Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Vehicle Design

International Journal of Vehicle Design (IJVD)

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International Journal of Vehicle Design (33 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Dual-redundancy multi-mode control of high safety reliability steering wheel system   Order a copy of this article
    by Junnan Mi, Tong Wang, Xiaomin Lian 
    Abstract: The steering wheel system of a steer-by-wire system (SBW) offers steering torque to driver. In order to improve its safety and reliability, a dual-redundancy steering wheel system is proposed. This research proposes a dual-redundancy multi-mode control method for this system, which is divided into different control modes, namely the angle alignment mode, the pivot steer with resistance mode, and the uniform approach to middle position mode, so that the system can adapt to different vehicle running states and drivers manipulation habits. At the same time, a torque balance control method for two channel motors is proposed to balance their torques, and an order-reduce and reforming control method is proposed so that the system can still work even if one motor fails. Finally, this study built a vehicle test platform to verify the control method and prove its effectiveness.
    Keywords: steer-by-wire; safety; steering wheel; redundancy; control; steering torque ;SBW.

  • Multi-objective optimisation of composite coil spring for vehicle suspensions   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaokai Chen, Chao Li 
    Abstract: This work presented a general form of spring rate and strength prediction model and an optimisation method for developing a suspension FRP coil spring. The prediction model can deal with an arbitrary sequence of layers instead of widely used
    Keywords: fire-reinforced plastic; coil spring; stiffness prediction model; strength prediction model; optimisation design.

  • Coupled electrothermal model and thermal Fault diagnosis method for lithium-ion battery   Order a copy of this article
    by Qiuting Wang, Wei Qi 
    Abstract: The dynamic behaviour of the lithium-ion battery system is analysed. The nonlinear parameters, residual errors and thermal faults of the battery model are studied. In our study, a coupled electrothermal model is established based on the cell electrical dynamic characteristics. The parameter identification algorithm is presented based on Lyapunov observer. The core temperature and surface temperature of the battery cell are calculated based on extended Kalman filter. We propose a new thermal fault diagnosis method and the residual generation scheme. The UDDS (Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule) dynamic working condition is used to verify our electrothermal model and fault diagnosis method. The experimental results indicate that the thermal characteristics can be described and the thermal fault can be diagnosed more accurately.
    Keywords: lithium-ion battery; coupled electrothermal model; fault diagnosis; Lyapunov observer; extended Kalman filter; UDDS.

  • The optimisation design of CFRP bumper beam based on ply compatibility   Order a copy of this article
    by Jing Chen, Sen Xu, Zhen Liu, Aotian Tang 
    Abstract: This study aimed to develop an optimization approach for carbon fibre-reinforced polymer bumper beams. First, we established a specific finite element model and conducted a high-speed crash simulation of a steel bumper beam to verify the accuracy of the model. Then, the shape and parameter of the section of the bumper beam were determined using an orthogonal experimental design, and the concept of ply compatibility constraint was proposed. Subsequently, the ply sequence and thickness were optimised using the multi-island genetic algorithm and the multi-objective particle swarm optimisation algorithm based on kriging surrogate model with adding-point strategy. Results showed that the section force of the energy-absorbing box of the bumper beam was reduced after optimisation. The indexes of intrusion and energy absorption were also improved to some extent compared with the original ones. A real vehicle experiment proved that the optimised bumper system met all the requirements on strength and crashworthiness, with 47.61% weight reduction.
    Keywords: bumper beam; carbon fibre reinforced polymer; ply compatibility; multi-island genetic algorithm; KMOPSO; kriging surrogate model.

  • Investigation of drivetrain dynamics on low- ground using the brush model   Order a copy of this article
    by Jianing Yang, Georg Jacobs, Achim Kramer 
    Abstract: This article aims to investigate the influence of the low-friction ground on off-highway drivetrain dynamics. A comprehensive vehicle simulation model is established for this purpose. This vehicle model consists of three parts: the torsional drivetrain model, the vehicle body model of longitudinal dynamics and the tyre model with slip behaviour. To correctly reflect tyre slip behaviour, the brush model, which features a physical description of the tyreground contact patch, is applied. A group of simulations is carried out on the complete vehicle model, mainly from two perspectives: drivetrain eigen-modes and drivetrain transient response. For the drivetrain eigen-mode analysis, different tyre slip states and the transition process between these two states are taken into consideration. For the drivetrain transient response, the vehicle is assumed to drive over a patch of low-
    Keywords: low-ยต ground; tyre slip model; brush model; torsional drivetrain model; drivetrain eigen-modes; drivetrain transient response.

