Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Tourism Policy

International Journal of Tourism Policy (IJTP)

Forthcoming articles have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication but are pending final changes, are not yet published and may not appear here in their final order of publication until they are assigned to issues. Therefore, the content conforms to our standards but the presentation (e.g. typesetting and proof-reading) is not necessarily up to the Inderscience standard. Additionally, titles, authors, abstracts and keywords may change before publication. Articles will not be published until the final proofs are validated by their authors.

Forthcoming articles must be purchased for the purposes of research, teaching and private study only. These articles can be cited using the expression "in press". For example: Smith, J. (in press). Article Title. Journal Title.

Articles marked with this shopping trolley icon are available for purchase - click on the icon to send an email request to purchase.

Online First articles are published online here, before they appear in a journal issue. Online First articles are fully citeable, complete with a DOI. They can be cited, read, and downloaded. Online First articles are published as Open Access (OA) articles to make the latest research available as early as possible.

Open AccessArticles marked with this Open Access icon are Online First articles. They are freely available and openly accessible to all without any restriction except the ones stated in their respective CC licenses.

Register for our alerting service, which notifies you by email when new issues are published online.

We also offer which provide timely updates of tables of contents, newly published articles and calls for papers.

International Journal of Tourism Policy (32 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Harassment of religious visitors to Hindu temples in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Vandita Hajra, Kaustav Nag 
    Abstract: Earlier researchers have concluded that travel to religious sites in the contemporary world is driven by varied motivations and the stakeholders involved must carefully address the varying expectations of different types of visitors. This study highlights an important aspect of harassment of visitors to religious sites that have remained largely unexplored in empirical studies. The study consisted of analyzing TripAdvisor narratives of visitors reporting harassment experiences at Hindu temples in India using a hybrid content analysis approach. The results revealed the following eleven types of harassment: extortion by priests, fraud and fleecing, rude behaviour of temple staff, poor facilities and management, touting, aggressive selling by vendors, physical abuse, verbal abuse, persistence by beggars, sexual harassment, and human-animal conflict. The findings have significant managerial and theoretical implications for destination managers and researchers alike.
    Keywords: Visitor harassment; religious tourism; pilgrimages; pilgrimage tourism; Hindu temples in India; religious visitors.

  • Microeconomic determinants of domestic tourism expenditure in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Riyaz Alam, Diptimayee Nayak 
    Abstract: We attempt to identify the key determinants of domestic tourism expenditure in India. Socio-demographic and economic characteristics, travel-related characteristics and other characteristics of visitors play a special role in this regard. NSSO data of 72nd round, 2014-15, are analysed using OLS and quantile regression model. Based on the quantiles of tourism expenditure, tourists are classified into three broad categories, i.e. low, medium and high spenders. The results show that along with other socioeconomic variables like income, household size, and household type, religion is also a significant determinant of tourism expenditures. Among travel-related characteristics, length of stay, travel party size, type of trip, and type of stay are the most influential determinants. Under other characteristics, reimbursement claims influences tourism spending whereas region of origin shows inconsistency. The destination managers and tour operators are, therefore, need to consider these characteristics in their decisions-making processes to maximize the economic benefits of tourism spending.
    Keywords: Domestic tourism expenditure; determinants of domestic tourism expenditure; quantile regression model; tourist destination management; India.

  • A framework and policy-implications of stakeholders engagement in sustainable tourism development: Empirical evidence from Arbaminch and its vicinity, southern Ethiopia   Order a copy of this article
    by Damene Bogale 
    Abstract: Supported by the stakeholder and triple-bottom-line theories, the current study investigates stakeholder engagement in STD in Arbaminch and its vicinity. Methodologically, the study is constructivist, employing a qualitative exploratory research method. The study employed a total of 34 purposively selected respondents in in-depth interview and focus group discussions. The findings inform that despite Arbaminch is endowed with enormous tourism potentials, the stakeholders engagement in STD in the area is not fully practiced because of ineffective stakeholders engagement and other related challenges. The study identifies key policy-relevant issues that have both theoretical and practical implications to achieve STD through stakeholders participation. It further presents a new framework that is believed crucial to support the engagement process. Eventually, study limitations and future directions are also outlined.
    Keywords: Sustainable tourism development; Stakeholders; Stakeholder theory; Stakeholder engagement; Stakeholder framework; Emerging destinations; Ethiopia; Arbaminchrnrnrn.

