Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Ultra Wideband Communications and Systems

International Journal of Ultra Wideband Communications and Systems (IJUWBCS)

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International Journal of Ultra Wideband Communications and Systems (21 papers in press)

Regular Issues

    by Sarthak Singhal, Amit Kumar Singh 
    Abstract: A CPW-fed star shaped slot like monopole antenna with and without ITU-8 band notch characteristics for ultra wideband communication are proposed. They comprise a stage 1 Koch fractal star shaped radiating patch, modified feedline and slot loaded CPW ground plane. The band notch characteristic is achieved by loading the radiating patch with half wavelength long meander line slot. An impedance bandwidth of 3.1-17.6 GHz with band rejection for 8-9 GHz band (ITU-8 band) (S_11?-10 dB) is achieved. The band notch characteristic is modeled by an equivalent RLC resonant circuit. The equivalent circuit is validated with simulated input impedance and VSWR results. The proposed antenna provides an average gain of 4.4 dB over the entire band of operation for without band notched antenna. The radiation patterns are also observed to be omni-directional & bidirectional at lower frequencies with some distortions at higher frequencies. Non-band reject antenna configuration provides a fidelity factor of 90% along with a constant group delay over the entire operating band. The effect of various critical parameters on antenna performance is also analyzed.
    Keywords: Coplanar waveguide feeding; defected ground structure; modified feedline; star shaped monopole; ultra wideband communication.

  • On the Design and Analysis of Micro-Machined Frac Truss based Fractal Patch Antenna for Multiband Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by ASHISH KUMAR, Amar Partap Singh Pharwaha 
    Abstract: An optimal design of frac truss based fractal patch antenna for multiband applications devoted to satellite communications is proposed in this paper. The proposed antenna is iterative up to 3rd iteration with a miniaturized size of 15 mm
    Keywords: Frac Truss; Fractal; Micro-Machining; Bandwidth.

  • Design of a parallel coupled microstrip planar band-pass Chebyshev filter for 2.4GHz ISM band application   Order a copy of this article
    by Quazi Mohmmad Alfred, Hashibul Alam 
    Abstract: This paper demonstrates the design, simulation and fabrication of edge-coupled microstrip bandpass filter (BPF) at the center frequency around 2.4 GHz. It is very much useful on 2.4 GHz ISM band wireless communications e.g. GPS, WLAN Bluetooth and WiMax applications. The filter is built on relatively low-cost FR-4 substrate. The theoretically considered range of frequency 2.3 to 2.5 GHz and bandwidth is 200 MHz and Chebyshev filter response with 0.5 dB ripple in pass-band is preferred. The simulation values of cutoff frequency are 2.30 and 2.50 GHz with center frequency 2.4 GHz and measured values is 2.302 and 2.502GHz with center frequency 2.402 GHz. After fabrication the measurement, the results show the good agreement with theoretical consideration and simulation results.
    Keywords: Bandpass filter(BPF); Chebyshev filter response; microstrip; parallel coupled line; edge-coupled; even and odd mode impedance.

  • Inset-fed Microstrip Patch Antenna for Ubiquitous Wireless Communication Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Rezaul Azim, Koli Dhar, Md. Mia, Mohammad Islam 
    Abstract: This paper presents an inset-fed microstrip patch antenna for ubiquitous wireless communication applications. The studied design is comprised of an inset-fed rectangular radiator and a partial ground plane and is printed on an FR4 microwave substrate. The measured results reveal that the fabricated prototype achieved a good impedance bandwidth of 1.78 GHz (2.02 - 3.8 GHz) and is able to cover well-established narrow-bands including ISM, IMT, WiFi, Bluetooth, WiMAX, WLAN and 3.5 GHz for sub-6 GHz 5G communication system. Moreover, it achieved maximum gain of 5.14 dBi, a maximum efficiency of 94.16% and exhibits stable radiation patterns which make it a suitable candidate to be used in narrow-band wireless communication services.
    Keywords: Microstrip Patch Antenna; Inset-fed; ISM band; WiFi; WiMAX; WLAN.