  • Multi-PMSM adjacent cross-coupling iterative learning synchronisation control   Order a copy of this article
    by Yadi Zhou, Mingzhu Xu, Shaohua Li 
    Abstract: For the current widely used adjacent cross-coupling control strategy, when the number of motors is large, the control structure is complex and the calculation is difficult which makes it hard to access the demand of simple and efficient high-precision synchronisation control. The adjacent cross coupling control structure is studied, and an iterative learning controller is designed. A new multi motor speed synchronisation control strategy is proposed, which reduces the complexity of the control structure. The simulation and experimental data prove that the control algorithm has strong robustness. Compared with the traditional adjacent cross-coupling control method, the synchronisation error of the system can be reduced by 78.17% and the tracking error can be reduced by 62.40%, which effectively improves the control accuracy of multi-motor synchronisation operation.
    Keywords: permanent magnet synchronous motor; vector control; synchronous control; adjacent cross coupling control;.

  • Derivation of vehicle dimensions at the early concept stage based on occupant posture   Order a copy of this article
    by Igor William Santos Leal Cruz, Thomas Gänsicke, Julian Francisco Sandiano, Christian Raulf, Thomas Vietor 
    Abstract: This paper presents a new method for deriving dimensional concepts for vehicles at the early concept stage. The derivation is centred on the posture of the occupants, which is calculated with statistical models and used to determine spatial requirements. Dimensions that do not follow directly from the posture calculations are determined with dimensional chains. The number of independent parameters is reduced by specifying dimensions that are assumed constant within a given vehicle segment. The application of the method is exemplified with different vehicle concepts. Vehicle length, width, height, and wheelbase calculated in the examples are comparable to those of existing vehicles. The use of non-proprietary, closed-form equations and the low number of independent parameters simplify implementation and application of the method.
    Keywords: vehicle dimensions; dimensional concept; concept stage; vehicle layout; driver posture; passenger posture.

  • On the aerodynamic effects of the optimised DrivAer fastback model car under adverse situations   Order a copy of this article
    by I-Ying Chiang, Tung Wan 
    Abstract: In this study, the benchmark DrivAer model is employed for optimisation work of vortex generator locations with digital side mirrors through numerical simulation. Aiming for the best drag reduction via various installation positions by the kriging surrogate method, results show that for the best-achieved location, it is observed that the positive effect of drag reduction owing to an increase in the intensity of vortices; its wake also becomes weaker. In addition, in order to cope with fast-changing severe weather, the impacts of important physical phenomena such as gusty crosswind, heavy rain, and cornering are simulated and compared as well through detailed analyses of different physical quantities, force coefficients, and Strouhal number. Our simulations show that the gusty crosswind and cornering have the most negative influences on car aerodynamic performance, thus proving the effectiveness of the current approach in automobile design and safety. In addition, the combination of gusty and rain conditions is also elaborated in our work, and results show a similar trend as previous simulations.
    Keywords: DrivAer model; drag reduction; vortex generator; kriging model; gusty crosswind; heavy rain; cornering.

  • Parametrisation of a rolling resistance model for extending the brush tyre model   Order a copy of this article
    by Lisa Ydrefors, Martin Åsenius, Hugo Jansson, Sogol Kharrazi, Mattias Hjort, Jan Åslund 
    Abstract: A rolling resistance model has been created and parametrised with the purpose of modelling tyre rolling resistance within complete vehicle dynamics simulations. The rolling resistance model is based on a combination of the Masing and Zener model to simulate the Payne effect and the viscoelastic properties of rubber. The parametrised model is able to recreate the relationship between the rolling resistance and the tyre deformation well and it has a low computational power requirement. Today the model is limited to simulation of free-rolling tyres on a flat surface, but it can be extended to also include the effects of changes in operating conditions such as wheel angles or road surface.
    Keywords: rolling resistance; parametrisation; vehicle dynamics simulation; wheel load; tyre deformation; tyre modelling; tyre temperature; Zener model; Masing model.