  • Challenges in Digital Marketing: Views of Small Travel Entrepreneurs   Order a copy of this article
    by Swati Sharma, Ankita Sharma 
    Abstract: Small travel entrepreneurs play a pivotal role in the tourism sector but are facing existential crisis due to slow adoption of digital marketing. Previous works have developed models of technology adoption but studies on resistance to technology adoption by small enterprises are scarce. Grounded in this rationale, this study explores the subjective experiences of small travel entrepreneurs regarding resistance to adopt digital marketing and draws insights following an interpretivist epistemology. The qualitative approach gives rich insights about the barriers perceived in adopting digital marketing. The study is unique as the study focuses on the underexplored domain of small travel enterprises. It builds on innovation resistance theory and provides a crucial contribution, as resistance determines the success or failure of any technological product. The findings provide practical insights and guidelines for practitioners and government policy-makers to create secured applications and to build an ecosystem for quick adoption of digital marketing.
    Keywords: digital marketing; small travel enterprises; innovation resistance theory; qualitative study; barriers; entrepreneurs.

  • Antecedents of tourist revisit intentions: the mediating effect of satisfaction   Order a copy of this article
    by Albert Martins 
    Abstract: The study examines the relationships between destination image, service quality, tourist satisfaction and tourists intention to revisit the destination. The results indicate that destination image and service quality are positively related to tourists intention to revisit the destination. Tourist satisfaction strengthens this relationship. The findings imply that the deplorable tourist sites must be rehabilitated to improve the destination image to induce tourists satisfaction and intention to revisit the destination. In augmenting extant literature, the study further provided that irrespective of a tourist's age, gender, and educational level, his/her revisit decision will be influenced by the destination image and, most importantly, the satisfaction derived on the first visit. Knowing how vital tourism is globally and being the fourth most significant contributor to Ghana's economy, emerging markets with similar cultural backgrounds can adopt this study's findings to take advantage of the global tourism industry. Lastly, as a potential foreign investor, one is well informed about the nature and state of Ghanaian tourism and how s/he can strategically invest in attracting and retaining both local and foreign tourists.
    Keywords: Destination image; Service quality; Satisfaction; Tourist revisit intention; Ghana.

  • Factors Prompting Augmented Reality Adoption in Sacred Places   Order a copy of this article
    by Md. Rakibul Hafiz Khan Rakib, Azizul Hassan 
    Abstract: There is evidence that sacred places across the world are launching Augmented Reality (AR) applications. This application of AR is somehow prompted by the most recent Covid-19 pandemic where in-person experiences are altered by the virtual. AR, as an innovative technology, augments the physical environment with digitally generated imagery that can generate privileges for tourists in sacred places and become the reason to trigger cultural conflicts and religious controversy. This in-depth interview-based research aims to explore the tourists views and ideas of applying AR in the Mosque City of Bagerhat of Bangladesh, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in terms of possibilities, cultural conflicts, and religious controversy. Findings show that the application of AR in a sacred place can support tourists in many useful ways, can offer them positive experiences, and help in sustainability concerns of the site. However, the application of AR in a sacred place can be an element of conflicting interests between the religious and general tourists. Adequate attention is thus required from the parties involved in terms of applying AR in the Mosque City of Bagerhat of Bangladesh, a sacred religious site.
    Keywords: Augmented reality; technology application; sacred tourism; the Mosque City of Bagerhat of Bangladesh; UNESCO World Heritage Site.

  • Perceived Tourism Development and tourism-friendly behaviour: The Mediation Role of Overall Quality of Life   Order a copy of this article
    by Seyedeh Fatemeh Ghasempour Ganji, Azar Kaffashpoor, Lester W. Johnson 
    Abstract: This study examines the link between tourism development with the tourism-friendly behaviour of local residents and the mediating role of residents' overall quality of life (QOL) in this regard. A sample of 384 residents of Mashhad city in Iran completed a questionnaire. Structural equation modelling (SEM) with Warp PLS was used for model estimation. The findings indicate that tourism development related to residents' QOL and their tourism-friendly behaviour positively. QOL partly mediates the relationship between tourism development and tourism-friendly behaviour. Moreover, the social and economic impacts of tourism development have a stronger association with QOL than the environmental and cultural impacts, and the impact of the social and environmental impacts of tourism development on tourism-friendly behaviour is stronger than the economic impact. Current studies on local settings lack a comprehensive investigation of the link between tourism development, QOL and tourism-friendly behaviour. The research findings could help researchers and authorities to recognize the key factors that predict residents' QOL and tourism-friendly behaviour.
    Keywords: urban tourism development; pro-tourism behavior; quality of life; environmental effects; socio-economic effects.

