Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Tourism Policy

International Journal of Tourism Policy (IJTP)

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International Journal of Tourism Policy (23 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Tourism 4.0 in Portuguese tourism businesses   Order a copy of this article
    by Bárbara Coelho, Kateryna Levytska, Kate Torkington, Celia Ramos 
    Abstract: The future of tourism must take into consideration not only the new technologies associated with the environment provided by Tourism 4.0, but also concerns regarding sustainable development objectives. In this context, it is important to analyse the extent to which Portuguese tourism companies are adopting technologies associated with Tourism 4.0 through the identification and diagnosis of opportunities, the perception of their benefits, as well as the obstacles involved. A nationwide questionnaire survey was administered, and a sample of 412 responses was produced. The results of this study showed that many Portuguese tourism companies are not aware of the concept of Tourism 4.0, and that it is not being applied successfully due to perceived obstacles to adoption, although many companies recognise that Tourism 4.0 has advantages for their business and for sustainability practices.
    Keywords: Tourism 4.0; digital transformation; sustainability; ICT; Portugal.

  • Barriers to the implementation of sustainability in tourism destinations: Evidence from Tyrol, Austria, and the South Island of New Zealand   Order a copy of this article
    by Marco Haid, Julia N. Albrecht, Wiebke Finkler 
    Abstract: Sustainable development and the implementation of corresponding measures are crucial issues for destination management organisations. Barriers to implementation processes determine the success of sustainable development. This study examines these barriers in nature-based tourism destinations. Twenty-two destination managers in Austria and New Zealand were interviewed. The results show a wide range of barriers at global, national, regional/destination, institutional and individual levels, revealing that not only destination managers but also various other stakeholders are responsible for sustainable development. Policies and strategies relevant to tourism, therefore, need to be addressed in a multi-level approach to uncover and better address challenges arising from destination governance structures and functions.
    Keywords: destination development; nature-based tourism; destination management organisation (DMO); implementation theory; implementation barriers.

  • Electronic Word of Mouth (e-WOM) in Tourism Industry: A Bibliometric Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Jitender Kumar, Jyoti , Ankush Wadhwa 
    Abstract: In this study, the authors assess the e-WOM research in the tourism sector using bibliometric analysis. VOSviewer and RStudio software were used in this study's bibliometric analysis of 695 articles. The authors started by reviewing the history of e-WOM in the tourism sector from 2001 to 2021. After surveying relevant literature, this paper identified the most influential authors, journals, documents, and countries. Our data demonstrate a significant increase in publications for the field of study. The majority of the publications are American. The current research focuses on four main aspects: e-WOM dimensions, e-WOM in tourism, performance analysis, and science mapping analysis.
    Keywords: Electronic word of mouth; reviews; ratings; trustworthiness; e-WOM credibility; tourism; tourism industry; and bibliometric analysis.

  • Using a choice experiment to determine tourist preference heterogeneity for beach recreational attributes at Port Dickson, Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Wan Norhidayah W. Mohamad, Zaiton Samdin, Bakti Hasan Basri 
    Abstract: Beaches have high economic value due to visitors' leisure goods and services demand. However, beach recreational resources are anticipated to face pressure and trade-offs due to restricted local government funding. Port Dickson in Malaysia comprises a length of coastline where recreational opportunities are being imperilled by increased tourist demand. This study determined tourists' key preferences for beach recreational attributes in Malaysia to inform policymakers when making decisions regarding the coastal allocation of funds. Choice experiment (CE) estimations were made using mixed logit (MXL) simple and interaction models. Four attributes were involved; amenities, recreational facilities, cleanliness and entrance fees. The results revealed that tourists were willing to pay MYR1.895 to MYR4.22 for a high level of recreational facilities, cleanliness of the water and beach, and amenities provided at the beach. The findings also revealed that; age, gender and education all significantly impacted tourists' preferences.
    Keywords: Beach recreation; choice experiment; tourists’ preferences; willingness to pay.

