International Journal of Tourism Policy (4 papers in press)
Co-creating visitor experiences in cultural heritage museums: the avenue towards sustainable tourism development
by Nikolaos Boukas, Myria Ioannou
Abstract: Value co-creation is seen as an important premise on which destinations can capitalise upon. This is important for cultural heritage tourism as experiences produced in its context need to be memorable and long-standing. However, not much research has been conducted regarding co-creation in cultural heritage spaces, such as museums. The present study addresses the increasing calls for conceptualising the process of value co-creation in the field of cultural tourism. A qualitative approach is utilised exploring the perspective of professionals (i.e., policy makers and museum managers/employees) and visitors/tourists. Results substantiate the vital role of culture for the tourist experience. Specifically, they support the C-D logic of value co-creation, which explains how visitors construct their value perceptions via their own sense making process of the provided resource and activities. Drivers such as visitors predispositions and knowledge and informational attributes, educational/interpretation methods, and environmental variables, were found to be important for the co-created experience. Moreover, co-creation appeared to be an important element towards the sustainable development of destinations; it can provide a holistic experience, satisfying both visitors and the tourism industry, while incorporate and benefit local communities and appreciating the destination's environment. Museums need to utilise co-creation to co-design, co-produce, and co-disseminate memorable experiences.
Keywords: cultural heritage tourism; museums; value co-creation; sustainable tourism; C-D logic.
Environmental Conservation Strategies and Sustainability of Community Based Tourism Projects in Kenya: A Case of Maasai Mara Conservancies
by Winnie Tubey, Dorothy Kyalo, Angeline Mulwa
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine how environmental conservation strategies influence the sustainability of community based tourism projects in Kenya. The study used descriptive survey research design and adopted a mixed methods approach anchored on pragmatism as its philosophical underpinning. The study was conducted in two conservancies in Maasai Mara; Naboisho conservancy and Olare Motorongi conservancy. The study made use of questionnaires, interviews, as well as document analysis to collect data. Qualitative data was analysed using content analysis while quantitative data used multiple regression analysis to test the nature and strength of the relationship between variables based on observed data and to predict the value of the dependent variable based on the value of the independent variable. With r =0.808, r2 = 0.653, F (1, 204) = 383.571 at p < 0.05, environmental conservation strategies had a strong positive significant influence on the sustainability of community based tourism projects. The study recommends that the focus on environmental conservation should be expanded to cover other areas such as waste disposal mechanisms, proper land use planning and the increased use alternative sources of energy as well as reviving and strengthening customary and indigenous conservation activities. There is need for longterm research at different ecological and social scales including monitoring to support biodiversity conservation both in-situ and ex-situ; establishing monitoring and evaluation mechanisms in conservancies and encouraging conservation through enterprise to improve the livelihoods of communities.
Keywords: Environmental Conservation Strategy; Sustainability; Community Based Tourism Projects; Protected Areas.
Dream career in Tourism and hospitality industry: Myth or reality?
by Anamul Hoque, Abu Sadat Muhammad Ashif
Abstract: This study intends to explore the undergraduate tourism and hospitality students perceptions of the industry as a career choice in Bangladesh. Two hundred and twenty tourism and hospitality students have participated in completing a set of questionnaires. The students were asked to rate 20 factors that might influence their career choice and to rate the extent to which they think that tourism and hospitality as a potential career offer these factors. The results indicate that, overall, the perceptions of students toward careers in the hospitality and tourism industry are unfavourable. It is observed that: pleasing working environment, a safe job, excellent promotion prospects, attractive starting salary, a position which brings respect are important factors students consider in choosing a career, but they do not believe the hospitality and tourism industry offers these factors. The study also shows that undergraduates having relatives in the tourism industry are more enthusiastic about pursuing a career in the respective industry.
Keywords: undergraduates; perceptions; career choice; tourism; hospitality.
Design and implement a model determining the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of tourist's wastes
by Elnaz Zarezadeh, Maryam Ataei Azimi, Neeraj Sunil Patil, Aliakbar Roudbari
Abstract: The aim of the study was to design and implement a model determining the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of tourist waste. The model is comprised of two sub-models: determining the number of tourists, and the nature of tourist waste. The results of the first sub-model are used in the second sub-model. The results showed that the destination hosted 38,305,388 domestic tourists and 68,761 overseas visitors. A total of 1,847,132 arrived by air, 39,300 by sea, 2,672,446 by rail, and the remainder arrived by road. Based on the results, it was estimated that tourist waste per capita was between 633 to 688 grams per day, and the density was between 231.5 to 235.5 kg/m3. PET and ferrous metal were the highest and lowest, respectively. The study showed the number of tourists is very variable; therefore, it is necessary to consider the required measures in terms of security, food supplies, accommodation, and transportation.
Keywords: tourist; solid wastes; model; design; implementation.