  • Transformational Travel for Well-being and Meaning Making   Order a copy of this article
    by Rohan Bhalla, Nimit Chowdhary, Sumedha Agarwal 
    Abstract: The study explores the travel experiences of people to understand the potential of travelling forrntransformation and well-being. It discusses if travelling can be a complementary and alternativerntherapy for enhancing multi-dimensional well-being. The study is qualitative and appliesrntranscendental phenomenology as a mode of inquiry. A total of twelve people were interviewedrnthrough purposive snowball sampling. Thematic analysis and methods of transcendentalrnphenomenology as developed by Moustakas were used. Textual and structural descriptions andrnintuitive integration were produced post-analysis. Respondents described their lived experiencesrnaround three major themes: physical activities, healing from nature, and stress buster. Concepts andrnpractices like Shinrin-yoku and eco-therapy are critically acclaimed for attaining mindfulness andrnrelaxation. It was found that transformational travel is producing significant positive effects andrnenhancing the well-being of people. It can be used as a complementary and alternative medicine forrnmental health issues as it helps meaning-making.
    Keywords: Transformational tourism; Escapism; Mental Health; Meaning-making; Well-being,rnHealing.

  • Perspectives of local role players on the potential and challenges of tourism: A Research note presenting the case of a developing region in South Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Chané De Bruyn, Natanya Meyer 
    Abstract: Research shows a lack of information indicating how to incorporate all spheres of local economic development (LED),government, business and community, involved in developing sustainable tourism practices. This study had the objective of determining whether there are any differences in opinion between the three spheres regarding the potential and challenges for tourism to support LED in a region, in this case, the Vaal Triangle in South Africa. A quantitative approach was followed, and data analysis included ANOVA and Tukey HSD to determine statistically significant differences between the three spheres. Only four factors reported a statistically significant difference. These were Location, Infrastructure, Natural and Cultural Sustainability and Cooperation.
    Keywords: Tourism; local economic development; sustainable development; development strategy; cooperation.

  • Buddhism, tourism, and development in the trans-Himalayan Buddhist region: Three decades after Ancient Futures (Norberg-Hodge, 1991)   Order a copy of this article
    by Jungho Suh 
    Abstract: Ladakh (India) and Bhutan opened their gates to foreign tourists in 1974. The book Ancient Futures, published in 1991 in English, depicted that the traditional Buddhist economy was being phased out while the regional economy became heavily dependent on tourism. This study critically discusses whether Buddhism, tourism, and economic development are compatible with one another in the contemporary trans-Himalayan Buddhist region, from a tourist researcher perspective. This study finds that rural villagers in both Ladakh and Bhutan do not directly reap their well-deserved benefits from tourism although they are the primary provider of rural and cultural tourism. The traditional trans-Himalayan way of life should globally be considered a plausible pathway to sustainable futures. In this context, the study suggests that community-based cultural ecotourism schemes be established in such a way to promote small-scale and place-based economic development.
    Keywords: Tibetan Buddhism; Ladakh; Bhutan; Buddhist economy; ecotourism; community-based cultural tourism.

  • Mitigating Tourism Seasonality: An Explanatory Sequential Analysis of TripAdvisor on Temple Experiences in Phuket   Order a copy of this article
    by Kris Sincharoenkul, Nichapat Sangkaew 
    Abstract: Seasonality is a recurring problem affecting a weather-related destination, and cultural tourism has the potential to mitigate such a problem. Buddhist temples are famous tourist sites in Thailand that can be visited throughout the year. This paper aimed to determine the influential factors of tourists positive experiences on their temple visits. Using the Na
    Keywords: Seasonality; Cultural attractions; Cultural tourism; Online reviews; Phuket; Temples; Tourist experience; TripAdvisor; Tourism development; Tourist attractions.