  • Precise pressure adjustment of electro-hydraulic brake system based on pressure-position cascade control and compensation   Order a copy of this article
    by Yiping Liu, Xiaofei Pei, Xuexun Guo, Shihao Zhen, Zhiwei Sun 
    Abstract: A control architecture consisting of feedforward compensation, friction compensation, pressure outer loop, and position inner loop is proposed for pressure control of an electro-hydraulic brake system (EHB). The pressure and position loops are cascaded to take full advantage of the accuracy of the pressure feedback and the rapidity of the position feedback. To ensure the tracking accuracy of the master cylinder pressure and actuator position, both the inner and outer loops are designed as adaptive sliding mode controllers according to the nonlinear model. Based on the cascade architecture, an online friction compensation module is constructed using motor speed and position to improve the tracking accuracy of the inner-loop controller. The feedforward compensation module is used to improve the pressure response speed and to reduce the adjustment burden of the pressure outer loop. The test results show that the control strategy can achieve accurate pressure-position tracking and has excellent fault tolerance performance.
    Keywords: electro-hydraulic brake system; adaptive sliding mode; cascade control; friction compensation; feedforward compensation; fault tolerance.

  • Motion control of autonomous vehicles after a tyre blow-out, based on differential-flatness-MPC   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuhai Wang, Yanhui Xing, Yanfeng Cong 
    Abstract: This paper presents a vehicle safety evaluation index after a tyre blow-out event. By applying safety indicators, the movement characteristics of the vehicle are analysed according to different driving operation strategies, and then give the driving operation strategy for the vehicle after a tyre blow-out. In addition, through the analysis of the performance of the flat tyre wheel, the vehicle dynamics model with a flat tyre is presented. According to the operation strategy of the flat tyre, the MPC method based on differential flatness is used to investigate the motion control problem of vehicles with flat tyres when driving on a motorway. The simulation results show that the method can control the movement behaviour of the vehicle with a flat tyre well.
    Keywords: MPC; differential-flatness; tyre blow-out; motion control; autonomous vehicle; Simulink.

  • Integrated real-time optimal energy management strategy for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles based on rule-based strategy and AECMS   Order a copy of this article
    by Shaopeng Tian, Qingxing Zheng, Wenbin Wang, Qian Zhang 
    Abstract: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have become one of the best market-oriented and industrialised technological routes in the automotive sector owing to their fuel economy. To exhaust the energy-saving potential of PHEVs, this study proposed an integrated real-time optimal strategy for a P2+P4 PHEV. First, a rule-based strategy was devised to realise vehicle operation mode switching based on different driving conditions. Second, an offline optimisation framework was established to optimise the equivalent factors (EFs) based on the firefly algorithm (FA). A novel EF adaptation law was then proposed based on the battery state of charge (SOC) feedback and duration of the charge-depleting (CD) mode. Here, the adaptive equivalent consumption minimisation strategy (AECMS) was employed to achieve optimal power allocation during the charge-sustaining (CS) mode. Finally, numerical simulations were performed to test the pure electric range in the CD mode and fuel economy in the CS mode. The simulation results indicate that P2+P4 PHEV can operate in the CD mode for 55 km and 42.66 km under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and World Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP), respectively. In the CS mode, the FA-AECMS can improve the fuel economy by 17.96% and 15.1% under NEDC and WLTP, respectively, relative to the rule-based strategy. Additionally, the deviations in the fuel consumption compared with that of dynamic programming are 2.83% and 1.89%, respectively, which indicates an approximate global optimal performance. Compared with the ECMS, the FA-AECMS can reduce battery SOC fluctuations and has a better charge-sustaining capability. Furthermore, the feasibility of the proposed strategy was validated using a vehicle drum experiment.
    Keywords: PHEV; AECMS; equivalent factors optimisation; firefly algorithm; EF adaptation law.

  • This is a test paper, pleaseignore it
    by ReviewerV ReviewerC 
    Abstract: This is a test submission. Please ignore it
    Keywords: test test test test test test test test test test test test test test test test.

