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International Journal of Vehicle Safety (7 papers in press)
Assessment of bus drivers' mental workload by Persian Driving Activity Load Index by Mohammad Babamiri, Fateme Rostami, Annie Pauzie, Majid Motamedzade, Maryam Feiz Arefi, Younes Mohammadi Abstract: Assessment of drivers' mental workload by valid and easy to use instruments is an important issue. Accordingly, this study aimed to assess mental workload by the Persian Driving Activity Load Index (DALI) and to investigate psychometric properties of this index. The study was descriptive and of the psychometric studies type. One hundred bus drivers were selected by the available sampling method and answered to DALI and NASA-TLX questionnaires. For data analysis, factor analysis method, Cronbach's alpha coefficient and Pearson correlation were used by software SPSS version 22 and AMOS version 21. Factor analysis results showed that this questionnaire has good fitness indexes. Significant positive relationships between DALI and NASA-TLX questionnaires (r = 0.30 and p 01) were obtained. Cronbach's alpha was 0.67 for the DALI questionnaire, which was acceptable. Findings of the research showed that Persian version of the DALI questionnaire has good psychometric characteristics and it can be used as a valid instrument in this area of studies. Keywords: mental workload; DALI; psychometric; bus drivers.
Adaptive headlight system by Mitchell Dsouza, Sunita Ugale, Dinesh Chandwadkar Abstract: A lot of fatal road accidents occur at night time. There are many reasons causing these accidents. Driving on a curved road at night time is quite dangerous. The headlights of a moving vehicle illuminate the path that is straight ahead of it. When a vehicle takes a turn either left or right, the headlights do not move in that direction and hence, the path is illuminated tangentially and the curved path remains a blind spot. This can cause a fatal accident at night time on a steep curve road. Hence, the idea of an adaptive headlight system is proposed. In such a system, the headlights will move as the vehicle takes a turn in the right or left direction, thus illuminating the path correctly ahead of the vehicle so that no blind spots are left for the driver and a fatal accident is avoided. Many researchers have come up with various solutions and ideas to overcome this. In this paper, we propose an electronic model for an adaptive headlight system for a car that can be used for development on a large scale in the future. Keywords: adaptive headlight system; automobiles; nighttime driving.
Energy absorbers in automobile bumper system for pedestrian safety and low speed impact: a review by Vishwas Prabhakar, Rahul Gajula, Mahesha G T Abstract: the bumper is a structure attached to the vehicle at both front and rear end to dissipate the kinetic energy generated by an impact and protect the vehicle components and its occupants. An ideal bumper energy absorbing system should be crashworthy at both low speed and high speed collisions as well as meeting the requirements of pedestrian safety. Energy absorbers are used between the bumper fascia and bumper beam to improve crashworthiness. Key areas of research focused to optimise the bumper energy absorbing systems are the selection of material and the structural design/geometry. Different materials and structural designs are being tried out to optimise the system to meet the requirements. The characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of these materials and structures are reviewed in this paper. Keywords: bumper; bumper energy absorbing system; energy absorber; crashworthiness; crash absorber; occupant safety; passenger safety.
Progressive damage modelling in carbon fibre-reinforced materials under various loading conditions: a comparison study by Xupan Fu, Zhonghao Bai, Feng Zhu, Gong Chao, Clifford C. Chou, Binhui Jiang Abstract: Carbon fibre-reinforced materials (CFRM) are used in automotive, aerospace, building materials and other fields. In application of CFRMs, darious damage initiation criteria and evolution laws have been continuously proposed. In this study, Hashins, Changs, and Lindes damage initiation criteria, and linear and exponential damage evolution laws were studied, and the performances of their different combinations on simulating damage of CFRM were compared under the Open-hole tension (OHT), Open-hole compression (OHC), and low speed impact conditions. Results showed good performance was made by (1) Hashins damage initiation criterion + the exponential damage evolution law; (2) Lindes damage initiation criterion + the linear damage evolution law; and (3) Changs damage initiation criterion + the exponential damage evolution law. Using a gross correlation index (GCI) to evaluate the overall performance of the six combinations, Changs damage initiation criterion + the exponential damage evolution law ranks the best, revealing their wider applicability. Keywords: fibre-reinforced; progressive damage; damage initiation criteria; damage evolution laws; finite element modelling.