  • The COVID-19 pandemics impacts on Valle de Bravo tourism from the residents perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Omar Ismael Ramírez Hernández, Yanelli Daniela Palmas-Castrejón, Alejandro Delgado-Cruz, Rocío Del Carmen Serrano-Barquin 
    Abstract: The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in travel restrictions, which have had a significant direct impact on tourism destinations. This research explored the pandemics effect on tourism activities in Valle de Bravo, Mexico from the residents perspective using questionnaires, interviews, and negativity bias theory. According to this theory, negative impacts have a greater weight than positive ones. The results indicate that, while residential tourists have helped alleviate the cost of controlling the pandemic in this tourism destination, residents perceive the negative effects as more significant. The findings provide first-hand information that should facilitate the introduction of more appropriate strategies that can expediate stakeholders decision-making processes.
    Keywords: Residents’ perceptions; coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic; negative bias theory; residential tourist; impact.

  • Impact of recession on air travel demand for tourist destinations in a developing country   Order a copy of this article
    by Luca José Dos Santos, Alessandro V. M. Oliveira, Mauro Caetano, Evandro José Da Silva 
    Abstract: Tourism and air transport are exposed to external shocks from crises, which could considerably reduce demand, especially in developing economies. In this study, we estimate the effects of the 20142016 Brazilian recession on air tickets sold to four tourist destinations in Brazil. The empirical strategy employed a PDS-LASSO regression approach with fixed effects. The results present differentiated impacts of the recession on air travel demand for the destinations, in which even counter-intuitive positive effects of the recession period on demand could be observed. The study relates these results to destination characteristics and discusses public policy development to alleviate the decrease in demand induced by the recession. Empirical results suggest the development of regional tourism policies to reduce the sensitivity of tourist destinations to periods of economic crises.
    Keywords: Air transport; Policy; Regional development; Tourism planning.

  • The Customer-Centric-Marketing (CCM) Perspectives in the Tourism and Hospitality Sector: Insight from a Developing Country   Order a copy of this article
    by Damene Datiko 
    Abstract: The customer-centric marketing approach (CCM) is an approach that places the customer at the center of marketing strategies. Underpinned by the theory of marketing management orientations, this study examines the pattern of CCM philosophy application in tourism and hospitality operations in Ethiopia. The study employs a qualitative-exploratory design and collects data from 21 purposively selected informants. The findings reveal that while star-rated hotels understand CCM well, restaurants, travel agencies, and event organizers are unaware of it. Although the operations utilize ICT primarily for various purposes, yet, they fail to use it in implementing CCM. Likewise, while certain star-rated hotels appear better at customer networking, most operations fail to do this. Finally, the study discusses challenges, strategies, implications, limitations, and future directions.
    Keywords: Marketing management orientations; Customer-centric marketing (CCM); Product-focused; customer-focused; Customer-networking; Tourism and hospitality operations; Challenges of CCM; Ethiopia rnrn.

  • The effect of affective food belonging and attitude on repurchase intention: Afyonkarahisar case   Order a copy of this article
    by Erdem Baydeniz, Mustafa Sandikci 
    Abstract: The present study aims to determine the effect of affective food belonging and attitude on repurchase intention. The research population consists of tourists who buy Turkish delight and Afyon cream, intangible cultural heritage elements of Afyonkarahisar province. The convenience sampling method was used in the research. In the research, the survey technique was used as a data collection method, and the questionnaires were applied to 425 tourists between December 2020 and May 2021 and 395 questionnaires were evaluated. According to the results of the research, it was determined that affective food belonging has a positive and significant effect on economic, cultural and social attitude; economic and cultural attitude has a positive and significant effect on repurchase intention, while social attitude does not have a positive and significant effect on repurchase intention. Sectoral and academic recommendations have been developed within the relevant research results.
