Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Vehicle Design

International Journal of Vehicle Design (IJVD)

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International Journal of Vehicle Design (64 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Steering energy optimisation strategy of steer-by-wire system with dual electric motors   Order a copy of this article
    by An Wang, Chunyan Wang, Wanzhong Zhao 
    Abstract: In order to improve the fault-tolerant ability of a steer-by-wire system, a dual-motor structure is introduced to improve the system reliability as well as the steering safety. However, the redundant motor will change steering energy consumption. Therefore, a dual-motor coupling steering (DMCS) strategy is proposed to minimise steering energy while maintaining steering stability. The proposed control strategy contains two layers, namely an upper stability controller and a lower energy optimisation controller. First of all, stability controller is designed to ensure the operational stability under external interference and model uncertainty. Then, the instantaneous overall efficiency is optimised based on the working point between main and auxiliary motors and the operating principles of energy optimisation controller in various modes are analysed. Last but not least, this paper formulates the optimal mode switch strategy and power split strategy on the premise of satisfying stability during steering process. Simulation results conducted by Matlab/Simulink demonstrate that the DMCS strategy can satisfy the stability demands at different steering conditions and realise the optimal allocation of energy between motors, thereby improving the efficiency of energy use.
    Keywords: steer-by-wire system; vehicle stability control; dual electric motors; efficiency optimisation; power split.

  • Quantifying parameters of the seat-occupant interface during laboratory simulated low speed rear-impact collisions   Order a copy of this article
    by Jackie D. Zehr, Kayla M. Fewster, David C. Kingston, Chad E. Gooyers, Robert J. Parkinson, Jack P. Callaghan 
    Abstract: The influence of supplemental lumbar support on automobile seat surface pressures was measured during simulated rear impact collisions with human volunteers. Men and women (age = 25.4 +/- 3.4 years; BMI = 25.2(3.9); stature = 1.73 m (0.06)) experienced two low-velocity rear impact collisions. Simulated collisions with and without a lumbar support were conducted in random sequence. Using a pressure-sensing mat that contained 2288 ferroresistive sensors, seatback pressure was recorded at a frequency of 500 Hz. These data were used to compute the total seatback force, area of force concentration, and centre-of-force (CoF). Total seatback force was not significantly different from body mass for either men or women (c. 1.2 times body mass). Average contact area of the occupants back with the seatback (i.e., area of force concentration) was approximately 221.3 cm2 and 100.1 cm2 greater without supplemental lumbar support for men and women, respectively. With respect to the L4 spinal level, the CoF had a greater vertical distance without lumbar support and a greater horizontal distance with lumbar support. In conclusion, the lumbar support used in this study altered the location and distribution of seatback forces applied to the occupants back.
    Keywords: lumbar support; rear impact; accidents; low-back injuries; seatback pressure.

  • Robust model referenced control for vehicle rollover prevention with time-varying speed   Order a copy of this article
    by Ke Shao, Jinchuan Zheng, Kang Huang, Mingming Qiu, Zhe Sun 
    Abstract: In this paper, an active steering control strategy is proposed to prevent rollover of a vehicle with a time-varying forward speed. The controller is designed with the aim of reducing the rollover index (RI) from an initial dangerous status to an absolutely safe status by active steering. The controller consists of two parts. The nominal control is firstly designed on the basis of the fundamental equation of constrained motion (FECM) of the vehicle, which will guarantee the nominal vehicle to track the desired states and thus rollover is prevented. To handle system uncertainties, compensatory sliding mode control (SMC) is proposed, by which the actual states are forced to track the desired ones. In the controller, the chattering problem can be alleviated by selecting a suitable performance function. To indicate the merits of the designed controller, simulation is conducted. Simulation results demonstrate that compared with conventional controllers, the proposed controller can prevent the vehicle from rollover with stronger robustness and without system chattering.
    Keywords: rollover prevention; active steering; time-varying speed; FECM; SMC; robustness.

  • Refined modelling of thin-walled beam, plate and joint for automobile frame   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiantao Bai, Wenjie Zuo 
    Abstract: At the conceptual design stage, the simplified frame is extensively applied in the body-in-white (BIW) structure to rapidly calculate its performances. However, it is difficult to acquire an accurate simplified frame of the BIW structure for the calculation of the bending stiffness, torsional stiffness and frequencies. This paper proposes a simplified modelling method by using the thin-walled beams (TWBs) with complex sections, semi-rigid elements and cross beam structures to create the simplified frame. Compared with the traditional modelling method, the TWBs contain more types of the complex section, the semi-rigid elements can describe various deformations, and the plate structures are further considered. Firstly, the properties of the complex sections are summarised. Especially, the torsional moments of inertia of the multi-cell sections are derived. Secondly, the semi-rigid beam element is reduced to a super element, which is composed of one beam element and three translational and three rotational springs. Among them, the spring stiffness of the semi-rigid element is obtained by solving the detailed finite element model of the TWBs, which can be accurately and rapidly solved by using this method. Thirdly, the cross beam structure is introduced to replace the plate structure by the equivalence of the mass and central deflection for the first time. This method can further improve the accuracy of the simplified frame. Lastly, a numerical example demonstrates that the simplified frame can accelerate the conceptual design of the BIW structure.
    Keywords: conceptual design; frame structure; complex section; semi-rigid element; cross beam structure.

  • Marine predators algorithm and multi-verse optimization algorithm for optimal battery case design of electric vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Betül Sultan Yildiz 
    Abstract: This article focuses on the optimum design of a battery case of an electric racing car. Two recently developed metaheuristics, which are marine predators algorithm (MPA) and the multi-verse optimisation algorithm (MVO), are used to create an optimal design where the mass is considered as an objective function, and the geometric dimensions of the component are considered to be the design variables. The kriging surrogate modelling is used to obtain the proxy model to increase the efficiency of the optimisation. The results show the robustness of the MPA in the optimum design of the electric car components. The MPA can be used in other product development processes.
    Keywords: marine predators algorithm; electric vehicles; battery case; shape design optimisation; multi-verse optimisation algorithm.

  • Artificial road input data synthesis: a full vehicle model case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Adebola Ogunoiki, Oluremi Olatunbosun 
    Abstract: In order to reduce the time and cost of developing a vehicle, it is important that virtual durability testing is carried out. In this research project, the aim is to predict the road input for the virtual durability test simulation of a new vehicle variant by transforming the data from a predecessor model using the vehicle's configuration parameters to generate a new and representative road input. To achieve this, a full vehicle model of a sport utility vehicle (SUV) is developed and validated with test data collected on a proving ground; this model is used to generate data to train and validate a NARX-based artificial neural network tool which is then subsequently used to predict the road input to the new variant of the vehicle. The use of artificial neural networks in this project shows one of the many potentials of artificial intelligence in developing virtual capabilities within the automotive industry.
    Keywords: multi-body dynamics; artificial neural network; durability; computer aided engineering; CAE; road load data; RLD; full vehicle model; vehicle variant; QanTiM; SIMPACK; multi-body simulation; MBS.

  • A novel design of a dry clutch pressure plate for weight reduction without compromising its thermo-mechanical performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Tolga Cakmak, Muhsin Kilic 
    Abstract: The main objective of this study is to conduct experimental research to investigate the effect of ventilation channels that have never been incorporated into the conventional automotive clutch pressure plate. The purpose is to reduce its weight without compromising its thermo-mechanical performance. Both convective and conductive heat transfers of the clutch pressure plate have been enhanced in order to meet thermo-mechanical performance requirements, by ventilation channels and by chemical composition adjustment, respectively. The novel design of ventilated
    Keywords: dry clutch; heat transfer enhancement; weight reduction.

  • Steady-state modelling and analysis for a proportional electromagnet in a semi-active damper   Order a copy of this article
    by Xianju Yuan, Hongtao Ling, Tianyu Qiu, Jiwei Zhou, Tianyu Tian 
    Abstract: Achieving a modified method of reluctance, mathematical models are developed firstly. Then considering more details in materials, reference boundaries of currents and a method of mesh regulation, a finite element model is also established. Finally reflected through an instance, the maximum error within the effective range, less than 1 N, demonstrates improvements of accuracy of these mathematical models. Compared with results of experiments, the maximum error and fluctuations from the finite element method are evidently smaller than those of mathematical models. Therefore, such mathematical models and the finite element method would be helpful to obtain the steady-state force of complex electromagnets.
    Keywords: proportional electromagnet; steady-state analysis; mathematical model; finite element model.