  • Review on Microwave Pulse Generation using Electro-Optical Sources   Order a copy of this article
    by Shruti Shruti, Sasmita Pahadsingh 
    Abstract: Microwave pulse generator using electro-optical sources is one of the most rapidly growing technology nowadays in the field of research which combines both microwave and optical technologies. It has many applications like it is used in radar systems, wireless communication, medical imaging etc. We have reviewed the photonic microwave pulse generation using different methodologies and suggested new developments in this field and also studied about the different optical sources to generate light pulses and its benefits. Some techniques are also reviewed for the generation of Ultra Wide Band (UWB) pulses in optical domain like using N tap microwave photonic filter, Phase Modulation to Intensity Modulation (PM-IM) conversion, using photonic microwave delay line filter and using optical spectral shaping and dispersion induced frequency to time mapping. Generation of multiband and UWB signals of higher order using incoherant microwave photonic filters are also reviewed. Also the generation of Linearly Chirped Microwave Pulses (LCMP) with large Time Bandwidth Product (TBWP) based on self-heterodyne technique, optically injected semiconductor laser and temporal interferometer are reviewed. Finally all the methods are compared in terms of their advantages and disadvantages.
    Keywords: Federal Communication Commission (FCC); Micro Wave (MW); Phase Modulation to Intensity Modulation (PM-IM); Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG); Mode Locked Fiber Laser (MLFL).

  • Training-Based Channel Estimation for Massive MIMO Systems using LAS Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Mitesh Solanki, Shilpi Gupta 
    Abstract: Likelihood ascent search (LAS) recently emerged as a promising low-complexity near-optimal detection algorithm for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. LAS detection algorithm design with perfect channel state information (CSI) consideration is an area of research attention. In the real-time scenario, channel estimation has been challenging in communication systems. This article proposes a lattice-reduction-based LAS (LR-LAS) detection for massive MIMO systems under imperfect CSI. Our proposed LR-LAS takes the medium-to-strong channel estimation error of antennas into account when computing the maximum likelihood (ML) cost function. Our approach presents a novel iterative detection and training-based channel estimation framework. Simulation results show that the proposed LR-LAS detector significantly improves bit-error-rate (BER) performance compared to their conventional LAS counterpart. Hence, our proposed detector can be used as an efficient candidate under imperfect CSI in the system.
    Keywords: Likelihood ascent search; Channel state information; lattice reduction; massive MIMO; maximum likelihood; training-based channel estimation.

  • Compact 4   Order a copy of this article
    by Raghunath Bhadade, Vedali Pathak, Atharv Patil, Mohit Balany 
    Abstract: A high isolation 4
    Keywords: MIMO; WLAN; Mutual coupling; and ECC.

Special Issue on: Modern Research, Design and Implementation in High/Wide and Ultrawide Band Antennas and Propagation

  • Integrated Multipath Routing Protocol for well-organized Route Selection in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Asha G, Srivatsa S.K 
    Abstract: Several challenges in the design and implementation of wireless networks using diverse aspects in heterogeneous applications. The important aspects of these networks are far beyond regular service but the assurance of Quality of Service (QoS) parameters. Devices connecting through wireless networks and dynamic in motion will rely on advanced networking prospects. The promise to be connected to a network anytime and anywhere is the predominant expectation from Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs). Wireless Sensor Networks extended their adaptations into a service provider of diverse Mobile Stations. The standard connectivity measures will not be applicable when mobile nodes transfer their messages through multi-hop environments or one-hop neighbors. This article documents a novel architecture of MANETs intending to perform the challenging task of ensuring service through the following improvements. Design of a good topology, the hierarchy of communication, discovering routes, quality of links, retransmission, and finally security parameters are some of the aspects which are concentrated when a protocol is derived. Considering the dynamic capacity of nodes/devices participating in the communication, the topology is the frequent parameter that gets altered in MANETs. QoS parameters along with topology-aware protocol will demand a path selection algorithm and thus the proposed work introduces an innovative path selection algorithm with optimal quality constraints. The stability of the path and connectivity between the nodes with a fast retransmission algorithm is ensured in the proposed algorithm. The protocol is simulated with different speeds, number of nodes, data range, and distance between all the nodes in an NS2 Simulator. From the results observed, it is evident that the preferred quality of service parameters such as packet delivery ratio, end to end delay, jitter and throughput are enhanced through the proposed approach for multipath routing with QoS promises.
    Keywords: Mobile Adhoc Networks; Multipath Routing; QoS Parameters; Link Stability; Reliable communication links.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJUWBCS.2020.10037132
  • Remote Monitoring of Indoor and Outdoor movement in Epidemiological situations utilizing UWB transceivers   Order a copy of this article
    by Sukumar Rajendran, Prabhu J, Sandeep Kumar M, Prasanna S, Manivannan SS, Kumar P J, Maheshwari V, Prasanna M 
    Abstract: A global pandemic has reduced mobility, impacting the healthcare assessment, and diagnostics on comorbid patients. Various challenges for location finding and indoor signaling issues give rise to the necessity for compact and low-cost ultra-wide band sensor technology. Lock down has played a vital role during crisis in engaging with specific conditions like position estimation in areas under LOS and NLOS caused by diffraction and reflection of UWB signals across obstacles. UWB based localization system with edge/fog computing is used to analyze the indoor/ outdoor usage of quarantined patients reducing the transmission, which becomes a threat for society and healthcare personals. The mathematical models to symbolize various patterns utilizing UWB sensors with Anchors and Tags to determine the flow of all rapid and random movements within the specified clustered locations. The proposed system achieves high classification accuracy with SVM to classify the patterns and assist frontline medical workers in containing pandemics through human interaction.
    Keywords: Ultra-wide band; SVM; Mathematical model; COVID-19; Localization; Motion Detection; Wireless positioning systems; Healthcare.

