International Journal of Technology Management (15 papers in press)
Understanding outsourcing strategy within the Intellectual Property industry a proposed typology
by Sevim Süzeroglu-Melchiors, Oliver Gassmann
Abstract: Outsourcing has gained much importance in managerial practice and academic discussion. This paper investigates the phenomenon of outsourcing of knowledge based work, particularly of Intellectual Property (IP). Using data from 36 cases, the analysis reveals a distinct typology of IP outsourcers based on a cost model and the firms IP outsourcing strategy. Four in-depth case studies are analysed: Non-Outsourcer, Transaction Cost Outsourcer, Expertise Outsourcer, and Strategic Outsourcer. The differentiated analysis reveals trade-offs and both positive and negative effects of the IP outsourcing strategy. We suggest that firms need a differentiated approach based on the type of IP work (legal versus non-legal) and outsourcing breadth (number of outsourced IP services) to manage Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) with external suppliers most efficiently. We conclude by providing practitioners five important lessons for the outsourcing of IP activities.
Keywords: Intellectual Property (IP) Management; Outsourcing; Patents.
Public subsidies and firm innovation, a mediating role of external collaboration: the relation between diverse natures of innovation activities
by Kiman Kim, Sang Ok Choi, Sooyeon Lee
Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of a public support on private innovation outcome, and whether this relation is mediated by a firm collaboration. Various types of a partnership and innovation performance are considered to clarify a heterogeneous policy effect. Empirical results based on merged two waves of Korean Innovation Survey indicate that subsidies positively associate only with a marketable performance; this relation is likely to be mediated by a certain type of the firm collaboration. However, the magnitude of the indirect effect is not sufficient to be statistically confirmed. This implicates that a role of public subsidies is to lead firms only to be more innovative. The innovation outcome can be promoted by a firm collaboration which is, however, not inevitably induced by a public support.
Keywords: government support; subsidies; policy impact; innovation; firm external collaboration; innovation outcome; nature of innovation; mediation effect; Baron and Kenny; innovation survey.
Product platform replacements: impact of performance objectives, innovation speed, and competition
by Maud Van Den Broeke, Bart Devoldere, Stefan Creemers, Robert Boute
Abstract: Product platforms are assets shared by multiple products. Their primary purpose is to offer product variety while keeping time-to-market and operational costs down. As new products are developed over time, the question arises when to replace a platform. The repetitive use of the same platform for multiple product generations keeps platform development time and costs low. As the platform gets obsolete, however, the time and efforts to adapt the platform to the newest product will go up. With these dynamics in mind, we develop a simulation model to gain insight into the desired platform replacement planning. We examine how platform replacements are impacted by a firm's performance objectives, the speed of innovation, and the competitive landscape.
Keywords: product platforms; platform replacement; simulation; performance objectives; innovation.
The interplay between exports and technological collaborations: Effects on SME growth
by María Teresa Bolívar-Ramos, Joan-Lluís Capelleras, Alex Rialp-Criado, Josep Rialp-Criado
Abstract: This paper focuses on determining the effects of exporting and implementing technological collaborations on the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). SMEs that combine both strategies will access to key resources that will allow them to achieve greater growth than SMEs that do not combine them. To explain these relationships, our research distinguishes between explorative and exploitative technological collaborations, as distinct collaborators can affect firm growth differently. Based on an analysis of panel data of Spanish SMEs, our results indicate that SMEs that simultaneously engage in exporting and explorative and/or mainly exploitative technological collaborations achieve higher sales growth rates than SMEs that solely export, solely collaborate, or that do not follow any of these strategies.
Keywords: Firm growth; SME; exporting; technological collaboration; exploration; exploitation.
Special Issue on: Artificial Intelligence, Entrepreneurial Development and Innovation
Dynamic Governance of Social Network Based on Dynamic Optimization Algorithm: A New Perspective of AI system
by Fengzhang Chen, Fengwen Chen, Fangnan Liao, Lu Zhang, Jing Zhang
Abstract: This study optimizes the dynamic evolution of an entrepreneurial social network. Exploiting a dynamic optimization algorithm-based (DOA-based) AI system as the exploratory model and unique customer-purchase-level big data based on Hadoop, we can maximize start-ups revenue while minimizing the dynamic governing cost of a social network to select the right time to evolve the entrepreneurial social network in the context of uncertainty in customer behaviour and the response of the social network. We find that the dynamic optimization algorithm can effectively improve the dynamic governance of social networks through empirical testing of a real start-ups social network evolution problem. Moreover, the improvement is affected by the exploration efficiency, evolution efficiency, unit resource reliance cost, revenue and profit. These findings are of great importance for exploring the roles played by artificial intelligence in entrepreneurial social networks, including measurement, dynamic research and governance.
Keywords: dynamic optimization; social network; network dynamism; dynamic network governance; AI system.
