Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Technology Management

International Journal of Technology Management (IJTM)

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International Journal of Technology Management (58 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • R&D investment along the firm life-cycle: New evidence from high-tech industries   Order a copy of this article
    by Cheng Yang, Ye Hua, Zhongsheng Hua 
    Abstract: Traditional life-cycle theory typically holds that firms are more innovative in their earlier life-cycle stages than in their later stages. However, this may not apply to firms in high-tech industries that heavily rely on innovation to build competitive advantages and that are equipped with rich innovation-related knowledge. This paper analyses R&D investment along the life-cycle for firms in high-tech sectors. We suggest that in addition to the introduction stage, firms motivation to make R&D investment is also higher in the decline stage than in other stages because firms resort to innovation to increase competitiveness in their decline stage. Besides, rich external and internal innovation-related knowledge further increases firms confidence in resorting to innovation. We also investigate the boundary conditions of the hypothesised baseline effects by considering the moderating effects of three environmental factors (environmental complexity, environmental dynamism and environmental munificence). Analyses of a dataset consisting of high-tech manufacturing firms during 1989-2018 reveal that in comparison with firms in other stages, firms in introduction and decline stages make more R&D investment, especially in complex and moderately munificent environments. In addition, environmental dynamism significantly reduces R&D investment motivation in the decline stage but does not influence it in the introduction stage. Our results offer insights into high-tech firms innovation pattern along their life-cycle.
    Keywords: R&D investment; firm life-cycle; high-tech industries; environmental complexity; environmental dynamism; environmental munificence.

  • Income Approach to Technology Valuation for Innovations   Order a copy of this article
    by JoonWhan Oh, Hyun Woo Park 
    Abstract: Until now, technology valuation has been dominated by the income approach, a forward-looking methodology that discounts future cash flow. To account for risk in technology valuation of innovations, a typical net present value (NPV) method is complemented with real option valuation method. Even though real option techniques account for risk changes in practice, such models are subject to criticism for reasons of mathematical complexity. We propose a modified income approach we refer to as Innotech that incorporates innovation characteristics and industry characteristics into the valuation model. Our modified approach for the valuation of innovative technology reduces challenges related to mathematical modeling and dependency on factors such as risk premium, expected cash flows and contributory charge.
    Keywords: technology valuation; innovative technology; net present value (NPV); innovation characteristics; industry characteristics.

  • Smart Factory: A Game Changer or Another Fad in the Era of Fourth Industrial Revolution   Order a copy of this article
    by Hokey Min 
    Abstract: With rapid technological innovations, todays world is often characterized by never-ending changes in our life styles, socio-economic status, and interactions among ourselves. These changes are further accelerated with the emergence of the fourth industrial revolution (industry 4.0) that started in Germany in 2011. In particular, this revolution has begun to transform the way we manufacture products and deliver those products to customers. One of those transformations includes the increasing adoption of smart factory concepts. Despite increased attention to a smart factory, its fundamentals, application areas, and potential impacts on firm performances are not well documented in the literature. To help manufacturing firms better understand smart factory concepts and successfully build a smart factory within a supply chain, this paper synthesizes the evolution of smart factory concepts, designs underlying architecture, develops specific milestones for monitoring the progress of smart factory adoption, and then identifies key success factors for its implementation in global business environments.
    Keywords: smart factory; fourth industrial revolution; technological innovation; change management.

  • Single- or multi-sided business models: How does time perception influence business model choice?   Order a copy of this article
    by Ritalba Lamendola, Corine Genet 
    Abstract: Various cognitive factors can influence managerial decisions about business models; in particular, this article reveals how time representation affects entrepreneurs business model choices over time. By studying four start-ups pursuing emerging Internet-of-Things applications in real-life contexts, this article reveals that when the entrepreneurs perceive time urgency, they rely on information and knowledge from their personal backgrounds and adopt single-sided business models. Conversely, when no perceived time urgency exists, entrepreneurs devote more time to exploring their environments and can develop alternative business model configurations. This research contributes to debates about the relationship between technology and business models and reveals that the type of technology affects an entrepreneurs time perception, which influences business model choice. The findings then can help entrepreneurs select a business model by acknowledging how their unconscious mental representation of time influences their choice.
    Keywords: bbusiness models; time perception; multi-sided business model; Internet of Things (IoT); business model process; business model and technology.