    Keywords: belonging; attitude; repurchase intention; tourist.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTP.2023.10055468
  • Risk and consumer fear of visiting tourist destinations in Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Rennan Carvalho Dos Santos, Cristiane Salomé Ribeiro Costa, Marconi Freitas Da Costa, Karen Daniele Lira De França 
    Abstract: This study analyses the influence of the perceived risk of contamination (PRC) and fear on the intention to visit tourist destinations in Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, descriptive quantitative research is carried out, with a final sample of 342 respondents, all Brazilian residents, and the data is analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM). The results indicate that fear directly and negatively impacts the intention to visit tourist destinations in Brazil during the pandemic. Additionally, the PRC does not have enough statistical significance to influence visit intention, and no significant relationship was identified between perceived risk and fear. This study contributes to advancing research on consumer behaviour linked to tourist activity amid adverse situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
    Keywords: consumer behaviour; perceived risk; fear; intention to visit tourist destinations; Covid-19.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTP.2023.10058698
  • Tourism, labour market, and host community impacts during the refugee crisis in Cox’s Bazar   Order a copy of this article
    by Md. Nurnobi Islam, Md. Masudur Rahman 
    Abstract: Cox’s Bazar turned into the worlds largest refugee camp in the last quarter of 2017 when more than 1 million refugees took shelter. The impact of the crisis has not been largely examined through a tourism lens. This research examines the refugee crisis’s impact on tourism businesses, tourism workers, and the well-being of host communities. For this research, primary data were collected from key informants selected through stratified purposeful sampling and analysed through a thematic analysis process. This research has found that the presence of humanitarian organisations has increased the demand for tourist-dependent businesses. However, cheap refugee labourers have created economic pressure on the host community members. The low-skilled native workers are negatively affected by the refugees. The insights from this research will help industry leaders and policymakers take measures to capitalise on the opportunities arising from this changing situation and mitigate the negative effects on tourism in Cox’s Bazar.
    Keywords: Rohingya; Refugee; Tourism; Cox’s Bazar; Bangladesh.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTP.2023.10056986
  • Travelling with a vengeance: the influence of social media on revenge tourism   Order a copy of this article
    by Vishal Shukla, Pramod Kumar Srivastava 
    Abstract: This research note examines the role of social media in the emergence and promotion of revenge tourism. Revenge tourism refers to the phenomenon in which tourists travel to destinations to avenge the negative impacts of disasters or conflicts on local communities. To learn how social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram portray and promote revenge tourism, a content analysis of user-generated content was conducted on these sites. The study's findings point to the importance of social media in the development and promotion of revenge tourism. The implications of this study are significant for tourism management, disaster management, and social media management.
    Keywords: revenge tourism; social media; user-generated content; disaster management; tourism management; content analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTP.2023.10057070
  • Share or not to share: motivators and inhibitors of travellers experience on social media: a qualitative approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Habiba Al-Mughairi, Preeti Bhaskar 
    Abstract: The use of social media to enhance tourism has been researched by many academicians and scholars, but the subject is yet to be explored as far as tourism in Oman is considered. Oman is categorised as a relatively ‘underrated’ destination in the Gulf region. Many Omanis and ex-pats strive to showcase and popularise the unexplored destination of Oman by sharing their travelrelated posts on their social media accounts to promote the ‘underrated’ destination of Oman. This paper identifies the motivating and inhibiting factors of travellers to share travel-related photos, videos, blogs or experiences on social media in Oman. The study has used the Interpretative phenomenological analysis technique to identify the factors that act as motivators and inhibitors for travellers to post their travelling experience on social media. This study has given valuable suggestions for travel companies and the Ministry of Heritage and Tourism to boost Oman’s tourism through social media.