  • Phuket Sandbox: Stakeholder perceptions on tourism and travel resumption amidst the COVID-19 pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Edward Koh, Tatiyaporn Jarumaneerat, Watcharapong Saikaew, Pipatpong Fakfare 
    Abstract: This paper examines the local perceptions of travel and tourism resumption amidst the COVID-19 pandemic through the Phuket Sandbox initiative. Opportunities and solutions for global travel and tourism resumption are discussed. Leveraging on the BRAVE (businesses, residents, authorities, visitors and environmentalists) stakeholders framework, interviews were conducted to obtain local stakeholders perception of the resumption of tourism via the Phuket Sandbox initiative. Four broad categories of travel resumption are identified: resumption of domestic travel, bilateral travel, regional travel and unilateral opening up to inbound travel. The Phuket Sandbox belongs to the last category. Although different countries and jurisdictions have different considerations, priorities and approaches, this paper focuses on the pros and cons of the Phuket Sandbox model from the perspectives of the islands local stakeholders. Destinations can make reference to this particular mode of tourism resumption and decide if they have control over the conditions to replicate or adopt this form of tourism resumption.
    Keywords: Phuket Sandbox; travel resumption; COVID-19 pandemic; tourism resumption; unilateral inbound travel.

  • E-tourism adoption in travel agencies: new qualitative insights from a developing country   Order a copy of this article
    by Saad Al-Saad, Batool Gharaibeh 
    Abstract: Most existing research on e-tourism adoption is quantitative, with limited qualitative research particularly in the context of developing countries. To fill this knowledge gap, this study used the perceived e-readiness model and the diffusion of innovation theory to provide new qualitative insights on the levels of adoption and the obstacles inhibiting it as well as solutions that could increase adoption using Jordan as a representative developing country. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews of 24 owners and managers of Jordanian travel agencies. The findings indicated that security concerns; enterprise size; and the lack of customer trust, e-tourism experience, and online financial experience were found to be the main obstacles to advanced levels of adoption. This study suggests several factors for improving adoption, including highlighting the relative advantage, enhancing customer confidence and technical experience, and implementing advanced training, internationalisation, legalisation, and government support.
    Keywords: E-tourism; infomediaries; social travel network sites; online booking; e-readiness; information and communication technologies; tourism; hospitality; travel agencies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTP.2023.10054960
  • Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis: Jamie\'s Italian Restaurant Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Joana Figueira, Bráulio Alturas, Ricardo Ribeiro 
    Abstract: Consumers use of technologies to share their experiences, known as e-Word-of-Mouth, which led to the creation of online platforms where the main objective is allow users to share their opinion about products or services, such as hotels, books, restaurants, and search for the others users opinions. The emergence of these online platforms has changed the business dynamic, the restaurant sector it was no exception. The main goal for this work is to understand how the different categories impact the review final rating of a restaurant, using two Jamie Olivers restaurants as case study. The first step was carry out the literature review, the concepts that served as a foundation for the investigation. The second step was applied a model that allows the categories mentioned identification and sentiment analysis through text mining methodologies. Through this model it was possible to understand which categories influence the rating the most.
    Keywords: online reviews; text mining; restaurants; sentiment analysis; Jamie Oliver; E-WOM; consumer behaviour.

  • Determining the competitiveness attributes of conference tourism: A South African industry perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by LISA WELTHAGEN, Elmarie Slabbert, Engelina Du Plessis 
    Abstract: This study reports on the qualitative findings of an exploratory sequential mixed-methods research design used to develop a framework for conference tourism competitiveness. By using destination competitiveness models and literature as a foundation, it sets out to distinguish the important conference tourism attributes identified by industry stakeholders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 22 industry stakeholders (after saturation). The themes and attributes were analysed after each interview and a progression of themes was documented. This paper is the first attempt to investigate the conference attributes in South Africa that are important from a competitiveness perspective. The findings made it clear that location and accessibility were prioritised as conference tourism competitiveness attributes and that sustainability/greening was not prioritised as an important attribute. These findings and conclusions can contribute to developing and improving the conference tourism position of South Africa and enabling South Africa to become more competitive in this sector.
    Keywords: conference tourism; competitiveness; attributes; qualitative; competitive advantage; destination competitiveness.