  • ALLIANCE EGO-NETWORK CONFIGURATION, INNOVATION AND SCIENTIFIC AGENTS   Order a copy of this article
    by Isabel Diez-Vial, Jose Antonio Belso-Martínez, Mª José Lopez-Sanchez 
    Abstract: The objective of this research is to identify the alliance network configuration that would be best for improving an organizations innovation capacity. We focus on the ego-network that each innovating organization establishes with its partners to evaluate how partner centrality, constraint and novelty affect how organizations harness exploration and exploitation in their innovation capacity. We also differentiate between scientific agents (mainly universities, research labs, and hospitals) and other organizations. Empirical evidence has been gathered for 133 Spanish biotechnology organizations from 2006 to 2016, which resulted in 1,197 observations. The results indicate that exploration innovation capacity is positively related to organizations that are central, while exploitation is positively related to constraint and negatively influenced by the addition of new partners. The ego-network of scientific agents is also characterized by high centrality, but high constraint configurations negatively affect their exploration innovation capacity, while alliances with new partners benefit their exploitation capacity.
    Keywords: exploration; exploitation; ego-networks; alliance; supporting organizations.

  • Two Stages' Performance Analysis of Taiwanese IC Design Industry: A Dynamic Network Slacks-Based Data Envelopment Analysis Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Ching-cheng Lu, Xiang Chen 
    Abstract: The Integrated Circuit (IC) industry is a very significant role for Taiwanese exports, since Taiwan is a trade-oriented small open economy. This paper is to assess the performance of efficiency and total factor productivity (TFP) of the 47 publicly-traded companies in Taiwans IC design industry by applying the dynamic network non-oriented slacks-based data envelopment analysis models (DN non-oriented DEA models) to estimate dynamic efficiency score and Malmquist Index. The aim is to evaluate their production, market, overall efficiencies and the productivity change between 2010 and 2014.The dynamic efficiency measure indicates the level of efficiency increases in the first two years, after then declines. Malmquist productivity analysis shows a significant decline in the production stage between 2010 and 2014. It is suggested that Taiwanese IC Design Industry should strength the exchange of the IC design experience and try to cooperate with universities in research and development to improve production performance.
    Keywords: IC Design Industry; Dynamic network DEA; SBM; Operational Efficiency; Malmquist Productivity Index.

  • Managing Platform-based Ecosystems in B2B Markets: Out-bound Open Innovation Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Chung-Lin Tsai, Joon Mo Ahn, Letizia Mortara 
    Abstract: Technology advancements are underpinning firms in shaping their products and services into digital platforms to foster value co-creation in their platform-based ecosystems. While existing research has mainly focused on business-to-customer (B2C) platforms, relatively little research has been conducted on business-tobusiness (B2B) platforms. To address this research gap, this study employs a case study approach to collect and examine three out-bound open innovation (OI) application cases in the context of B2B platforms, namely, TSMC, IBM and CNT Tech. The case analysis results show that the coverage of B2B markets can be expanded and diversified by OI. To improve the quality of platform offerings (not only platform services but also complementary innovations), the case firms implemented OI applications comprising two phases that manage knowledge outflows (with boundary resources) and inflows (with input/output controls) across their organisational boundaries. Knowledge sharing provided a B2B platform owner new market creation opportunities, and complementors combined and pivoted some of the platform owners core technologies, consequently diversifying the platforms applications and making platform ecosystem more dynamic and vibrant.
    Keywords: platform-based ecosystems; digital platforms; out-bound open innovation.

