International Journal of Tourism Policy (17 papers in press)
Female Spiritual Tourism: An Application of Conjoint Analysis
by Rachna Agrawal, ARTI GUPTA
Abstract: The present study explores various attributes and sub-attributes for developing a strategic tourism package for female spiritual tourists. The empirical analysis is based on data collected from 212 female spiritual tourists. Additionally, 34 face to face interviews of female spiritual tourist are also taken to incorporate their viewpoints. To analyse the data conjoint analysis along with purposive sampling is employed to adjudge seven attributes. These attributes were later categorized into 28 major sub-attributes. The results of the study find that certain attributes such as prior information gathering, transportation facility, value in return (spiritual satisfaction), security, availability and complaint mechanism are found significant. This study has identified that despite the technical development and other advanced features of tourism facilities, the women spiritual tourists are not able to use the services effectively. Knowing the importance of economic contribution of tourism sector and growing female tourism base, this study becomes indispensable.
Keywords: Attributes; Conjoint Analysis; Female Spiritualism; Tourism.
An indicator-based system to assess tourism carrying capacity in a Greek island
by Dimitra Vagiona, Anastasia Palloglou
Abstract: Tourism industry has become a vital factor in economic growth and development in recent decades. Considering its continuous development and diversification, tourism development should be accompanied with integrated sustainable planning. Tourism carrying capacity is considered a regulatory tool for setting limits in environmental, economic and socio-cultural terms. The aim of this paper is to develop, apply and assess an integrated indicator-based system that covers all the fundamental components of tourism carrying capacity (TCC). The indicator-based system is applied to the island of Milos (Greece). Twenty (20) indicators are finally selected to form the final indicator system. The results showed that Milos does not come under undue pressure from tourism activities and its TCC is not exceeded in most of its aspects. Although this study focuses on an island with a tourism-based economy, the indicator-based system used to assess TCC can be adapted to other coastal tourist destinations.
Keywords: indicators system; Milos island; sustainable development; tourism carrying capacity; tourism sustainability.
Environmentally Responsible Behaviour, Place Authenticity and Openness to Experience for Community-Based Tourism (CBT) Destinations
by Talita Poliana Guedes Da Silva, Marconi Freitas Da Costa, Luciana Araújo De Holanda
Abstract: The objective of this research was to measure the influence of Environmentally Responsible Behaviour (ERB), Place Authenticity (PA) and Openness to Experience (OTE) on the intention to visit Community-Based Tourism (CBT) destinations. The research approach was quantitative and the data were analysed using multiple regression technique. The main results show that only ERB and OTE had a positive influence on the dependent variable. Hence, it corroborated with works that point the tourist with environmental conscience, respecting attitude towards the local culture and open to new experiences as a profile of potential visitor of CBT destinations. PA, in turn, did not cause any significant influence on the model, contradicting the arguments of the literature in which authenticity is one of the main characteristics of CBT. The contribution of this research was to demonstrate that some demand attributes explored by CBT theorists have not been confirmed as important in this sample, opening new perspectives.
Keywords: Community-Based tourism; Environmentally Responsible Behaviour; Place Authenticity; Openness to Experience; Potential Demand.
The connection between social media attachment, tourist flows and overtourism
by Qingfeng Song, Alaa Nimer Abukhalifeh
Abstract: Tourists' behaviour is increasingly influenced by social media, which plays a crucial role in the emergence of over-tourism. However, there is a dearth of literature addressing the relationship between social media attachment and overtourism. This study uses attachment theory to examine this relationship in the context of Hangzhou, China. The theoretical model explains how social media attachment in tourism shapes the flow of tourists and leads to overtourism. This structural model is tested utilising structural equation modelling. The results show that social media attachment significantly contributes to overtourism.
Keywords: social media attachment; tourist flows; overcrowding; overtourism; attachment theory; PLS-SEM; partial least squares structural equation modelling; Hangzhou; Republic of China.
The Impact of Customer Behaviour on Travel Intention Abroad After a Pandemic
by Febriana R. Kusumawati, Ehsan Ferdaos, Bahruz Bayramov
Abstract: Among industries around the world that has been affected by the global pandemic Covid-19, the tourism industry is hit the hardest. Compared to other industries, the effect of travel restrictions specifically in the department of international tourism leaves the industry vulnerable with a noticeable decline in international tourist arrivals. This situation affects consumer behavior in terms of travel intentions after the pandemic. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between consumer behavior and the impact of post-pandemic travel intentions. Based on an online survey with potential travelers from six continents, a total of 350 respondents were analyzed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) through a nonprobability and convenience-sampling approach. The result suggested that general impact, attitude and preference have a significant impact on travel intention, with hygiene and safety having the most influence on post-pandemic travel intention. The outcome of this study will therefore contribute to the decision-making process of managers involved in the tourism business. Therefore, they can manage their business in the best possible way in order to accommodate the post-pandemic situation.