    by Carunia Mulya Firdausy 
    Abstract: As the Covid-19 pandemic shows a declining trend in 2022, the government of Indonesia is optimistic that the year 2022 is the momentum and opportunity to build back better the tourism sector. This paper aims to focus on the government initiatives to rehabilitate the tourism sector under the covid-19 pandemic. Qualitative analysis was employed, whereas data were collected from secondary sources like journals, newspapers, websites, webinar meetings, and reports published by the government ministries. Many initiatives have been undertaken by the government to rehabilitate the tourism sector since March 2020. These initiatives can be grouped into three pillars, namely, innovation, adaptation, and collaboration. However, the implications of the pillars and initiatives on tourist behavior, business activities, employment, and the growth rate in the tourism sector and the overall economy in Indonesia remain to be seen. Thus, future studies investigating those implications are important to be undertaken.
    Keywords: Government initiatives; Tourism sector; Innovation; Adaptation; Collobarotaion; Indonesia.\r\n\r\n.

  • Pursuing the Agenda 2030? A critical discourse analysis of decent work and economic growth in Ecuadors tourism policy   Order a copy of this article
    by Gordillo Estefanya, Pedro Longart 
    Abstract: The United Nations has strengthened the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the tourism industry promoting a COVID-19 recovery. A dominant interpretation of the SDGs prioritises numbers over people's development -the neoliberal view-This exploratory research examines the challenges for implementing SDG8 in Ecuador. Applying a critical discourse analysis, it was found that although the national policies are presented as opposing neoliberalism, the discourse indicates otherwise, and power relations must be challenged. This paper has delved into policy issues and suggests significant adjustments to construct an understanding of sustainable policy, innovation, and decent work.
    Keywords: Sustainable development goals; SDG8; decent work; economic growth; sustainable tourism policy; critical discourse analysis; Ecuador; agenda 2030.

  • The New Great Depression an Omen for Tourism?   Order a copy of this article
    by Rigin Sebastian, Noufal Naheem Kottekkadan, Harish P, Toney K. Thomas, Victor Wee 
    Abstract: This research report addresses the extraordinary economic circumstances created by the COVID-19 pandemic and the devastating war between Ukraine and Russia, which have led to a global recession and may even have plunged the world into a Great Depression. The global economy is being seriously affected by increasing geopolitical tensions and policies that have impacted economic and trade relations; supply disruptions and economic decoupling; food shortages; and high prices for energy and other commodities. Current economic trends undermining global production, employment, and incomes are ringing alarm bells for the hard-hit tourism industry as the world tries to recover from the pandemic.
    Keywords: new great depression; recession; crisis over crises; debt distress; tourism.

    by Thi Phuong Anh Dang 
    Abstract: This paper aims to determine the key role of stakeholders directly impacting the survival of hallmark events under the Covid-19 storm. It also highlights the dynamics between stakeholders when faced with significant challenges. A qualitative research methodology was adopted, using a case study design with three events still organized during 2020 and 2021 in Vietnam. The interview sampling framework based on stakeholder theory helps to identify six primary and nine secondary stakeholders to conduct in-depth interviews. As a result, the key role of stakeholders in event tourism has to be changed due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The tendency of the organisation of events before the Covid-19 pandemic was centralization and for the central state to play the key roles. The Covid-19 crisis resulted in decentralisation and the key roles to be executed by the local state, community, and businesses. Research results describe stakeholders' dynamics in crisis management for event tourism. These are suggestions for implementing the policies and revising tourism development in post-Covid 19.
    Keywords: Tourism; event tourism; hallmark event; festival; stakeholders; Covid-19; crisis management; central state; community; businesses; empowerment; Vietnam.

  • Digital Technology in Tourism: A Literature Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Ankita Sharma, Swati Sharma 
    Abstract: Technology has transformed the dynamics and structure of tourism marketing and management. To provide insight into the existing knowledge, this study reviews the extant tourism literature and quantitatively presents the work done in the context of digital technology and marketing in tourism, and identifies future research directions. Forty articles on the specified theme, published in journals indexed in Web of Science and Scopus in the last six years (2015-2020) were analysed and reviewed. The period of the last six years was studied, as technology evolves every few years and dynamically impacts both travellers and suppliers. The findings are presented quantitatively to provide insight into the theories used, methodologies adopted, and research perspectives in the tourism domain. The findings reveal inconsistencies in paradigms, and methodological bias and provide suggestions for future research. The study provides significant practical implications for tourism suppliers and digital marketers.
    Keywords: literature review; travel; tourism; digital technology; digital marketing.