  • Private Value of Innovation in Canadian Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Bonwoo Koo, Brian Cozzarin 
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to measure and quantify the private value of innovation, in contrast to other studies which use a partial equilibrium approach to estimate the social value of innovation. We use firm-level revenue and expenditure data to create industry level returns to an average manufacturing firm. We show that firms that perform both product and process innovations reap more than those that perform either process innovation or product innovation in isolation, and product-only innovators reap larger rewards than process-only innovators. The industrial profile of innovation in Canada ranks the transportation sector first, and the remaining top five industries are primary metals, petroleum-chemical-pharmaceuticals, food-beverages, plastics-rubber and wood. While Canada is no longer a country of just Hewers of wood and drawers of water, a recent $2.2 billion Federal program targets primarily the transportation-aerospace sector to the detriment of the less newsworthy sectors.
    Keywords: private value; innovation expenditure; product innovation; process innovation.

  • Strategic Focus, Strategic Blur, and Environmental Turbulence in Nascent Entrepreneurial Ventures   Order a copy of this article
    by Gregory Stock, Christopher McDermott, Margaret McDermott 
    Abstract: This study examines how strategic focus, strategic blur, and environmental turbulence affect performance in nascent entrepreneurial ventures. We build on the idea of Porters (1980) generic strategies to develop the constructs of strategic focus and strategic blur. Strategic focus is conceptualized as an emphasis on a single competitive priority, while strategic blur is conceptualized as the opposite of strategic focus and is defined as the simultaneous emphasis on all competitive priorities. In addition, we consider how environmental turbulence moderates the effects of focus and blur on venture performance, which is measured by the attainment of initial profitability. We employ data from the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics II (PSED II), and we find that focus does not have a significant effect, either directly or in combination with turbulence. However, the interaction between strategic blur and environmental turbulence is significant. We conclude with implications for research and practice.
    Keywords: Strategic focus; strategic blur; turbulence; nascent; entrepreneurial ventures; Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics II; strategy; competitive priorities; logistic regression; competitive environment; operations.

  • Uncertainty Measurement and Regional Comparison of the Technology Transfer Process an Empirical Study Based on Data from 30 Provinces in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Yingying Qiu, Feng Feng, Leiyong Zhang 
    Abstract: Technology transfer is a stage-by-stage process that is full of uncertainties. This study uses a Graphical Evaluation Review Technology (GERT) network to construct an uncertainty measurement model of the technology transfer process. In addition, the science and technology data input from the 30 provinces and autonomous regions of the provinces in China are used to measure the uncertainty associated with technology transfer in each province. It is concluded that the uncertainty associated with technology transfer in China varies from region to region and has a negative correlation with the level of economic development. Thereafter, with the help of construction of uncertainty difference matrix, the policy recommendation is put forward that reducing target phase uncertainty can largely promote transformation of science and technology.
    Keywords: Technology transfer; Uncertainty; Graphical Evaluation Review Technology network; Target stage; Difference matrix.

  • How Does a New Venture Build a New Products Legitimacy? Evidence from Digital Innovations in an Established Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei Zhang, Liyan Wang, Yongyi Zhao, Qixin Ye 
    Abstract: Any significantly new product will face legitimacy challenges when it enters the market, and even more so when launched by a new venture. We draw on an in-depth case study to explore the challenge of achieving product legitimacy, defined as a generalized perception or assumption that the features of a product are desirable, proper or appropriate within a business ecosystem with a particular set of norms, values and beliefs. From our analysis of a new venture who applied new digital technology to successfully launch new products in an established industry and emerging economy context, we identify four strategies by which the venture built legitimacy for its new products: orienting, leveraging, designing and enacting. We also find, by adopting appropriate ecosystem strategies, the venture was able to increase the value creation for customers and further enhance the legitimacy of their new products. This suggests that economic factors, rather than social factors that are more often highlighted in studies based in institutional theory, may have the greatest impact on the legitimacy of new products.
    Keywords: New venture; new product; legitimacy; entrepreneurship; strategy; digital innovation; ecosystem; value creation; established industry.

  • Mission-based Strategic Management Model for National R&D Programs in Korea   Order a copy of this article
    by Jae-Keun Lee 
    Abstract: Korea began rapidly industrializing in the early 1980s, following a drastic increase in its R&D budget. However, continued growth has made national R&D program governance complex and has created a chronic overlap in R&D investments. This study proposes a systematic approach for the effective management of Koreas national R&D programs. The discussion begins by reviewing each programs raison d
    Keywords: national R&D program; Korea; governance; mission; strategic program portfolio model; mission construct; mission fulfilment; mission uniqueness.

