International Journal of Tourism Policy (22 papers in press)
Practices and challenges of linking the handicraft sector to sustainable tourism development: Evidence from Gamo and Konso Zones, southern Ethiopia
by Damene Bogale, Nigussie Tiruneh
Abstract: Being an integral part of the travel and tourism value chain, handicrafts play a vital role in income generation, employment creation, community empowerment and poverty reduction. This study is an original contribution examining the practices and challenges of linking the handicraft sector to sustainable tourism development in Gamo and Konso Zones, southern Ethiopia. The study adopts and underpins the triple-bottom-line theory. In terms of philosophy, the study is constructivist, with a qualitative exploratory research design. Both handicraft producers and tourists are the study participants. Research findings reveal that the proper planning, management and development of handicrafts for tourism purpose promotes the economic, the socio-cultural and environmental sustainability issues among the local communities. The study also identifies the challenges associated with the link between the handicraft sector and sustainable tourism development and further proposes a framework of sustainable handicraft tourism. Practically, the study may support different tourism planners and destination managers in their effort to embrace handicrafts in to the tourism value chain. The study has scope restraint as a major limitation which future studies may address.
Keywords: Handicrafts; Handicraft-based tourism; Sustainable tourism; Triple-bottom-line; Handicraft-tourism framework; Gamo; Konso; Ethiopia.
Willingness to Pay for Conserving a Protected Area in India: Evidence from a Contingent Valuation Method
by Nidhi Yadav, Naresh Chandra Sahu, Dukhabandhu Sahoo
Abstract: The present study aims to determine the willingness to pay (WTP) for the maintenance and protection of the National Chambal Sanctuary (NCS), India, using a contingent valuation method (CVM). The required sample data for WTP estimation was collected through an online questionnaire survey from respondents of those three states in India where the sanctuary is located. We selected 406 valid responses to estimate the WTP for conserving wildlife and improving additional facilities in the sanctuary. As per the result, the average WTP per sample respondent was INR 135.05 or USD 1.84 per month. This study highlights the reasons behind WTP and the lack of interest in contributing to the maintenance and protection of the sanctuary. The analysis presented in this study can help environmentalists and tourism policymakers to identify the strengths and deficiencies present in managing protected areas like NCS with regard to their basic requirements and sustainability.
Keywords: Economic Valuation; Contingent Valuation Method; Zero-Inflated Poisson Regression Model; Natural Chambal Sanctuary; Protected Area.
Mapping the research trends in International Journal of Tourism Policy: a bibliometric analysis and visualization
by Asma Bashir, Ranjit Singh, Amitabh Mishra
Abstract: IJTP is an important journal that encourages critical examination of the emerging discourses in tourism policy. This quantitative study analyses the research papers published between 2007 and 2020 using a bibliometric approach to commemorate the 15th anniversary of IJTP. The statistical tool - bibliometrix was used to identify the leading trends and themes in the journal. This study operationalizes extensive bibliometric performance and relational indicators. The results revealed that authors from different regions of the world published their work in IJTP. Tourism, tourism policy, sustainable tourism, and tourism planning were the most common keywords used. The quantitative approach has been primarily adopted in the articles of IJTP. Around 69% of the researches were completed through collaboration. The analysis conducted in the current study is in line with the other bibliometric studies considering individual journals. Therefore, this study may be relevant for researchers in tourism and hospitality scholarship.
Keywords: Tourism; bibliometric; policy; International Journal of Tourism Policy; co-citation.
Harassment of religious visitors to Hindu temples in India: A research note
by Vandita Hajra, Kaustav Nag
Abstract: Earlier researchers have concluded that travel to religious sites in the contemporary world is driven by varied motivations and the stakeholders involved must carefully address the varying expectations of different types of visitors. This study highlights an important aspect of harassment of visitors to religious sites that have remained largely unexplored in empirical studies. The study consisted of analyzing TripAdvisor narratives of visitors reporting harassment experiences at Hindu temples in India using a hybrid content analysis approach. The results revealed the following eleven types of harassment: extortion by priests, fraud and fleecing, rude behaviour of temple staff, poor facilities and management, touting, aggressive selling by vendors, physical abuse, verbal abuse, persistence by beggars, sexual harassment, and human-animal conflict. The findings have significant managerial and theoretical implications for destination managers and researchers alike.
Keywords: Visitor harassment; religious tourism; pilgrimages; pilgrimage tourism; Hindu temples in India; religious visitors.