    by Trigunesh Narzary, Kumar R, Rituraj Bhattacharjee 
    Abstract: An electrostatically actuating capacitive radio frequency MEMS shunt switch with a unique step structure and meander spring having an effective spring constant of 1.45 N/m has been designed and analyzed in this work. The materials for the dielectric medium between the RF switch and the transmission electrode, preferred for this work are Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), Niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5), and Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and simulations were carried out to investigate the performance of the switch based on key parameters like actuation voltage, switching time and s-parameters. An actuation voltage of 4.44 V with ZrO2, 4.38 V with Nb2O5, and 3.88 V with TiO2 as the dielectric was achieved in the proposed switch with a 2
    Keywords: Capacitive; radio frequency; MEMS; meander; step structure; actuation voltage; s- parameters.

  • An Experimental Analysis of Image Extract algorithm (IEa) in UWB Communication medium to Make a Smart Pesticide Sprayer for Cassava Agriculture Crops   Order a copy of this article
    by Siddhanta Borah, Kumar R, Khalid Mohd Ibrahimi, Rituraj Bhattacharjee 
    Abstract: This paper presents an ultra-wide band(UWB) based hardware prototype model to study a novel Image Extract Algorithm (IEa). The IEa is a less complex algorithm proposed to solve the issue which arises due to the attack of pests in cassava agriculture land in eastern part of India, Nagaland. The hardware prototype model is made around Raspberry Pi 3 B+ board that supports 2.4GHz and 5GHz IEEE 802.11.b/g/n/ac wireless local area network (WLAN). The hardware system is able to spray pesticides automatically and uniformly (using nozzle system) once the pest is detected. To control the spray unit smoothly a SPDT (single pole double throw) relay is used. During implementation of this device using IEa algorithm in agriculture field, it is found that time consumption is less as compared to other similar existing algorithms to protect agriculture crops from pest. The total processing time of the algorithm consumed by the device for detecting pests in an agriculture field was found to be 17.10 seconds. The device was tested in the month of April-June 2020 in a cassava crops field, Dimapur, Nagaland, India.
    Keywords: Raspberry Pi 3; Image processing; Image Extract Algorithm (IEa),MATLAB 2018R,UWB based hardware device.