  • Impact of Partner Heterogeneity on Innovation Performance through Interaction Behavior in Chinese Complex Product R&D Industries   Order a copy of this article
    by Naiding Yang, Fangmei WangDu, Yanlu Zhang 
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of partner heterogeneity, in terms of knowledge, resource, cognitive, and ecological, on innovation performance with the mediation role of interaction behavior through interactive innovation lens. The analysis of 206 survey questionnaires reflects that knowledge and resource heterogeneities significantly and positively affect interaction behavior and innovation performance. Ecological heterogeneity has an inverted U-shaped effect on interaction behavior and innovation performance. Cognitive heterogeneity has an inverted U-shaped effect on innovation performance but is insignificant to interaction behavior. Interaction behavior is significantly related to innovation performance as well as mediates the effects of partner heterogeneity except for cognitive heterogeneity. The presence of circular causality and self-reinforcing mechanisms between partner heterogeneity and innovation performance were first confirmed in our study. The study contributes to the theory of interactive innovation, partner heterogeneity, and innovation management literature. To practitioners in Chinese complex product R&D industry, this study advises to interact with the industry players at multiple levels, however, the gap with respect to cognition and geography must not be too high.
    Keywords: Partner heterogeneity; Interaction behavior; Innovation performance; Complex product; R&D.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2021.10044359
     
  • The Influencing Factors of Industry Innovation Networking: Evidence from Shanghais High-tech Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Xianzhong Cao 
    Abstract: The influence factor of innovation network is an important research field of human geography. This paper aims to examine the factors, paths, and mechanisms influencing networking of Shanghai's high-tech industry with focus on the biomedical, new material, equipment manufacturing and electronic information. Based On the data from high-tech firms annual reports by Shanghais Science and Technology Commission, the results highlight that firm development stage, firm scale, and industry position as the main factors promoting innovation networking. In addition, government intervention plays the largest role in the new material industry mainly through investment in innovation activities and taxation intervention in innovation network construction. The impact of firm ownership, spatial location, and intermediary services on the four high-tech industries innovation networks is relatively smaller. Finally, this study summarizes the impact mechanisms for innovation networking in Shanghais high-tech industries.
    Keywords: innovation networks; influencing factors; high-tech industry; Shanghai; structural equation model; impact mechanisms.

  • Establishing regional institutions to facilitate university entrepreneurship in China: A grounded model of resource acquisition processes   Order a copy of this article
    by Shisong Jiang, Yanping Li, Limin Gong, Hui Yan 
    Abstract: This study introduces a new organisational form of university entrepreneurship: Research University Affiliated Regional Institutions (RUARIs). RUARIs are established by their parent universities and hosted by governments in different regions, with the aim of facilitating university entrepreneurship. On the basis of an inductive multiple-case study of four RUARIs located in Suzhou, Jiangsu, China, we develop a grounded model of the resource acquisition process to explain how research universities are motivated to establish their RUARIs and how they could facilitate RUARI performance. We found that research universities establish RUARIs with the motivation of acquiring external resources from host regions, and the economic and institutional distance between the home and host regions determines potential external resource acquisition. After entry, parent universities use two types of administration strategies, namely, autonomy delegation and resource backing, which influence RUARI performance. On the one hand, autonomy delegation plays a key role in realising the potential external resource acquisition determined upon entry. On the other hand, resource backing can be translated into internal resource acquisition. Finally, realised external and internal resource acquisitions are both beneficial to RUARI performance.
    Keywords: University entrepreneurship; Research universities; Regional institutions; Resource acquisition; Autonomy; Economic distance; Institutional distance.