  • Characteristics of pressure waves along high-speed maglev trains in railway tunnels and comparison of fatigue strength requirements according to different standards   Order a copy of this article
    by Lin Zhang, Kailong Jin, Huadong Yao, Yueming Wang, Jiqiang Niu 
    Abstract: The aerodynamics of railway trains and tunnels were studied by using N-S equations and SST k- turbulence model. The results indicate that the train surface pressure amplitudes when high-speed trains travelling at 500800 km/h in a tunnel show a tendency to increase along the train, while the amplitudes intersecting in a tunnel were relatively close at the front and rear of the train, with fluctuations in the uniform section. When a train passed through the tunnel, the negative peak value and amplitude of the pressure wave acting on the train body exhibited linear relationship with the train speed, whereas when two trains met in the tunnel, the positive peak value, negative peak value, and amplitude were proportional to the 2.8, 2.5, and 2.6 power of the train speed. Finally, the characteristics of the International Union of Railways (UIC) and Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) were compared and studied.
    Keywords: high-speed train; tunnel; pressure wave; fatigue strength; CFD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJVD.2023.10058923
  • Low carbon design of automobile front-end structure based on Pareto mining   Order a copy of this article
    by Shuhua Li, Jing Bei, Zongyang Wu, Bofu Wu, Zhongwen Zhu 
    Abstract: In order to improve the energy saving and emission reduction effect of vehicle front-end structure, the entropy-weight TOPSIS method is proposed to mine the optimal solution in the non-dominated Pareto solution set The front-end structure of the cast aluminium vehicle is designed using the principle of integrated design, and a finite element model is established to construct a RBF-RSM hybrid approximation model with specific energy absorption and mass as the optimization objectives, and a multi-objective optimization is carried out jointly with a multi-island genetic algorithm The optimal solution is selected based on EW-TOPSIS in 148 sets of Pareto solution set species, and the optimal solution is assessed for life cycle The results show that the optimized cast aluminium structure reduces the mass by 49.82%, improves the energy absorption by 37.7%, and reduces the energy consumption by 4776.674 MJ and GHG emission by 176.207 kg.
    Keywords: lightweight; integrated design; front-end structure; investment casting; RBF-RSM surrogate model; MIGA; EW-TOPSIS; LCA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJVD.2023.10060011
  • A comparative study of redundant and non-redundant flight control system architectures for unmanned aircraft: key limitations and recommendations   Order a copy of this article
    by Robert Moore, Ramy A. Rahimi, John Robbins, Richard S. Stansbury 
    Abstract: The research study provides a comparative study of redundant and non-redundant flight control system architectures for Unmanned Aircraft (UA). The study implied the existence of shortcomings within current unmanned systems due to the lack, or severe limitation, of resilient redundant systems incorporated which prevent safe operations beyond visual line-of-sight and introduces a major public safety risk. The research highlights the key limitations of current systems by surveying, analyzing, and comparing the current flight control systems architectures for UA. The study has found that most UA use simple architectures with no redundancy elements to improve their operational safety. Additionally, aircraft with redundancy elements have limited redundancy. Conclusively, the study serves as a preliminary stage to investigate the development of a new resilient systems architecture that guarantees safe integration into the National Airspace System.
    Keywords: unmanned aircraft system; redundant flight control architecture; flight control resiliency; beyond visual-line-of-sight; flight-over-people; public safety.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJVD.2023.10060015
  • Vehicle rear end collision warning method based on MeanShift and Kalman filter tracking   Order a copy of this article
    by Bin Fang 
    Abstract: To reduce the false alarm rate and alarm rate of vehicle rear end warning, and improve the accuracy of warning, a vehicle rear end warning method based on MeanShift and Kalman filter tracking is proposed. Determine the rear end warning area, use a high-speed camera to capture the driving video image of the target vehicle, and perform image denoising and enhancement; Detect the target vehicle through inter frame difference method, and combine the mean shift algorithm with the Kalman filter algorithm to complete the tracking and positioning of the target vehicle; Determine the position of the target vehicle and the relationship between the warning areas to achieve rear end warning. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper can effectively reduce the false alarm rate and alarm rate, with a false alarm rate always below 2% and an alarm rate of 98%. It has good application performance.
    Keywords: rear end collision of vehicles; collision warning; Meanshift algorithm; Kalman filtering algorithm; warning area.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJVD.2023.10060016
  • Remote intelligent monitoring method of automobile driving safety based on Internet of Things technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Xi Qin  
