International Journal of Tourism Policy (10 papers in press)
Female Spiritual Tourism: An Application of Conjoint Analysis
by Rachna Agrawal, ARTI GUPTA
Abstract: The present study explores various attributes and sub-attributes for developing a strategic tourism package for female spiritual tourists. The empirical analysis is based on data collected from 212 female spiritual tourists. Additionally, 34 face to face interviews of female spiritual tourist are also taken to incorporate their viewpoints. To analyse the data conjoint analysis along with purposive sampling is employed to adjudge seven attributes. These attributes were later categorized into 28 major sub-attributes. The results of the study find that certain attributes such as prior information gathering, transportation facility, value in return (spiritual satisfaction), security, availability and complaint mechanism are found significant. This study has identified that despite the technical development and other advanced features of tourism facilities, the women spiritual tourists are not able to use the services effectively. Knowing the importance of economic contribution of tourism sector and growing female tourism base, this study becomes indispensable.
Keywords: Attributes; Conjoint Analysis; Female Spiritualism; Tourism.
An indicator-based system to assess tourism carrying capacity in a Greek island
by Dimitra Vagiona, Anastasia Palloglou
Abstract: Tourism industry has become a vital factor in economic growth and development in recent decades. Considering its continuous development and diversification, tourism development should be accompanied with integrated sustainable planning. Tourism carrying capacity is considered a regulatory tool for setting limits in environmental, economic and socio-cultural terms. The aim of this paper is to develop, apply and assess an integrated indicator-based system that covers all the fundamental components of tourism carrying capacity (TCC). The indicator-based system is applied to the island of Milos (Greece). Twenty (20) indicators are finally selected to form the final indicator system. The results showed that Milos does not come under undue pressure from tourism activities and its TCC is not exceeded in most of its aspects. Although this study focuses on an island with a tourism-based economy, the indicator-based system used to assess TCC can be adapted to other coastal tourist destinations.
Keywords: indicators system; Milos island; sustainable development; tourism carrying capacity; tourism sustainability.
Environmentally Responsible Behaviour, Place Authenticity and Openness to Experience for Community-Based Tourism (CBT) Destinations
by Talita Poliana Guedes Da Silva, Marconi Freitas Da Costa, Luciana Araújo De Holanda
Abstract: The objective of this research was to measure the influence of Environmentally Responsible Behaviour (ERB), Place Authenticity (PA) and Openness to Experience (OTE) on the intention to visit Community-Based Tourism (CBT) destinations. The research approach was quantitative and the data were analysed using multiple regression technique. The main results show that only ERB and OTE had a positive influence on the dependent variable. Hence, it corroborated with works that point the tourist with environmental conscience, respecting attitude towards the local culture and open to new experiences as a profile of potential visitor of CBT destinations. PA, in turn, did not cause any significant influence on the model, contradicting the arguments of the literature in which authenticity is one of the main characteristics of CBT. The contribution of this research was to demonstrate that some demand attributes explored by CBT theorists have not been confirmed as important in this sample, opening new perspectives.
Keywords: Community-Based tourism; Environmentally Responsible Behaviour; Place Authenticity; Openness to Experience; Potential Demand.
The connection between social media attachment, tourist flows and overtourism
by Qingfeng Song, Alaa Nimer Abukhalifeh
Abstract: Tourists' behaviour is increasingly influenced by social media, which plays a crucial role in the emergence of over-tourism. However, there is a dearth of literature addressing the relationship between social media attachment and overtourism. This study uses attachment theory to examine this relationship in the context of Hangzhou, China. The theoretical model explains how social media attachment in tourism shapes the flow of tourists and leads to overtourism. This structural model is tested utilising structural equation modelling. The results show that social media attachment significantly contributes to overtourism.
Keywords: social media attachment; tourist flows; overcrowding; overtourism; attachment theory; PLS-SEM; partial least squares structural equation modelling; Hangzhou; Republic of China.
The Impact of Customer Behaviour on Travel Intention Abroad After a Pandemic
by Febriana R. Kusumawati, Ehsan Ferdaos, Bahruz Bayramov
Abstract: Among industries around the world that has been affected by the global pandemic Covid-19, the tourism industry is hit the hardest. Compared to other industries, the effect of travel restrictions specifically in the department of international tourism leaves the industry vulnerable with a noticeable decline in international tourist arrivals. This situation affects consumer behavior in terms of travel intentions after the pandemic. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between consumer behavior and the impact of post-pandemic travel intentions. Based on an online survey with potential travelers from six continents, a total of 350 respondents were analyzed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) through a nonprobability and convenience-sampling approach. The result suggested that general impact, attitude and preference have a significant impact on travel intention, with hygiene and safety having the most influence on post-pandemic travel intention. The outcome of this study will therefore contribute to the decision-making process of managers involved in the tourism business. Therefore, they can manage their business in the best possible way in order to accommodate the post-pandemic situation.
Keywords: customer behavior; COVID-19; general impact; attitude and preference; hygiene and safety; perceived risk; post-pandemic; travel intention; international tourist.