  • Development of a sorption thermal energy storage to support the thermal management of hybrid vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Georg Engel, Roland Kerschenbauer, Markus Hinteregger, Gregor Gregorcic, Anna Maria Fulterer, Waldemar Wagner, Wim Van Helden 
    Abstract: A sorption thermal energy storage is developed for the thermal management of hybrid vehicles. The thermal storage is charged using waste heat of the combustion engine, and discharged to provide heating and cooling for the battery and cabin, for example. A functional module of the storage system is assembled and assessed in experiment, where a cooling peak power of 2 kW and an average power of 1 kW are observed for 30 minutes. Assuming an optimised system design, this translates into key performance indicators of about 27 Wh/l and 55 W/l for cooling. Detailed system simulations show energy savings of 60% for cooling the battery during a worldwide harmonised light vehicles test cycle at elevated ambient temperature levels, saving 80 seconds for heating a chilled battery up to 20 deg. C and saving 26 seconds for preheating the combustion engine up to 80 deg. C.
    Keywords: thermal management; e-mobility; hybrid vehicles; thermal storage; closed adsorption; co-simulation.

  • Implementation of a Design for Six Sigma methodology on the car bumper production process   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Yurdun Orbak 
    Abstract: Competition increases daily in any market; therefore, continuous improvement of a product or service is an essential tool for survival and making an impact on the industry. Companies that have successfully implemented the Six Sigma method have gained the most from incorporating their Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) programs into their production processes. The primary purpose of DFSS is to design it right the first time to avoid negative experiences in the production flow. In this study, the parameters involved in the design of a selected passenger-vehicle bumper are optimised in the process of commissioning a new product using the DFSS method. The DFSS method is discussed on the first two steps of implementation of the define, measure, analyse, design, verify (DMADV) protocol. By additionally implementing the house of quality and failure mode and effects analysis approaches, a vehicle bumper that will meet the maximum level of customer requirements is produced.
    Keywords: Design for Six Sigma; house of quality; failure mode and effects analysis; bumper production process; experimental design.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJVD.2021.10036346
  • Research on an energy management strategy and energy optimisation of hydraulic hybrid power mining trucks   Order a copy of this article
    by Hongliang Li, Denglin Zhu, Lihua Shang, Ping Fan 
    Abstract: A design scheme of a parallel hydraulic hybrid mining truck (HHMT) is proposed, and its energy management and energy consumption optimisation are studied. A multi-disciplinary physical model is established, and a rule-based multi-mode conversion energy management strategy is formulated, combined with orthogonal experimental design (OED) to determine the optimal combination of parameters to minimise fuel consumption. Sequential quadratic programming (NLPQL) is also used to obtain the optimal solution on this basis. Through OED, the influence law of power system parameters and control parameters on the energy saving effect is obtained, and the influence of a parameter change under the best parameters on fuel consumption and energy storage (discharge), as well as the sensitivity of fuel consumption and energy storage(discharge),on driving conditions are quantitatively analysed. The effect of this energy management strategy is evaluated. Using the optimal parameters to simulate the HHMT on a joint simulation platform composed of Amesim and Stateflow, it is found that the actual vehicle speed can track the target vehicle speed very well. Compared with the original vehicle, the engine can work more often in the fuel economy zone, and fuel consumption is reduced by 11.39%, effectively reducing operating costs. The simulation results verify the correctness of the physical model and energy management strategy and prove the effectiveness of OED for fuel economy evaluation. This research may provide guidance and reference for HHMT research and development.
    Keywords: hydraulic hybrid mining truck; energy management strategy; energy consumption optimisation; orthogonal experimental design; fuel consumption.

  • Linearisation modelling and active performance simulation of active engine mounts with an oscillating coil actuator for automotive powertrain   Order a copy of this article
    by Rang-Lin Fan, Jia-Ao Chen, Chu-Yuan Zhang, Zhen-Nan Fei, Pu Wang, Quan-Fa Wu 
    Abstract: Active engine mounts (AEMs) are key elements for improving automotive noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) performance. An accurate AEM model is crucial for its active control. This work focuses on the establishment and verification of a linear model for AEM with an oscillating coil actuator (OCA). Experiments and simulations of an actuator with an attached decoupling membrane and a conventional hydraulic engine mount (HEM) are employed to verify the fundamental linear models for an OCA and HEM. An integrated linear model for an AEM with an OCA is established and verified by experimental analysis of active characteristics. Based on the AEM linear model, three control algorithms, i.e., PID, fuzzy PID and FxLMS, are established to implement an active isolation performance simulation. The FxLMS is superior to the other two algorithms for an AEM considering the active performance for rotary machine.
    Keywords: active engine mount; active hydraulic mount; active control mount; active control; oscillating coil actuator; linearisation modelling; lumped parameter model; active characteristics; passive characteristics; powertrain mounting system; automotive; rotary machine; NVH performance.

  • AUKF based unified estimation scheme for nonlinear vehicle dynamics   Order a copy of this article
    by Shouvik Chakraborty, Anindita Sengupta, Ashoke Sutradhar 
    Abstract: The paper presents an additive unscented Kalman filter (AUKF) based modular approach to estimate lateral vehicle dynamics and tyre forces. In this approach, a simplified single-track vehicular model and a dynamics-oriented tyre model are adopted to represent the vehicular motion. Subsequently, multiple observer modules for each dynamical state are designed and integrated into a Unified Estimation Scheme (UES-AUKF). Two additional non-modular observers using AUKF and EKF are designed for comparative analysis of estimation accuracy and computational efficiency of the designed scheme. The simplified model and the designed estimators are simulated using double lane change and sinusoidal manoeuvres for high and low surfaces, respectively, and the results are analysed. Thereby the scheme is further validated using real vehicle dataset for estimation accuracy. Simulation results for the simplified vehicle and the tyre model conform with the standard results with acceptable deviations. The proposed scheme exhibits improved accuracy with reduced computational time compared with the non-modular observers.
    Keywords: UKF; vehicle dynamics; yaw rate; slip angle; tyre force; modular estimation; tyre model; lateral dynamics estimation; Kalman filter; bicycle model.

  • Development of a novel testing procedure and optimisation of a rubber spring using constrained simulated annealing algorithm for automobile clutch system   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehmet Onur Genç, Süleyman Konakçi, Necmettin Kaya, Samet Kartal, Ali Kamil Serbest 
    Abstract: Rubber compounds have widely used in many industry areas with many advantages, including in the automotive industry. However, the use of rubber-based springs within the clutch system of automobiles requires further investigation owing to the mechanical behaviour variations of rubber-based materials under dynamic conditions. In this study, a new methodology is proposed for the use of elastomer-based damper springs in automobile clutch systems. The design of the rubber damper spring and validation are comparatively investigated for an automobile clutch system, and a novel approach is developed. For this purpose, clutch usage on the automobile was simulated with a torsional fatigue test bench, which represents the loading and unloading case on damper springs at specific cycles and frequencies. NBR (nitrile rubber) was chosen as the sample rubber spring material, since it has representative material characteristics. As a result of the performed tests, a target stiffness value was obtained for the specified clutch requirements, and then a simulated annealing algorithm was coded in Python programming language and applied using specific design constraints from the response surface methodology.
    Keywords: rubber damper; hyper-viscoelastic modelling; simulated annealing; torsional fatigue; clutch disc; powertrain system; system optimisation.

  • Morphing applications in automobiles: a review   Order a copy of this article
    by Anumodh R, Balbir Singh, Mohammad Zuber 
    Abstract: Morphing structures are structures capable of altering their shape and size upon stimulus application. This field has been of interest to numerous researchers all over the world owing to its advantages over conventionally used materials. Most reported studies are limited to aerospace applications but studies for automotive applications are limited. This paper discusses the popularly used skin materials such as shape memory alloy, shape memory polymer, elastomers and other materials. Systems such as sensors and actuators that are needed for the working of morphing structures are also discussed. Applications of morphing in an automobile are discussed in brief. Some studies in the morphing of aerostructures can be incorporated into the automobile field, and hence some of the potential applications of morphing in automobiles are detailed.
    Keywords: morphing; shape memory alloy; shape memory polymer; actuators; smart materials.

  • Design and fatigue analysis of an aluminium alloy aerodynamic wheel   Order a copy of this article
    by Róbert Huňady, Michal Fabian, Pavol Lengvarský, Albert Mareš, František Kupec 
    Abstract: The deployment of CAx systems has a great influence on the design of individual car components. One of the components that must meet not only aesthetic requirements but also strict safety criteria, guarantee mechanical integrity and have good aerodynamic properties, is a car wheel. Before production begins, wheels must undergo a series of numerical analyses as well as experimental tests. Based on these tests, design modifications are made so that the wheel meets the safety criteria in real operation. The aim of this paper is to present the wheel design process, including the simulation of the rotary bending test using FEM. The paper describes boundary conditions of the numerical model, the process of finite element mesh generation and the results of linear static analysis and fatigue analysis of an aerodynamic wheel.
    Keywords: aerodynamic wheel; CAD design; strength analysis; fatigue analysis; FEM.