  • Investigating the influence of terrorism, and military expense on tourism in India: empirical evidence using dynamic ARDL simulations   Order a copy of this article
    by Soumen Rej, Arunava Bandyopadhyay, Mohidul Alam Mallick, Nasiru Inuwa, Md. Emran Hossain 
    Abstract: This study uses data from 1980 to 2017 to examine the impact of terrorism, military expenditure and capital formation on tourism in India. For this purpose, dynamic autoregressive distributed lag (DARDL) estimates and Fourier frequency causality methods of Toda & Yamamoto are used. The results show that terrorist incidents and their squared term have a positive and negative impact on foreign tourist arrivals, respectively, indicating the presence of an "inverted U-shaped" link between the two variables. In addition, military expenditure and its squared term are found to have a negative and positive influence, respectively, on foreign tourist arrivals, indicating the existence of a "U-shaped" relationship between military expenditure and foreign tourist arrivals. The turning point is 181 terrorist incidents and 3.24% of GDP in military expenses. In addition, capital formation has a significant positive impact on foreign tourist arrivals, while the coefficient of the interaction term between terrorist incidents and military expenditure is negative in both the short and long run. Moreover, the results reveal a bidirectional causal relationship between tourist arrivals and terrorist incidents.
    Keywords: Sustainable tourism; Terrorism; Military spending; U-shaped nexus.

  • Revisiting the potential elements of urban regeneration through cultural heritage tourism: A case study of stakeholders perceptions in Brunei   Order a copy of this article
    by Si Ting Nyau, Wei Lee Chin 
    Abstract: Cultural heritage tourism is adopted by many cities worldwide as strategic support for urban regeneration. The Brunei government has recognised cultural heritage tourism to diversify the economy, but its contributions to Bruneis urban centres have not been closely studied. This research explores the potential of cultural heritage tourism in regenerating Bruneis urban areas using the Urban Regeneration Through Heritage Tourism Conceptual Framework (URTHTCF). The capital city of Brunei, Bandar Seri Begawan (BSB), serves as a case study to assess the feasibility of the URTHTCF in the Southeast Asian context. This paper integrated additional stakeholders perceptions, comprising urban planners and residents, into the URTHTCF through semi-structured interviews to re-examine heritage-led urban regeneration. Findings reconfirmed the feasibility of the URTHTCF and have identified cultural heritage tourism as a catalyst to regenerate BSB. This can be achieved by prioritising the key opportunities such as public participation, public facilities improvement and heritage conservation policymaking.
    Keywords: cultural heritage tourism; urban regeneration; Brunei Darussalam; Southeast Asia; stakeholders’ perceptions.

  • An analysis of rurality from the perspective of tourist using online text: A case of Yayou Gou Village in Shandong Province, China   Order a copy of this article
    by Zekun Shang, Qianda Zhuang 
    Abstract: Rurality is the core attraction of rural tourism, but the current study of rural spiritual culture, rural life landscape, and other rural characteristics is insufficient, and fails to reflect the tourists' perception system of rural elements. Based on the grounded theory and content analysis theory, this paper makes an empirical analysis of the rural elements of the Yayou Gou Village, and probes into the ontology of rurality to put forward the practical significance of the construction of rural tourism. The results show that nostalgia is the core demand of tourists, which can increase or satisfy the feeling of homesickness. A new method for mining landscape perception attributes is proposed, so that tourists feel the rurality of Yayou Gou Village on a material and spiritual level. The development of the rural tourism industry should adapt to local conditions, and fully tap the local rural characteristics to avoid the homogenization of resources.
    Keywords: rural tourism; Rurality; landscape perception.

