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International Journal of Tourism Policy

International Journal of Tourism Policy (IJTP)

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International Journal of Tourism Policy (30 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Harassment of religious visitors to Hindu temples in India: A research note   Order a copy of this article
    by Vandita Hajra, Kaustav Nag 
    Abstract: Earlier researchers have concluded that travel to religious sites in the contemporary world is driven by varied motivations and the stakeholders involved must carefully address the varying expectations of different types of visitors. This study highlights an important aspect of harassment of visitors to religious sites that have remained largely unexplored in empirical studies. The study consisted of analyzing TripAdvisor narratives of visitors reporting harassment experiences at Hindu temples in India using a hybrid content analysis approach. The results revealed the following eleven types of harassment: extortion by priests, fraud and fleecing, rude behaviour of temple staff, poor facilities and management, touting, aggressive selling by vendors, physical abuse, verbal abuse, persistence by beggars, sexual harassment, and human-animal conflict. The findings have significant managerial and theoretical implications for destination managers and researchers alike.
    Keywords: Visitor harassment; religious tourism; pilgrimages; pilgrimage tourism; Hindu temples in India; religious visitors.

  • Microeconomic determinants of domestic tourism expenditure in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Riyaz Alam, Diptimayee Nayak 
    Abstract: We attempt to identify the key determinants of domestic tourism expenditure in India. Socio-demographic and economic characteristics, travel-related characteristics and other characteristics of visitors play a special role in this regard. NSSO data of 72nd round, 2014-15, are analysed using OLS and quantile regression model. Based on the quantiles of tourism expenditure, tourists are classified into three broad categories, i.e. low, medium and high spenders. The results show that along with other socioeconomic variables like income, household size, and household type, religion is also a significant determinant of tourism expenditures. Among travel-related characteristics, length of stay, travel party size, type of trip, and type of stay are the most influential determinants. Under other characteristics, reimbursement claims influences tourism spending whereas region of origin shows inconsistency. The destination managers and tour operators are, therefore, need to consider these characteristics in their decisions-making processes to maximize the economic benefits of tourism spending.
    Keywords: Domestic tourism expenditure; determinants of domestic tourism expenditure; quantile regression model; tourist destination management; India.

  • Have we (un)intentionally made Indigenous Law a Tourists Code? A Research Note.   Order a copy of this article
    by John Read 
    Abstract: Within the literature, tourism often incorporates codes of conduct as soft management strategies for reducing the impacts of tourists in destinations that are unfamiliar to them. This research note first introduces codes of conduct within tourism and then discusses how they have been situated. Then, there is a discussion on the relationship between codes of conduct and cultural laws, which frames the conception of codes of conduct as soft visitor management tools within the Canadian legal tradition as cultural laws. Finally, the author makes the case that within tourism, we must adopt an inherent rights approach when discussing Indigenous cultural norms and rules (Indigenous laws), especially concerning codes of conduct and when working with Indigenous communities in any context involving Indigenous rights.
    Keywords: Tourism; Codes of Conduct; Indigenous Law; Self-determination; Governance; Canada; Visitor Management; Power.

  • Roles of institutions in empowering residents towards sustainable ecotourism in Ghana: Insights from Kakum National Park and Bobiri Forest and Butterfly Sanctuary - Research Note   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatima Eshun 
    Abstract: Most destinations in developing countries are owned and controlled by the government, with some level of support from the private sector. However, the roles of public and private institutions in empowering residents towards sustainable tourism have received less attention in the literature. Providing human, psychological, social, economic, political, and environmental empowerment is crucial for achieving sustainable tourism. This study addresses this knowledge gap by employing a qualitative approach to investigate the phenomenon and found that the public and private institutions engage residents in certain activities. However, these activities are not adequate to bring about the empowerment of residents towards sustainable tourism. The study recommends that the public sector enact policies, strategies, and frameworks that can drive the private sector to empower residents to ensure tourism sustainability at destinations.
    Keywords: Human; social; psychological; economic; environmental; political; public; private; tourism; sustainable development.