  • Design optimisation of a hybrid electric vehicle cooling system considering performance and packaging   Order a copy of this article
    by Kwang Jae Lee, Namwoo Kang, Michael Kokkolaras, Panos Y. Papalambros 
    Abstract: Optimal system design at the conceptual functional level, i.e., before the embodiment of the functions is determined in detail, focuses primarily on performance. Embodiment determines the geometry and position of subsystems and components, which must be packaged usually within strict spatial envelops to achieve compactness or other external requirements such as styling. Packaging objectives and constraints may therefore compete with performance ones, leading to redesign and costly delays if these conflicts are not addressed early in the design process. This paper presents a design optimization framework for coupled performance and packaging problems. Using the cooling system for a heavy duty tracked series hybrid electric vehicle as an example, we demonstrate the framework combining commercial CAD software with optimization tools and including pipe routing which is a basic requirement in many mechanical systems.
    Keywords: performance; packaging; pipe routing; system design optimisation.

  • Dual-redundancy multi-mode control of high safety reliability steering wheel system   Order a copy of this article
    by Junnan Mi, Tong Wang, Xiaomin Lian 
    Abstract: The steering wheel system of a steer-by-wire system (SBW) offers steering torque to driver. In order to improve its safety and reliability, a dual-redundancy steering wheel system is proposed. This research proposes a dual-redundancy multi-mode control method for this system, which is divided into different control modes, namely the angle alignment mode, the pivot steer with resistance mode, and the uniform approach to middle position mode, so that the system can adapt to different vehicle running states and drivers manipulation habits. At the same time, a torque balance control method for two channel motors is proposed to balance their torques, and an order-reduce and reforming control method is proposed so that the system can still work even if one motor fails. Finally, this study built a vehicle test platform to verify the control method and prove its effectiveness.
    Keywords: steer-by-wire; safety; steering wheel; redundancy; control; steering torque ;SBW.

  • Damage equivalent virtual tracks for motorcycles   Order a copy of this article
    by Aptin Haerian, Kemal Öztürk, Robert Liebich 
    Abstract: The present work deals with the topic of service loads for motorcycles resulting from road excitation. The aim is to create virtual test tracks that can be used representatively for load assumptions. First, different methods from the field of durability engineering are reviewed that centre around the topic of damage equivalency. The methods are evaluated in terms of applicability for virtual test tracks. With an omission approach, a novel method was found to detect relevant track segments for different use cases. The method was successfully applied to create virtual test tracks based on measurements of real tracks with laser scanners. With the proposed method the length of the test tracks and data amount could be decreased by approximately 70%. The gained perceptions enable a faster definition of design loads while additionally saving costs and reducing the amount of data during the early stages of development.
    Keywords: virtual proving ground; multi-body simulation; motorcycle; durability; damage equivalency; omission approach.

  • Nonlinear vehicle active suspension system control method based on the extended high gain observer   Order a copy of this article
    by Qinghua Meng, Bingji Li, Chuan Hu 
    Abstract: In order to reduce the number of sensors used in the vehicle active suspension system and improve the ride comfort and handling stability, this paper proposes a novel vehicle active suspension control approach based on an extended high gain observer approach. Firstly, for facilitating the controller design, the underactuated active suspension dynamic model is transferred to a fully-actuated system dynamic model. Then the extended high gain observer (EHGO) is constructed to estimate the unknown states and uncertainties according to the state functions of the active suspension control system. An output feedback controller based on EHGO is designed to improve the vertical ride comfort and handling stability of the active suspension. Furthermore, the closed-loop system is analysed to prove the boundedness of all the states. The EHGO approach is proved to stabilise the active suspension by Lyapunov stability analysis. Simulation and experiment results verify the effectiveness of the designed controller.
    Keywords: active suspension; extended high gain observer; underactuated system; Lyapunov stability analysis; nonlinear control.

Special Issue on: Multi-Objective Design and Structural Optimisation of Vehicle Components with Nature-Inspired Optimisation Algorithms

  • Integrated optimisation of two-speed powertrain parameters and shifting strategy for energy in electric vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Daoguang Zhu, Congbo Li, Lingling Li, Ying Tang 
    Abstract: In order to improve the economic performance and extend the range of electric vehicles (EV), an integrated optimisation method for the design and optimisation for powertrain parameters and shifting strategy are proposed. Firstly, the powertrain parameters are matched to ensure the dynamic performance of electric vehicles and the shifting strategy with comprehensive performance is designed based on the analysis of dynamic and economy performances. Secondly, a multi-objective integration model of powertrain parameter and shifting strategy optimisation is proposed to take the minimum energy consumption as the optimisation objective without sacrificing dynamic performance, which is solved by a multi-objective particle swarm optimisation algorithm. Finally, to verify the energy-saving performance of the proposed multi-objective integration problem, case studies have been conducted and a whole vehicle simulation model is proposed based on Matlab/Simulink platform. The simulation results show that the proposed method can effectively reduce the energy consumption and extend the range of electric vehicles under different driving cycle.
    Keywords: electric vehicle; powertrain parameter; shifting strategy; multi-objective integrated optimisation; particle swarm optimisation algorithm.

Special Issue on: Recent Advances in Motion Control for Unmanned Marine Vehicles

  • Research on motion control of an autonomic launch and recovery device for unmanned surface vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaomao Li, Xingang Jiang, Yang Yang, Yan Peng, Songyi Zhong, Huayan Pu, Shaorong Xie, Jun Luo 
    Abstract: In this study, a floating bracket device with visual inspection technology is developed for the autonomous launch and recovery of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). To improve the success rate of docking between USVs and brackets in the recovery process, a reasonable controller is proposed to realise the position/posture regulation of the bracket. The state space equation is used to establish a system model, and the specific parameters are identified by using collected motion data. A sectional-type control framework is designed by model predictive control (MPC), which can satisfy the control requirements in different motion stages. The simulation results verify the accuracy of the identification model and the rationality of the MPC controller. The docking experiments demonstrated that the floating bracket with the proposed control system can be applied to launch and recovery missions of USVs.
    Keywords: launch and recovery; unmanned surface vehicles; motion control; model predictive control; parameter identification.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJVD.2020.10037518
  • Three-dimensional trajectory tracking control of underactuated autonomous underwater vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhenzhong Chu, Xuan Zhang, Daqi Zhu 
    Abstract: This study proposes a three-dimensional (3-D) trajectory-tracking control scheme for an underactuated autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). Given the 3-D reference trajectory, the reference velocities, angles, angular velocities, forces, and torques were planned first. These reference variables were used to obtain the error dynamics. The backstepping technique was used to design the trajectory-tracking controller for tracking the AUVs reference trajectory. According to the Lyapunov stability theory, the trajectory-tracking system was stable and bounded, and the tracking errors converged close to a small neighbourhood of zero. Finally, the effectiveness of the developed control method was demonstrated using simulations.
    Keywords: autonomous underwater vehicle; three-dimensional control scheme; trajectory tracking; backstepping.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJVD.2020.10034236
  • Network-based sampled-data control for unmanned marine vehicles with dynamic positioning system   Order a copy of this article
    by Minjie Zheng, Shenhua Yang, Lina Li 
    Abstract: This study investigates the network-based control problem for an unmanned marine vehicle (UMV) based on sampled data. Firstly, the network-based model for the UMV with dynamic positioning system (DPS) is established. Then sufficient conditions are provided to make the system asymptotically stable and satisfy H? performance. And the sampled-data controller is designed by analysing the stability conditions. Simulation result is shown that the sampled-data controller is effective to guarantee that the states of the UMV are stable under the external disturbance.
    Keywords: unmanned marine vehicle; dynamic positioning system; network-based control; sampled-data control.

  • Trajectory tracking of underactuated unmanned surface vehicle with uncertain external disturbances and model parameters   Order a copy of this article
    by Jianjian Liu, Meijiao Zhao, Yan Peng, Dan Zhang, Shaorong Xie 
    Abstract: This paper investigates trajectory tracking control problem for an underactuated unmanned surface vehicle under external disturbance and model parameters uncertainty. Within the framework of backstepping control, a trajectory tracking control method based on constant bearing guidance is proposed, which can avoid the singularity that often appears in circular motion of the vehicles by redefining the differential of virtual heading angle. Moreover, disturbance observers are designed to estimate the equivalent disturbance, so that the vehicle can track the desired trajectory stably in the unknown ocean environment. Finally, owing to the limitation of the propellers mechanical performance, dynamic saturation of surge force and yaw moment is designed according to the upper and lower limits of two propellers' thrust to ensure the stable operation of the control system. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, the stability of the system is proved. And the numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of the presented control method.
    Keywords: underactuated unmanned surface vehicle; trajectory tracking; backstepping; disturbance observer; dynamic saturation.

