International Journal of Tourism Policy (18 papers in press)
An indicator-based system to assess tourism carrying capacity in a Greek island
by Dimitra Vagiona, Anastasia Palloglou
Abstract: Tourism industry has become a vital factor in economic growth and development in recent decades. Considering its continuous development and diversification, tourism development should be accompanied with integrated sustainable planning. Tourism carrying capacity is considered a regulatory tool for setting limits in environmental, economic and socio-cultural terms. The aim of this paper is to develop, apply and assess an integrated indicator-based system that covers all the fundamental components of tourism carrying capacity (TCC). The indicator-based system is applied to the island of Milos (Greece). Twenty (20) indicators are finally selected to form the final indicator system. The results showed that Milos does not come under undue pressure from tourism activities and its TCC is not exceeded in most of its aspects. Although this study focuses on an island with a tourism-based economy, the indicator-based system used to assess TCC can be adapted to other coastal tourist destinations.
Keywords: indicators system; Milos island; sustainable development; tourism carrying capacity; tourism sustainability.
EVALUATION OF THE TOURIST EXPERIENCE USING A FRAMEWORK FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON TOURIST BEHAVIOUR
by Celia Ramos, Azizul Hassan
Abstract: Social media are one of the most powerful tools in supporting the strategic management of tourist destinations because visitors now share their trip experiences and provide testimonies on these platforms. Such information is a source of support to all potential tourists who intend to travel to the same destinations, and thus it influences their behaviour. The present study assesses the impact that social mediawhich are increasingly assuming the role of travel agencieshave on tourists behaviour. It uses a conceptual framework to consider whether tourists perceived and actual behaviour are interrelated and whether the latter reflects the former. Finally, using London as a case study, it suggests that tourists behaviour is based more on prior knowledge of a destination and that social media play a role in providing that knowledge.
Keywords: social media; tourist experience; sharing experience; consumer behaviour; the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology; London; tourism; information and communication technology; technology acceptance model; destination marketing organization.
Location Intelligence for Tourism Destinations - A big data comparative analysis through Location-Based Social Networks
by Konstantinos Vassakis, Emmanuel Petrakis, Ioannis Kopanakis, John Makridis
Abstract: The existing practical research that social media and location intelligence in tourism is utilizing a part of the possibilities that big data analytics can offer. Therefore, innovative big data analytics applications can provide new knowledge about behavioural data and perceptions in tourism destinations. This research develops an innovative approach of leveraging geotagged user-generated content in location-based social networks (LBSNs) for tourism destinations. In contrast to the conventional spatio-temporal analysis, valuable knowledge is extracted about travellers behaviour, experiences, and opinions for tourist destinations. Our approachs contribution has been demonstrated using user-generated content for the two largest islands in the Mediterranean sea, Crete and Cyprus. The results of our study provide significant insights about the characteristics of the visitors in specific spots, their preferences, opinions and their tempo-spatial movements in tourism destinations - offering valuable information to tourism stakeholders for instant and effective strategic decision making that can lead to innovation and value creation.
Keywords: social media; big data analytics; location; tourism destinations; location-based social networks; management; location intelligence.
Validity of Tourism-led Growth Hypothesis in Asia: New Insight from a Heterogeneous Income Group Analysis.
by Anthonia T. Odeleye, Darlington U. Akam, Oluwaseyi J. Adeyeri, Shah S. Ale Raza
Abstract: The paper investigates the validity of tourism-led growth hypothesis in 37 Asia economies with annual time series data spanning between 1995 and 2018. The region was disaggregated into three income groups (high-income economies, upper middle-income economies, and lower middle-income economies) respectively. In different sublets, the outcome of tourism receipts was positive and significant on economic growth for high income economies and lower middle-income economies respectively. Also, tourism expenditures appeared significant in high-income economies only. Overall, tourism-led growth hypothesis is valid in all the income classifications. Therefore, it is recommended that Asian economies across the income groups respectively should advance more policies that will stimulate sustainable economic growth. Second, policymakers in the upper middle-income countries should strengthen the link between the tourism industry and sustainable economic growth by building strong governance framework for proper accountability and remittance.