  • A framework and policy-implications of stakeholders engagement in sustainable tourism development: Empirical evidence from Arbaminch and its vicinity, southern Ethiopia   Order a copy of this article
    by Damene Bogale 
    Abstract: Supported by the stakeholder and triple-bottom-line theories, the current study investigates stakeholder engagement in STD in Arbaminch and its vicinity. Methodologically, the study is constructivist, employing a qualitative exploratory research method. The study employed a total of 34 purposively selected respondents in in-depth interview and focus group discussions. The findings inform that despite Arbaminch is endowed with enormous tourism potentials, the stakeholders engagement in STD in the area is not fully practiced because of ineffective stakeholders engagement and other related challenges. The study identifies key policy-relevant issues that have both theoretical and practical implications to achieve STD through stakeholders participation. It further presents a new framework that is believed crucial to support the engagement process. Eventually, study limitations and future directions are also outlined.
    Keywords: Sustainable tourism development; Stakeholders; Stakeholder theory; Stakeholder engagement; Stakeholder framework; Emerging destinations; Ethiopia; Arbaminchrnrnrn.

  • Push and pull factors for wellness tourism experience: framework development and implementations   Order a copy of this article
    by Xuan Tai Mai, Thi Doan Trang Nguyen 
    Abstract: Human beings by nature are resilient, and always attempt to discover new ways of relaxation to counteract extended periods of depression, which is reflected in the rapid growth of wellness tourism connected to health and wellbeing dimensions, such as body-mind-spirit. The trend is creating more opportunities for the tourism industry in the future as the unprecedented global health crisis has put extra pressure on the change in peoples lives. By examining the current state of study on wellness tourism, this paper critically synthesizes past literature and evaluates the substantive body of research on the internal motives of wellness travellers and their expected experience attributes. The study presents a framework for the implications of wellness travellers motivations by adopting a push-pull perspective. The findings contribute to our understanding of tourist behaviour. Practical managerial implications for the creation and management of wellness experiences are also discussed.
    Keywords: wellness tourism; push and pull factors; travel motivations; experience attributes; literature review.

  • European destination regions and social exclusion challenges   Order a copy of this article
    by Antonio Paolo Russo, Riccardo Valente 
    Abstract: This paper presents a typology of European regions according to the type, mix and magnitude of human mobilities attracted over the 2008-2018 period, tourists being one of them, but extending to the related movement of different cohorts of migrants. Regional clusters are then assessed in terms of their social performance in domains such as health, material conditions, housing, and labour. Significant associations between regional types and social trends are interpreted in the light of potential factors affecting these outcomes. Results point to the uneven repercussions of housing unaffordability in the fastest growing destination regions, on the polarization of living conditions in the European star destinations and on the challenge of precarious labour, especially for migrant workers, in established mature destinations. In a stage of reignition of tourism activity after the COVID-19 crisis, these insights are meant to contribute to the recovery debate, informing about key social issues and vulnerabilities which, in specific regional contexts, could have been amplified by the current crisis.
    Keywords: Tourism mobilities; Attractiveness; European regions; Social Exclusion; Policy Challenges.

  • Challenges in Digital Marketing: Views of Small Travel Entrepreneurs   Order a copy of this article
    by Swati Sharma, Ankita Sharma 
    Abstract: Small travel entrepreneurs play a pivotal role in the tourism sector but are facing existential crisis due to slow adoption of digital marketing. Previous works have developed models of technology adoption but studies on resistance to technology adoption by small enterprises are scarce. Grounded in this rationale, this study explores the subjective experiences of small travel entrepreneurs regarding resistance to adopt digital marketing and draws insights following an interpretivist epistemology. The qualitative approach gives rich insights about the barriers perceived in adopting digital marketing. The study is unique as the study focuses on the underexplored domain of small travel enterprises. It builds on innovation resistance theory and provides a crucial contribution, as resistance determines the success or failure of any technological product. The findings provide practical insights and guidelines for practitioners and government policy-makers to create secured applications and to build an ecosystem for quick adoption of digital marketing.
    Keywords: digital marketing; small travel enterprises; innovation resistance theory; qualitative study; barriers; entrepreneurs.