Microeconomic determinants of domestic tourism expenditure in India
by Riyaz Alam, Diptimayee Nayak
Abstract: We attempt to identify the key determinants of domestic tourism expenditure in India. Socio-demographic and economic characteristics, travel-related characteristics and other characteristics of visitors play a special role in this regard. NSSO data of 72nd round, 2014-15, are analysed using OLS and quantile regression model. Based on the quantiles of tourism expenditure, tourists are classified into three broad categories, i.e. low, medium and high spenders. The results show that along with other socioeconomic variables like income, household size, and household type, religion is also a significant determinant of tourism expenditures. Among travel-related characteristics, length of stay, travel party size, type of trip, and type of stay are the most influential determinants. Under other characteristics, reimbursement claims influences tourism spending whereas region of origin shows inconsistency. The destination managers and tour operators are, therefore, need to consider these characteristics in their decisions-making processes to maximize the economic benefits of tourism spending.
Keywords: Domestic tourism expenditure; determinants of domestic tourism expenditure; quantile regression model; tourist destination management; India.
Have we (un)intentionally made Indigenous Law a Tourists Code? A Research Note.
by John Read
Abstract: Within the literature, tourism often incorporates codes of conduct as soft management strategies for reducing the impacts of tourists in destinations that are unfamiliar to them. This research note first introduces codes of conduct within tourism and then discusses how they have been situated. Then, there is a discussion on the relationship between codes of conduct and cultural laws, which frames the conception of codes of conduct as soft visitor management tools within the Canadian legal tradition as cultural laws. Finally, the author makes the case that within tourism, we must adopt an inherent rights approach when discussing Indigenous cultural norms and rules (Indigenous laws), especially concerning codes of conduct and when working with Indigenous communities in any context involving Indigenous rights.
Keywords: Tourism; Codes of Conduct; Indigenous Law; Self-determination; Governance; Canada; Visitor Management; Power.
Roles of institutions in empowering residents towards sustainable ecotourism in Ghana: Insights from Kakum National Park and Bobiri Forest and Butterfly Sanctuary - Research Note
by Fatima Eshun
Abstract: Most destinations in developing countries are owned and controlled by the government, with some level of support from the private sector. However, the roles of public and private institutions in empowering residents towards sustainable tourism have received less attention in the literature. Providing human, psychological, social, economic, political, and environmental empowerment is crucial for achieving sustainable tourism. This study addresses this knowledge gap by employing a qualitative approach to investigate the phenomenon and found that the public and private institutions engage residents in certain activities. However, these activities are not adequate to bring about the empowerment of residents towards sustainable tourism. The study recommends that the public sector enact policies, strategies, and frameworks that can drive the private sector to empower residents to ensure tourism sustainability at destinations.
Keywords: Human; social; psychological; economic; environmental; political; public; private; tourism; sustainable development.
A framework and policy-implications of stakeholders engagement in sustainable tourism development: Empirical evidence from Arbaminch and its vicinity, southern Ethiopia
by Damene Bogale
Abstract: Supported by the stakeholder and triple-bottom-line theories, the current study investigates stakeholder engagement in STD in Arbaminch and its vicinity. Methodologically, the study is constructivist, employing a qualitative exploratory research method. The study employed a total of 34 purposively selected respondents in in-depth interview and focus group discussions. The findings inform that despite Arbaminch is endowed with enormous tourism potentials, the stakeholders engagement in STD in the area is not fully practiced because of ineffective stakeholders engagement and other related challenges. The study identifies key policy-relevant issues that have both theoretical and practical implications to achieve STD through stakeholders participation. It further presents a new framework that is believed crucial to support the engagement process. Eventually, study limitations and future directions are also outlined.
Keywords: Sustainable tourism development; Stakeholders; Stakeholder theory; Stakeholder engagement; Stakeholder framework; Emerging destinations; Ethiopia; Arbaminchrnrnrn.
Push and pull factors for wellness tourism experience: framework development and implementations
by Xuan Tai Mai, Thi Doan Trang Nguyen
Abstract: Human beings by nature are resilient, and always attempt to discover new ways of relaxation to counteract extended periods of depression, which is reflected in the rapid growth of wellness tourism connected to health and wellbeing dimensions, such as body-mind-spirit. The trend is creating more opportunities for the tourism industry in the future as the unprecedented global health crisis has put extra pressure on the change in peoples lives. By examining the current state of study on wellness tourism, this paper critically synthesizes past literature and evaluates the substantive body of research on the internal motives of wellness travellers and their expected experience attributes. The study presents a framework for the implications of wellness travellers motivations by adopting a push-pull perspective. The findings contribute to our understanding of tourist behaviour. Practical managerial implications for the creation and management of wellness experiences are also discussed.