  • State observer-based adaptive fuzzy backstepping point stabilisation control of underactuated unmanned surface vehicles with input constraints   Order a copy of this article
    by Weixiang Zhou, Pingfang Zhou, Zheng Chen, Dengping Duan 
    Abstract: In this study, the point stabilisation control of an underactuated unmanned surface vehicle (USV) is addressed considering input constraints, missing velocity measurement and external disturbance. Different from other methods, in this proposed control framework, the point stabilisation is transformed into a straight line path-following problem. Then a state observer-based adaptive fuzzy backstepping controller is designed. The missing velocity variables are estimated by an extended state observer (ESO). An adaptive fuzzy algorithm is used to approximate the unknown nonlinear items in the dynamics model of the vehicle, and auxiliary items are introduced to deal with the actuator saturations. The system stability is proved by using Lyapunov theory, and the effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated by the simulation results.
    Keywords: Point stabilization; Underactuated unmanned surface vehicle; State observer; Adaptive fuzzy method; Backstepping control; Input constraints.

  • Formation control for underactuated unmanned surface vehicles based on consistency theory and leader-follower mode   Order a copy of this article
    by Limei Jiang, Rubo Zhang, Naifeng Wen, Guanqun Liu, Junwei Wu, Xingru Qu, Xiao Liang 
    Abstract: The formation involving multiple unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) is a new hotspot in research on USVs. Considering the formation control problem of underactuated USVs, a distributed formation control algorithm is proposed based on consistency theory and leaderfollower mode. The motion processes of the reference USV with respect to each USV are obtained with a consistency algorithm. By adjusting the control input, each USV converges to the reference vehicle. Thus, the expected formation of all USVs can be guaranteed if the trajectories of these two types of USV coincide. The entire formation uses distributed control, which has certain tolerance to special situations, such as communication delay and communication interruption. The effectiveness of the control strategy is verified through simulations.
    Keywords: unmanned surface vehicle; formation control; stability; backstepping.

  • Investigating capacity degradation of LiFePO4 batteries for electric vehicles under different overcharge conditions   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaogang Wu, Xu Han, Jiuyu Du 
    Abstract: When the state of charge (SOC) estimation by a battery management system (BMS) is inaccurate or the battery balance fails, the power battery in an electric vehicle may be overcharged, which results in a decline in the capacity and performance of the battery. In this paper, commercial large-format LiFePO4 batteries were used as overcharge targets and different overcharge paths and overcharge cut-off states of charge (SOCOC) were adopted to study the influence of different overcharge conditions on battery performance decay. The experimental results showed that different charge rates in the 0~80% SOC phase also had a certain degree of influence on the performance decay of the overcharged battery, but the SOCOC is the main reason for decline in battery performance. At the same time, battery performance after overcharge was not stable and a series of phenomena occurred when the battery was charged and discharged at a standard rate (1/3C). These phenomena included capacity recovery, synchronous recovery of the time of the constant voltage-charging segment, and charging capacity ratio of the constant voltage-charging segment. The battery discharge capacity overcharged to 110% and recovered from 59.7% to 68.4%. One battery which was overcharged to 105% recovered from 58.2% to 96.5% and the other battery recovered from 86% to 97.5%.
    Keywords: electric vehicle; battery; overcharge; capacity degradation; capacity recovery.

  • High-gain-observer based adaptive output-feedback formation control for underactuated unmanned surface vessels with input saturation and uncertainties   Order a copy of this article
    by Meijiao Zhao, Huayan Pu, Yueying Wang, Jun Luo, Shaorong Xie, Yan Peng 
    Abstract: An adaptive output feedback formation control strategy based on a high gain observer has been developed to solve the problem of the control of underactuated surface vessels formation with uncertain dynamics, ocean environment disturbance and input saturation. In this strategy, a high gain observer that only depends on position information is used to estimate the unmeasurable velocity, and in order to solve the 'complex explosion' problem in the conventional backstepping control algorithm, a first-order low-pass filter is adopted to obtain the derivative of the virtual control signal. In addition, adaptive neural networks (NNs) and minimum learning parameters (MLP) algorithms are used to approximate environmental disturbances and uncertain dynamics, while reducing online update parameters. Stability analysis proved that all signals in closed-loop are uniformly ultimately bounded and the formation tracking errors are arbitrarily small. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the controller.
    Keywords: output feedback; adaptive; backstepping; neural networks; formation control; high gain observer; underactuated surface vessels; input saturation; uncertainty.

  • Motion reliability evaluation of a six-axes robot based on non-probability interval theory   Order a copy of this article
    by Haimiao Wu, Guohua Cui, Peng Chen, Hongjuan Hou 
    Abstract: The error of position and posture of a robot end operator can affect the posture positioning accuracy. Therefore, an analysis study of motion reliability is important for ensuring the motion safety and normal operation of robots. Considering the effects of the link size deviations and joint clearance on the robot end operator, the error model of position and posture were analysed based on the non-probability interval theory. Then the time-varying motion reliability evaluation model of the robot was established using non-probability interval theory, and the motion reliability variation of the robot during trajectory points were obtained. The optimum design of the robot model was established by taking the deviations of the link size deviations and joint clearance as the optimisation variables, and reasonable ranges of link parameters were determined. The proposed analysis method lays a foundation for further upgrading the robot end operators position and posture accuracy.
    Keywords: robot; interval uncertainty theory; motion reliability; optimisation design.

  • Finite-time tracking control of underactuated surface vehicle with tracking error constraints   Order a copy of this article
    by Huizi Chen, Dan Zhang, Meijiao Zhao, Shaorong Xie 
    Abstract: This paper studies the finite-time tracking control of an underactuated surface vehicle subject to lumped uncertainties, including actuator faults, external disturbances, and plant uncertainties. A tracking controller with error constraints is given to derive the prescribed tracking performance for vehicle. Subsequently, the adaptive neural network is adopted to estimate the lumped uncertainties. Meanwhile, an adaptive switching mechanism is devised to avoid chattering of state output and improve adaptation rate to compensate approximation error. Furthermore, the new performance function is introduced to obtain a clear indication of actual convergence time, and the non-logarithmic transformation function is constructed to solve the potential singularity problem in the logarithmic error mapping function. Some simulations are presented to prove the excellent tracking performance of the developed method.
    Keywords: underactuated surface vehicle; adaptive switching mechanism; actuator faults; tracking error constraints.

  • Network-based global H pinning synchronisation for unmanned marine vehicles subject to disturbances   Order a copy of this article
    by Yanzhou Li, Yuanqing Wu, Shenghuang He 
    Abstract: The network-based global H pinning synchronisation of unmanned marine vehicles (UMVs) via sampled-data communications is investigated in this paper. {color{blue}By using Lyapunov stability theory, linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique and free-weighting matrix approach, some sufficient conditions are derived to ensure the global pinning synchronisation of UMVs. Furthermore, the maximum allowable sampling interval is estimated by a simple algorithm. Further study is then extended to address the global H pinning synchronisation problem of UMVs with external disturbances, showing that a better H performance can be guaranteed under some suitable conditions. Two numerical examples are presented to verify the validity and effectiveness of the obtained approaches.
    Keywords: unmanned marine vehicles; pinning synchronisation; sampled-data communications; performance index.

  • 3D trajectory tracking control of an underactuated AUV based on adaptive neural network dynamic surface   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiao Liang, Zhao Zhang, Xingru Qu, Ye Li, Rubo Zhang 
    Abstract: This paper addresses the 3D trajectory tracking control of an underactuated autonomous underwater vehicle under uncertain model parameters and unknown external disturbances. An adaptive dynamic surface control scheme based on a neural network and filters is proposed. In the controller design, the first-order integral filters are employed to estimate the derivative of virtual control, which avoids repeated derivative of virtual control. To deal with the effect of the unknown disturbances and the uncertain model parameters, the unknown nonlinear functions are approximated using a neural network. All of the error signals in the close-loop system are uniformly ultimately bounded based on Lyapunov stability theory. Simulation studies and comparisons with dynamic surface control scheme are used to illustrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed control scheme.
    Keywords: underactuated AUV; trajectory tracking; dynamic surface control; adaptive neural network.