  • Antecedents of tourist revisit intentions: the mediating effect of satisfaction   Order a copy of this article
    by Albert Martins 
    Abstract: The study examines the relationships between destination image, service quality, tourist satisfaction and tourists intention to revisit the destination. The results indicate that destination image and service quality are positively related to tourists intention to revisit the destination. Tourist satisfaction strengthens this relationship. The findings imply that the deplorable tourist sites must be rehabilitated to improve the destination image to induce tourists satisfaction and intention to revisit the destination. In augmenting extant literature, the study further provided that irrespective of a tourist's age, gender, and educational level, his/her revisit decision will be influenced by the destination image and, most importantly, the satisfaction derived on the first visit. Knowing how vital tourism is globally and being the fourth most significant contributor to Ghana's economy, emerging markets with similar cultural backgrounds can adopt this study's findings to take advantage of the global tourism industry. Lastly, as a potential foreign investor, one is well informed about the nature and state of Ghanaian tourism and how s/he can strategically invest in attracting and retaining both local and foreign tourists.
    Keywords: Destination image; Service quality; Satisfaction; Tourist revisit intention; Ghana.

  • Role of Loneliness in Destination Emotional Values and Travel Intentions: Analysis of Solo Women Travelers in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Parvinder Kour, Sudhanshu Gupta 
    Abstract: While millennial women are living the fastest and most complex lifestyles, loneliness has emerged as a distinct problem among them. However, travel promotes identity, education and aids in giving meaning and purpose to peoples lives. Against this background, the present study aims towards establishing a link between loneliness and travel intentions among millennial women in India. The overall relationship was tested and it was found that the emotional values related to the destination play an important role. The relationship was elicited from the responses of Tier I cities - Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai. In addition, the feeling of loneliness has been found positively influencing the emotional values that tourist seek which further significantly influences their intentions to travel towards a destination.
    Keywords: Destination Emotional Value; Millennial women; Intention to travel; Loneliness.

  • Factors Prompting Augmented Reality Adoption in Sacred Places   Order a copy of this article
    by Md. Rakibul Hafiz Khan Rakib, Azizul Hassan 
    Abstract: There is evidence that sacred places across the world are launching Augmented Reality (AR) applications. This application of AR is somehow prompted by the most recent Covid-19 pandemic where in-person experiences are altered by the virtual. AR, as an innovative technology, augments the physical environment with digitally generated imagery that can generate privileges for tourists in sacred places and become the reason to trigger cultural conflicts and religious controversy. This in-depth interview-based research aims to explore the tourists views and ideas of applying AR in the Mosque City of Bagerhat of Bangladesh, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in terms of possibilities, cultural conflicts, and religious controversy. Findings show that the application of AR in a sacred place can support tourists in many useful ways, can offer them positive experiences, and help in sustainability concerns of the site. However, the application of AR in a sacred place can be an element of conflicting interests between the religious and general tourists. Adequate attention is thus required from the parties involved in terms of applying AR in the Mosque City of Bagerhat of Bangladesh, a sacred religious site.
    Keywords: Augmented reality; technology application; sacred tourism; the Mosque City of Bagerhat of Bangladesh; UNESCO World Heritage Site.