How to become the chosen one in the artificial intelligence market: The evidence from China
by Jizhen Li, Zixu Liu, Jianghua Zhou
Abstract: This study aims to explore how firms innovation performance is related to their possibility of receiving public support, and the boundary conditions of this relationship. Specifically, we focus on the firms in the Chinese Artificial Intelligence (AI) market, and study a specific public support, namely, Innofund. The results suggest that a firms innovation performance has an inverted U-shaped effect on its probability of receiving Innofund. The effect, moreover, is moderated by whether a firm has received social investment, that is, the relationship between innovation performance and the probability of receiving funding is flattened by the receipt of social investment. Besides, a firms ties to institutional intermediaries further strengthens the moderating effect of social investment. The findings carry implications for future research and technology policy.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence market; small- and medium-sized enterprises; innovation performance; social investment; institutional intermediaries; public funding; Innofund; signalling effects.
A photo-sharing social network based on blockchain technology
by Jiang DUAN, Li KANG, Zhi CHEN, Tao PENG, Yifeng WANG
Abstract: The online social networks have greatly transformed the way that people interact with each other, and have salient impact on our lives. However, there exist common security challenges and limitations in attracting users activities due to the centralized structure of current online social networks. To address the security challenges and limitations of current online social networks, we exploit the blockchain technology to design a new photo-sharing social network, in which users social behaviors are stored in the blockchain in the form of transactions. Blockchain technology allows the authenticity and credibility of data to be improved and precludes data tampering. To reduce the efficiency limitation caused by transaction confirmation delays on the public chain, we design a new blockchain consensus algorithm to support fast and frequent transactions. Moreover, a new incentive model is designed to quantify the contribution of user in a more accurate and trustworthy way, thereafter, reward the user with financial incentives, as well as enable the user to easily control and claim the ownership of every photos they share to the network.
Keywords: Blockchain; online social network; photo-sharing social network; decentralized network; incentive model.
How Does Human Resource Departments Client Relationship Management Affect Sustainable Enterprise Performancein the Context of Artificial Intelligence?
by Xiao-Ling Wang, Ni Lei, Yun-Zhang Hou
Abstract: Artificial intelligence(AI) has penetrated into many fields. How to construct strategic human resources management practices under the background of AI technology has gained great attentions from many researchers in the world. Consequently, the conception of human resource departments client relationship management (HRDCRM) has been put forward. HRDCRM is a focus topic in the practice areas of strategic human resource management. This paper introduced relational capital as a mediating variable and collected two-wave lagged data (N = 235) from the enterprises located in eastern and southern China to conduct an empirical research on relational capitals mediate role by which HRDCRM influences sustainable enterprise performance. Empirical results reveal that under the control of enterprises ownership and lifecycle-stage, relational capital plays a partial mediate role in the influence of HRDCRM on sustainable enterprise performance. Therefore, the key to improving sustainable enterprise performance is developing the level of HRDCRM and promoting harmonious development between HRDCRM and relational capital.
Keywords: Human Resource Department’s Client Relationship Management; Sustainable Enterprise Performance; Artificial Intelligence; Relational Capital.
Special Issue on: Managing Innovation and Sustainable Development in the Era of Industry 4.0
Consideration Of The Strategic Market Competitiveness Under The Implementation Of Industry 4.0
by Shuai Ruan
Abstract: In order to overcome the problem that China's competitive advantage is not strong and the international market share is low, which leads to the low competitiveness of the strategic market, we should reform and think about the competitiveness of the strategic market. Under the background of industry 4.0, the evaluation model of strategic market competitiveness is established. Analyze the influencing factors of strategic market competitiveness. By using the evaluation model and the influencing factors of competitiveness, we can realize the situation simulation of future strategic market competitiveness. Based on the current strategic market competitiveness and its future trend, this paper puts forward strategies to enhance competitive advantage and increase international market share. In 2020, China's RCA index, Ms index and trade competition index are all improved compared with 2015. The comprehensive competitiveness of the strategic market has been significantly improved, and China's competitiveness ranking has increased by two places.
Keywords: Industry 4.0; Strategic market; Market competitiveness; Competitiveness evaluation;.
Innovation strategy of enterprises financial audit informatization in the era of industry 4.0
by Hui Zhou
Abstract: In order to overcome the limitations of traditional audit methods, this paper puts forward the innovation strategy of enterprise financial audit informatization in the industry 4.0 era. This paper clarifies the risk of false report and inspection under the background of informatization, clarifies the hindering factors of informatization promotion, and provides reference for the subsequent establishment of enterprise financial audit informatization innovation method; understands the main content of informatization audit, analyzes the requirements of enterprise financial audit information system, briefly designs the system plate, and creates data table according to database management, presenting correctly In the industry 4.0 era, the enterprise financial audit needs to make substantial changes and innovation requirements in the face of informatization, to achieve the goal of promoting the application of information technology in audit work, so as to truly reflect the actual situation of enterprise assets and safeguard the fundamental interests of the people.