  • Optimized Floating Point Arithmetic based QR decomposition for wireless communication systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Radhika Alahari, Satya Prasad Kodati, Kishan Rao Kalitkar 
    Abstract: Abstract: In wireless communication systems, Matrix inversion is the most common operation to provide a solution to the system of linear equations. Also, OMP Compressive Sensing is widely preferred for signal reconstruction at the receiver side. In both these processes, the accuracy and achievable performance rate of fixed-point arithmetic restrict its applicability in many real-time applications. In this paper, floating-point enabled systolic array implementation of iterative QR Decomposition (QRD) based on the Modified Gram-Schmidt (MGS) algorithm is proposed for matrix inversion. Here, the computational efficiency is improved using floating-point optimization techniques and parallel systolic implementation which results in robust numerical stability. By exploiting the potential metrics of the systolic array, the proposed QRD architecture offered maximum throughput rate and inherent errorless FPU computation which help in improving the accuracy in matrix inversion.
    Keywords: Keywords: Orthogonal Matching Pursuit; QR Decomposition; Gram-Schmidt; Floating Point Unit; Wireless Communication; Compressive Sensing; Matrix inversion; Signal detection.

  • Detection and Localization of Cars in Indoor Parking through UWB Radar-Based Sensing System   Order a copy of this article
    by Sukumar Rajendran, Sandeep Kumar M, Manivannan SS, Geetha M, Prabhu J, Maheshwari V, Prasanna M, Jabez Christopher R 
    Abstract: Location-based identification of entities determines to provide support at the point of need and the precise position in real-time. The indoor parking environments are challenging with complex situations depending on the size, location, and structure with specified locations allocated for entry and exit. UWB provides a high precision positioning for a specific layout through the tags and anchors with accuracy at the centimetre level. In this paper, a specified indoor parking layout is identified with graph entities by visualizing the trajectory through simulnet. The indoor positioning system utilizes the NLOS/LOS signal to classify whether the parking lot slots are occupied or not. The UWB positioning mode allows for defining the spatial positioning in the indoor parking lot layout. Decluttered parking space with reduced waiting time through Graph edge node detection with specific paths for entry are validated through the UWB system. The proposed algorithm provides a real-time dynamic tracking of empty and full parking space with high accuracy.
    Keywords: UWB; indoor parking; counting; congestion; crowdedness; graph theory.

    by Abdullah Saleh Alqahtani 
    Abstract: In MANET, node within its transmission range can be communicated directly and the nodes that are out of its transmission range may be communicate via other intermediate nodes .The existing popular reactive AOMDV protocol in MANET, suffers routing Overhead due to flooding of RREQ and RREP packets. In many cases reactive routing protocol in MANET uses AOMDV for route discovery. A node consumes some energy level for receiving and forwarding data packets. A path loss may happen due to draining of node energy level or node moves out of coverage area. To overcome this draw back we propose a modified AOMDV algorithm, Enhanced Energy and channel aware load balancing (EECALB AOMDV) routing protocols that reduces routing overhead by multicasting RREQ packet only to selected neighbour nodes. These neighbour nodes are selected by examining the channel, node energy level and existing load analysis. The proposed algorithm will not only minimize routing overhead, but also establish stable path, that over comes the path loss and also distribute load for multipath, and for efficient transmission between source to destination.
    Keywords: Inter queue space; Routing overhead; Enhanced Energy and load aware, AOMDV; MANET; Mobile Adhoc Wireless Network.

  • FPGA Implementation of Polar Codes for 5G eMBB Control Channels   Order a copy of this article
    by GIRA APARNA, Raparla Swathi, M. KEIZA JOSEPH 
    Abstract: The rapid growth in wireless communications and information technology over a decade is demanding advanced wireless technologies development. The channel coding techniques are required not only to overcome the effects of the channel behaviour but also to improve the performance in terms of speed, design, hardware efficiency, throughput so as to be applicable for various wireless communication applications. Design and implementation of channel codes for different code lengths (N) and varying code rates (R) to handle the latency and the hardware requirements for enhanced Mobile Broad Band (eMBB) control channel standards like 5G is a challenging issue at present. Polar codes are treated as a solution to the above defined design aspects to fulfill the requirements by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). In this paper, a hardware implementation of polar codes using efficient hardware structures and the algorithm chosen to attain the log likely hood ratio (LLR) condition for successive cancellation list decoding method is presented. Employing SCLD method supports in handling and improvement in the error correction performance of the polar codes. However, the hardware complexity to address the list decoding process to obtain low latency remains high for increasing block sizes of the code lengths. Therefore a VLSI architecture for polar codes implementation using SCLD method based on LLR approach is designed and simulated using VHDL programming, ISE Navigator 14.2, HDL synthesizer on the target FPGA device XC6vlx760-1-ffl760 for analyzing various code lengths N [128,256,512] as inputs and code rates R [1/6, 1/3,1/2] in this paper. The results tabulated shows the summary of device utilization, power consumed, latency, and LUT, throughput and hardware efficiency for list size L of 8 so as to illustrate the significant performance of the polar codes for selected eMBB control channels applications in 5G.
    Keywords: eMBB-Enhanced Mobile Broad Band; 5G-fifth Generation,SCL-Successive Cancellation List Decoder; LLR-Log Likelihood Ratio; control channels; FPGA.