  • Perceived Tourism Development and tourism-friendly behaviour: The Mediation Role of Overall Quality of Life   Order a copy of this article
    by Seyedeh Fatemeh Ghasempour Ganji, Azar Kaffashpoor, Lester W. Johnson 
    Abstract: This study examines the link between tourism development with the tourism-friendly behaviour of local residents and the mediating role of residents' overall quality of life (QOL) in this regard. A sample of 384 residents of Mashhad city in Iran completed a questionnaire. Structural equation modelling (SEM) with Warp PLS was used for model estimation. The findings indicate that tourism development related to residents' QOL and their tourism-friendly behaviour positively. QOL partly mediates the relationship between tourism development and tourism-friendly behaviour. Moreover, the social and economic impacts of tourism development have a stronger association with QOL than the environmental and cultural impacts, and the impact of the social and environmental impacts of tourism development on tourism-friendly behaviour is stronger than the economic impact. Current studies on local settings lack a comprehensive investigation of the link between tourism development, QOL and tourism-friendly behaviour. The research findings could help researchers and authorities to recognize the key factors that predict residents' QOL and tourism-friendly behaviour.
    Keywords: urban tourism development; pro-tourism behavior; quality of life; environmental effects; socio-economic effects.

  • The importance of film-induced tourism as a motivational influence on travel decisions: analysis of push and pull factors from the perspective of Portuguese consumers.   Order a copy of this article
    by Sara Nunes, Alejandro Del Moral Agundez, Julia Fragoso Da Fonseca, Samiha Chemli, Abdulmenaf Sejdini, Kang Jin Seo 
    Abstract: In the literature, the studies on tourist motivations are extensive; however, new types of tourism are growing and becoming popular every day; therefore, it is necessary to include these recent trends and analyze their correlation with intentions and motivations. Based on the aforementioned, this study aims to measure the importance of film-induced tourism as a motivational influence on travel decisions amongst push and pull factors based on the model of Dann (1977). Based on those mentioned above, explanatory research was developed focused on the quantitative approach through a questionnaire-based online survey using a non-probabilistic sample for convenience. In terms of results, we can conclude that film-induced tourism-related push and pull factors do not seem to be a significant motivational factor when compared with other push and pull motivations.
    Keywords: Film-induced tourism; motivations; pull factors; push factors; tourist destination.

  • Exploring the impact of COVID-19 on the travel intermediaries in India: mapping trends and strategies   Order a copy of this article
    by Bipithalal Balakrishnan Nair, Satyajit Sinha, M.R. Dileep 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 outbreak has challenged the global tourism sector, and it has posed a significant threat to the existence of tourism business across the globe, especially in emerging economies. This study examines the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on travel intermediary businesses in India and their strategies to overcome the present predicament. The study draws on the interviews with 15 executives of selected travel intermediary firms located around the country. The findings emphasise the economic downturn, customer retention policies, resilience strategies and current shifts in the industry. The outcomes also identify the recent tendency towards the traditional travel booking/holiday-booking trend towards traditional intermediaries. This research contributes to a better understanding and implementation of business continuity methods in tourist studies, and its results have practical implications for administrators and governments.
    Keywords: ravel agencies; tour operators; OTA; online travel agency; India; thematic analysis; new normal; qualitative; resilience; governance; COVID-19.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTP.2022.10051814
     
  • Transformational Travel for Well-being and Meaning Making   Order a copy of this article
    by Rohan Bhalla, Nimit Chowdhary, Sumedha Agarwal 
    Abstract: The study explores the travel experiences of people to understand the potential of travelling forrntransformation and well-being. It discusses if travelling can be a complementary and alternativerntherapy for enhancing multi-dimensional well-being. The study is qualitative and appliesrntranscendental phenomenology as a mode of inquiry. A total of twelve people were interviewedrnthrough purposive snowball sampling. Thematic analysis and methods of transcendentalrnphenomenology as developed by Moustakas were used. Textual and structural descriptions andrnintuitive integration were produced post-analysis. Respondents described their lived experiencesrnaround three major themes: physical activities, healing from nature, and stress buster. Concepts andrnpractices like Shinrin-yoku and eco-therapy are critically acclaimed for attaining mindfulness andrnrelaxation. It was found that transformational travel is producing significant positive effects andrnenhancing the well-being of people. It can be used as a complementary and alternative medicine forrnmental health issues as it helps meaning-making.
    Keywords: Transformational tourism; Escapism; Mental Health; Meaning-making; Well-being,rnHealing.