Special Issue on: Revisiting Vehicle Dynamics and Control for Electrified and Autonomous Vehicles

  • Robust lateral and longitudinal stability control for delta three-wheeled vehicles with suspension system   Order a copy of this article
    by Martin Antonio Rodríguez Licea 
    Abstract: Typical (delta) three-wheeled vehicles, known as tuk-tuks, auto-rickshaws, and motorbikes, are well-known for their low performance at road curves compared with the tadpole or tilting configurations. Little research has been published regarding the risk of lateral rollover and trajectory tracking for these types of vehicle. There is no study about the skid or longitudinal rollover risks to the author's knowledge, much less about their mitigation. The delta three-wheeled vehicle (TWV) is the most widely used worldwide, and severe injuries and fatalities are frequent owing to the few safety systems they integrate. Furthermore, electrification provides different acceleration and weight levels that necessitate new driver assistance systems to mitigate such accident risks. In this paper, three new models for the skid and lateral and longitudinal rollover risks are proposed. Such models include the effects of a suspension system. They can be calculated in an actual application by measurements of chassis angles (by an inertial measurement unit, for instance) and information from the power-train control module (PCM). Even more, a robust lateral and longitudinal stability control (LLSC) is proposed to effectively mitigate the risks simultaneously, despite (bounded) parameter uncertainty. The control actions are performed by rear electric in-wheel motors (differential propulsion) and independent ABS braking in all wheels. The controller gains are obtained by the iterative resolution of an offline optimisation problem; semi-experimental (hardware-in-the-loop) tests are performed to show how the risks are diminished. Even more, the LLSC can effectively mitigate rollovers and skidding on low friction surfaces (with clear limitations) simultaneously.
    Keywords: three-wheeled vehicle; lateral skid; rollover; robust control.

  • Vehicle sideslip angle estimation: fusion of vehicle kinematics and dynamics   Order a copy of this article
    by Xin Xia, Lu Xiong, Yishi Lu, Letian Gao, Zhuoping Yu 
    Abstract: The vehicle sideslip angle (VSA) estimation is vital to vehicle lateral safety control, such as electronic stability control and path following control. In this paper, a VSA estimation method is proposed based on fusing the vehicle kinematics and dynamics. First, the vehicle-kinematic-based (VK-based) VSA estimation method is provided by the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and inertial navigation system (INS) integration system (GNSS/INS integration system). Then, the observability for the heading error which is related to VSA estimation error in the error state model of the GNSS/INS integration system is analysed. The heading error in GNSS/INS integration is not well observable and its estimation accuracy cannot be guaranteed when the acceleration in the horizontal plane is small and varies little. To improve the heading error estimation accuracy, a vehicle-dynamic-model-based (VDM-based) VSA estimation method is given and based on this method, a novel augmented heading estimator for the GNSS/INS integration system is designed. Besides, an intuitive heading error weighting strategy is presented to determine the heading error between the heading error from GNSS/INS integration system and that from the augmented heading error estimator. Finally, the proposed method is validated by a comprehensive test which includes double lane change, single lane change, and slalom manoeuvres. Results show that the VSA estimation absolute mean error of the proposed fusion method is 0.125
    Keywords: vehicle sideslip angle estimation; heading error estimation; vehicle dynamics; information fusion; Kalman filter.

  • Rollover detection and prevention of a heavy-duty vehicle on banked and graded uneven road   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhilin Jin, Jingxuan Li, Shuwei Huang 
    Abstract: The roll performance of a vehicle with a flexible frame and solid axle suspension has been touched on in few current researches. To reveal the rollover mechanism of a vehicle with flexible frame and solid axle suspension on a banked and graded uneven road, a novel rollover index and an integrated control strategy for vehicle rollover are proposed. Taking the coupling of the roll motion of the sprung mass of the front axle with that of the drive axle into consideration, a 10-DOF dynamic model is established. Then, a novel rollover index is derived from the rollover dynamics. Moreover, an integrated control strategy combining active steering and active braking of the rear wheel is developed and optimised offline by a genetic algorithm. Finally, some numerical cases are studied under untripped and complicated tripped rollover conditions. Results reveal that the integrated control strategy has good robustness, which can prevent the heavy-duty vehicle rollover effectively and keep the drive intention simultaneously.
    Keywords: rollover prevention; heavy-duty vehicle; flexible frame; banked and graded uneven road; tripped rollover.

  • Cooperative collision warning system design at intersections based on trajectory prediction and conflict risk evaluation   Order a copy of this article
    by Lin Zhang, Jiabei Gao, Bin Li, Haobo Sun 
    Abstract: A novel cooperative collision warning system based on trajectory prediction and conflict risk evaluation is proposed in this paper to reduce traffic accidents and fully guarantee driving safety at intersections. First, a vehicle kinematics model is introduced based on the constant acceleration model and constant turn rate and acceleration model, respectively, on straight and curved roads. The extended Kalman filtering is applied to integrate the signal of GPS and on-board vehicle sensors and filter the noise data of both to realise the real-time estimation of the vehicle's position. Then, based on the intersection's road geometry information, a cubic parabola model is established to simulate the driver's future manoeuvres. The vehicle model and the driver's future manoeuvres are combined to predict the future trajectory of the vehicle and surrounding vehicles in the future from 0 to 2 s. Considering the uncertainty in the prediction process, the Gaussian process regression is used to fit the vehicle's trajectory within 0 to 2 s in the future and further deduce the vehicle trajectory of the next 2-2.5 s. Finally, multiple circles are used to envelop the vehicle's shape to assess collision risk between vehicles. A conflict risk assessment model based on overlapping regions is established to timely alert drivers. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has a higher precision of trajectory prediction, and can warn the driver promptly and reduce the false alarm rate.
    Keywords: cooperative collision warning system; intersections; trajectory prediction; conflict risk evaluation.

  • A priori map-based automated valet parking with accurate adjustment ability for automatic charging   Order a copy of this article
    by Yongsheng Wang, Yugong Luo, Weiwei Kong, Dexu Bu, Yanchen Ku, Fachao Jiang 
    Abstract: With the development and application of automatic charging systems for electric vehicles, there is a demand for increasing the accuracy of vehicle parking position. In this paper, a priori map-based automated valet parking (AVP) system with accurate adjustment ability is proposed. Firstly, the parking lot topological map is designed as a priori information for path planning. Then, a path coordination and optimisation strategy is applied to merge the global path and the parking path without transition curve. After that, a Forward Orientation and Reverse Lateral Position Deviations (FORLPD) control strategy is proposed to accurately adjust the connecting position of automatic charging system. This strategy uses the heading deviation and lateral position deviation for vehicle forward and reverse motion control, separately. Finally, experimental results on a real vehicle show that longitudinal and lateral deviations of vehicle parking position can be adjusted with satisfactory accuracy.
    Keywords: automated valet parking; priori map; accurate adjustment; automatic charging; path coordination and optimization strategy; FORLPD control strategy.

  • An adaptive second-order sliding mode for IWM electric vehicle lateral stability control based on super twist sliding mode observer   Order a copy of this article
    by Jialin Li, Di Ao, Lina Lan, Jialin Liu, Rui Xiong 
    Abstract: To improve the lateral stability of the in-wheel motor electric vehicle, this study proposes an adaptive second-order sliding mode control (ASOSM) method based on a super twist side-slip observer (SMO). As the existing researches showed, the chattering phenomenon is naturally suffered by first-order sliding mode (FOSM) control. Besides, the second-order sliding mode (SOSM) control should know the boundary of the lumped uncertainties. To figure out these problems, the proposed ASOSM is achieved by adding a high-frequency term of the first derivative of the predesigned sliding surface. The control gains can be calculated by an adaptive law with no need for any information on uncertainties. Furthermore, the controller robustness is verified by changing tyre parameters and vehicle mass. The co-simulation results illustrate better control performance for the proposed controller. Also, the super twist side slip angle observer also gives good tracking results. Both the yaw rate and trajectory tracking results exhibit pretty well. Compared with the baseline FOSM and SOSM, a significant improvement for vehicle lateral stability and control efforts is indicated.
    Keywords: in-wheel motor electric vehicle; lateral stability control; adaptive sliding mode control; super twist observer.

  • Trajectory planning, dynamics modelling and trajectory tracking method for off-road autonomous vehicles considering the road topography information   Order a copy of this article
    by Boyuan Li, Bangji Zhang, Haiping Du, Yang Wu, Shengzhao Chen 
    Abstract: The road topography can significantly affect the tyre vertical load and the vehicle dynamics response in off-road scenarios, which will greatly impact the autonomous vehicles stability, trajectory planning and trajectory tracking performance. However, the road topography information is not given much attention in the current literature. This study focuses on the local trajectory planning and tracking method by assuming that waypoints along the global route are available. First an innovative spatiotemporal-based local trajectory planning algorithm is proposed to select the desired trajectory with minimum road gradient and bank angle. After that, a 8 Degrees-of-Freedom (DOF) vehicle dynamics model is proposed to better present the dynamics performance. Finally, a double-layer control strategy for trajectory tracking is designed to follow the desired planned trajectory. It is proved by simulation results that the peak bank angle and road gradient could be avoided, and the trajectory tracking performance is improved by the proposed method. Furthermore, the omni-directional vehicle is shown to have better vehicle stability performance than the vehicle with Front-Wheel Steering (FWS) characteristics.
    Keywords: trajectory planning; trajectory tracking; bank angle; road slope.