Keywords: wellness tourism; push and pull factors; travel motivations; experience attributes; literature review.
European destination regions and social exclusion challenges
by Antonio Paolo Russo, Riccardo Valente
Abstract: This paper presents a typology of European regions according to the type, mix and magnitude of human mobilities attracted over the 2008-2018 period, tourists being one of them, but extending to the related movement of different cohorts of migrants. Regional clusters are then assessed in terms of their social performance in domains such as health, material conditions, housing, and labour. Significant associations between regional types and social trends are interpreted in the light of potential factors affecting these outcomes. Results point to the uneven repercussions of housing unaffordability in the fastest growing destination regions, on the polarization of living conditions in the European star destinations and on the challenge of precarious labour, especially for migrant workers, in established mature destinations. In a stage of reignition of tourism activity after the COVID-19 crisis, these insights are meant to contribute to the recovery debate, informing about key social issues and vulnerabilities which, in specific regional contexts, could have been amplified by the current crisis.
Keywords: Tourism mobilities; Attractiveness; European regions; Social Exclusion; Policy Challenges.
Input-Output Effects of the Turkish Hospitality Industry in the Covid-19 Era
by Emir Dogan Cifdaloz, Berk Semiz, Burak Okkes Parlak, Gozde Yangu, Sevil Acar
Abstract: The tourism sector has a vital role in the Turkish economy, where around 8% of total employment and 4% of GDP are generated owing to tourism. According to TurkStat data, due to the Covid-19 pandemic, total tourism demand in Turkey contracted by 60% between 2018 and 2020. Using the Input-Output (IO) methodology, this study investigates the country-level and sectoral effects of this tourism demand contraction on the Turkish economy. The idea is that various sectors provide inputs to tourism, and the outputs of the tourism sector are used as inputs by other sectors. By focusing on the hospitality industry, i.e., the accommodation and food services (AF) component of tourism, changes in Turkeys overall and sectorial output, value added, and employment are analysed. The results reveal that food processing and agriculture are the most affected sectors, whereas the least affected ones are health services, education services, and the automotive industry.
Keywords: Accommodation and Food Services; Hospitality Industry; Input-Output Analysis; Employment; Value Added; Covid-19 Pandemic.
Challenges in Digital Marketing: Views of Small Travel Entrepreneurs
by Swati Sharma, Ankita Sharma
Abstract: Small travel entrepreneurs play a pivotal role in the tourism sector but are facing existential crisis due to slow adoption of digital marketing. Previous works have developed models of technology adoption but studies on resistance to technology adoption by small enterprises are scarce. Grounded in this rationale, this study explores the subjective experiences of small travel entrepreneurs regarding resistance to adopt digital marketing and draws insights following an interpretivist epistemology. The qualitative approach gives rich insights about the barriers perceived in adopting digital marketing. The study is unique as the study focuses on the underexplored domain of small travel enterprises. It builds on innovation resistance theory and provides a crucial contribution, as resistance determines the success or failure of any technological product. The findings provide practical insights and guidelines for practitioners and government policy-makers to create secured applications and to build an ecosystem for quick adoption of digital marketing.
Keywords: digital marketing; small travel enterprises; innovation resistance theory; qualitative study; barriers; entrepreneurs.
Antecedents of tourist revisit intentions: the mediating effect of satisfaction
by Albert Martins
Abstract: The study examines the relationships between destination image, service quality, tourist satisfaction and tourists intention to revisit the destination. The results indicate that destination image and service quality are positively related to tourists intention to revisit the destination. Tourist satisfaction strengthens this relationship. The findings imply that the deplorable tourist sites must be rehabilitated to improve the destination image to induce tourists satisfaction and intention to revisit the destination. In augmenting extant literature, the study further provided that irrespective of a tourist's age, gender, and educational level, his/her revisit decision will be influenced by the destination image and, most importantly, the satisfaction derived on the first visit. Knowing how vital tourism is globally and being the fourth most significant contributor to Ghana's economy, emerging markets with similar cultural backgrounds can adopt this study's findings to take advantage of the global tourism industry. Lastly, as a potential foreign investor, one is well informed about the nature and state of Ghanaian tourism and how s/he can strategically invest in attracting and retaining both local and foreign tourists.