Keywords: customer behavior; COVID-19; general impact; attitude and preference; hygiene and safety; perceived risk; post-pandemic; travel intention; international tourist.
EVALUATION OF THE TOURIST EXPERIENCE USING A FRAMEWORK FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON TOURIST BEHAVIOUR
by Celia Ramos, Azizul Hassan
Abstract: Social media are one of the most powerful tools in supporting the strategic management of tourist destinations because visitors now share their trip experiences and provide testimonies on these platforms. Such information is a source of support to all potential tourists who intend to travel to the same destinations, and thus it influences their behaviour. The present study assesses the impact that social mediawhich are increasingly assuming the role of travel agencieshave on tourists behaviour. It uses a conceptual framework to consider whether tourists perceived and actual behaviour are interrelated and whether the latter reflects the former. Finally, using London as a case study, it suggests that tourists behaviour is based more on prior knowledge of a destination and that social media play a role in providing that knowledge.
Keywords: social media; tourist experience; sharing experience; consumer behaviour; the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology; London; tourism; information and communication technology; technology acceptance model; destination marketing organization.
Location Intelligence for Tourism Destinations - A big data comparative analysis through Location-Based Social Networks
by Konstantinos Vassakis, Emmanuel Petrakis, Ioannis Kopanakis, John Makridis
Abstract: The existing practical research that social media and location intelligence in tourism is utilizing a part of the possibilities that big data analytics can offer. Therefore, innovative big data analytics applications can provide new knowledge about behavioural data and perceptions in tourism destinations. This research develops an innovative approach of leveraging geotagged user-generated content in location-based social networks (LBSNs) for tourism destinations. In contrast to the conventional spatio-temporal analysis, valuable knowledge is extracted about travellers behaviour, experiences, and opinions for tourist destinations. Our approachs contribution has been demonstrated using user-generated content for the two largest islands in the Mediterranean sea, Crete and Cyprus. The results of our study provide significant insights about the characteristics of the visitors in specific spots, their preferences, opinions and their tempo-spatial movements in tourism destinations - offering valuable information to tourism stakeholders for instant and effective strategic decision making that can lead to innovation and value creation.
Keywords: social media; big data analytics; location; tourism destinations; location-based social networks; management; location intelligence.
Consensus and diversity regarding overtourism: the Delphi-study and derived assumptions for the post-COVID-19 time
by Martin Fontanari, Anastasia Traskevich
Abstract: This research focuses on the phenomenon of overtourism with the aim of demonstrating both the plurality of views on overtourism; and the fact that a consensus is identified using the Delphi method. The Delphi survey points out the focus areas within destination management, product development, economic mechanisms to balance tourism demand, as well as innovative approaches for destination management and governance. The scope of the present Delphi-study is to discover a sustainable strategy-approach to Destination Management Organisations to tackle overtourism: the authored strategic considerations are derived on the basis of the research with the
empirical results analysed for the post-COVID-19 future. The research suggests destination resilience as an applied concept for preventing overtourism and/or managing its negative multi-facet effects for the purposes of advanced sustainable development in the post-COVID-19 perspective. Preventive, self-regulating and innovative approaches are required at the level of destination management.
Keywords: overtourism; Delphi-method; destination resilience; community resilience; socio-cultural resilience; destination management; sustainable tourism; post-COVID-19.
Validity of Tourism-led Growth Hypothesis in Asia: New Insight from a Heterogeneous Income Group Analysis.
by Anthonia T. Odeleye, Darlington U. Akam, Oluwaseyi J. Adeyeri, Shah S. Ale Raza
Abstract: The paper investigates the validity of tourism-led growth hypothesis in 37 Asia economies with annual time series data spanning between 1995 and 2018. The region was disaggregated into three income groups (high-income economies, upper middle-income economies, and lower middle-income economies) respectively. In different sublets, the outcome of tourism receipts was positive and significant on economic growth for high income economies and lower middle-income economies respectively. Also, tourism expenditures appeared significant in high-income economies only. Overall, tourism-led growth hypothesis is valid in all the income classifications. Therefore, it is recommended that Asian economies across the income groups respectively should advance more policies that will stimulate sustainable economic growth. Second, policymakers in the upper middle-income countries should strengthen the link between the tourism industry and sustainable economic growth by building strong governance framework for proper accountability and remittance.