Keywords: Tourism-led growth hypothesis; Income group economies; Cross-sectional
dependence; Panel causality; Heterogeneity; Asia.
Website accessibility in the hospitality industry: A study in the central region of Portugal
by Pedro Teixeira, Celeste Eusébio, Leonor Teixeira
Abstract: This study aims to understand the impact of web accessibility guidelines (WCAG 2.0) on accessible tourism market, by examining the level of website accessibility of hotels located in the central region of Portugal. First, a framework, named WCAG@AcceTourMark was developed, to identify the importance of the WCAG for the various segments of the accessible tourism market. Further, the level of web accessibility of a sample of Portuguese tourism accommodation units is examined, based on WCAG 2.0, using two automatic evaluation tools: AccessMonitor and Test de Accesibilidad Web. Finally, the WCAG@AcceTourMark developed is used to identify the segments of accessible tourism with greater difficulty in accessing the information disseminated by the tourism accommodation units examined in this study. Results reveal that people with disabilities face several constraints when accessing website information, as the low level of web accessibility constitutes a strong barrier to the development of accessible tourism
Keywords: Accessible Tourism; Hospitality Industry; Hotels; Websites; Web accessibility; People with disabilities; Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG); Automatic Assessment Online Tools; AccessMonitor; TAW.
Developing Tourism Impact Index: A Measure of Tourism Suppliers Perceptions in Leh, India
by Manjula Chaudhary, Sonam Angmo
Abstract: Adverse tourism impacts are a cause of concern for tourism managers especially at fragile mountain destinations. Tourism in such areas can be the major source of livelihood. It poses a challenge of establishing a balance between contribution to the economy and negative effects on the ecology. Sustained mapping and monitoring of tourism impacts can assist in maintaining this balance. This study maps tourism impacts in Leh, Ladakh region of India to identify potential interventions based on opinions of local travel agents and hoteliers. The results are presented as economic, socio-cultural, environmental and livelihood impact indices and an aggregated Tourism Impact Index (TII) is also developed. Results suggest high negative socio-cultural impacts, low negative livelihood impacts and very low negative economic and environmental impacts. The methodology can be used for sustained monitoring of impacts and corrective interventions in Leh and at other destinations to reduce adverse tourism impacts.
Keywords: Leh (Ladakh); Mountain Destinations; Tourism Impact Index; Tourism Impact Perceptions; Tourism Suppliers.
The determinants of tourism expenditure in Mexican households: applying a model of logistic regression
by José Carlos González-Núñez, Liliana Ruiz-Fuentes, Hazael Cerón-Monroy
Abstract: Knowing the determinants that drive households tourism expenditures is essential to develop policy for, and growth in, tourism activities. The central objective of this research is to identify the main variables that determine tourism expenditures and identify if these expenditures are differentiated by the type of household (rural or urban). Through a logistic regression model where the dependent binary variable was the expenses related to lodging, packages, and tours, the effects of three types of determinants were analyzed: social, economic, and demographic. This model uses microeconomic data from the National Survey on Income and Household Expenditure, 2016 and 2018. The results indicate that rural households require less income for tourism expenditures; remittances have a greater influence on tourism expenditures in rural areas; and the level of education has a positive influence on spending (e.g., influencing the number of family members and the socioeconomic stratum).
Keywords: tourism expenditure; urban and rural; logit model; ENIGH; remittances.