Keywords: Destination image; Service quality; Satisfaction; Tourist revisit intention; Ghana.
Role of Loneliness in Destination Emotional Values and Travel Intentions: Analysis of Solo Women Travelers in India
by Parvinder Kour, Sudhanshu Gupta
Abstract: While millennial women are living the fastest and most complex lifestyles, loneliness has emerged as a distinct problem among them. However, travel promotes identity, education and aids in giving meaning and purpose to peoples lives. Against this background, the present study aims towards establishing a link between loneliness and travel intentions among millennial women in India. The overall relationship was tested and it was found that the emotional values related to the destination play an important role. The relationship was elicited from the responses of Tier I cities - Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai. In addition, the feeling of loneliness has been found positively influencing the emotional values that tourist seek which further significantly influences their intentions to travel towards a destination.
Keywords: Destination Emotional Value; Millennial women; Intention to travel; Loneliness.
Factors Prompting Augmented Reality Adoption in Sacred Places
by Md. Rakibul Hafiz Khan Rakib, Azizul Hassan
Abstract: There is evidence that sacred places across the world are launching Augmented Reality (AR) applications. This application of AR is somehow prompted by the most recent Covid-19 pandemic where in-person experiences are altered by the virtual. AR, as an innovative technology, augments the physical environment with digitally generated imagery that can generate privileges for tourists in sacred places and become the reason to trigger cultural conflicts and religious controversy. This in-depth interview-based research aims to explore the tourists views and ideas of applying AR in the Mosque City of Bagerhat of Bangladesh, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in terms of possibilities, cultural conflicts, and religious controversy. Findings show that the application of AR in a sacred place can support tourists in many useful ways, can offer them positive experiences, and help in sustainability concerns of the site. However, the application of AR in a sacred place can be an element of conflicting interests between the religious and general tourists. Adequate attention is thus required from the parties involved in terms of applying AR in the Mosque City of Bagerhat of Bangladesh, a sacred religious site.
Keywords: Augmented reality; technology application; sacred tourism; the Mosque City of Bagerhat of Bangladesh; UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Perceived Tourism Development and tourism-friendly behaviour: The Mediation Role of Overall Quality of Life
by Seyedeh Fatemeh Ghasempour Ganji, Azar Kaffashpoor, Lester W. Johnson
Abstract: This study examines the link between tourism development with the tourism-friendly behaviour of local residents and the mediating role of residents' overall quality of life (QOL) in this regard. A sample of 384 residents of Mashhad city in Iran completed a questionnaire. Structural equation modelling (SEM) with Warp PLS was used for model estimation. The findings indicate that tourism development related to residents' QOL and their tourism-friendly behaviour positively. QOL partly mediates the relationship between tourism development and tourism-friendly behaviour. Moreover, the social and economic impacts of tourism development have a stronger association with QOL than the environmental and cultural impacts, and the impact of the social and environmental impacts of tourism development on tourism-friendly behaviour is stronger than the economic impact. Current studies on local settings lack a comprehensive investigation of the link between tourism development, QOL and tourism-friendly behaviour. The research findings could help researchers and authorities to recognize the key factors that predict residents' QOL and tourism-friendly behaviour.
Keywords: urban tourism development; pro-tourism behavior; quality of life; environmental effects; socio-economic effects.
The importance of film-induced tourism as a motivational influence on travel decisions: analysis of push and pull factors from the perspective of Portuguese consumers.
by Sara Nunes, Alejandro Del Moral Agundez, Julia Fragoso Da Fonseca, Samiha Chemli, Abdulmenaf Sejdini, Kang Jin Seo
Abstract: In the literature, the studies on tourist motivations are extensive; however, new types of tourism are growing and becoming popular every day; therefore, it is necessary to include these recent trends and analyze their correlation with intentions and motivations. Based on the aforementioned, this study aims to measure the importance of film-induced tourism as a motivational influence on travel decisions amongst push and pull factors based on the model of Dann (1977). Based on those mentioned above, explanatory research was developed focused on the quantitative approach through a questionnaire-based online survey using a non-probabilistic sample for convenience. In terms of results, we can conclude that film-induced tourism-related push and pull factors do not seem to be a significant motivational factor when compared with other push and pull motivations.
Keywords: Film-induced tourism; motivations; pull factors; push factors; tourist destination.
EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON THE TRAVEL INTERMEDIARIES IN INDIA: MAPPING TRENDS AND STRATEGIES
by Bipithlal Balakrishnan Nair, Satyajit Sinha, M.R. Dileep
Abstract: The COVID-19 outbreak has challenged the global tourism sector, and it has posed a significant threat to the existence of tourism business across the globe, especially in emerging economies. This study examines the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on travel intermediary businesses in India and their strategies to overcome the present predicament. The study draws on the interviews with 15 executives of selected travel intermediary firms located around the country. The findings emphasise the economic downturn, customer retention policies, resilience strategies and current shifts in the industry. The outcomes also identify the recent tendency towards the traditional travel booking/holiday-booking trend towards traditional intermediaries. This research contributes to a better understanding and implementation of business continuity methods in tourist studies, and its results have practical implications for administrators and governments.
Keywords: Travel agencies; Tour operators; OTA; India; Thematic analysis; New
Normal; ; Qualitative; Resilience; Governance; COVID-19.
SPELEOTHERAPY IN THE SCOPE OF HEALTH TOURISM: CASE OF
by Hakki Ç?lg?no?lu
Abstract: Cave therapy, also called speleotherapy, is in high demand among
health tourism consumers. This study aims to shed light on how
Keywords: health tourism; medical tourism; wellness tourism;
speleotherapy; salt caves; respiratory diseases; Turkey.
Transformational Travel for Well-being and Meaning Making
by Rohan Bhalla, Nimit Chowdhary, Sumedha Agarwal
Abstract: The study explores the travel experiences of people to understand the potential of travelling forrntransformation and well-being. It discusses if travelling can be a complementary and alternativerntherapy for enhancing multi-dimensional well-being. The study is qualitative and appliesrntranscendental phenomenology as a mode of inquiry. A total of twelve people were interviewedrnthrough purposive snowball sampling. Thematic analysis and methods of transcendentalrnphenomenology as developed by Moustakas were used. Textual and structural descriptions andrnintuitive integration were produced post-analysis. Respondents described their lived experiencesrnaround three major themes: physical activities, healing from nature, and stress buster. Concepts andrnpractices like Shinrin-yoku and eco-therapy are critically acclaimed for attaining mindfulness andrnrelaxation. It was found that transformational travel is producing significant positive effects andrnenhancing the well-being of people. It can be used as a complementary and alternative medicine forrnmental health issues as it helps meaning-making.
Keywords: Transformational tourism; Escapism; Mental Health; Meaning-making; Well-being,rnHealing.
Intention of young travelers' to travel during the COVID-19 pandemic
by Md. Nurnobi Islam, Md. Rakibul Hafiz Khan Rakib
Abstract: The global health pandemic (COVID-19) has led to a significant decline in tourism activities and challenged existing norms and practices of the tourism sector. As international travel is restricted, the tourism sector is trying to promote domestic tourism by following health guidelines. This study aims to measure the relationships among social media travel content, perceived social risk of travel, attitude toward travel, and intention to travel during the pandemic time. The data were collected from young travelers in Bangladesh. The structural equation modeling (SEM) technique was used to estimate the relationships among the constructs. The results show that both social media travel content and perceived social risk of travel are significantly related to attitude toward travel and intention to travel. The association between attitude toward travel and intention to travel is also found significant. Destination managers are recommended to implement social media activation programs (e.g., a persuasive advertising campaign) and promote safe travel on their social media platforms (e.g., Facebook) to reduce perceived social risk of travel and create a positive attitude of travelers toward travel domestically during the global pandemic.
Keywords: Travel intention; Social media; Perceived social risk; Attitude; COVID-19; Bangladesh.
ENHANCING REGIONAL TOURISM GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF THE SOUTHEASTERN REGION
by Afamefuna Eyisi, Pat Okpoko
Abstract: Governance is pivotal in the sustainable development of tourism through policy formulation, implementation and regulation of stakeholders activities. This paper examines the challenges of and strategies for enhancing regional tourism governance in Anambra and Enugu States of Southeastern Nigeria. Data were collected through ethnographic fieldwork conducted with key stakeholders (tourism officials, traditional rulers, chief priests, men, women and youth leaders) and analyzed using thematic analysis to identify themes reflecting their perceptions for strengthening tourism governance. The results revealed that governance has not been effective because of governments insincerity and failed promises, absence of tourism professionals and poor private-public partnership. This paper concludes that sustained tourism development requires robust and honest government oversight to address these challenges.
Keywords: government; governance; tourism policy; Southeastern Nigeria; sustainability.