the WLTP protocol to the same driving conditions; the comparison has shown a very close agreement between the customised protocol and the WLTP within 97% accuracy. On the other hand, the proposed protocol has the advantage of using algorithms that are specifically adapted to the way of driving and type and characteristics of a route, thus being more realistic and more accurate than the standard WLTP protocol. The method can be applied to any type of electric vehicle, urban route, and way of driving and variable conditions, which makes it a very useful model to predict EV driving range.
    Keywords: electric vehicle; driving range; customisation; driving protocol; dynamic conditions.

  • Integrated Brake Based Torque Vectoring Control of Vehicle Yaw Rate and Side-Slip Angle with Rollover-Prevention   Order a copy of this article
    by Karthik Poovendran, Theunis Botha, Schalk Els 
    Abstract: Torque vectoring is used on vehicles to improve stability and improve vehicle directional control. These systems are developed on sports vehicles and implemented on sport utility vehicles with a high centre of gravity. This may result in an increase in roll propensity of the vehicles. This paper develops and experimentally evaluates a Model Predictive Control (MPC) based torque vectoring system with yaw rate and slip-angle control while incorporating a rollover limit based on the zero moment point rollover index. The developed MPC is compared to a baseline LQR based yaw rate controller in simulation. The final controller is evaluated experimentally sport utility vehicle. The proposed controller was found to improve vehicle handling while reducing rollover propensity.
    Keywords: torque vectoring; direct yaw moment control; traction control; stability control; rollover prevention; zero moment point roll index.

  • Kinematic analysis and structural design of suspension wishbone for a solar electric vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Kelly Ann Dennis Furtado, Shubham Ganju, Fanil Harshad Birawat, Nagesh Shenoy, Subash Acharya 
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the kinematic simulation, design and analysis of a double wishbone suspension system that will be used in an adventure class vehicle designed and manufactured according to Electric Solar Vehicle Championship specifications. Initially, the suspension hardpoints were determined using LOTUSTM Shark suspension analysis software based on kinematic simulations to ensure better vehicle handling. The resulting hardpoints were used to create the geometric model of the wishbone. The operating loads on wishbone were estimated and static structural analysis was carried out using ANSYSTM Workbench software to propose a suitable light weight wishbone design and material for the same. In addition, to compute the life of the wishbone, fatigue analysis was performed. After interference checks, the wishbones were fabricated and put together with other suspension assembly parts. The vehicle was driven on the campus road under various road conditions in order to ensure whether the wishbones work as intended.
    Keywords: single seater car; double wishbone suspension; wheel alignment angles; kinematic analysis; suspension hardpoints; static structural analysis; material selection; fatigue analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJVSMT.2023.10060006
  • Filtering based sensor fusion positioning methods: literature review   Order a copy of this article
    by Michael Peiris, Moustafa El-Gindy, Haoxiang Lang 
    Abstract: This paper presents a detailed review of filtering-based techniques for localizing mobile robots. Localisation and increasing accuracy of positioning is a key field of research for autonomous navigation and mobile robotics. Several techniques based on the Kalman filter are examined and relevant research and studies using these techniques for localisation are highlighted in the proceeding sections of this paper. The main filtering techniques include: the linear Kalman filter, extended Kalman filter and unscented Kalman filter. The results of these studies are examined with limitations and meaningful results discussed. In short, this paper aims to summarise recent applications of mobile robot positioning, displaying the current state of the literature and research regarding Kalman filter-based techniques.
    Keywords: multi-wheeled vehicles; autonomous navigation; sensor fusion; Kalman filter; localisation; positioning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJVSMT.2023.10060012
  • Design and development of a formula student electric racecars control system   Order a copy of this article
    by Suvarna Kadam, Aman Gaonkar, Pranav Kolte, Chirag Kharche, Sheetal Bhandari, Pramod Sonawane, Prakash Sontakke, Nilesh Gaikwad, Manish Narkhede 
    Abstract: The Formula Student electric racecar 'Thunderblade 4 0' control system developed by Team Kratos has undergone significant improvements Implementing a centralized power distribution unit has resulted in notable wiring harness optimization The proposed work has also focused on enhancing the functionality of the circuits The team incorporated wire fault detection circuits, advanced logic circuits, and test points to improve the vehicle's safety and reliability In addition to these improvements, and has also incorporated software tools like the Saturn PCB Toolkit and Altium Designer Rule Wizard These tools have enabled the team to develop better-printed circuit board designs Overall, the control system has successfully analysed the failures of the previous season and proposed solutions to ensure the development of a reliable and competitive vehicle The control system components are described, and the initiative has achieved its objectives of weight optimization, power delivery efficiency, and improved functionalities of the circuits.
    Keywords: electronics control unit; formula student electric racecar; printed circuit board; design; safety circuits; STM32.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJVSMT.2023.10060220
  • Development of a rolling truck tyre model using an automatic model regeneration algorithm
    by Shahram Shokouhfar, Subhash Rakheja, Moustafa El-Gindy 
    Abstract: A three-dimensional finite element model of a rolling radial-ply truck tyre is developed to predict its vertical and cornering properties at relatively high speeds. The model includes a detailed representation of the tyre complex geometry and multi-layered composite structure including the carcass and belt plies, bead fillers and tread. LS-DYNA, a nonlinear finite element code, is used as the simulation tool. An algorithm is developed for efficient formulation of the model for parametric analyses. The validity of the proposed tyre model is demonstrated by comparing the predicted load-deflection, cornering and free vertical vibration characteristics with the reported experimental data. The simulation results revealed robust behaviour of the tyre model up to rolling speeds of 100 km/h. The verified tyre model is subsequently employed to study the influences of various operating parameters, namely, the inflation pressure, vertical load, rolling speed and road friction on the tyre vertical and cornering properties.
    Keywords: rolling truck tyre models; multi-layered tyre structure; vertical tyre properties; cornering properties; parametric studies; finite element method; FEM; LS-DYNA; automatic model regeneration; truck tyres; tyre modelling; radial-ply tyres; carcass plies; belt plies; bead fillers; tyre tread; simulation; rolling speed; load deflection; free vertical vibration; tyre inflation pressure; vertical load; road friction; radial tyres.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJVSMT.2016.10000460