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International Journal of Vehicle Safety (6 papers in press)
Road sign detection using edited shuffled frog leaping algorithm by Ameur Zaibi, Anis Ladgham, Anis Sakly Abstract: This paper suggests a new system for the automated detection of road signs. This driver assistance system detects traffic signs that have a red border with different shapes (circular, triangular, hexagonal). So, our approach relies on Support Vector Machines (SVM) implementation for road signs detection supported by feature extraction technique supported employment of a range of filters from Gabor that simplifies the recognition of points of interest in our database. On the other hand, our approach has improved the edited shuffled frog leaping algorithm (ESFLA) optimisation technique that helps in road signs detection, and this technique is termed GABOR-ESFLA-SVM. This strategy ensures an intelligent recognition system. The obtained results show that this optimised classification provides better results compared with the previous dual classification GABOR-SVM and other published research works. Keywords: road signs with red border detection; ESFLA optimisation; optimal solution; Gabor wavelets; features extraction; Gabor representation; SVM classification; fitness function.
Evaluation of behaviour of an obese human body model in frontal sled tests by Hamed Joodaki, Bronislaw Gepner, Maika Katagiri, Jason Kerrigan Abstract: The goal of this study was to assess the behaviour of an obese human body model (HBM) in frontal sled tests. The results of rear-seat sled tests with an obese (BMI = 35) post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) were used to evaluate the performance of the obese HBM in matching conditions. Also, the response of a non-obese HBM (BMI = 25) and the obese HBM were compared in a front-seat frontal impact test. In the rear-seat tests, both the obese HBM and the obese PMHS experienced a large forward excursion, delayed lap belt engagement with the pelvis, and a reclined-to-upright torso angle throughout the tests, which were the effects of large body mass and thick flesh. In the front-seat simulations, the obese HBM experienced a larger excursion than the non-obese HBM. The obese HBM can be a useful tool to design and optimise restraint systems for front-seat occupants with obesity. Keywords: obese HBM; obesity; motor vehicle collisions; biofidelity; GHBMC.
Analysis of protective effects on different restraint systems of the 6-year-old child occupants by Haiyan Li, Jian Li, Shijie Ruan, Shihai Cui, Lijuan He, Wenle Lv Abstract: In order to simulate the injury of rear-seat child occupants in a frontal impact, a previously validated 6-year-old child finite element (FE) model was used to load ECE R44 testing conditions. Through the resultant head acceleration, pressure, brain tissue Von Mises stress, brain tissue shear stress, shear force and axial force of neck, compression of chest and abdomen to compare the protective effects of the 6-year-old rear seat occupant on forward-facing child seat restraint system and booster in different collision speeds. The results indicate that when the collision speed is low, there is little difference of the child FE model's injury criteria between the two restraint systems, while the protective effect of the child seat restraint system is better than that of the booster with the increase of the collision speed. Keywords: finite element model; frontal impact; occupant protection; child restraint system; biomechanical injury.
A study on the sizes of vehicle surrogates for AEB testing based on representative passenger vehicles in China by Wenli Li, Yousong Zhang, Stanley Chien, Kan Wang Abstract: Owing to the rapid advancement of automotive active safety technology, more and more cars with Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) features are produced in recent years. The performance testing of ADAS in various crash scenarios often requires surrogate vehicles that represent actual vehicles. Most vehicle surrogates on the market are designed based on the vehicles in the US and European markets. China is the world's most massive automobile production and sales market, so it is worthwhile to study vehicle characteristics in China to develop vehicle surrogate requirements for the China New Car Assessment Program (C-NCAP). This paper describes a method for determining the representative dimension characteristics of passenger vehicles in China based on the last ten years of vehicle sales data. Keywords: active safety; surrogate vehicle; ADAS; China's passenger car; clustering algorithm;.
The validation of the elderly pelvis FE model and comparison with the pelvis model of children and adult by Hequan Wu, Xiaoyan Qian, Xiaoshun Deng, Xuehui Zhan Abstract: For studying the pelvic injury mechanism and the differences among age groups in a car crash, the elderly pelvis model is developed and validated in this paper. The elderly pelvis model was compared with the young people's pelvis model and the children's pelvis model. The results show that the elderly pelvis model has similar physiological and geometric size to the young people's pelvis model, but both are quite different from that of the children's pelvis model. Compared with the other two models, the elderly pelvis model has the strongest response of peak force and deflection at maximum force, but the weakest response of maximum deflection under different impact velocities from 4 m/s to 15 m/s. The peak force increased exponentially and linearly with the impact energy in all three models. The most vulnerable parts of the injury were the ischio-pubic rami, iliac-sacral junction and acetabulum area. Keywords: elderly pelvis model; validation; mechanical response; fracture.
Safety evaluation of multiple horizontal curves using statistical models by Neena M. Joseph, M. Harikrishna, M.V.L.R. Anjaneyulu Abstract: Road safety is an important aspect of road transportation. Safety evaluation of highways helps engineers in prioritising them for safety improvement and for evaluating the effectiveness of the improvement measures. Crash prediction models are very useful for evaluating the safety levels of highway elements. Many studies reported the effect of geometry and traffic factors on safety at simple (single) horizontal curves. But the situation becomes more complex when multiple horizontal curves occur. The Highway Safety Manual also does not provide a safety performance function on multiple horizontal curves. Hence, this study aims to quantify the influence of geometric characteristics of the preceding curve on crashes and develop models for evaluation of the safety performance of multiple horizontal curves on two-lane non-urban roads. The data required for this study include crash, geometric, and traffic data from 102 multiple horizontal curve. Keywords: crash occurrence; road safety; multiple curves; safety evaluation; TIRTL; sight distance.