Keywords: Tourism-led growth hypothesis; Income group economies; Cross-sectional
dependence; Panel causality; Heterogeneity; Asia.
Website accessibility in the hospitality industry: A study in the central region of Portugal
by Pedro Teixeira, Celeste Eusébio, Leonor Teixeira
Abstract: This study aims to understand the impact of web accessibility guidelines (WCAG 2.0) on accessible tourism market, by examining the level of website accessibility of hotels located in the central region of Portugal. First, a framework, named WCAG@AcceTourMark was developed, to identify the importance of the WCAG for the various segments of the accessible tourism market. Further, the level of web accessibility of a sample of Portuguese tourism accommodation units is examined, based on WCAG 2.0, using two automatic evaluation tools: AccessMonitor and Test de Accesibilidad Web. Finally, the WCAG@AcceTourMark developed is used to identify the segments of accessible tourism with greater difficulty in accessing the information disseminated by the tourism accommodation units examined in this study. Results reveal that people with disabilities face several constraints when accessing website information, as the low level of web accessibility constitutes a strong barrier to the development of accessible tourism
Keywords: Accessible Tourism; Hospitality Industry; Hotels; Websites; Web accessibility; People with disabilities; Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG); Automatic Assessment Online Tools; AccessMonitor; TAW.
Developing Tourism Impact Index: A Measure of Tourism Suppliers Perceptions in Leh, India
by Manjula Chaudhary, Sonam Angmo
Abstract: Adverse tourism impacts are a cause of concern for tourism managers especially at fragile mountain destinations. Tourism in such areas can be the major source of livelihood. It poses a challenge of establishing a balance between contribution to the economy and negative effects on the ecology. Sustained mapping and monitoring of tourism impacts can assist in maintaining this balance. This study maps tourism impacts in Leh, Ladakh region of India to identify potential interventions based on opinions of local travel agents and hoteliers. The results are presented as economic, socio-cultural, environmental and livelihood impact indices and an aggregated Tourism Impact Index (TII) is also developed. Results suggest high negative socio-cultural impacts, low negative livelihood impacts and very low negative economic and environmental impacts. The methodology can be used for sustained monitoring of impacts and corrective interventions in Leh and at other destinations to reduce adverse tourism impacts.
Keywords: Leh (Ladakh); Mountain Destinations; Tourism Impact Index; Tourism Impact Perceptions; Tourism Suppliers.
The determinants of tourism expenditure in Mexican households: applying a model of logistic regression
by José Carlos González-Núñez, Liliana Ruiz-Fuentes, Hazael Cerón-Monroy
Abstract: Knowing the determinants that drive households tourism expenditures is essential to develop policy for, and growth in, tourism activities. The central objective of this research is to identify the main variables that determine tourism expenditures and identify if these expenditures are differentiated by the type of household (rural or urban). Through a logistic regression model where the dependent binary variable was the expenses related to lodging, packages, and tours, the effects of three types of determinants were analyzed: social, economic, and demographic. This model uses microeconomic data from the National Survey on Income and Household Expenditure, 2016 and 2018. The results indicate that rural households require less income for tourism expenditures; remittances have a greater influence on tourism expenditures in rural areas; and the level of education has a positive influence on spending (e.g., influencing the number of family members and the socioeconomic stratum).
Keywords: tourism expenditure; urban and rural; logit model; ENIGH; remittances.
The economic impact of tourism in a small region: a general equilibrium analysis applied to Ushuaia
by Carlos Adrián Romero, Juan Pablo Tarelli, Juan Ignacio Mercatante
Abstract: The impact of tourism on local Argentine economies is quite significant. An increase in tourism can improve the well-being of the inhabitants and enhance the regions economic performance. However, the lack of specific information is a serious problem when it comes to regional analysis. In this study we have created a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for the city of Ushuaia and apply it to calibrate a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to study a pro-tourism policy: public investment in advertising to promote tourism. In this case, we find that this type of policy increases regional Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by 1.6%, tax collection by 0.55% and boosts sectoral activity for tourism and non-tourism sectors alike. We also conclude that policymakers in Ushuaia should consider foreign visitors who generate higher revenue than local visitors. Nevertheless, diversification should not be forgotten.
Keywords: Tourism; Regional; Social Accountant Matrix; CGE.