  • Intention of young travelers' to travel during the COVID-19 pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Md. Nurnobi Islam, Md. Rakibul Hafiz Khan Rakib 
    Abstract: The global health pandemic (COVID-19) has led to a significant decline in tourism activities and challenged existing norms and practices of the tourism sector. As international travel is restricted, the tourism sector is trying to promote domestic tourism by following health guidelines. This study aims to measure the relationships among social media travel content, perceived social risk of travel, attitude toward travel, and intention to travel during the pandemic time. The data were collected from young travelers in Bangladesh. The structural equation modeling (SEM) technique was used to estimate the relationships among the constructs. The results show that both social media travel content and perceived social risk of travel are significantly related to attitude toward travel and intention to travel. The association between attitude toward travel and intention to travel is also found significant. Destination managers are recommended to implement social media activation programs (e.g., a persuasive advertising campaign) and promote safe travel on their social media platforms (e.g., Facebook) to reduce perceived social risk of travel and create a positive attitude of travelers toward travel domestically during the global pandemic.
    Keywords: Travel intention; Social media; Perceived social risk; Attitude; COVID-19; Bangladesh.

  • ENHANCING REGIONAL TOURISM GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF THE SOUTHEASTERN REGION   Order a copy of this article
    by Afamefuna Eyisi, Pat Okpoko 
    Abstract: Governance is pivotal in the sustainable development of tourism through policy formulation, implementation and regulation of stakeholders activities. This paper examines the challenges of and strategies for enhancing regional tourism governance in Anambra and Enugu States of Southeastern Nigeria. Data were collected through ethnographic fieldwork conducted with key stakeholders (tourism officials, traditional rulers, chief priests, men, women and youth leaders) and analyzed using thematic analysis to identify themes reflecting their perceptions for strengthening tourism governance. The results revealed that governance has not been effective because of governments insincerity and failed promises, absence of tourism professionals and poor private-public partnership. This paper concludes that sustained tourism development requires robust and honest government oversight to address these challenges.
    Keywords: government; governance; tourism policy; Southeastern Nigeria; sustainability.

  • Perspectives of local role players on the potential and challenges of tourism: A Research note presenting the case of a developing region in South Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Chané De Bruyn, Natanya Meyer 
    Abstract: Research shows a lack of information indicating how to incorporate all spheres of local economic development (LED),government, business and community, involved in developing sustainable tourism practices. This study had the objective of determining whether there are any differences in opinion between the three spheres regarding the potential and challenges for tourism to support LED in a region, in this case, the Vaal Triangle in South Africa. A quantitative approach was followed, and data analysis included ANOVA and Tukey HSD to determine statistically significant differences between the three spheres. Only four factors reported a statistically significant difference. These were Location, Infrastructure, Natural and Cultural Sustainability and Cooperation.
    Keywords: Tourism; local economic development; sustainable development; development strategy; cooperation.

  • Buddhism, tourism, and development in the trans-Himalayan Buddhist region: Three decades after Ancient Futures (Norberg-Hodge, 1991)   Order a copy of this article
    by Jungho Suh 
    Abstract: Ladakh (India) and Bhutan opened their gates to foreign tourists in 1974. The book Ancient Futures, published in 1991 in English, depicted that the traditional Buddhist economy was being phased out while the regional economy became heavily dependent on tourism. This study critically discusses whether Buddhism, tourism, and economic development are compatible with one another in the contemporary trans-Himalayan Buddhist region, from a tourist researcher perspective. This study finds that rural villagers in both Ladakh and Bhutan do not directly reap their well-deserved benefits from tourism although they are the primary provider of rural and cultural tourism. The traditional trans-Himalayan way of life should globally be considered a plausible pathway to sustainable futures. In this context, the study suggests that community-based cultural ecotourism schemes be established in such a way to promote small-scale and place-based economic development.
    Keywords: Tibetan Buddhism; Ladakh; Bhutan; Buddhist economy; ecotourism; community-based cultural tourism.