    by Pradeep K G M, Venkatesan S, Soundararajan K 
    Abstract: The wireless sensor network for structural health analysis system reduces the cost of installation and further maintenance compared to wired sensor system. These sensors are deployed to detect damages in the building and send information to sink node i.e. base station. The building damages are detected at early stage and further necessary steps are taken to avoid building disaster. These sensors such as accelerometer sensor, strain sensor, corrosion sensor, and optical fiber sensors are deployed around the building infrastructure in huge count. Initially few sensors are in active State and when even any damages detected additional sensors are activated to collect information. A hierarchical cluster mechanism is implemented to gather information from all sensors and consolidate them and final decision is taken and sends to the base station for necessary actions. This hierarchical clustering plays a vital role in transferring sensory information to the base station in effective manner. The sleepy and wakeup mechanism will improve the sensor life time and effectively utilizes the battery backup Wireless Sensor Network. The implementation of health monitoring system using WSN will effectively detect earth quake, building damages due to load, stress or corrosion.etc.
    Keywords: Health Monitoring System; Hierarchical clustering; Energy aware routing.

  • Analysis of Conical Liquid Antenna for Wide Range of Frequencies   Order a copy of this article
    by Roopa S, Kiran Kumar E 
    Abstract: A novel flexible conical liquid antenna fed by a probe pin is proposed in this paper. The proposed antenna is tested with three types of liquids like pure water, glycerin, and sea water and is analyzed to achieve a voltage standing wave ratio of 1 to 2 over frequency range of 300850 MHz The simulation and experimental results validate that a compact, cost effective proposed conical antenna achieves wide range of frequencies with low radar cross section and omni directional radiation pattern. For a conical liquid antenna, the gain achieved by the experimental results is 2 dBi which is approximated to the gain achieved from simulation results that is around 1.89 dBi. Also, antenna measurements like radiation pattern, gain, voltage standing wave ratio and bandwidth of different liquids are compared using Vector network analyzer.
    Keywords: Frequency selective antenna; Glycerin; Liquid antenna; Radiation pattern; Voltage standing wave ratio.

    by Haripriya M P, P. Venkadesh 
    Abstract: 5G network plans to handle huge amounts of data connect to several devices for offering customized services. With the rapid improvement of mobile Internet of Things (IoT), the advanced features of 5G network needs to provide the new security requirements for data transmission. An IoT based Trust aware B-Tree Goldwasser-Micali Cryptographic Node Authentication (IoT-TBTGMCNA) technique is developed for secured communication in 5G mobile networks with higher accuracy. In IoT-TBTGMCNA technique, the trust value of mobile nodes is calculated for secured communication with help of connected IoT devices (i.e. mobile nodes). Mobile nodes are arranged in form of B-Tree depending on trust value. The mobile nodes in tree are inserted or removed based on the deployment. The IoT-TBTGMCNA technique includes three phases namely key generation, distribution and node authentication. In key generation phase, the keys are generated and distributed for the mobile nodes by using Goldwasser-Micali Cryptographic Algorithm. After key generation, Goldwasser-Micali Encryption Algorithm encrypts the key and transmitted to child node. After getting the encrypted key, the child node decrypts key with its ID using Goldwasser-Micali Decryption Algorithm. Whenever the sender mobile node needs to authenticate the receiver, it sends the request to that particular node. Then, the receiver transmits the encrypted key to their parents for verifying the authenticity with the stored key. When both keys are similar, then mobile node is termed as authenticated node. Otherwise, the mobile node is said to be anomalous node. With the authentic node, the data transmission is performed to achieve secure communication. Simulation is carried out on factors such as authentication accuracy, computation overhead and security level with respect to number of mobile nodes and data packets. The comparative analysis achieves improved performance in terms of minimum computation overhead and higher authentication accuracy as well as security level than the other well-known methods.
    Keywords: 5G; Wireless networks; IoT; Goldwasser-Micali Cryptography; B-Trees; node authentication.