EVALUATION OF THE TOURIST EXPERIENCE USING A FRAMEWORK FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON TOURIST BEHAVIOUR
by Celia Ramos, Azizul Hassan
Abstract: Social media are one of the most powerful tools in supporting the strategic management of tourist destinations because visitors now share their trip experiences and provide testimonies on these platforms. Such information is a source of support to all potential tourists who intend to travel to the same destinations, and thus it influences their behaviour. The present study assesses the impact that social mediawhich are increasingly assuming the role of travel agencieshave on tourists behaviour. It uses a conceptual framework to consider whether tourists perceived and actual behaviour are interrelated and whether the latter reflects the former. Finally, using London as a case study, it suggests that tourists behaviour is based more on prior knowledge of a destination and that social media play a role in providing that knowledge.
Keywords: social media; tourist experience; sharing experience; consumer behaviour; the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology; London; tourism; information and communication technology; technology acceptance model; destination marketing organization.
Location Intelligence for Tourism Destinations - A big data comparative analysis through Location-Based Social Networks
by Konstantinos Vassakis, Emmanuel Petrakis, Ioannis Kopanakis, John Makridis
Abstract: The existing practical research that social media and location intelligence in tourism is utilizing a part of the possibilities that big data analytics can offer. Therefore, innovative big data analytics applications can provide new knowledge about behavioural data and perceptions in tourism destinations. This research develops an innovative approach of leveraging geotagged user-generated content in location-based social networks (LBSNs) for tourism destinations. In contrast to the conventional spatio-temporal analysis, valuable knowledge is extracted about travellers behaviour, experiences, and opinions for tourist destinations. Our approachs contribution has been demonstrated using user-generated content for the two largest islands in the Mediterranean sea, Crete and Cyprus. The results of our study provide significant insights about the characteristics of the visitors in specific spots, their preferences, opinions and their tempo-spatial movements in tourism destinations - offering valuable information to tourism stakeholders for instant and effective strategic decision making that can lead to innovation and value creation.
Keywords: social media; big data analytics; location; tourism destinations; location-based social networks; management; location intelligence.
Consensus and diversity regarding overtourism: the Delphi-study and derived assumptions for the post-COVID-19 time
by Martin Fontanari, Anastasia Traskevich
Abstract: This research focuses on the phenomenon of overtourism with the aim of demonstrating both the plurality of views on overtourism; and the fact that a consensus is identified using the Delphi method. The Delphi survey points out the focus areas within destination management, product development, economic mechanisms to balance tourism demand, as well as innovative approaches for destination management and governance. The scope of the present Delphi-study is to discover a sustainable strategy-approach to Destination Management Organisations to tackle overtourism: the authored strategic considerations are derived on the basis of the research with the empirical results analysed for the post-COVID-19 future. The research suggests destination resilience as an applied concept for preventing overtourism and/ or managing its negative multi-facet effects for the purposes of advanced sustainable development in the post-COVID-19 perspective. Preventive, self-regulating and innovative approaches are required at the level of destination management.
Keywords: overtourism; Delphi-Method; destination resilience; community resilience; socio-cultural resilience; destination management; sustainable tourism; post-COVID-19.
Validity of Tourism-led Growth Hypothesis in Asia: New Insight from a Heterogeneous Income Group Analysis.
by Anthonia T. Odeleye, Darlington U. Akam, Oluwaseyi J. Adeyeri, Shah S. Ale Raza
Abstract: The paper investigates the validity of tourism-led growth hypothesis in 37 Asia economies with annual time series data spanning between 1995 and 2018. The region was disaggregated into three income groups (high-income economies, upper middle-income economies, and lower middle-income economies) respectively. In different sublets, the outcome of tourism receipts was positive and significant on economic growth for high income economies and lower middle-income economies respectively. Also, tourism expenditures appeared significant in high-income economies only. Overall, tourism-led growth hypothesis is valid in all the income classifications. Therefore, it is recommended that Asian economies across the income groups respectively should advance more policies that will stimulate sustainable economic growth. Second, policymakers in the upper middle-income countries should strengthen the link between the tourism industry and sustainable economic growth by building strong governance framework for proper accountability and remittance.
Keywords: Tourism-led growth hypothesis; Income group economies; Cross-sectional
dependence; Panel causality; Heterogeneity; Asia.
Website accessibility in the hospitality industry: A study in the central region of Portugal
by Pedro Teixeira, Celeste Eusébio, Leonor Teixeira
Abstract: This study aims to understand the impact of web accessibility guidelines (WCAG 2.0) on accessible tourism market, by examining the level of website accessibility of hotels located in the central region of Portugal. First, a framework, named WCAG@AcceTourMark was developed, to identify the importance of the WCAG for the various segments of the accessible tourism market. Further, the level of web accessibility of a sample of Portuguese tourism accommodation units is examined, based on WCAG 2.0, using two automatic evaluation tools: AccessMonitor and Test de Accesibilidad Web. Finally, the WCAG@AcceTourMark developed is used to identify the segments of accessible tourism with greater difficulty in accessing the information disseminated by the tourism accommodation units examined in this study. Results reveal that people with disabilities face several constraints when accessing website information, as the low level of web accessibility constitutes a strong barrier to the development of accessible tourism
Keywords: Accessible Tourism; Hospitality Industry; Hotels; Websites; Web accessibility; People with disabilities; Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG); Automatic Assessment Online Tools; AccessMonitor; TAW.