International Journal of Tourism Policy (8 papers in press)
Design and implement a model determining the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of tourist's wastes
by Elnaz Zarezadeh, Maryam Ataei Azimi, Neeraj Sunil Patil, Aliakbar Roudbari
Abstract: The aim of the study was to design and implement a model determining the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of tourist waste. The model is comprised of two sub-models: determining the number of tourists, and the nature of tourist waste. The results of the first sub-model are used in the second sub-model. The results showed that the destination hosted 38,305,388 domestic tourists and 68,761 overseas visitors. A total of 1,847,132 arrived by air, 39,300 by sea, 2,672,446 by rail, and the remainder arrived by road. Based on the results, it was estimated that tourist waste per capita was between 633 to 688 grams per day, and the density was between 231.5 to 235.5 kg/m3. PET and ferrous metal were the highest and lowest, respectively. The study showed the number of tourists is very variable; therefore, it is necessary to consider the required measures in terms of security, food supplies, accommodation, and transportation.
Keywords: tourist; solid wastes; model; design; implementation.
THE EFFECTS OF EDUCATIONAL TOURISM ON THE SOURCES OF GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM A KALECKIAN MACRO MODEL
by Chor Foon Tang, Hylmee Matahir
Abstract: The tourism industry is playing an increasingly important role in the economic growth of Malaysia. However, scant attention has been accorded to one of its vital sub-sectors namely educational tourism and its role as a potential catalyst of economic growth, especially when international students arrivals have increased exponentially over the past two decades. This paper seeks to elucidate the role of educational tourism in influencing economic growth in Malaysia by looking at its dynamic response to other growth variables using a Kaleckian model. The data used in this study consist of time-series quarterly data from 2002:Q1 to 2014:Q4, while the econometric methods deployed include the Structural Vector Autoregressive (SVAR) framework and the impulse-response function. The results suggest that educational tourism can contribute to economic growth through its role as a catalyst for increased productivity and capacity utilisation. However, the study fails to find significant cross-linkages between educational tourism and investment. To surmise, policies designed to promote educational tourism has the potential of maximising this sub-sectors contribution to national economic growth.
Keywords: Educational tourism; Economic growth; Kaleckian model; Structural VAR.
Social representations of surf tourisms impacts in Mexico
by Luis Valencia, Carlos Monterrubio, Maribel Osorio
Abstract: Surf tourism has become increasingly interesting to researchers, but little is known about its impacts. Despite various important surf spots in Latin America, few studies have focused on how surf tourisms effects are perceived by local residents. Based on social representations theory, this research sought to analyse the types of social representations found among local residents related to surf tourism and its impacts on a destination in Mexico. In-depth interviews revealed that economic benefits, demonstration effects, localism and environmental awareness are residents main representations. This studys primary contribution is an analysis of hegemonic, emancipated and polemic representations. The results also have implications for surf tourism management in the destination.
Keywords: surf tourism; tourism impacts; social representations; Puerto Escondido.
Political crises and tourism in Sub-Saharan Africa: Destination recovery post-coup d
by Regis Musavengane, Zibanai Zhou
Abstract: Most African countries are associated with unending political disputes. Instead of amicably ending them, smart power-play approaches continue to degenerate the African nations. The paper therefore seeks to establish the nexus between political crises, coups d
Keywords: political crises; coups d’état; tourism; nation branding hexagon; Sub Saharan Africa.
Determinants of tourist expenditure: the role of tourists experiences in the city of Porto
by Ana Reis, Ana Borges, Elvira Vieira
Abstract: The main actors in the tourism sector need more information on the factors that determine tourists' spending behaviour to better match supply with demand preferences. However, little attention has been paid to the specifics of urban and cultural tourism and the experiences associated with it. This paper aims to assess how tourists' spending during a visit to the city of Porto is related not only to these experiences during the trip but also to their socio-demographic characteristics and the characteristics of the trip. In addition to the destination itself, the focus is mainly on experiences related to gastronomy and wine. Data is based on interviews with domestic and foreign tourists. OLS estimate shows that indicators such as age, education or activity in the labour market have a positive impact on the spending of tourists, with the length of stay being associated with lower spending. The results also show that the experiences offered at a destination play an important and positive role in tourists' spending. This implies that it is important to offer specific offers and experiences to increase the attractiveness of the destination. Also, the relationships differ between men and women.
Keywords: Tourism; Tourist Expenditure; Experiences; City tourism.
Female Spiritual Tourism: An Application of Conjoint Analysis
by Rachna Agrawal, ARTI GUPTA
Abstract: The present study explores various attributes and sub-attributes for developing a strategic tourism package for female spiritual tourists. The empirical analysis is based on data collected from 212 female spiritual tourists. Additionally, 34 face to face interviews of female spiritual tourist are also taken to incorporate their viewpoints. To analyse the data conjoint analysis along with purposive sampling is employed to adjudge seven attributes. These attributes were later categorized into 28 major sub-attributes. The results of the study find that certain attributes such as prior information gathering, transportation facility, value in return (spiritual satisfaction), security, availability and complaint mechanism are found significant. This study has identified that despite the technical development and other advanced features of tourism facilities, the women spiritual tourists are not able to use the services effectively. Knowing the importance of economic contribution of tourism sector and growing female tourism base, this study becomes indispensable.
Keywords: Attributes; Conjoint Analysis; Female Spiritualism; Tourism.
An indicator-based system to assess tourism carrying capacity in a Greek island
by Dimitra Vagiona, Anastasia Palloglou
Abstract: Tourism industry has become a vital factor in economic growth and development in recent decades. Considering its continuous development and diversification, tourism development should be accompanied with integrated sustainable planning. Tourism carrying capacity is considered a regulatory tool for setting limits in environmental, economic and socio-cultural terms. The aim of this paper is to develop, apply and assess an integrated indicator-based system that covers all the fundamental components of tourism carrying capacity (TCC). The indicator-based system is applied to the island of Milos (Greece). Twenty (20) indicators are finally selected to form the final indicator system. The results showed that Milos does not come under undue pressure from tourism activities and its TCC is not exceeded in most of its aspects. Although this study focuses on an island with a tourism-based economy, the indicator-based system used to assess TCC can be adapted to other coastal tourist destinations.
Keywords: indicators system; Milos island; sustainable development; tourism carrying capacity; tourism sustainability.
Environmentally Responsible Behaviour, Place Authenticity and Openness to Experience for Community-Based Tourism (CBT) Destinations
by Talita Poliana Guedes Da Silva, Marconi Freitas Da Costa, Luciana Araújo De Holanda
Abstract: The objective of this research was to measure the influence of Environmentally Responsible Behaviour (ERB), Place Authenticity (PA) and Openness to Experience (OTE) on the intention to visit Community-Based Tourism (CBT) destinations. The research approach was quantitative and the data were analysed using multiple regression technique. The main results show that only ERB and OTE had a positive influence on the dependent variable. Hence, it corroborated with works that point the tourist with environmental conscience, respecting attitude towards the local culture and open to new experiences as a profile of potential visitor of CBT destinations. PA, in turn, did not cause any significant influence on the model, contradicting the arguments of the literature in which authenticity is one of the main characteristics of CBT. The contribution of this research was to demonstrate that some demand attributes explored by CBT theorists have not been confirmed as important in this sample, opening new perspectives.
Keywords: Community-Based tourism; Environmentally Responsible Behaviour; Place Authenticity; Openness to Experience; Potential Demand.