  • Evaluation of Regional University Technology Transfer Performance in China based on Super-efficiency SBM   Order a copy of this article
    by Wang Jian, Zhao Min 
    Abstract: The improvement of university technology transfer (UTT) performance is significant for establishing the national and regional innovation system to pursue national innovation-driven development strategy. Based on the provincial and regional panel data in China from 2011 to 2015, this study employs super-efficiency slacks-based measure (SBM) model to calculate the holistic scores of regional UTT efficiency, and then performs the correlation analysis on several influencing factors of regional UTT. The results indicate that the gap between different regions is apparent in the holistic performance of regional UTT. Most provinces annual UTT are inefficient, that is, there are slacks in input or output, or both. There is a positive correlation between the regional UTT performance and R&D fund input intensity, the number of universities, and their location in the eastern region. Finally, suggestions on optimisation of UTT performance mechanism are proposed from the levels of university, region, and inter-region.
    Keywords: university technology transfer performance; efficiency score; super-efficiency SBM model; region; mechanism.

  • Dynamic patterns of technological innovation in magnesium alloys in the Korean automotive industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Duk Hee Lee, Yong Jin Kim 
    Abstract: Materials innovation is an important factor for industrial competitiveness and success. This study investigates materials innovation from organisational and technological perspectives, in the case of magnesium alloys in the Korean automotive industry. The patent citation network (20032014; Korean Intellectual Property Office) was employed, and centrality analysis and blockmodeling were performed. 1) Organisational perspective: The demand from automotive organisations decreased over the timeframe examined, while the demand and supply from knowledge providers and materials organisations increased. The connections between automotive organisations and the other organisations decreased, while the connections between materials organisations and knowledge providers increased. 2) Technological perspective: The role of materials technologies reduced, while the role of automotive technologies increased. There was a decrease in connections among materials technologies, and an increase in connections among automotive technologies. We relate these results to industry and policy changes in the Korean materials industry.
    Keywords: materials industry; automotive industry; technology management; technological innovation; materials innovation; technology spillover; organisational perspective; technological perspective; social network analysis; patent citations; patent citation network; magnesium alloys; Korea.

  • Technology Transfer Performance: A Comparative Analysis of Two Universities in Japan   Order a copy of this article
    by Takayuki Sakai, Kensuke Inai, Kenji Kutsuna, Bishnu Kumar Adhikary, Norbert Buzás 
    Abstract: An important form of technology transfer is the commercialization of university research, which is indispensable for industrial competitiveness and innovation. However, the technology transfer performance of universities varies widely. This paper compares the technology transfer performance of two Japanese universities: Kobe University, a large urban university, and Tokushima University, a small-scale university situated in a regional city. University attributes, researcher attributes, and the role played by the universities technology transfer organizations (TTOs) were examined, with the aim of understanding how these affect the commercialization of university research. Despite having characteristics that previous research suggests are associated with superior technology transfer performance, including large size, nearness to industrial clusters, and strong research capacity, Kobe University's licensing revenues are found to be far smaller than those of Tokushima University. Results from a questionnaire survey of researchers highlight differences between the universities' TTOs that have played a critical role in producing this outcome.
    Keywords: Academic Entrepreneur; Commercialization; Industry-Government-Academia Collaboration; Industry-University Cooperation; Japan; Researchers' Awareness; Researchers' Ability; Attributes of Universities; Technology Transfer; Technology Transfer Office; Technology Transfer Performance.

  • How Does the Blockchain Find Its Way in the UAE? The Blockchain as a Sociotechnical System   Order a copy of this article
    by Donghee Shin 
    Abstract: Blockchain is emerging as a powerful technological force that promises to change societys status quo. The UAE has taken a proactive approach to blockchain innovation and development. With the framing of blockchain as a sociotechnical system, blockchain initiatives in the UAE are critically examined in terms of prospects, challenges, and implications for future digital societies. Blockchain developmental trajectories are analyzed from a sociotechnical lens, i.e., societal, technological, industrial, and economic trends that characterize the interfaces and interaction among people, organizations, technology, and society, eliciting underlying potential influences of cultural, ethical, and legal rhetoric. Despite strong initiatives, a series of challenges, such as trust, privacy, and transparency, have emerged as blockchain begins to develop its full potential. With these issues, sociotechnical concerns have increased regarding how to respond to the possible consequences that such a policy choice would entail, how to govern blockchains, and how to create a sustainable blockchain ecosystem. The sociopolitical ramifications of UAE blockchains are critically assessed to establish key features and conceptualize issues to unlock opportunities to guarantee a sociotechnical approach to blockchains.
    Keywords: Blockchain; trust; sociotechnical perspective; sociotechnical blockchain.