  • Automotive G vector control for comfort improvement and experimental verification   Order a copy of this article
    by Chunbo Liu, Hongliang Zhou, Houhua Jing, Zhiyuan Liu 
    Abstract: The normal vehicle lateral motion control systems such as ESC work only when the vehicle tends to be unstable. Expert driver operations show that the longitudinal acceleration can be adjusted during turning to improve ride comfort and avoid vehicle instability to a certain extent. The brake-by-wire system can automatically adjust the longitudinal acceleration without relying on the driver to apply braking to improve the lateral motion performance. Starting from comfort evaluation during curve movement, the relationship between comfort and lateral acceleration is analysed. In order to reduce control fluctuations and improve real-time control, the steering wheel signal is selected as input and a fuzzy rule is proposed as the G vector control law. Finally, the control method is applied on an experimental vehicle through a real-time simulation system to verify its effectiveness.
    Keywords: ride comfort; brake by wire; fuzzy control; G vector control.

  • Four-wheel independent steering system control of distributed electric vehicle based on heterogeneous multi-agent   Order a copy of this article
    by Niaona Zhang, Haolin Li, Shaosong Li, Yang Liu 
    Abstract: In order to improve the active safety and yaw stability of the distributed drive electric vehicle, this paper proposes a four-wheel independent steering finite time control method based on the theory of a heterogeneous multi-agent. Firstly, considering the system uncertainty and external interference, the topology is established based on the communication and hardware connection of each steering system. Then considering the uncertain time-varying delay of the system control network and the real-time calculation burden of the wheel redundancy system, a finite time robust control method of the wheel steering system is proposed on the basis of the event-triggering of a heterogeneous multi-agent, which can avoid the calculation process of matrix inversion in the integrated control of the whole vehicle steering system. Finally, through the simulation experiments on step input, continuous sine and double shift line, it is verified that the method proposed in this paper can stably follow the ideal value and can improve the vehicle yaw stability.
    Keywords: electric vehicle; four-wheel independent steering; heterogeneous multi-agent; event-triggering; finite time.

  • Optimised robust path-following control of autonomous vehicles with pole constraints   Order a copy of this article
    by Yixiao Liang, Yinong Li, Amir Khajepour, Ling Zheng 
    Abstract: This paper presents a robust output-feedback guaranteed-cost control strategy for the path-following control of autonomous vehicles. First, the model of vehicle dynamics and path-following is established, which takes the uncertainties of cornering stiffness into account. Then, to deal with such uncertainties and improve the transient performance, a robust guaranteed-cost controller is introduced with the regional pole constraint ability. Considering that it is expensive and difficult to measure the side slip angle accurately, the proposed controller uses an output-feedback scheme without side slip angle information. Moreover, the particle swarm optimisation algorithm is selected to optimise the performance index of the guaranteed-cost controller such that the priorities among different objectives can be decided reasonably. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller and its advantages over previous studies in the presence of parameter uncertainties.
    Keywords: autonomous vehicle; path-following control; robust guaranteed-cost control; output-feedback control; particle swarm optimisation.

Special Issue on: New Energy Vehicles' NVH and Lightweight and Control Technologies

  • A clustering-based simplification of massive automobile-bodies point cloud for lightweight design   Order a copy of this article
    by Yu Zhou, Yue Song, Qi Zhang, Yan Wang, Farong Du, Shuiting Ding 
    Abstract: Adaptive simplification for massive and large-scale automobile-bodies point cloud obtained by 3D laser-scanning has proven to be an effective technology to conduct lightweight design. This paper introduces a point-based algorithm to simplify laser-scanning point cloud without any support of fitted surface. The intrinsic characteristic of laser-scanning data is investigated to produce a topological connectivity for adjacent points in scan-lines. We explore an automatic normal-vector estimation framework through the relationship between normal-vector and its adjacent geometric elements. To retain more points in high-curvature areas and fewer points in planar regions efficiently, the local normal-vector variance is adopted to determine subdivision-decision condition. The boundary points are detected and then preserved before non-uniform subdivision. A relevant simplification system based on our algorithm is developed. Many simplification cases are implemented to validate the effectiveness of our method and demonstrate the feasibility for automobile-bodies point cloud. The comparison with other point-based methods is also performed to illustrate the superiority of our method.
    Keywords: point cloud; simplification; laser scanning; lightweight design; automobile body; hierarchical clustering; reverse engineering.

  • A mathematical model for vibration analysis of a parallel hybrid electric bus powertrain   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei Chen, Zhengwei Li, Yulong Lei, Sajad Saraygord Afshari, Yao Fu, Liguo Hou 
    Abstract: This paper presents a parallel hybrid electric bus equipped with an automated manual transmission (AMT) and a mathematical model of the hybrid powertrain is developed for vibration analysis. The powertrain dynamic model is established by a modular modelling approach. A detailed AMT dynamic model, considering gear time-varying meshing stiffness, shaft elastic deformation, and bearing elastic support, is incorporated into the powertrain dynamic model. The damping and gyroscopic effects of the gear-rotor in the AMT are considered as well. The AMT dynamic model is validated by experimental data from the time and frequency domain comparisons. Finally, the parameter analysis of the dual-mass flywheel (DMF) is used to illustrate how to use the proposed powertrain dynamic model for vibration reduction. The influence of the DMF parameters on vibration responses of the system with varying engine rotation speed is investigated. This study provides a basis for further vibration control of the hybrid powertrain during the engine driving mode.
    Keywords: hybrid electric bus; powertrain; dynamic modelling; vibration analysis; dual-mass flywheel.

  • Investigation on energy consumption of electric vehicle with micro gas turbine as a range-extender under various driving cycles   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiangbo Zhang, Fenzhu Ji, Farong Du, Shuiting Ding, Yu Zhou 
    Abstract: The Micro Gas Turbine (MGT) offers an attractive option for range-extended electric vehicles (REEVs) to prolong the driving range. This research aims to investigate the energy consumption of MGT-based REEV under different driving cycles to evaluate the performance of the MGT-based range extender. As a core component, the performance of MGT with recuperator is analysed and simulated based on Brayton cycle. The steady-state and transient characteristics of the MGT model is verified through experiments. A model of the MGT-based REEV is established to access the energy consumption of EV under highway fuel economy cycle (HWY) and supplementary FTP driving cycle (US06). Results show that the MGT model has a high precision. The difference between simulation and experiment is smaller than 2% in power, and
    Keywords: range-extended electric vehicle; micro gas turbine; energy consumption; driving cycles; simulation.

  • Lightweight design of a bodyinwhite structure using a hybrid optimisation approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Dengfeng Wang, Shenhua Li 
    Abstract: To achieve lightweight structure for a BIW (bodyinwhite), this study proposes a hybrid optimisation approach that integrates the subspace division of a BIW structure, relative sensitivity analysis, correlation analysis, NSGAII (nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II) combined with a RSM surrogate model, and design of experiments combined with ETOPSIS (entropy weighttechnique for ordering preferences by similarity to ideal solution). The approach improves the optimisation efficiency and solves the problem of nonlinear crashworthiness optimisation. The decoupling of the linear basic performance and nonlinear collision safety performance of a BIW are achieved. According to the type of performance response, design variables are screened, and three subspace structures of the BIW are optimised. Optimisation results indicate that the mass of the BIW structure is reduced by 17.0 kg. The performance quotas of the BIW are within the specified design baseline range. Therefore, the proposed approach can be effectively applied to the lightweight design of a BIW structure.
    Keywords: BIW; body–in–white; lightweight design; crashworthiness optimisation; relative sensitivity analysis; correlation analysis; NSGA–II; design of experiments; TOPSIS.

  • Research on vehicle window buffeting mechanism and noise control   Order a copy of this article
    by Qiliang Wang, Xin Chen, Yingchao Zhang, Qingqing Guan, Mingyang Song 
    Abstract: For a moving car, buffeting noise is generated when a window is opened alone, which seriously affects the comfort of passengers. In particular, there is still no effective control method for side window buffeting, so it is very important to study the buffeting mechanism and characteristics for noise control. First, this paper analyses the pressure change law during the shear vortex shedding process through simulation, and explores the Helmholtz resonance characteristics of the passenger cabin, so as to reveal the causes of the buffeting phenomenon. Secondly, wind tunnel tests are used to study the effects on buffeting of vehicle speed, window opening size and other factors, and the differences in buffeting characteristics between sunroof and side windows are compared, then the reasons for buffeting changes are analysed through simulation. Finally, the passive control and active control are discussed, which have reference significance for the control of vehicle window buffeting.
    Keywords: vehicle window buffeting; flow mechanism; buffeting characteristics; noise control.