    Keywords: tourism; social media; motivating factors; inhibiting factors; Oman; IPA; interpretative phenomenological analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTP.2023.10057266
  • Determining the experience of museum visitors by text mining: example of Topkapi Palace museum   Order a copy of this article
    by Ozan Catir 
    Abstract: Visitor studies on the experiences and expectations of visitors are important for museums in terms of management and development. However, few studies have been designed to explore the components of experience for museum visitors. In this research, the experiences of museum visitors were analysed. Between 20 October 2022 and 30 November 2022, 11,633 comments were downloaded from TripAdvisor platform via Webharvy 5.0 program and transferred to excel program. The resulting file was transferred to the Rapidminer 9.3 program and word frequencies and common keywords were determined using this program. Topic modelling of words was done using the Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) model. In the study, five themes were determined: convenience and entertainment, cultural entertainment, personal identity, historical memories and escape. Finally, some relevant discussion and recommendations are presented.
    Keywords: visitor study; experience expectation; preference for visiting; text mining; Latent Dirichlet allocation model (LDA); Topkapı Palace Museum; topic modelling; online reviews; tourism; tourist experience.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTP.2023.10057514
  • Trends and patterns in Indian sustainable tourism development literature: a bibliometric analysis and visualisation   Order a copy of this article
    by Valsaraj Payini, Giridhar B. Kamath, V.P. Vasanth Kamath, Jyothi Mallya 
    Abstract: Despite the growing interest in sustainable tourism studies in India, there are not many studies that comprehensively analyse the emerging trends, patterns, and themes in this field. Therefore, this study reviews published papers on sustainable tourism development in the Indian context. This study analyses 32 papers published by Indian researchers in the Scopus database. This study performed performance analyses of the research constituents, coword analysis of keywords, and bibliographic coupling analysis of documents. The analysis brings to light three research streams in Indian sustainable tourism development literature: sustainable tourism development, community-based tourism, and attitude toward sustainable tourism development. Furthermore, this study provides theoretical and methodological recommendations for future research on sustainable tourism development.
    Keywords: sustainable tourism development; India; bibliometric analysis; review; sustainable tourism development; community-based tourism; and attitude towards sustainable tourism development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTP.2023.10057515
  • The usability growth of smart tourist guide application and quality dimensions   Order a copy of this article
    by Arvind Mahajan, Sunil Kumar, Sachin Kale 
    Abstract: The smart tourism is an advanced form of smart cities and the use of intelligent technologies at tourist destinations. Smart tourist guide application (STGA) is a new tourism application that allows travellers to improve their experience and utilise it as a tour guide. This study’s objective is to evaluate the quality of applications, evaluated in different publications between the years 2013 and 2021 by applying systematic review. The authors have done multiple investigations on app performance, functionality, information quality, facilitating conditions, perceived ease of use, and perceived usefulness. The quality of any type of tour application influences the tourist experience, user happiness, and re-use intent. The finding of this research is providing a complete literature review, so that readers can have a comprehensive picture of the various features of different STGA. The 142 app characteristics and the principles influence on app users’ intentions. The outcome of the study is potential for the future research and app developers.
    Keywords: app quality dimensions; smart tour guide application; tour guide app experience; app characteristic.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTP.2023.10057613
  • The extent of accessibility of Indian regional tourism organisations’ websites for persons with visual impairment: an exploratory study   Order a copy of this article
    by Syed Ahmed Kabeer, Victor Anandkumar 
    Abstract: The study’s main objectives are to measure the current level of accessibility in the Regional Tourism Organisation (RTO) websites concerning persons with visual impairment (PWVI) using the automatic web accessibility evaluation tool (AWAET) and to study PWVI’s perception towards accessibility in the RTO websites. Thus, it is a two-part study. The first part involves using AWAET and the second part engages PWVI as respondents, answering 22 key statements. The researcher applied the snowball sampling method and appropriate statistical tools for analysis. The results of AWAET reveal a mixed response, while the PWVI perceives a marginal level of accessibility in RTO websites. Lack of accessibility on their official websites may spoil the reputation of the RTO of the particular State. An access-friendly RTO website will attract more PWVI tourists and contribute to the regions development. Web accessibility is imperative for the digital inclusion of PWVI and ensuring equality and social justice.