  • Inward or Outward? Direction of Knowledge Flow and Firm Efficiency   Order a copy of this article
    by Minjung Shon, Daeho Lee, Changjun Lee 
    Abstract: With the acceleration of technology development and the expansion of convergence, open innovation has become an important tool and inevitable company strategy. To measure the value of open innovation, this paper introduces the technical efficiency (TE) and technology gap ratio (TGR) among the different strategic groups in terms of open innovation. It categorizes firms by their innovation strategy: inward, outward, bidirectional open innovation, and closed innovation. Stochastic frontier analysis is used to measure the average TE within each group, and meta-frontier analysis allows a comparison of the average TGR between groups. The results show that the TE of outward open innovation is highest among groups; however, inward open innovation is most efficient in terms of TGR. For robustness of results, this paper conducts Tobit regression to identify the factors relating to company efficiency.
    Keywords: technology transfer; open innovation; inward strategy; outward strategy; technical efficiency; meta-frontier analysis.

  • Innovators imitation: Whether and how does reactive search affect the performance of incumbent firms? Evidence from China   Order a copy of this article
    by Yanting Guo, Wanru Deng, Shan Hu, Gang Zheng 
    Abstract: The competitive interaction between incumbents and new entrants has been a central topic in the field of strategic management. This study examines whether and under what conditions reactive search activities help incumbent firms avoid dethronement in the face of external challenges caused by the entry of new entrants. Based on a sample of 236 Chinese firms, we find that both reactive technology search and reactive market search positively affect firm performance. Moreover, the dynamic capability of established firms strengthens the relationship between reactive technology search and innovative performance, as well as that between reactive market search and operational performance. These findings contribute to the literature on competitive dynamics and knowledge search.
    Keywords: reactive search; dynamic capability; performance; competitive dynamics; incumbent.

  • Matching buyer-supplier interaction with governance mechanisms for business performance: the moderated mediation model with innovation ambidexterity   Order a copy of this article
    by Yu Wang, Tao Jia, Jinliang Chen, Hongyi Sun 
    Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the relationships among buyer-supplier interaction (BSI), innovation ambidexterity, and business performance. It postulates that BSI contributes to innovation ambidexterity that serves to benefit business performance. Building on organisational information processing theory, this study clarifies boundary conditions in terms of governance mechanisms. The SPSS version of PROCESS was employed to test hypotheses using ordinary least squares regression based on survey data collected from 184 Hong Kong manufacturing firms. The results show that innovation ambidexterity mediates the relationship between BSI and business performance. Furthermore, the indirect relationship is strengthened by the interplay of contracts and trust in its first stage.
    Keywords: buyer-supplier interaction; governance mechanism; contract; trust; innovation ambidexterity; exploitative innovation; exploratory innovation; knowledge recombination; organisational information processing theory; information processing requirement; information processing capacity; fit as moderation; moderated mediation.

  • Does CSR Foster Innovation Performance? The Moderating Effect of Ownership Structure   Order a copy of this article
    by Luu Nguyen, Yuexin Shao, Shouming Chen 
    Abstract: Based on the integration of stakeholder theory and the knowledge-based view, this paper seeks to investigate the effect of firms active engagement in corporate social responsibility (CSR) on their innovation performance. It is proposed that socially responsible firms, due to their enhanced relationship with stakeholders, could foster innovation performance through the improvement of knowledge acquisition. The moderating effects of two aspects of ownership structure, namely, ownership-control separation and ownership concentration, are examined to highlight the influence of corporate governance over agency problems on the focal relationship. The research uses a longitudinal analysis on a sample of 11,021 observations, including 2,531 firms listed on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Exchanges from 2011 to 2016. The results show that participation in CSR activities is positively related to a firms innovation performance. The positive relationship is stronger when ownership is more concentrated and ownership rights are less separated from control rights.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; innovation performance; ownership concentration; ownership-control separation; sustainable development.