  • Determinants and influences of community participation and support of ecotourism villages to economic, social, and tourism development: A study in Padang Bindu Village, Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Alfitri Alfitri, Abdul Kholek, Anang Dwi Santoso 
    Abstract: Ecotourism villages are the latest trend that serves as one of the main alternatives for rural community economic development while minimizing the impact of tourism activities on the natural and social environment. Although the literature has investigated the factors that correlated to community support and participation in tourism villages, only a few studies have been conducted on ecotourism villages. To fill this gap, this study quantitatively investigates the determinants and correlations of community participation and support to economic, social, and tourism development for the Padang Bindu ecotourism village in Indonesia. PLS-SEM was used to analyze a collection of datasets derived from 82 statements distributed to 296 community members. The results of the study indicate that economic factors affect community participation and support for ecotourism village development, whereas individual factors affect only community participation. This study also reveals that community participation and support influence economic and social development. This is one of the first studies to examine community participation and support for ecotourism development quantitatively.
    Keywords: ecotourism; ecotourism village; community participation; community support; Indonesia.

  • A Fuzzy Hybrid Approach to analyze Digital Marketing Strategies Towards Tourism Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Danial Esmaelnezhad, Jamshid Bahmani, Ali Zamani Babgohari, Mohamad Reza Taghizadeh, Salman Nazari-Shirkouhi 
    Abstract: Travel rates around the world have been declining since the COVID-19 epidemic, and the industry's strategies need to be reconsidered to boost tourism businesses. To solve this problem, digital marketing strategies (DMSs) can increase the chances of success of tourism companies in this condition. Therefore, accurate DMS selection is an essential factor in improving the situation of tourism companies. The purpose of this study is to identify and prioritize DMSs in the tourism industry. For this purpose, after identifying the strategies and evaluation criteria of the strategies, the fuzzy Delphi method is used to screen them. Subsequently, using Fuzzy SWARA, the criteria are weighted according to experts. Next, DMSs in the Iranian tourism industry are ranked using Fuzzy ARAS, Fuzzy COPRAS, Fuzzy TOPSIS, and Fuzzy VIKOR. Finally, the results provide insights into both managerial and theoretical dimensions for future work and improving business performance in the tourism industry.
    Keywords: Digital Marketing Strategies; Tourism Industry; MCDM; Fuzzy logic.

    by Kuldeep Singh, Reena Sharma 
    Abstract: Solo Traveller is an emerging trend globally, especially among women. This study's primary focus is on solo married women travellers in Delhi NCR (National Capital Region). The study explores the motivations and intentions of solo married women travellers through a mixed approach (both quantitative and qualitative) with in-depth interviews (participant stories). This study also indicates the constraints faced by married women travellers. This study extracted survey and open-ended responses from 36 frequent Delhi NCR female solo travellers. The findings revealed that motivation, perception, work-life balance, constraints, and revisit intentions are significant factors in solo female travel. However, some constraints include safety and security, which prevent solo women from travelling. The research will also motivate other solo women travellers to participate in this travel. This study will encourage policymakers to take initiatives for the nation's economic growth through the outflow of more women travellers. Furthermore, the research will help the travel agents promoting women travellers to develop their services accordingly.
    Keywords: (Solo married women traveller ; Delhi Ncr; Motivations; Perception; Revisit Intentions; Work-Life Balance; Constraints; Policy Makers; Factors; Economic Growth).

  • Tourism 4.0 in Portuguese tourism businesses   Order a copy of this article
    by Bárbara Coelho, Kateryna Levytska, Kate Torkington, Celia Ramos 
    Abstract: The future of tourism must take into consideration not only the new technologies associated with the environment provided by Tourism 4.0, but also concerns regarding sustainable development objectives. In this context, it is important to analyse the extent to which Portuguese tourism companies are adopting technologies associated with Tourism 4.0 through the identification and diagnosis of opportunities, the perception of their benefits, as well as the obstacles involved. A nationwide questionnaire survey was administered, and a sample of 412 responses was produced. The results of this study showed that many Portuguese tourism companies are not aware of the concept of Tourism 4.0, and that it is not being applied successfully due to perceived obstacles to adoption, although many companies recognise that Tourism 4.0 has advantages for their business and for sustainability practices.
    Keywords: Tourism 4.0; digital transformation; sustainability; ICT; Portugal.