    Abstract: In order to solve the shortcomings of existing automobile driving safety monitoring methods with low monitoring accuracy and long response time, a remote intelligent monitoring method for automobile driving safety based on Internet of Things technology is proposed. Firstly, build an IoT framework for remote intelligent monitoring of vehicle driving safety. Then, the multi-sensor device information, Beidou real-time positioning information and laser sensor distance measurement information are collected, and the frequency correction factor is used to correct the frequency domain characteristics of the remote sensing signal. Finally, the regularisation term is added to the least squares method to fit the sensing data to realize remote intelligent monitoring of automobile driving safety. Experiments show that the accuracy of the proposed method monitoring data is more than 93%, and the response time is within 6 s, indicating that the method in this paper has high monitoring accuracy, short response time and good monitoring effect
    Keywords: Internet of Things technology; car driving safety; remote monitoring; sensor technology; frequency correction factor; Least squares.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJVD.2023.10060017
  • Side sled test systems: a review   Order a copy of this article
    by Alzbeta Kafkova, Frantisek Lopot, Jakub Jelinek, Milan. Ruzicka 
    Abstract: With the introduction of dynamic ECE-R95 and FMVSS 214 crash test requirements, there has been an increasing demand for systems enabling evaluation of performance of door and components of passive safety for side impacts without a need to perform full-scale crash tests. Full-scale crash tests result in substantive economic burden for vehicle development departments and prove to be time consuming. This review describes more than twenty side sled test systems designed for airbags, side door bars and door trim testing and the determination of their respective dynamic force-deflection characteristics. The simple sled test systems that use only one piston and do not allow door deformation are described here, as well as the sophisticated sled test systems that use multiple pistons and advanced simulation of door deformation in real time. In this review, the principle of each system is explained clearly and its advantages and disadvantages are evaluated.
    Keywords: side impact; side sled test system; component testing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJVD.2023.10060018
  • Digital human models in automotive engineering applications: a bibliometric analysis of research progress and prospects   Order a copy of this article
    by Jian Li, Peijing Li, Jingwen Hu 
    Abstract: Digital human models (DHMs) with high levels of customisation and realism have been widely employed in automotive engineering. Despite studies investigating the use of DHMs in specific domains, there is a lack of comprehensive analyses that evaluate the research trends of the field as a whole. This review proposes and employs a comprehensive, reproducible, and systematic bibliometric analysis approach, inspired by the PRISMA guidelines, to summarize the current state and challenges of DHMs in automotive engineering and to outline future directions. First, this review presents the general bibliometric distributions of publication and citation growth, research areas, keyword distribution, and thematic evolution. Furthermore, it offers an all-inclusive review of the development, validation, and application of DHMs in various fields of automotive engineering, including ergonomic design and safety evaluation. Finally, the prospects and challenges of DHMs are discussed to provide a novel perspective to promote the advancement of this field.
    Keywords: digital human models; automotive engineering; vehicle ergonomics; crash safety; bibliometric analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJVD.2023.10060019
  • Automatic recognition of vehicle differentiated driving behaviour in automatic driving scenarios   Order a copy of this article
    by Yulin Ma, Yicheng Li, Shulong Wu, Shucai Xu 
    Abstract: Due to the problems of low recognition accuracy and long recognition time in traditional automatic recognition methods for driving behaviors, an automatic recognition method for vehicle differentiated driving behaviors in autonomous driving scenarios is proposed. Firstly, a camera imaging model is used to obtain vehicle differential driving behavior images in an autonomous driving scene, and the obtained vehicle differential driving behavior images are filtered, color enhanced, and deblurred. Then, the processed images are segmented based on a Gaussian mixture model to construct a multi view of driving behavior. Finally, vehicle differential driving behavior features are extracted to automatically identify fatigue driving, sudden acceleration/deceleration Differential driving behavior of vehicles such as idling. The simulation results show that the proposed method has higher accuracy and shorter recognition time for vehicle differential driving behavior automatic recognition in autonomous driving scenarios.
    Keywords: automatic driving scenario; vehicle differentiation; driving behaviour; Gaussian mixture model; image segmentation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJVD.2023.10060024
  • Power smooth control of automobile drive motor based on torque prediction   Order a copy of this article
    by Cui Zuo, Jiajia Li 
    Abstract: Because the power smooth control effect of automobile drive motor is poor, the control accuracy is low, and the control time is long, so a power smooth control method of automobile drive motor based on torque prediction is proposed. The aims of this paper are to analyse the working principle and performance of the automobile drive motor, establish the motion equation of the automobile drive motor, predict the torque of the drive motor, calculate the power smoothing factor of the automobile drive motor through the influence factors, design the fuzzy ADRC controller for torque control, set the active power command output by the inverter stage through the controller, and establish the power smoothing control model of the automobile drive motor. The experimental results show that the power of the automobile drive motor controlled by the proposed method is smoother, the control accuracy is higher, and the control time is shorter.
    Keywords: torque prediction; drive motor; power smoothing control; fuzzy ADRC controller.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJVD.2023.10060385