  • A Comparison of the Operational Models of publicly-funded Open Access Nano Research Infrastructures   Order a copy of this article
    by Susan Anson, Jürgen Mohr, Christian Kübel 
    Abstract: This study provides an empirical overview of Nano Fabrication and Characterisation Research Infrastructures (NFCRIs), and uses this to gain an insight into the similarities and differences in the modes of operation. This will provide a context for future comparative studies of NFCRIs and will highlight parameters which are currently most frequently recorded by the NFCRIs and which may be suitable for evaluation as Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). This study also aims to provide a reference document providing funding bodies and host organisations (universities and research centres) an overview of models employed for the operation of NFCRIS.
    Keywords: benchmarking; clean room; International; nanolabs; nano research facilities; nano research infrastructures; nanotechnology; open Access; operational models; public Funding; research Management; technological Expertise; technology Management; Characterisation; Nanofabrication;.

  • The purchase of innovative components: a new link between open innovation and black box integration   Order a copy of this article
    by Antonello Cammarano, Francesca Michelino, Mauro Caputo 
    Abstract: The work aims at signalling the relevance of the purchase of innovative components as a means to carry out open innovation strategies in the presence of black-box approaches and complex product development. Indeed, the wide literature on open innovation is continuously evolving with many contributions, but the relationship between open innovation and black-box approaches was never explored. Specifically, the purchase of innovative components has never been considered as an open innovation practice, even though it refers to the acquisition of innovative components that allow an OEM to incorporate innovative efforts of its suppliers and enhance the innovation of the overall end product. Hence, the paper proposes argumentation to prove the real compatibility, finding two general features among all the practices of the open innovation paradigm. This allows to extend the open innovation paradigm to black-box buyer-supplier relationships, but also suggests scholars to reflect on the existence of any closed innovation.
    Keywords: Open innovation; Closed innovation; Open innovation practices; Buyer-supplier relationships; Black-box; Modularity; Component innovation; Purchase of components; Supplier innovation.

  • How do Small and Medium-sized Enterprises learn through Collaborative Networks for Innovation? A mixed methodology to explore absorptive capacity supporting learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Nestor Fabian Ayala, Marie Anne Le Dain, Lamiae Benhayoun-Sadafiyine, Arthur Marcon, Carine Dominguez-Pery 
    Abstract: This study investigates how an SME learns in a Collaborative Network for Innovation (CNI) context by deploying Absorptive Capacity (ACAP) practices. More specifically, we explore the effects of ACAP practices for reciprocal learning upon those used for one-way learning throughout the network creation and operation stages. To hypothesize these effects, we relied on prior literature and empirical evidence drawn from interviews with 13 SMEs embedded in three different CNIs. We then used PLS regression to test these hypotheses based on data collected from 74 SMEs. Results show that ACAP for reciprocal learning has different effects on ACAP for one-way learning, depending on the network stage. This study provides a better understanding of the development of both learnings throughout a CNI. It also raises practitioners awareness of the most important aspects of ACAP for deriving valuable learnings from their network experiences.
    Keywords: Absorptive Capacity; Interorganizational learning; Collaborative Network for Innovation; SME; Open Innovation; Mixed methods.

  • The impact of competition and collaboration networks on innovation performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Jingjing Zhang, Yan Yan, Jiancheng Guan 
    Abstract: Both collaboration and competition networks have received considerable attention in the inter-organizational network literature. However, prior studies treat them as more or less isolated networks. This study highlights that the two networks should be studied together to better understand which combination of the different levels of the characteristics of competition and collaboration networks is optimal for a firms innovation performance. We construct product and technological competition networks to describe competition networks and use alliance and technological collaboration networks to represent collaboration networks. We focus on the tie strength and density of ego competition and collaboration networks. We combine multiple data sources and finally examine 12,068 firms in the Chinese computer and communication industries from the year 2000 to 2013 to test our hypotheses. We find that firms with weak competition and strong collaboration strength and firms embedded in dense competition and sparse collaboration ego networks exhibit high innovation performance. We advance the current research on competition and collaboration networks and contribute to the current debates about the significance of the two network features for improving a firms innovation performance.
    Keywords: collaboration network; competition network; tie strength; network density; innovation performance; patent.