The economic impact of tourism in a small region: a general equilibrium analysis applied to Ushuaia
by Carlos Adrián Romero, Juan Pablo Tarelli, Juan Ignacio Mercatante
Abstract: The impact of tourism on local Argentine economies is quite significant. An increase in tourism can improve the well-being of the inhabitants and enhance the regions economic performance. However, the lack of specific information is a serious problem when it comes to regional analysis. In this study we have created a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for the city of Ushuaia and apply it to calibrate a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to study a pro-tourism policy: public investment in advertising to promote tourism. In this case, we find that this type of policy increases regional Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by 1.6%, tax collection by 0.55% and boosts sectoral activity for tourism and non-tourism sectors alike. We also conclude that policymakers in Ushuaia should consider foreign visitors who generate higher revenue than local visitors. Nevertheless, diversification should not be forgotten.
Keywords: Tourism; Regional; Social Accountant Matrix; CGE.
ATTITUDINAL FACTORS IMPACTING LOCAL VISITOR PERSPECTIVES ON THE SUSTAINABILITY OF BOROBUDUR TEMPLE TOURISM
by Wisnu Untoro, Hunik Sri Runing Sawitri, Risgiyanti -, Sinto Sunaryo, Yuhanis Abdul Aziz
Abstract: The development of tourism at Borobudur Temple has caused substantial environmental, economic, social, and cultural impacts. Therefore, it is crucial to establish a path toward a sustainable way to conduct tourism of this site. Previous studies have focused on local communities as a key player in the sustainable tourism development process. This study seeks to address the local visitors perspective and assess their support for sustainable tourism development. Research data were collected from previous local visitors to Borobudur Temple. Of the 340 respondents to the online survey questionnaire, 267 met the criteria. We tested our hypothesis using PLS-SEM analysis and found that attitudes toward economic, social, and environment significantly affected support for sustainable tourism development. This study provides new insight into visitors support of sustainable development and the factors affecting the variable.
Keywords: Sustainable tourism; environmental attitude; economic attitude; social attitude; world heritage site.
The gap between cruise passengers? expectations and the on-board experience through on-board environmental factors and overall satisfaction
by Sabina Akter, Osiris Valdez Banda, Pentti Kujala, Jani Romanoff
Abstract: Cruise ships are part of the tourism industry, with the cruise experience of a customer forming a basis for the continuity of the relationship between the customer and the service producer. This experience is formed by the environmental factors of the cruise. Here, we assume that ambient, layout/design, social, product/service, and on-board enjoyment factors all contribute to overall satisfaction. This paper aims to identify the gap between cruise passengers? expectations and the on-board experience (henceforth referred to in the text as the on-board experience gap) in the context of these factors and overall satisfaction. It also investigates the relationship between cruise passengers pre-cruise expectations and their post-cruise experience. The study adopts a comparative approach that examines three classes of cruise ships through open-source data (N=2649). The aim of the comparison was to understand what creates a gap between cruise passengers expectations and the on-board experience, and to explain why some cruise ships are more successful than others. All the cruise ships accomplish high levels of satisfaction with the organisation of embarkation and the service in the restaurants, cabins, and bars. In contrast, the extra expenses on board and the price or performance ratio of the shore excursions offered are revealed to lead to dissatisfaction. In addition, the on-board experience gap is also clearly observed with regards to the entertainment, food and beverages offered, the tour operators guide on-board, child-friendliness, and the overall rating of the ship. From an academic perspective, the on-board experience gap concept has been introduced, and from an industrial perspective, this can be used to provide a dynamic procedure to measure the customers cruise experience.
Keywords: Gap between expectations and the on-board experience; customer expectations and experience; pre-cruise expectations; post-cruise experience; customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction (CS/D); on-board environmental factors and elements.
A novel look at Thailands tourism from a tourism composite index
by Ann-Ni Soh, Mei-Teing Chong, Chin-Hong Puah
Abstract: The number of international tourists has reached more than half of Thailands population, and tourism receipts accounted for nearly one-fifth of its GDP, which shows that the tourism industry is greatly affecting Thailands economic growth. Therefore, changes in the tourism industry are part of the lifeline of Thailand's economy and deserve attention. The principal objective is to construct a tourism composite index for Thailand by employing the indicator construction method, filtering extraction, turning points detection and directional accuracy test in predicting significant changes of the tourism economy. Findings unveil that the major transitions in the Thailand tourism cycle can be predicted by the constructed tourism composite index with an average lead time of 2.75 months and an accuracy rate up to 64%. A series of risk management, tourism planning, marketing strategies can be informed by using this index. It is indeed beneficial for tourism industry practitioners and decision-makers for their strategic decision-making.