Special Issue on: Multi-Objective Design and Structural Optimisation of Vehicle Components with Nature-Inspired Optimisation Algorithms

  • Integrated optimisation of two-speed powertrain parameters and shifting strategy for energy in electric vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Daoguang Zhu, Congbo Li, Lingling Li, Ying Tang 
    Abstract: In order to improve the economic performance and extend the range of electric vehicles (EV), an integrated optimisation method for the design and optimisation for powertrain parameters and shifting strategy are proposed. Firstly, the powertrain parameters are matched to ensure the dynamic performance of electric vehicles and the shifting strategy with comprehensive performance is designed based on the analysis of dynamic and economy performances. Secondly, a multi-objective integration model of powertrain parameter and shifting strategy optimisation is proposed to take the minimum energy consumption as the optimisation objective without sacrificing dynamic performance, which is solved by a multi-objective particle swarm optimisation algorithm. Finally, to verify the energy-saving performance of the proposed multi-objective integration problem, case studies have been conducted and a whole vehicle simulation model is proposed based on Matlab/Simulink platform. The simulation results show that the proposed method can effectively reduce the energy consumption and extend the range of electric vehicles under different driving cycle.
    Keywords: electric vehicle; powertrain parameter; shifting strategy; multi-objective integrated optimisation; particle swarm optimisation algorithm.

Special Issue on: New Energy Vehicles' NVH and Lightweight and Control Technologies

  • Comparison of deep learning methods for predicting charging energy of power batteries   Order a copy of this article
    by Xuefeng Zhu, Guoliang Xie 
    Abstract: Accurate prediction of the electric vehicle charging energy is essential for power grid companies to rationally allocate power resources, customise appropriate tariffs and select the location of charging piles. Currently, machine learning methods have been widely applied in this field. Aiming to predict Electric Vehicles (EV) charging energy more precisely, this paper compares several machine learning methods and concludes that Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) neural network has better behaviour. As the initial training data was incomplete, we supplemented the training data with MissFrorest neural network. We compared Back Propagation (BP), Xtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost), and LSTM networks for the prediction of charging energy, and found that LSTM has the best prediction effect, XGBoost has the second best, and BP has the worst effect. LSTM addresses the issue of gradient dispersion due to introducing time series, and thus has a better prediction effect. The experimental results show that Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root-mean-square error (RMSE) indices for four of five experimental vehicles using the LSTM algorithm are smaller than those using BP and XGBoost methods. Compared with the BP, XGBoost algorithms, the average reduction of MAE is 42.79%, 23.48%, and RMSE is reduced by 43.42%, 19.65%.
    Keywords: predicting charging energy; deep learning; power batteries; electric vehicles.

Special Issue on: Cyber Security in Internet of Vehicles

  • Stabilisation of traffic flow by considering multiple information based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication   Order a copy of this article
    by Qian Li, Haiyang Wang, Dongfan Xie 
    Abstract: The rapid development of advanced technologies means that vehicles can share information with each other based on vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. It is expected that the V2V information can improve efficiency and stability of traffic flow, which has attracted much attention in traffic flow theory. To this end, this study develops an alternative car-following model with the consideration of V2V information. By using the linear stability theory, stability analysis is performed, and the string stability condition is obtained. The results indicate that V2V information can improve the stability of traffic flow, and traffic fluctuations can thus be suppressed. Case studies are carried out based on numerical simulations, and the results coincide with the theoretical ones.
    Keywords: vehicle-to-vehicle; communication; car-following model; stability analysis; traffic congestion.