  • Multi-objective optimisation of automobile sound package with non-smooth surface based on grey theory and particle swarm optimisation   Order a copy of this article
    by Shuming Chen, Zhenyu Zhou, Jixiu Zhang 
    Abstract: This paper studies a multi-objective optimisation design of the sound package with non-smooth surface, for enhancing the acoustic performance and reducing the material weight. In order to perform the acoustic simulation of the sound package with non-smooth surface, an effective finite element analysis procedure was used in this work. The sound absorption performances of porous materials were predicted by using two-microphone transfer function method combined with finite element method (FEM). Smooth surface and triangular surface were chosen for analysis to compare sound absorption performances of sound packages. Moreover, an orthogonal experiment was designed to compare sound absorption performance and material mass among different sound package with different surface parameters and thickness. Thus, the multi-objective design was converted into a single objective with grey correlation degree. Furthermore, the average grey correlation degree of parameter variables was analysed. On this basis, the optimal combination was selected by using particle swarm optimisation algorithm. From the optimization data, triangular surface sound package material with the optimal surface parameters and thickness was numerically simulated applying finite element method. The simulation result shows that sound absorption performance was improved while the material mass decreased.
    Keywords: sound absorption coefficient; optimisation; sound package; grey relational analysis.

  • Unified AHP-TOPSIS and DEA technique for the adoption and performance evaluation of green transportation alternatives in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Neha Gupta, Chand P. Saini, Amit Dangi, Tanwir Akhtar 
    Abstract: We cannot think of todays age without transportation. Also, global warming, environmental degradation, adverse health implications, and greenhouse gas emission are some of the problems in the existing transportation mode. The solution to these problems is the shift towards green transportation, which means shifting to such transportation practices or vehicles that do not have any negative impact on the immediate environment and are eco-friendly. Therefore, the use of electric vehicles (EVs) can shift India towards sustainable transportation or eco-friendly transportation. EVs are different from petrol vehicles on distinct properties. EVs have zero tail-pipe outflows, less noise, and low running expense contrasted with the internal combustion engines. This paper adds to the existing information by undertaking a multicriteria analysis for ranking and performance measures of EVs based on the rating by two stakeholder groups, electric vehicle dealers and electric vehicle users. In this paper, the criteria for the selection of EVs are identified from the literature and personal interviews. This paper uses the combination of AHP, TOPSIS, and DEA techniques to rank the various types of EV and measure the performance of eight electric and eight hybrid electric cars that exist in India.
    Keywords: green transportation; electric vehicles; multicriteria analysis; AHP; TOPSIS; DEA.

  • Multi-disciplinary design optimisation considered fluid-structure interaction and life prediction applied in the lightweight carbody structure   Order a copy of this article
    by Bingrong Miao, Yaoxiang Luo, Qiming Peng, Chuanying Jiang, Zhongkun Yang 
    Abstract: Multi-disciplinary design optimisation based on rigid-flexible multi-body system is presented to solve the multi-object design optimisation problems of lightweight carbody structures by considering the fluid-structure interactions at different typical load cases. A mathematical model is developed to simulate structure interactions based on the theory of finite elements. The model is integrated with a multi-object optimisation approach that uses the non-sort genetic algorithm method. The multi-body system was used to understand complex vehicle system dynamics performance and obtain the structure load time histories. Through performing structural quasi-static stress analysis method, the structure dynamic stress/strain histories were obtained for fatigue life evaluation. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in simultaneously considering the structural vibration and the aerodynamic pressure at several vehicle speeds by proper lightweight design. This method has the advantage that it can be used to understand the interaction mechanism between the vehicle dynamics characteristics and lightweight structural fatigue damage.
    Keywords: multi-disciplinary design optimisation; multi-body system; lightweight design; finite element method; railway.

  • Establishment of mathematical model of inner tooth profile curve and simulation based on dual phase silent chain   Order a copy of this article
    by Yabing Cheng, Xiaomin Chen, Yang Li, Xinyue Li, Luxiang Chen, Jiaxing Niu 
    Abstract: According to the meshing principle of chain drive, the formula of coordination transform and pitch variation principle of dual phase Hy-Vo silent chain, the formula of the inner tooth profile curve of dual phase Hy-Vo silent chain is built. The mathematical model of the inner tooth profile curve of the new chain plate is established. The dynamic model of quasi-conjugate meshing between the working chain plate of silent chain and the involute sprocket is established. The new type silent chain system with inner tooth profile is compared with the previous one. The simulation results show that the new type Hy-Vo silent chain system has less fluctuation, less change of angle velocity of chain plate and moves more smoothly. The rationale of the mathematical model and the superiority of the dynamic model of the new type Hy-Vo silent chain system with inner tooth profile are verified.
    Keywords: chain transmission; dual phase Hy-Vo silent chain; inner tooth profile curve; fluctuation quantity; multi-variation.

Special Issue on: Cyber Security in Internet of Vehicles

  • Stabilisation of traffic flow by considering multiple information based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication   Order a copy of this article
    by Qian Li, Haiyang Wang, Dongfan Xie 
    Abstract: The rapid development of advanced technologies means that vehicles can share information with each other based on vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. It is expected that the V2V information can improve efficiency and stability of traffic flow, which has attracted much attention in traffic flow theory. To this end, this study develops an alternative car-following model with the consideration of V2V information. By using the linear stability theory, stability analysis is performed, and the string stability condition is obtained. The results indicate that V2V information can improve the stability of traffic flow, and traffic fluctuations can thus be suppressed. Case studies are carried out based on numerical simulations, and the results coincide with the theoretical ones.
    Keywords: vehicle-to-vehicle; communication; car-following model; stability analysis; traffic congestion.

  • Research on service braking control strategy for heavy-duty truck on long downhill based on genetic algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Peilong Shi, Qiang Yu, Xuan Zhao, Pan Liu, Rong Huang 
    Abstract: While driving a heavy-duty truck on a long downhill road, the driver operates the pedal to brake depending mainly on driving experience and road condition. However, the drum temperature rises sharply when the service braking system works frequently. Hence, how to operate the brake pedal to avoid heat fading becomes an important issue. To solve this problem, a service braking control strategy for heavy-duty trucks based on genetic algorithm is proposed. In order to ascertain the main factor that causes the drum temperature to rise sharply, the constant speed control and the expected speed range braking control with different pedal forces strategies are simulated. It is found that several factors, including pedal force and speed range, have a significant effect on temperature, also the braking frequency and cumulative working time. Therefore, this paper proposes a multi-objective genetic optimisation algorithm on the braking control, adopting the constancy of braking efficiency, the degree of driver fatigue and driving safety as the objective function, optimising the brake pedal force, the desired speed range and average speed on long downhill roads. The results reveal that the multi-objective optimisation method based on genetic algorithm can slow down the rise in brake temperature, reducing the frequency of brake application and the driving intensity for the driver.
    Keywords: heavy-duty truck; braking control; driving safety; optimisation method.

Special Issue on: Vehicle Safety Design and Assessment

  • Translation of SysML diagram into mathematical petri net model for quantitative reliability analysis of airbag system   Order a copy of this article
    by Ankur Maurya, Divya Kumar 
    Abstract: Airbag systems have become an indispensable safety device to assure the physical welfare of drivers and passengers. The proper functioning of the airbag is crucial as it is the endmost hope of a passengers life in the case of a vehicle collision. Airbag systems are safety-critical systems (SCS) that are developed to avoid catastrophic consequences, such as injury, death, or environmental damage. Hence, reliability and failure analysis of such systems is of utmost importance during design. There are numerous methods existing in literature for safety and reliability analysis of safety-critical airbag systems but these methods are qualitative in nature, which are based on pre-assumed transition probability and only suitable for stakeholders having good technical knowledge. There remain high possibilities to miss out important information while designing the system. The requirement analysis and quantitative reliability analysis of airbag system during design phase are the main aim of this paper. This is done by translating SysML diagram into a Petri Net (PN) model and computing non-assumed transition probabilities of the system in real-time scenarios by identifying the possible number of events that can trigger failure in airbag systems. The proposed method in this paper captures the dynamic behaviour of the system. The result has been verified using ASIL ISO2626 safety standards and compared for different vehicle manufacturers. The most reliable vehicle models are BMW and Chrysler with unreliability of 0.07%.
    Keywords: airbag systems; system reliability; requirement analysis.

  • Design and development of quad bike chassis frame   Order a copy of this article
    by Surajkumar Kumbhar 
    Abstract: Safety is the most critical concern about a quad bike, especially one designed for wider varieties of terrains and that offers negligible protection to the rider. A higher number of deaths and injuries have been reported to all-terrain vehicles (ATV) according to the National Trauma Data Bank. This inspires our team to design a quad bike for the safety of passengers. In this work, a quad bike chassis frame is designed and developed for the Quad Bike Design Challenge (QBDC). The development is based on the principles of similitude, personal experience, actual test track data, and all previous history to optimise the design of the quad bike chassis frame. Structural analysis of the designed frame is carried out using FEA, and modal analysis is performed through FFT. Results indicate that the developed chassis frame is rigid, lightweight, and safer than the old frame. This original contribution shows a systematic way of design for the safety of quad bike occupants.
    Keywords: quad bike; chassis frame; finite element analysis; modal analysis.