Keywords: Industry 4.0 era; Enterprise’s financial audit; Audit informatization; Innovation strategy.
The Profit Model Design And Development Strategy Of Industry 4.0 Under The Concept Of Green And Low-Carbon
by Jinsong Zhang, Meng Li
Abstract: In order to overcome the environmental degradation and energy crisis caused by the rapid industrialization process, the profit model design and development strategy of industry 4.0 under the concept of green and low carbon are proposed. Through the macro, meso and micro levels of green and low-carbon concept, this paper analyzes the low-carbon operating conditions of industry 4.0, determines the development process of low-carbon elements in the performance evaluation of industrial system; introduces carbon management and development of carbon industry, respectively designs relevant profit models; on the premise of ensuring the performance of industrial products, it advocates energy-saving behavior, attaches importance to guiding behavior design, and gives full play to it The function of high technology prolongs the service life of products. We should implement the green and low-carbon principle, and formulate comprehensive development strategies for promoting the construction of ecological civilization and industrial progress.
Keywords: Green and low-carbon concept; Industry 4.0; Profit model; Development strategy; Ecological civilization construction.
Innovation Method For Centralized Management And Control Mode Of Enterprise Financial Audit Under The Background Of Industry 4.0
by Cheng Yang, Yuanming Yang, Yuqiang Cao
Abstract: In order to overcome the problem that the traditional audit centralized management and control model has higher cost than inefficiency, an innovative method of enterprise financial audit centralized management and control model under the background of Industry 4.0 is proposed. Compare and analyze the main characteristics of different financial control modes, analyze the problems existing in the centralized financial audit management and control of different enterprises in China at this stage, determine the positioning and objectives of the corporate financial audit centralized management and control mode suitable for the background of Industry 4.0, establish and improve internal control, and organize internal A new integrated financial centralized management and control model for banks. The experimental results show that the proposed method has higher control efficiency and lower control cost, with the highest control efficiency reaching 98.25%.
Keywords: Industry 4.0 background; Enterprise financial audit; Centralized management and control mode; Innovation.
Management and Control of Economic Cost and Analysis of Investment Effect in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises under the Background of Industry 4.0
by ZhiChao Liu, Yong Ye, Ya Cheng
Abstract: In view of the poor economic cost control and investment effect of small and medium-sized enterprises under the background of industry 4.0, this paper puts forward the economic cost control and investment effect analysis of small and medium-sized enterprises under the background of industry 4.0. This paper expounds the current situation of economic cost control of small and medium-sized enterprises under the background of industry 4.0, analyzes the basic business process of economic cost control, takes small and medium-sized enterprise a company as the research object, analyzes the economic cost investment management situation of company a, establishes the investment effect evaluation model, analyzes human capital investment and R & D investment, and realizes the economic cost control and investment effect analysis of small and medium-sized enterprises. The experimental results show that: this method can accurately analyze the economic cost control and investment effect of small and medium-sized enterprises.
Keywords: Industry 4.0; Small and medium-sized enterprises; Economic cost; Management and control; Investment effect.
Qualitative analysis of intellectual property forgery in manufacturing enterprises in industry 4.0 environment
by Chang Wu
Abstract: In order to avoid the situation of economic development, enterprise competition and resource waste caused by intellectual property counterfeiting in manufacturing enterprises under the environment of industry 4.0, this paper makes a qualitative analysis on the intellectual property forgery that most affects the development of enterprises. Based on the existing laws and regulations, this paper puts forward some suggestions to improve the legislation of intellectual property forgery in manufacturing enterprises, and constructs an intellectual property protection model to realize the best protection of intellectual property rights and ensure the economic level and social welfare level of the country. To avoid economic losses caused by intellectual property counterfeiting, and to improve the manufacturing enterprises' intellectual property research and development enthusiasm, improve the overall competitiveness of manufacturing enterprises.
Keywords: Manufacturing enterprise; intellectual property; forgery; qualitative analysis; legal regulation; evaluation system.
Enterprise strategy matching of technology merger and performance under competition-cooperation environment
by Wendai Lv, Jipeng Qi, Ludan Chen, Jing Feng
Abstract: In order to effectively promote the sustainable development of China's enterprises, this paper studies the strategic matching of enterprises under the environment of competition and cooperation - enterprise technology M & A and performance. Based on the input and output panel data of ten listed companies before and after technology merger and acquisition, the paper calculates the different technology performance indexes before and after technology acquisition by Malmquist index model, and through descriptive statistics, hypothesis test and frequency analysis. The empirical analysis results show that the efficiency index of technological progress has a significant improvement effect under the environment of competition and cooperation, and the number of enterprises whose other indexes are improved and balanced is higher than the number of enterprises that are reduced, which provides effective help for the development of enterprises.
Keywords: competition and cooperation environment; strategy matching; technology merger and acquisition; technology performance; Malmquist index; frequency analysis.