Special Issue on: The Modelling and Control of Automated Guided Vehicle Systems

  • Dynamic characteristics analysis of spatial suspension mechanisms based on instantaneous screws   Order a copy of this article
    by Guofeng Zhou, Yafei Wang, Zhisong Zhou, Jingkai Wu 
    Abstract: Multi-link, MacPherson and double-wishbone suspensions are commonly used in passenger cars. The dynamic characteristics of a vehicle are strongly affected by these independent suspensions. This paper presents a unified quarter-vehicle model which incorporates both the spatial suspension kinematics and the tyre dynamics for the dynamic analysis of the three spatial suspensions. In the quarter-vehicle model, it consists of a spatial suspension mechanism and a ground-wheel contact model. For a vehicle running straight ahead on the uneven road, the dynamic characteristics analysis using the quarter-vehicle model is divided into three steps. Firstly, for the quarter-vehicle model the corresponding instantaneous screws are determined at any instant. Then, the theory of screws is used to describe the kinestatics of the quarter-vehicle model. Finally, on basis of the kinestatic relations, the dynamic equations derived using the Lagrangian function are applied to the dynamic analysis. As to the feasibility of the theoretical method, different road disturbances are considered for the numerical examples. The simulation results respectively of the theoretical method and the widely used Adams/View software are compared to verify the numerical performances of the dynamic analysis.
    Keywords: spatial suspension mechanisms; quarter-vehicle model; instantaneous screws; kinematics; statics; dynamics; theory of screws.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJVD.2021.10056213
  • Parameter-space-based robust control of heterogeneous platoon with stochastic packet dropout   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiawei Wang, Fangwu Ma, Sheng Zhu, Yu Yang, Sukru Yaren Gelbal, Bilin Aksun-Guvenc, Levent Guvenc 
    Abstract: This paper presents a parameter-space-based multi-objective, robust CACC platooning controller for a heterogeneous vehicular platoon with stochastic packet dropout during inter-vehicular communication. The parameter space approach is adopted to optimise the gains of the robust controller, to handle the multiplicative uncertainty, and to project the robust performance requirements. The feasible region where internal stability and preceding vehicle following accuracy are satisfied is then visualised in the parameter space. Subsequently, the robust controller, which combines the feedforward loop and feedback loop, is developed by selecting the gain from the feasible solution area. The simulation results of a six-vehicle heterogeneous platoon are presented and evaluated to verify the efficiency of this control algorithm. The results show that string stability and comfort are well guaranteed by this robust controller, even for the heterogeneous platoon with stochastic packet dropout and the following error is limited to an acceptable range.
    Keywords: cooperative adaptive cruise control; stochastic packet dropout; heterogeneous platoon; parameter space approach.

  • Active roll control for rollover prevention of semi-trailers with robust invariant set   Order a copy of this article
    by Echuan Yang, Chuanren Xie, Jian Ou, Senlin Zhang, Liang Qin 
    Abstract: To improve the roll stability of semi-trailers, a robust model predictive controller (RMPC) is designed. To analyse the vehicle dynamic behaviour, a nonlinear seven-degrees of freedom (7-DOF) vehicle model is defined. Based on the robust invariant set theory, and taking the uncertainty of the drivers driving behaviour into account, the maximal robust control invariant (RCI) set is calculated and its robustness is analysed. The N-step controllable sets of the vehicle are also solved. An anti-roll controller considering multiple constraints is designed based on the robust model predictive control theory. Simulation results show that the controller can keep the lateral load transfer rate within 0.7 and make the state variables converge. In addition, the controller can reduce the lateral acceleration by 50% in the step steering input test.
    Keywords: anti-roll control; invariant set; robust control; model predictive control; semi-trailer.

  • Design of remote control smart car with two-way information communication   Order a copy of this article
    by Hongyan Qin, Ben Zhang 
    Abstract: This paper takes Freescale's remote wireless control smart car as the research object, completes the design of the main control board hardware circuit and the upper controller remote control software, and realises two-way information communication. The smart car collects the vehicle position signal by the CMOS image sensor, and transmits the image to the controller in real time by the APC220 wireless module. The XS128 microcontroller receives the control instructions sent by the controller, and drives the DC motor to control the smart car. The single-chip microcomputer collects the pulse signal of the wheel speed through the photoelectric encoder, which is captured by the MCU for PID closed-loop control. Tests show that the smart car and the controller can achieve error-free data transmission in a long-distance, multi-interference environment, and have good stability and obtain real-time control information.
    Keywords: wireless remote control; smart car; two-way information communication; anti-jamming design.