    Keywords: web accessibility; constructs of website accessibility; persons with visual impairment; RTO websites; web accessibility barrier scores; automatic web accessibility evaluation tool tourism websites; digital inclusion; web content accessibility guidelines.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTP.2023.10058032
  • Knowledge clusters and impact of digital transformation on tourism and hospitality marketing mix   Order a copy of this article
    by Shekhar, Marco Valeri 
    Abstract: The paper aims to synthesise the knowledge on novel digital technologies that have brought a transformation in the tourism and hospitality’s products, pricing, place, and promotional (together known as marketing mix) strategies. The paper carries out a bibliometric analysis using VOSviewer, Science of Science (Sci2), and Gephi on 1424 journal papers published in Web of Science-indexed journals from 1995 to 2022. The descriptive analysis suggests that there has been a sudden increase in the publication trend and much of the focus of academics is on the influence of digital transformation (DT) on the promotion of tourism. The results from thematic analysis highlight a lack of research on using technology to extend the life cycle of products, moving up in product layers, balancing the 4Ps in the tourism marketing mix, and increasing marketing mix effectiveness. The paper recommends studying digitalisations effects on the tourism product line, pricing policy, knowledge sharing, and technology-led co-creation.
    Keywords: Digital transformation; tourism; hospitality; marketing mix; bibliometrics; digitalization.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTP.2023.10058417
  • Online news reflexivity of war and tourism using the news analytics method   Order a copy of this article
    by Toney K. Thomas, Jishnu P. Thampy, P.P. Anjusha, P. Harish, K. K. Mohammed Niyas, Noufal Naheem Kottekkadan, Raji Vipin, Rigin Sebastian 
    Abstract: This study explores how newspapers are responding to tourism in an extreme political crisis. The study analyses the news published in international newspapers using news analytics techniques. A qualitative inquiry by adopting a detailed analysis of the top ten online newspapers on the topics of war and its impact on tourism is used to analyse the data. Despite several studies on the political crisis and tourism, there are no studies conducted analysing online newspaper articles on how tourism shapes and reshapes due to the impact of war through a thematic analysis of online news. This paper explores the reflective views of news on the social, economic, behavioural, political, geopolitical, and international relations aspects of tourism during the RussiaUkraine war. Our analysis reveals that the war impacts tourism with varied intensity throughout the World. Importantly, our study also contends the emergence of a ‘gesture of solidarity’.
    Keywords: Tourism; War; Russia; Ukraine; Politics; News Analytics; Tourism Planning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTP.2023.10058584
  • Determination of sustainable rural tourism development strategies based on the SWOT-QSPM matrix: a case study in Dashtak village in Iran, Fars province   Order a copy of this article
    by Farkhondeh Rafiee 
    Abstract: The development of sustainable rural tourism is an important factor in providing income for villagers and preventing their migration to the city. Dashtak village in Marvdasht city, Fars province, is a suitable environment for sustainable rural tourism due to its attractiveness and unique environmental conditions. This descriptive-analytical study aimed at providing sustainable tourism development strategies based on strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat (SWOT) and quantitative strategic planning matrix (QSPM). The results show that Dashtak village has great potential for tourism but has been neglected due to lack of awareness among villagers, inadequate infrastructure and inefficient management. According to the internal-external matrix, overview strategies should be selected in the tourism development planning of Dashtak village, which tries to reduce the weaknesses by taking advantage of the existing opportunities. Also, according to the QSPM matrix, the strategy of using the allocated budgets to create appropriate tourism infrastructure and equipment has the highest priority.