  • Much More than Voluntourism: The Altruistic Volunteer Tourism Motivation and Experience in Israel   Order a copy of this article
    by Meron Doctori, Noga Collins-Kreiner, Nurit Kliot 
    Abstract: Volunteer tourism is becoming increasingly available and popular among everyday tourists in different parts of the world. Indeed, it is currently considered to be the quickest growing form of alternative tourism, offering volunteers a different and unique kind of cultural and educational tourism experience. The studys objective is to understand the motives and the experiences of volunteer tourists in Israel. Forty-nine volunteers volunteering within 14 different organizations and institutions in Israel were interviewed, and 20 field observations were conducted, encompassing 48 hours of observation in 6 different volunteer programs. The motives for volunteering were found to have varying characteristics and could be located along various axes motives of altruism versus motives of personal benefit; universal versus particularistic motives; and volunteering-oriented versus tourism-oriented motives. The volunteer tourist in Israel undergoes a hybrid experience characterized by different elements relating to the volunteering endeavor itself, to the tourist experience, and to the general experience all of which crystallize into an integrated multidimensional experience. Volunteers with a unique connection to Israel (Jewish and Christian volunteers, volunteers converting to Judaism, and volunteers from Germany) were found to have unique and slightly different motives and experiences. Volunteering contributes to personal change, to the development of personal abilities, and to awareness of and sensitivity toward underprivileged populations; it is perceived as an experience that will affect the rest of the volunteers lives. Another conclusion is that it can also lead to positive change in the volunteers stance on Israel and Israeli society.
    Keywords: Volunteer Tourism; Voluntourism; Altruistic; Motivations; Israel; Tourist Experience; Personal Change.

  • Mitigating Tourism Seasonality: An Explanatory Sequential Analysis of TripAdvisor on Temple Experiences in Phuket   Order a copy of this article
    by Kris Sincharoenkul, Nichapat Sangkaew 
    Abstract: Seasonality is a recurring problem affecting a weather-related destination, and cultural tourism has the potential to mitigate such a problem. Buddhist temples are famous tourist sites in Thailand that can be visited throughout the year. This paper aimed to determine the influential factors of tourists positive experiences on their temple visits. Using the Na
    Keywords: Seasonality; Cultural attractions; Cultural tourism; Online reviews; Phuket; Temples; Tourist experience; TripAdvisor; Tourism development; Tourist attractions.

  • Phuket Sandbox: Stakeholder perceptions on tourism and travel resumption amidst the COVID-19 pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Edward Koh, Tatiyaporn Jarumaneerat, Watcharapong Saikaew, Pipatpong Fakfare 
    Abstract: This paper examines the local perceptions of travel and tourism resumption amidst the COVID-19 pandemic through the Phuket Sandbox initiative. Opportunities and solutions for global travel and tourism resumption are discussed. Leveraging on the BRAVE (businesses, residents, authorities, visitors and environmentalists) stakeholders framework, interviews were conducted to obtain local stakeholders perception of the resumption of tourism via the Phuket Sandbox initiative. Four broad categories of travel resumption are identified: resumption of domestic travel, bilateral travel, regional travel and unilateral opening up to inbound travel. The Phuket Sandbox belongs to the last category. Although different countries and jurisdictions have different considerations, priorities and approaches, this paper focuses on the pros and cons of the Phuket Sandbox model from the perspectives of the islands local stakeholders. Destinations can make reference to this particular mode of tourism resumption and decide if they have control over the conditions to replicate or adopt this form of tourism resumption.
    Keywords: Phuket Sandbox; travel resumption; COVID-19 pandemic; tourism resumption; unilateral inbound travel.