  • Real-time estimation of the vehicle moment of inertia based on IMU measurements   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiongshi Wang, Jiahua Qi, Steffen Mueller 
    Abstract: Identifying the vehicles moment of inertia for vehicle control in any driving condition is very important, e.g. for a good continuous performance of autonomous driving. In this study, an identification method is proposed for the pitch and roll moments of inertia. The performance of the proposed estimation method was evaluated through experiments using a 4-post test rig and IMU measurement system under different road conditions. Several scenarios have been investigated to verify the accuracy and robustness of the estimator in real-time. Our work shows very promising results with acceptable convergence time for a variety of manoeuvres.
    Keywords: vehicle dynamics; parameter estimation; state estimation; moment of inertia.

Special Issue on: Advanced Safety Design and Control for Electric Vehicles

  • A new torque ripple suppression strategy based on the CSA for PMHM of electric vehicles under New European Driving Cycles   Order a copy of this article
    by Yao Zhang, Xiaodong Sun 
    Abstract: This paper presents a new torque ripple suppression strategy for a permanent magnet hub motor (PMHM) of electric vehicles' drive. With the complex characteristics such as nonlinear time delay and multi-dimension presented by the PMHM, the traditional PID controller has been unable to meet the requirements of the control system. Thus, the cat swarm algorithm (CSA) is introduced to improve the accuracy of PID parameters thanks to its good global search ability. Moreover, it is found that the proposed CSA-PID in the outer loop can obtain better performance such as smaller torque ripple and faster dynamic response both in steady and dynamic state compared with the traditional PID controller. Finally, the strategy proposed in this paper was applied to the vehicle model through HIL test platform. The possibility of applying the strategy proposed to EVs was verified under the New European Driving Cycle.
    Keywords: permanent magnet hub motor; cat swarm algorithm; torque ripple suppression; New European Driving Cycle.

  • Research on crashworthiness and lightweight of frame body based on load path and material selection   Order a copy of this article
    by Tingting Wang, Ruoyan Dong, Yuechen Duan, Dongchen Qin 
    Abstract: In order to effectively optimise the frame body structure and match the performance of lightweight materials with the function of body structure, a material-structure optimisation framework of multi-material frame body is proposed to improve the lightweight and collision safety at the same time. Firstly, in order to improve the crashworthiness of the frame, the equivalent static load method is used to analyse the load path of the frame body to obtain the optimal structure. Secondly, the crashworthiness evaluation method based on evolutionary structural optimisation method is used to evaluate each member of frame body, which provides the basis for material selection. Finally, the material index is introduced to establish the material library. According to the deformation evaluation results, the material selection method based on bubbling method is used to select materials orderly to match the function of members, and the multi-material frame with the objective selection scheme is obtained. In this study, the proposed method is demonstrated by the lightweight of racing car body. The results show that the body mass is reduced by 25.60 kg after the lightweight design, and the crash safety is improved. Therefore, the proposed optimisation framework of multi-material frame body.
    Keywords: frame body; lightweight; load path; material selection.

Special Issue on: Vehicle Design Processes

  • Design of BLDC motor drive system using alternative controllers for performance evaluation in electric vehicle applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohanraj Nandakumar 
    Abstract: Electric vehicles have emerged as a promising and important alternative means of transportation, replacing IC engine driven automobiles, which use fossil fuels. One important feature to be incorporated in an electric automobile is regenerative braking for extending the operating range. Accordingly, BLDC motor-based power electronic drive systems capable of energy regeneration have become attractive. This paper discusses the automobile dynamics, covering road friction, aerodynamic forces, transmission systems and calculation of tractive force. The time dependant profile of the reflected torque and speed variables at the motor shaft are computed and used as reference data for an intelligent controller. Here, a multi-loop control scheme has been developed, whose gain parameters are tuned based on two alternate algorithms viz., PSO (Particle Swarm Optimisation) technique and MNFIS (Multiple Neuron Fuzzy Inference System) for comparison. Simulation results for two power circuit regeneration topologies with the above control algorithms are presented. The experimental part is a representation of profile based operation, which deals with the application of the PMBLDC motor-based drive system for powering a passenger car and the evaluation of the system performance. Regeneration of power is validated in a laboratory setup and recorded.
    Keywords: BLDC motor; electric vehicle; MNFIS; PSO.