    Keywords: rural tourism; Dashtak village; sustainable rural tourism; SWOT; strength; weakness; opportunity; and threat; QSPM; quantitative strategic planning matrix.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTP.2023.10058749
  • Commitment factors and career intentions of tourism undergraduate students to a career path in the tourism industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Nermin A. Khasawneh, Ramzi Al Rousan, Malek Bader, Hussein Ibrahim 
    Abstract: This study analyses the commitment factors and career intentions of Jordanian undergraduate students in tourism management programs. To collect the data a self-administered questionnaire was used. Data were tested for normality of distribution, then, the mean was used for ranking. Afterward, the independent samples t-test was used to test the significant differences between males and females. The study reveals that the life-threatening COVID-19 is not efficient in determining students’ career intentions or commitment factors. Their commitment to employment in the tourism industry is shaped by four main categories: industry, personality, education, and society. Significant differences between male and female commitment factors and career intentions toward the tourism industry may be due to cultural, social reservations, and traditional social norms. The findings of the study can help tourism educators, employers, and policymakers to better understand students’ commitment factors and career intentions.
    Keywords: Jordan; tourism industry; commitment factors; career intentions; undergraduate tourism students.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTP.2023.10058995
  • Determinants of customers’ intention to stay in homestays and mediation role of hidden camera   Order a copy of this article
    by Kshitiz Sharma, Anand Ellur 
    Abstract: This study aims to find the factors involved that influence customers’ intention to stay (ITS) in homestays. The role of hidden cameras in defining customers’ ITS in homestays has been studied here. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to establish these factors. Partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was used to establish the model and association of factors such as host-guest interaction, hidden camera, accessibility, privacy, and aggregator’s tech enablement on customers’ ITS. Data was collected using Google Forms posted on social media sites. The hidden camera and aggregator’s technology enablement factors were found to be significant. The mediating role of the hidden camera was also studied and found to be insignificant. A multi-group analysis did not establish gender-wise differences in customers’ ITS. The study triggers the association of hidden cameras and other notable factors on customers’ decision making which is a scarce research area.
    Keywords: host-guest interaction; hidden camera; homestays; PLS-SEM; partial least squares structural equation modelling; ITS; intention to stay.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTP.2023.10059115
  • Walking tourism in the city of Amman: a behavioural and spatial approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Mairna Hussein Mustafa, Islam M. Elgammal 
    Abstract: Walking tourism is one of the common practices that tourists engage in while travelling to many destinations, particularly in urban contexts. This study aims to test the relationship between the qualities and benefits of walking areas as independent variables and the satisfaction of walking tourists. 118 individuals in the city centre of Amman responded to a questionnaire that was designed for this purpose. Structural Equation Modelling was used to analyse the study data. Findings revealed that only the benefits (feelings) of the respondents had a significant relation with the satisfaction variable, which confirms the need to improve different urban qualities to be more appealing, and not only rely on the historical and social significance of the area.
    Keywords: walking tourism; quality of urban areas; behaviour of walking tourists; area of downtown Amman; satisfaction; walkability; urban tourism; domestic tourism.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTP.2023.10059242
  • The Effect of COVID-19 Crisis on the Tourist Behaviour: The case of Greek Post-Millennials   Order a copy of this article
    by Lambros Tsourgiannis, Stavros Valsamidis, Pavlos Efraimidis, George Drosatos 
    Abstract: This paper explores how COVID-19 has affected the attitudes of post-millennials regarding their decision to go on holidays or not. It aims to identify the main attitudes of those Generation Z people that will go on holidays within the COVID-19 crisis, and of those that will not, and to cluster them into groups according to their behaviour. Therefore, the researchers elaborated a primary survey on 1287 Generation Z persons in Greece, in the summer of 2020. About 45% of the respondents declared that would not go on holidays, whilst 55% of them answered that they would. The key factors that describe their main attitudes towards the above-mentioned issues were detected through Principal Component Analysis, whilst cluster analysis classified the respondents into groups regarding their attitudes. Quadratic discriminant analysis was performed to assess cluster predictability, and chi-square analysis was employed to profile each group regarding their demographic characteristics.
    Keywords: Tourism Marketing; Consumer Behaviour; COVID-19; Generation Z.