Keywords: tourism composite index; turning points; forecasting; Thailand; indicator approach.
Local food consumption by foreign tourists in Greece
by Antonios Tiganis, Efthimia Tsakiridou
Abstract: Greek food is mostly perceived as tasty, with a nice aroma, authentic, safe, nutritious, and related to Greek culture. This study provides estimates of the factors influencing the consumption of Greek food by foreign tourists through ordered probit regression. The age of the respondents has a positive influence on the consumption of local food. The econometric model results show that the most important attribute for the consumption of local food is taste, followed by trustworthiness, nutritional value, and availability. On the other hand, tourists are indifferent to environmental friendliness.
Keywords: Ordered Probit regression; tourists; local foods consumption; Greek foods; local foods.
Factors Associated with Patience and Aggression amongst the Religious Tourists in India
by Harihara Subramanian Gayathri, Shalini Dixit, Ashish Verma
Abstract: The willingness to travel and increased mobility have altered the knowledge base of people and their expectations from religious expeditions. This calls for a renewed understanding of factors associated with them manifesting their peaceful movement. In this context, this paper sought to identify the latent constructs through Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) using a questionnaire survey to investigate the reported level of patience and aggression amongst the religious tourists who attended Kumbh Mela 2016 (a periodical religious gathering) in Ujjain, India. After administering the survey to 683 participants, six factors under patience and aggression were identified. It was observed that the patience factors (cue dependence, tolerance, and goal-oriented) and aggression factors (norm violation, obstruction to movement, and social display of power) directly and significantly impact the patience and aggression levels, respectively. These findings will be critical in devising suitable preventive measures and policies for a safer event. These measures will enhance the experience of the pilgrims, thereby promoting religious tourism.
Keywords: Mass Religious Gathering; Patience; Aggression; Crowd Psychology; Structural Equation Modelling; Crowd Management; Religious Tourism; Pilgrim Experience.
The Issues of Tourism Policy Implementation among Insider Perspectives in Perhentian Island.
by Nor Syuhada Zulkefli, Mastura Jaafar, Azizan Marzuki
Abstract: The tourism policy implementation is an important aspect to be explored since the nature of tourism sector is multi-faceted and complex which involve many organizations involvement. Previous studies highlighted the implementation of government policies could be problematic and ineffective in some countries. The main purpose of this study is to examine the factors influence the implementation of tourism policy in Perhentian Island. The study used in-depth interviews and selected nine respondents from three administrative levels of government agencies. It was found that three factors influence the effectiveness of policy implementation in Perhentian Island which are 1) the multiple organisations involvement, 2) the intensity of collaboration, and 3) the degree of other stakeholders involvement. The results also revealed the unclear role of the multitude of federal, state, and local authority in policy implementation and ineffective collaboration among stakeholders affect the policy implementation. Thus, it is proposed that the government should clearly define the responsibilities of the parties involved, strengthen collaboration between organisations and improve the stakeholders participation in tourism planning and implementation. This study also addresses some suggestions which may enrich the tourism policy literature and future tourism planning.
Keywords: Tourism policy; implementation; government administration; Perhentian Island.
Tourists motivation towards destination visit intention post-pandemic: Scale development and validation
by Saurabh Gupta, Vishal Shukla, Bhartrihari Pandiya
Abstract: India is a huge attraction for tourists all over the world visiting different destinations with different motives. The Indian tourism sector was performing incredibly till the recent pandemic changed the overall tourism environment. The motivation for travelling has changed substantially and this change in behaviour and motives calls for insightful research. Hence, the purpose of this study is to explore the travel behaviour and motivation of tourists in post-pandemic situations. Primary data was collected from 345 tourists who had availed of the services of travel agencies pre-COVID or had made an enquiry. The six factors relating to destination choices in the new normal were discovered as Health and Hygiene, Safety and Security, Accessibility and Connectivity, Information about Destination, Travel Risk Perception, and Value for Money. The findings will assist various tourism stakeholders in India to develop their policies and attract more domestic and foreign tourists.