ATTITUDINAL FACTORS IMPACTING LOCAL VISITOR PERSPECTIVES ON THE SUSTAINABILITY OF BOROBUDUR TEMPLE TOURISM
by Wisnu Untoro, Hunik Sri Runing Sawitri, Risgiyanti -, Sinto Sunaryo, Yuhanis Abdul Aziz
Abstract: The development of tourism at Borobudur Temple has caused substantial environmental, economic, social, and cultural impacts. Therefore, it is crucial to establish a path toward a sustainable way to conduct tourism of this site. Previous studies have focused on local communities as a key player in the sustainable tourism development process. This study seeks to address the local visitors perspective and assess their support for sustainable tourism development. Research data were collected from previous local visitors to Borobudur Temple. Of the 340 respondents to the online survey questionnaire, 267 met the criteria. We tested our hypothesis using PLS-SEM analysis and found that attitudes toward economic, social, and environment significantly affected support for sustainable tourism development. This study provides new insight into visitors support of sustainable development and the factors affecting the variable.
Keywords: Sustainable tourism; environmental attitude; economic attitude; social attitude; world heritage site.
The gap between cruise passengers? expectations and the on-board experience through on-board environmental factors and overall satisfaction
by Sabina Akter, Osiris Valdez Banda, Pentti Kujala, Jani Romanoff
Abstract: Cruise ships are part of the tourism industry, with the cruise experience of a customer forming a basis for the continuity of the relationship between the customer and the service producer. This experience is formed by the environmental factors of the cruise. Here, we assume that ambient, layout/design, social, product/service, and on-board enjoyment factors all contribute to overall satisfaction. This paper aims to identify the gap between cruise passengers? expectations and the on-board experience (henceforth referred to in the text as the on-board experience gap) in the context of these factors and overall satisfaction. It also investigates the relationship between cruise passengers pre-cruise expectations and their post-cruise experience. The study adopts a comparative approach that examines three classes of cruise ships through open-source data (N=2649). The aim of the comparison was to understand what creates a gap between cruise passengers expectations and the on-board experience, and to explain why some cruise ships are more successful than others. All the cruise ships accomplish high levels of satisfaction with the organisation of embarkation and the service in the restaurants, cabins, and bars. In contrast, the extra expenses on board and the price or performance ratio of the shore excursions offered are revealed to lead to dissatisfaction. In addition, the on-board experience gap is also clearly observed with regards to the entertainment, food and beverages offered, the tour operators guide on-board, child-friendliness, and the overall rating of the ship. From an academic perspective, the on-board experience gap concept has been introduced, and from an industrial perspective, this can be used to provide a dynamic procedure to measure the customers cruise experience.
Keywords: Gap between expectations and the on-board experience; customer expectations and experience; pre-cruise expectations; post-cruise experience; customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction (CS/D); on-board environmental factors and elements.
A novel look at Thailands tourism from a tourism composite index
by Ann-Ni Soh, Mei-Teing Chong, Chin-Hong Puah
Abstract: The number of international tourists has reached more than half of Thailands population, and tourism receipts accounted for nearly one-fifth of its GDP, which shows that the tourism industry is greatly affecting Thailands economic growth. Therefore, changes in the tourism industry are part of the lifeline of Thailand's economy and deserve attention. The principal objective is to construct a tourism composite index for Thailand by employing the indicator construction method, filtering extraction, turning points detection and directional accuracy test in predicting significant changes of the tourism economy. Findings unveil that the major transitions in the Thailand tourism cycle can be predicted by the constructed tourism composite index with an average lead time of 2.75 months and an accuracy rate up to 64%. A series of risk management, tourism planning, marketing strategies can be informed by using this index. It is indeed beneficial for tourism industry practitioners and decision-makers for their strategic decision-making.
Keywords: tourism composite index; turning points; forecasting; Thailand; indicator approach.
Local food consumption by foreign tourists in Greece
by Antonios Tiganis, Efthimia Tsakiridou
Abstract: Greek food is mostly perceived as tasty, with a nice aroma, authentic, safe, nutritious, and related to Greek culture. This study provides estimates of the factors influencing the consumption of Greek food by foreign tourists through ordered probit regression. The age of the respondents has a positive influence on the consumption of local food. The econometric model results show that the most important attribute for the consumption of local food is taste, followed by trustworthiness, nutritional value, and availability. On the other hand, tourists are indifferent to environmental friendliness.
Keywords: Ordered Probit regression; tourists; local foods consumption; Greek foods; local foods.