Investigating sensitivity of occupant injury to seat parameters in spacecraft landing using multi-body dynamics approach by Ali Akbar Pasha Zanoosi, Asghar Ebrahimi, Mohammad Haghpanahi Abstract: During spacecraft flight missions, several impact loads are applied to astronauts' bodies. This study investigates the effects of designing seat parameters on head and neck injuries of the human body in the recumbent position when exposed to impact loads. The spacecraft seat is modelled as a rigid structure and the occupant is seated on a cushion composed of polyurethane foam. Using a multi-body model, the occupant is modelled with four-jointed rigid links and is harnessed using spring-damper seatbelts. The motion of the human body due to an exposed impact load is determined and the neck and head injuries are assessed. For sensitivity analysis, a neural network is trained to represent the seat-occupant system. The results reveal that the head and neck injuries are affected by different seat parameters including: seat frame angles, seat cushion and seatbelt parameters. The present model is applicable for estimating head and neck injury indices for seat design applications. Keywords: seat occupant; spacecraft seat; multi-body modelling; sensitivity analysis; injury index; seat parameters; head injury index; neck injury index.
Occupant kinematics in a high speed vehicle-to-vehicle rear-end collision by Sung-Woo Koh, Jingwen Hu Abstract: Six o'clock rear impacts are the second most common type of motor-vehicle crashes next to 12 o'clock frontal impacts in the United States. Based on the NASS-CDS data from 2001 to 2015, 14.6 % of tow-away planar crashes are of 6 o'clock impact orientation, and 72.7% of the involved vehicles were sedans. The risk of serious to fatal injuries in 6 o'clock impacts at 35 mph (56 kph) delta V and over was 7.3 %, more than seventy times higher than the crashes under 35 mph delta V. A 6 o'clock rear-end vehicle-to-vehicle crash test was conducted using two mid-size sedans at 125 kph. A Hybrid III 95th ATD was restrained by a 3-point belt in the driver seat of the struck vehicle. The collision resulted in a 66 kph delta V of the struck vehicle with more than 1.5 meters of rear structure deformation. The intruding rear seatback occupied most of the rear seat compartment very quickly and pressed against the driver seat which was moving rearward relative to the vehicle. The driver seat and the ATD torso stopped moving rearward, but the head kept moving rearward over the head restraint with the neck in sudden extension. These kinematics were due to the ATD moving upward with respect to the vehicle during the downward movement of the vehicle rear structure. The ATDs head then impacted the rear seat and rebounded forward. High head and neck responses are expected. Keywords: rear impact; rear-end collision; vehicle-to-vehicle; car-to-car; occupant kinematics; seat strength; rebound; stiff seat; yielding seat; ramping.
Analysis of the effects of vehicle model and speed on the head injury of six-year-old pedestrian by Haiyan Li, Kun Li, Wenle Lv, Shihai Cui, Lijuan He, Shijie Ruan Abstract: In car-pedestrian collisions, the head often suffers from fatal injuries. In this study, a FE model with 6YO child anatomical characteristics as specified in the latest version of Euro NCAP was applied, and four different vehicle models were combined to conduct frontal impact simulations at different speeds to study the head injuries. The study found that head injuries were more severe with the increase of collision speed. At the same collision speed, SUV collision would cause more serious head injuries. RDS models would cause minor head injuries at low collision speed. The heights of the car front end have a great influence on the head injuries. The effect of the child head protection should be fully considered in the design of the front end of the car. The study provides basic theoretical data for child pedestrian protection and injury assessment. Keywords: collision vehicle model; collision speed; child pedestrian; head injury; frontal impact.