Keywords: Travel motivation; travel behaviour; destination choice; scale development; COVID-19 pandemic.
Practices and challenges of linking the handicraft sector to sustainable tourism development: Evidence from Gamo and Konso Zones, southern Ethiopia
by Damene Bogale, Nigussie Tiruneh
Abstract: Being an integral part of the travel and tourism value chain, handicrafts play a vital role in income generation, employment creation, community empowerment and poverty reduction. This study is an original contribution examining the practices and challenges of linking the handicraft sector to sustainable tourism development in Gamo and Konso Zones, southern Ethiopia. The study adopts and underpins the triple-bottom-line theory. In terms of philosophy, the study is constructivist, with a qualitative exploratory research design. Both handicraft producers and tourists are the study participants. Research findings reveal that the proper planning, management and development of handicrafts for tourism purpose promotes the economic, the socio-cultural and environmental sustainability issues among the local communities. The study also identifies the challenges associated with the link between the handicraft sector and sustainable tourism development and further proposes a framework of sustainable handicraft tourism. Practically, the study may support different tourism planners and destination managers in their effort to embrace handicrafts in to the tourism value chain. The study has scope restraint as a major limitation which future studies may address.
Keywords: Handicrafts; Handicraft-based tourism; Sustainable tourism; Triple-bottom-line; Handicraft-tourism framework; Gamo; Konso; Ethiopia.
I Still Feel Lost..In Those Wonderful Event Memories: Enablers of Event And Destination Image
by Santanu Mandal, Pratyush Bhowmik, Deepthi Panicker, Payel Das
Abstract: While studies have explored the importance of destination image in enhancing tourism, there have been limited investigations regarding event image and destination from a nostalgia perspective. In this study, we explore the role of nostalgia, cultural connection, and positive word of mouth in shaping event and destination images. Our study explored how event and destination image thus developed shapes intention to recommend and revisit intentions for tourists. The study executed a survey from 159 individuals having positive memories of an event at a destination. The completed responses were analysed using partial least squares in ADANC0 2.2. The study surveyed 159 people who have positive memories of a destination event. The partial least squares results show that nostalgia, cultural connections, and positive word of mouth significantly influence the image of events and destinations. Furthermore, the image of events and destinations has a significant influence on the intention to recommend and to visit the destination again. The study contributed to identifying the important linkage between nostalgia, event image, and destination image. Furthermore, the contribution of event and destination image in developing revisit intentions was also identified.
Keywords: event; destination; image; culture; nostalgia; revisit intention.
PREDICTING POST-COVID-19 TOURISTS LOYALTY: WILL THEY COME BACK AND RECOMMEND?
by Caren Angellina Mimaki, Gede Sri Darma
Abstract: The study proposed a modified theory of planned behavior model and expanding it with crucial factors in the tourism management area including push-pull motivation, destination image, tourist satisfaction, revisit intention, e-WOM recommend intention, and perceived risk as moderators to predict post-pandemic tourist behavior towards Bali destinations. The data were collected through online surveys. A purposive sampling technique was conducted, resulting in 252 participants consists of domestic and international tourists. Data were analyzed through the structural equation model approach (PLS-SEM). The findings confirmed that subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, push-pull motivation, and tourist satisfaction were significant determinants to predict tourist revisit intention to Bali. Additionally, the result of this study demonstrated that the moderating role of perceived risk has existed. Implications and directions of future research are explained.
Keywords: Theory of planned behavior; push-pull motivation; tourist satisfaction; perceived risk; tourist loyalty.