  • E-tourism Adoption in Travel Agencies: New Qualitative Insights from a Developing Country   Order a copy of this article
    by Saad Al-Saad, Batool Gharaibeh 
    Abstract: Most existing research on e-tourism adoption is quantitative, with limited qualitative research particularly in the context of developing countries. To fill this knowledge gap, this study used the Perceived E-Readiness Model and the Diffusion of Innovation Theory to provide new qualitative insights on the levels of adoption and the obstacles inhibiting it as well as solutions that could increase adoption using Jordan as a representative developing country. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews of 24 owners and managers of Jordanian travel agencies. The findings indicated that security concerns; enterprise size; and the lack of customer trust, e-tourism experience, and online financial experience were found to be the main obstacles to advanced levels of adoption. This study suggests several factors for improving adoption, including highlighting the relative advantage, enhancing customer confidence and technical experience, and implementing advanced training, internationalization, legalization, and government support.
    Keywords: E-tourism; infomediaries; online booking; information and communication technologies; travel agencies.

  • Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis: Jamie\'s Italian Restaurant Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Joana Figueira, Bráulio Alturas, Ricardo Ribeiro 
    Abstract: Consumers use of technologies to share their experiences, known as e-Word-of-Mouth, which led to the creation of online platforms where the main objective is allow users to share their opinion about products or services, such as hotels, books, restaurants, and search for the others users opinions. The emergence of these online platforms has changed the business dynamic, the restaurant sector it was no exception. The main goal for this work is to understand how the different categories impact the review final rating of a restaurant, using two Jamie Olivers restaurants as case study. The first step was carry out the literature review, the concepts that served as a foundation for the investigation. The second step was applied a model that allows the categories mentioned identification and sentiment analysis through text mining methodologies. Through this model it was possible to understand which categories influence the rating the most.
    Keywords: online reviews; text mining; restaurants; sentiment analysis; Jamie Oliver; E-WOM; consumer behaviour.

  • Determinants of E-Business Usage by Travel Agencies in Developing Countries: A Decision Tree Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Tamer M. Elsawy 
    Abstract: This study sought to investigate the determinants of post-adoption e-business usage (EBU) by Egyptian travel agencies. The study adopted an integrative model blending two theoretical perspectives; the diffusion of innovation theory and the technology-organization-environment framework. Besides, the study used the decision tree (DT) method for data analysis and structured questionnaires to collect data from 320 agencies. The results revealed that only 37.4% of travel agencies are using e-business. Relative advantage was the most influential variable on EBU. Organization size was the least influential variable. When interacting together, the most influential sets of variables on EBU were relative advantage, technological competence, and costs. The study provided important theoretical, managerial, and policy implications for researchers, managers, and decision-makers.
    Keywords: e-Business usage; digital transformation; travel agencies; developing countries; decision tree.

  • Determining the competitiveness attributes of conference tourism: A South African industry perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by LISA WELTHAGEN, Elmarie Slabbert, Engelina Du Plessis 
    Abstract: This study reports on the qualitative findings of an exploratory sequential mixed-methods research design used to develop a framework for conference tourism competitiveness. By using destination competitiveness models and literature as a foundation, it sets out to distinguish the important conference tourism attributes identified by industry stakeholders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 22 industry stakeholders (after saturation). The themes and attributes were analysed after each interview and a progression of themes was documented. This paper is the first attempt to investigate the conference attributes in South Africa that are important from a competitiveness perspective. The findings made it clear that location and accessibility were prioritised as conference tourism competitiveness attributes and that sustainability/greening was not prioritised as an important attribute. These findings and conclusions can contribute to developing and improving the conference tourism position of South Africa and enabling South Africa to become more competitive in this sector.
    Keywords: conference tourism; competitiveness; attributes; qualitative; competitive advantage; destination competitiveness.