  • Fault diagnosis and failure analysis of motor controller by the approach of Bayesian inference   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiong Shu, Yingfu Guo, Huan Yang, Hongguang Zhou, Kexiang Wei, Sudong He 
    Abstract: Electric vehicles are growing in popularity, it is deemed that they will replace petrol and diesel vehicles in the near future. However, the failure analysis and fault diagnosis of the motor controller is still a matter of concern today. In order to solve the problems of multiple fault decoupling, location and diagnosis in motor controller hardware system of electric vehicle, a fault diagnosis method of motor controller based on Bayesian network is proposed. On the basis of decomposing the hardware structure of the motor controller, the fault categories of the motor controller are classified, firstly; then the hardware fault tree of the motor controller is established. Finally, the fault diagnosis model of the motor controller hardware system is established by converting the fault tree into a Bayesian network. In terms of data quantification, the method of leak noisy-or node was introduced to reduce the demand of conditional sample data. In order to verify the feasibility of the fault diagnosis model for motor controller hardware, a case study is conducted in this paper, and the results show the effectiveness of the method.
    Keywords: motor controller; electric vehicle; faults diagnosis; Bayesian network; fault tree analysis.

  • Reliability evaluation method of vehicle acceleration sensor based on vector control   Order a copy of this article
    by Hongbo Liang 
    Abstract: In order to overcome the problem of large error in the existing reliability evaluation method of vehicle acceleration sensors, a reliability evaluation method of vehicle acceleration sensors based on vector control is proposed. This method selects the reliability evaluation index of an acceleration sensor based on AHP, calculates the comprehensive weight value of the evaluation index, constructs the vector control model with the weight value, solves the reliability evaluation value of acceleration sensor, and judges the reliability level, so as to realise the reliability evaluation of the sensor. The experimental results show that the failure limit of the acceleration sensor is determined to be 2.0
    Keywords: vector control; acceleration sensor; reliability; evaluation;.

  • Speed control of vehicle automatic driving system based on 5G vehicle network   Order a copy of this article
    by Minglei Song, Ai-zeng Li, Li-hua Liu 
    Abstract: In order to solve the problem of low speed control accuracy and long control time in the traditional vehicle speed control system, a speed control method of vehicle automatic driving system based on 5G network is proposed. The 5G Internet of vehicles technology is used to collect the motion data of vehicle automatic driving, and the vehicle motion model is constructed by least squares method. The speed control model of vehicle autopilot system is built, the minimum speed algorithm is used to solve the speed governing model of the vehicle automatic driving system, and the optimal trajectory of speed control for vehicle automatic driving system is obtained, and the speed control of vehicle automatic driving system is realised. The experimental results show that the speed control method in this paper can effectively improve the speed control accuracy of the system, up to about 99%, and that the speed of speed regulation is fast.
    Keywords: 5G vehicle interconnection; vehicle automatic driving system; speed control; vehicle motion model; least squares algorithm; minimum value algorithm.

  • Research on vehicles collision avoidance warning system based on trajectory data mining   Order a copy of this article
    by Ying Li 
    Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of large error of safe distance judgement and poor braking stability in traditional vehicle anti-collision warning systems, this paper proposes a vehicle anti-collision warning system based on trajectory data mining. The hardware design of the system includes vehicle anti-collision warning controller, vehicle trajectory data mining sensor and vehicle anti-collision pre-warning program, which can accurately collect vehicle trajectory data. Based on the above data acquisition results, the vehicle trajectory is deeply mined and cluster analysed, and the mathematical model of critical safe distance of vehicle is constructed. The calculation principle of vehicle collision probability is used to calculate the vehicle collision probability and realise vehicle collision warning. The experimental results show that the braking stability is close to 1, which can ensure the safety of the vehicle.
    Keywords: trajectory data mining; vehicle’s collision avoidance; safe distance; collision probability;.

  • A tracking control method for collision avoidance trajectory of autonomous vehicle based on multi-constraint MPC   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhiyong Jing, Wei Huang, Huan Ma 
    Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of low control accuracy and control efficiency of the traditional vehicle collision avoidance trajectory tracking control method, this paper proposes a multi-constraint MPC-based automatic driving vehicle collision avoidance trajectory tracking control method. The vehicle dynamics model and tyre dynamics model are constructed, and the relationship between tyre slip angle and force is analysed from three degrees of freedom directions. The road adhesion coefficient of the tyre is calculated, and the relationship between adhesion coefficient and tyre lateral force is studied. Combined with the dynamic model and the analysis results, a multi-constraint MPC model is constructed, and the model is solved by empc to realise the trajectory tracking control of an automatic driving vehicle. The experimental results show that the proposed method can accurately predict the vehicle lateral position and yaw angle, and the control accuracy is high.
    Keywords: multi-constraint MPC; automatic driving; vehicle collision avoidance; trajectory tracking; dynamic model.

  • Research on feature extraction of vehicle abnormal driving behaviour based on 5G internet of vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei Yu 
    Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of high response time delay and low accuracy of traditional vehicle abnormal driving behaviour feature extraction methods, this paper proposes a 5G car networking-based vehicle abnormal driving behaviour feature extraction method. This method uses the infrastructure and sensor equipment of the perception execution layer of the 5G internet of vehicles to collect vehicle information, and selects the Internet Protocol Version 6 communication protocol of the network transmission and control layer for data transmission. Based on the data received by the integrated application layer, the Riemannian manifold method is used to extract the characteristics of abnormal driving behaviour, such as emergency acceleration, emergency deceleration, speeding, and frequent lane changes. Experimental results show that the extraction accuracy of this method is as high as 98%, which can effectively extract the characteristics of abnormal driving behaviour, and the response delay during data transmission is less than 80 ms.
    Keywords: 5G; internet of vehicles; abnormal driving behaviour; feature extraction.

  • Collision-warning system integrated with merging behaviour prediction model based on multi-sensor fusion   Order a copy of this article
    by Guoyan Xu, Yiwei Xiong, Huan Niu, Guizhen Yu, Bin Zhou 
    Abstract: One of the most dangerous situations on a road is that drivers choose to merge into traffic without warning. This paper presents a real-time collision warning system in merging scenario, and our approach mainly focuses on the forward vehicle in a different lane. First, a multi-sensor is used to detect the distance and speed information of forward vehicles. Based on the detection result, a neural network is designed to predict whether they are going to change lane or not. The prediction model correctly classifies 92% of merging behaviour in our test dataset. Then, a collision warning algorithm is proposed to cope with different merging manoeuvres. The algorithm was tested in a real road on our embedded platform and the results show that the system can effectively alert drivers to brake when collision threats are posed.
    Keywords: collision warning; multi-sensor; merging behaviour prediction; perception system; deep learning; convolution neural networks; object detection; lane detection; neural network.

  • Design and simulation of a pedestrian protection airbag using corpuscular particle method   Order a copy of this article
    by Reza Deabae, Javad Marzbanrad 
    Abstract: This research developed a methodology based on the Corpuscular Particle Method (CPM) for assessing the effectiveness of a Pedestrian Protection Airbag (PPA). Although current studies are attempting to determine the efficiency of pedestrian protection systems, so far no research has been conducted employing the CPM for examining the influence of inflator gas flow on the performance of the PPA and head injuries. The method is divided into two main steps. At the first step, validated models of a vehicle and an adult headform were chosen, and the EuroNCAP standard adult pedestrian headform impact test was simulated for different points at the bottom of the windshield and on A-pillars. The simulation results were assessed against available experimental test results and recorded to check the effect of PPA at the next stage. Then, the headform impact simulation was conducted while a PPA was installed on the vehicle. The airbag deployment was simulated using CPM, and the headform impacted the PPA at the same points as step one. Simulation results were evaluated against available experimental test data and compared with those without the PPA test from the first step. The results of this research can be used to enhance the production of various pedestrian protection technologies for vehicles. Simulation results prove that using a pedestrian protection airbag can reduce head injuries by up to 90% near A-pillars, which are the most dangerous zones for the pedestrians heads. Study results suggest that CPM is able to precisely capture the realistic kinematics of airbag deployment, particularly during the early deployment phase. Furthermore, CPM rationally estimates these parameters at the extremely complex phases of the airbag unfolding.
    Keywords: pedestrian safety; pedestrian airbag; corpuscular particle method; vehicle-to-pedestrian crash; headform; crash simulation; passive safety.