  • Barriers to the implementation of sustainability in tourism destinations: Evidence from Tyrol, Austria, and the South Island of New Zealand   Order a copy of this article
    by Marco Haid, Julia N. Albrecht, Wiebke Finkler 
    Abstract: Sustainable development and the implementation of corresponding measures are crucial issues for destination management organisations. Barriers to implementation processes determine the success of sustainable development. This study examines these barriers in nature-based tourism destinations. Twenty-two destination managers in Austria and New Zealand were interviewed. The results show a wide range of barriers at global, national, regional/destination, institutional and individual levels, revealing that not only destination managers but also various other stakeholders are responsible for sustainable development. Policies and strategies relevant to tourism, therefore, need to be addressed in a multi-level approach to uncover and better address challenges arising from destination governance structures and functions.
    Keywords: destination development; nature-based tourism; destination management organisation (DMO); implementation theory; implementation barriers.

  • Electronic Word of Mouth (e-WOM) in Tourism Industry: A Bibliometric Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Jitender Kumar, Jyoti , Ankush Wadhwa 
    Abstract: In this study, the authors assess the e-WOM research in the tourism sector using bibliometric analysis. VOSviewer and RStudio software were used in this study's bibliometric analysis of 695 articles. The authors started by reviewing the history of e-WOM in the tourism sector from 2001 to 2021. After surveying relevant literature, this paper identified the most influential authors, journals, documents, and countries. Our data demonstrate a significant increase in publications for the field of study. The majority of the publications are American. The current research focuses on four main aspects: e-WOM dimensions, e-WOM in tourism, performance analysis, and science mapping analysis.
    Keywords: Electronic word of mouth; reviews; ratings; trustworthiness; e-WOM credibility; tourism; tourism industry; and bibliometric analysis.

  • Using A Choice Experiment to Determine Tourist Preference Heterogeneity for Beach Recreational Attributes at Port Dickson, Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Beaches have high economic value due to visitors' leisure goods and services demand. However, beach recreational resources are anticipated to face pressure and trade-offs due to restricted local government funding. Port Dickson in Malaysia comprises a length of coastline where recreational opportunities are being imperilled by increased tourist demand. This study determined tourists' key preferences for beach recreational attributes in Malaysia to inform policymakers when making decisions regarding the coastal allocation of funds. Choice experiment (CE) estimations were made using mixed logit (MXL) simple and interaction models. Four attributes were involved; amenities, recreational facilities, cleanliness and entrance fees. The results revealed that tourists were willing to pay MYR1.895 to MYR4.22 for a high level of recreational facilities, cleanliness of the water and beach, and amenities provided at the beach. The findings also revealed that; age, gender and education all significantly impacted tourists' preferences.
    Keywords: Beach recreation; choice experiment; tourists’ preferences; willingness to pay.

  • The COVID-19 pandemics impacts on Valle de Bravo tourism from the residents perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Omar Ismael Ramírez Hernández, Yanelli Daniela Palmas-Castrejón, Alejandro Delgado-Cruz, Rocío Del Carmen Serrano-Barquin 
    Abstract: The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in travel restrictions, which have had a significant direct impact on tourism destinations. This research explored the pandemics effect on tourism activities in Valle de Bravo, Mexico from the residents perspective using questionnaires, interviews, and negativity bias theory. According to this theory, negative impacts have a greater weight than positive ones. The results indicate that, while residential tourists have helped alleviate the cost of controlling the pandemic in this tourism destination, residents perceive the negative effects as more significant. The findings provide first-hand information that should facilitate the introduction of more appropriate strategies that can expediate stakeholders decision-making processes.
    Keywords: Residents’ perceptions; coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic; negative bias theory; residential tourist; impact.

  • Impact of recession on air travel demand for tourist destinations in a developing country   Order a copy of this article
    by Luca José Dos Santos, Alessandro V. M. Oliveira, Mauro Caetano, Evandro José Da Silva 
    Abstract: Tourism and air transport are exposed to external shocks from crises, which could considerably reduce demand, especially in developing economies. In this study, we estimate the effects of the 20142016 Brazilian recession on air tickets sold to four tourist destinations in Brazil. The empirical strategy employed a PDS-LASSO regression approach with fixed effects. The results present differentiated impacts of the recession on air travel demand for the destinations, in which even counter-intuitive positive effects of the recession period on demand could be observed. The study relates these results to destination characteristics and discusses public policy development to alleviate the decrease in demand induced by the recession. Empirical results suggest the development of regional tourism policies to reduce the sensitivity of tourist destinations to periods of economic crises.
    Keywords: Air transport; Policy; Regional development; Tourism planning.