  • INITIATIVES TO REHABILITATE THE TOURISM SECTOR UNDER THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN INDONESIA   Order a copy of this article
    by Carunia Mulya Firdausy 
    Abstract: As the Covid-19 pandemic shows a declining trend in 2022, the government of Indonesia is optimistic that the year 2022 is the momentum and opportunity to build back better the tourism sector. This paper aims to focus on the government initiatives to rehabilitate the tourism sector under the covid-19 pandemic. Qualitative analysis was employed, whereas data were collected from secondary sources like journals, newspapers, websites, webinar meetings, and reports published by the government ministries. Many initiatives have been undertaken by the government to rehabilitate the tourism sector since March 2020. These initiatives can be grouped into three pillars, namely, innovation, adaptation, and collaboration. However, the implications of the pillars and initiatives on tourist behavior, business activities, employment, and the growth rate in the tourism sector and the overall economy in Indonesia remain to be seen. Thus, future studies investigating those implications are important to be undertaken.
    Keywords: Government initiatives; Tourism sector; Innovation; Adaptation; Collobarotaion; Indonesia.\r\n\r\n.

  • Pursuing the Agenda 2030? A critical discourse analysis of decent work and economic growth in Ecuadors tourism policy   Order a copy of this article
    by Gordillo Estefanya, Pedro Longart 
    Abstract: The United Nations has strengthened the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the tourism industry promoting a COVID-19 recovery. A dominant interpretation of the SDGs prioritises numbers over people's development -the neoliberal view-This exploratory research examines the challenges for implementing SDG8 in Ecuador. Applying a critical discourse analysis, it was found that although the national policies are presented as opposing neoliberalism, the discourse indicates otherwise, and power relations must be challenged. This paper has delved into policy issues and suggests significant adjustments to construct an understanding of sustainable policy, innovation, and decent work.
    Keywords: Sustainable development goals; SDG8; decent work; economic growth; sustainable tourism policy; critical discourse analysis; Ecuador; agenda 2030.

  • The New Great Depression an Omen for Tourism?   Order a copy of this article
    by Rigin Sebastian, Noufal Naheem Kottekkadan, Harish P, Toney K. Thomas, Victor Wee 
    Abstract: This research report addresses the extraordinary economic circumstances created by the COVID-19 pandemic and the devastating war between Ukraine and Russia, which have led to a global recession and may even have plunged the world into a Great Depression. The global economy is being seriously affected by increasing geopolitical tensions and policies that have impacted economic and trade relations; supply disruptions and economic decoupling; food shortages; and high prices for energy and other commodities. Current economic trends undermining global production, employment, and incomes are ringing alarm bells for the hard-hit tourism industry as the world tries to recover from the pandemic.
    Keywords: new great depression; recession; crisis over crises; debt distress; tourism.

  • STAKEHOLDERS IN MAINTAINING HALLMARK TOURISM EVENTS UNDER THE COVID-19 STORM   Order a copy of this article
    by Thi Phuong Anh Dang 
    Abstract: This paper aims to determine the key role of stakeholders directly impacting the survival of hallmark events under the Covid-19 storm. It also highlights the dynamics between stakeholders when faced with significant challenges. A qualitative research methodology was adopted, using a case study design with three events still organized during 2020 and 2021 in Vietnam. The interview sampling framework based on stakeholder theory helps to identify six primary and nine secondary stakeholders to conduct in-depth interviews. As a result, the key role of stakeholders in event tourism has to be changed due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The tendency of the organisation of events before the Covid-19 pandemic was centralization and for the central state to play the key roles. The Covid-19 crisis resulted in decentralisation and the key roles to be executed by the local state, community, and businesses. Research results describe stakeholders' dynamics in crisis management for event tourism. These are suggestions for implementing the policies and revising tourism development in post-Covid 19.
    Keywords: Tourism; event tourism; hallmark event; festival; stakeholders; Covid-19; crisis management; central state; community; businesses; empowerment; Vietnam.