Special Issue on: Cognitive Computing Sensing, Security and Challenges

  • Clusters based Rendezvousing Approach for Scheduling the Flash Crowd Transmissions over Cognitive Radio Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Suneetha Chalasani, S. Srinivasa Rao, K.S. Ramesh 
    Abstract: Rendezvousing the transmissions and radio frequencies is a crucial objective to achieve optimal utilization of the spectrum bands by secondary users in cognitive radio networks. Many dimensions of research, such as attaining quality of service during transmissions occurring through spectrum bands, optimizing security factors to enable fair and trusted transmissions over spectrum bands is happening in the recent past.However, optimizing the spectrum band utilization by rendezvousing the transmissions and radio frequencies of spectrum band as transmission channels is essential against the massive transmissions (flash crowd) framed by multiple users. Concerning this, a batch processing approach called Clusters based Rendezvousing Approach for Scheduling the Flash Crowd Transmissions over Cognitive Radio Networks has proposed in this manuscript.A new distance measuring technique has adapted to perform a clustering process, which has applied on both buffered transmissions and idle radio frequencies. The results obtained from an experimental study indicating the comparatively better performance from the proposed model and, if utilized within the definitive frameworks, can yield better performance results.
    Keywords: Dynamic Spectrum Access; flash crowd; Cognitive Radio Networks; Primary Users; Secondary Users; Spectrum Assignment.

  • Comparative Investigation on Multi-Band Antenna Using FR-4 & RT-Duroid   Order a copy of this article
    by Prashanth Karanam, Pradeep.M. Hadalgi, Prabhakar.V. Hunagund 
    Abstract: The comparative design & investigation of the multiple resonances are analyzed on two substrates using FR-4 & RT-Duroid. The DGS is designed on the ground plane with the combination of slots getting into shaped as E-shape & stacked U-shape. The proposed model has responded to multiple resonances on two substrates. Once the DGS has inserted the various parameters are improved such as return loss, Gain & bandwidth. The dimensions for FR-4 substrate & RT-Duroid are 30mm x 20mm x 1.6mm & 30mm x 20mm x 1.2mm respectively. The main aim of the proposed antenna is to use for multiple applications. This can be achieved by tuning the defected ground structure. In this proposed antenna the 50-ohm line feed technique has been utilized for both the designs.
    Keywords: Defected Ground Structure (DGS); Photonic Band Gap (PBG); Multi-band; 3D Gain; FR-4; Rogers-5880; UWB; SWB.

    by Beledha Santhosh Kumar, Polipalli Trinatha Rao 
    Abstract: The performance of Wireless sensor Networks is degraded due to the faulty nodes present in it. This results in erroneous data as well as reduce the energy of the node. Several works were carried out using optimization approach, routing protocols to improve the life time of the network. The faulty nodes are also improved by proper clustering in the network. In this paper, both the fault node identification and extending the life time of the node is considered. Here, the cell zooming is concept is used for solving the soft faults to recover the nodes by itself by enabling the sleep mechanism. The fault nodes are determined using the glow worm optimization. The reason to select the glow worm optimization, the position update is based on the glow to improve its neighbour and its search space and the final output will be the best solution with high glow. The routing of the packets will be performed through the Satin Bowerbird optimization. The main objective of the Satin bowerbird optimization is to perform the multi-objective and it is highly oriented towards the energy conservation. Due to these properties, the Satin bowerbird optimization is use to define the optimal route based on the energy efficient of the network. Analysis and simulation results show that the (GWO-SBO) proposed algorithm will outperforms than existing Trusted cluster based optimal multi-sink repositioning (TC-OMSR) and Emperor penguin optimization and flower pollination (EPO_FPA) by maintaining the throughput at 9000-10,500 bps throughout the network and reduce the energy consumption to prolong the network lifetime and its stability.
    Keywords: Glow worm optimization; Satin Bowerbird optimization; Quality of service; Lifetime; Multi-hop communication; Sink nodes; WSNs.