Special Issue on: Academic entrepreneurship in an Open Innovation world a way to overcome the resources shortage of academic spinoffs

  • Presenting a Paradigmatic Model for Conceptualization of Open Innovation Ecosystem in Start-ups Using Meta-Synthesis Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammd Reza Fallah 
    Abstract: Globalization and increasing growth of technology as well as the changes in business environment have put start-ups in a difficult situation. Innovative tools like open innovation ecosystem are the best strategy to deal with these situations and gain a sustainable competitive advantage. The present study attempts to provide a paradigmatic model for conceptualization of the open innovation ecosystem in start-ups. Regarding the strategy, the current study employs a qualitative approach, and regarding its objective, the research is fundamental and descriptive-analytical in terms of its nature and method. To collect data, the meta-synthesis approach was utilized and the articles related to the research topic, published between 2010 and 2019, were reviewed. After analyzing the research findings via Glasier Granded Theory, 105 indicators/drivers were identified and 48 concepts were labeled into four categories and 15 sub-categories. The results showed that multiple absorptive capacity through dynamic facilitators and innovative empowerment , recombining shared synergy through engaging key customers, competitors, enterprises, businesses, and innovation centers, and the conceptualization and creation of open innovation ecosystem are possible.
    Keywords: open innovation ecosystem; dynamic facilitators; innovative empowerment; multiple absorptive capacity; shared synergy.

  • From Ecosystem to Community. Combining Entrepreneurship and University engagement in an Open Innovation perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Mariarosalba Angrisani, Davide Dell'Anno, Tom Hockaday 
    Abstract: The paper provides a new perspective for the analysis of academic entrepreneurship dynamics in an evolving Open Innovation context. Starting from an overview of the innovation (eco)systems approach and a focus on university engagement, we propose a paradigm shift towards the conceptualisation of an Innovation Community (IC) within and around Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) boundaries. The main goal of the study is to show that the concept of Innovation Community can be applied to a Knowledge-Intensive Hub, where open innovation processes successfully enhance knowledge flows in the context of advanced education programmes and spin-off firm creation and management. Our research is explorative in nature and contemplates examples of Open Innovation (OI) practices implemented inside a Knowledge-intensive Hub of an HEI that involves innovation, technology, and knowledge transfer processes. In order to achieve such aim, we chose to resort to a multiple case study methodology involving two typologies of technology transfer namely, one spin-off firm and two advanced post-graduate programmes including a private-public partnership. The unit of analysis selected for the study is a knowledge-intensive Hub which is expected to be addressed as an Innovation Community. The early outcomes confirm that the Innovation Community view can acquire a theoretical relevance when referring to open innovation contexts involving public, private, and institutional sectors. Regarding useful implications for practitioners, our research designs a further framework for technology transfer operators as well as for institutions at both local and national level to promote academic entrepreneurship in open innovation contexts.
    Keywords: Innovation ecosystems; University Engagement; Innovation Community; Academic Entrepreneurship; Technology Transfer; Open Innovation.

  • Analysis of the survival determinants of University Spin-Offs in a cross-national sample   Order a copy of this article
    by David Rodeiro-Pazos, María Jesús Rodríguez-Gulías, Sara Fernández-López, Antonio Prencipe, Christian Corsi 
    Abstract: Understanding the dynamics related to university survival is a critical point for scholars and policymakers, especially in the technology transfer process. Drawing on the population and organizational ecology perspectives and the resource-based view of the firm, this paper aims to investigate the survival determinants of University Spin-Offs (USOs). After applying event analysis techniques in a cross-national dataset of 1,275 Italian and Spanish USOs over the period 2005-2013, the findings show that firm size, firm age, industrial partners, and firm efficiency positively influence the USOs survival, whereas patent activity decreases the USOs chances to survive. Additionally, a U-shaped relationship between financial leverage and the USOs survival emerges. Based on the emerging evidence, some policy and managerial implications are provided to help USOs to cross their Valley of Death.
    Keywords: university spin-off; firm survival; event analysis; cross-national; resource-based theory.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2021.10042592
     
  • Innovative Difference Based on Genetic Distance Model: An Empirical Analysis of Technology Innovation   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhenhong Xiao, Kwanghun Kim, Kumchol Ri 
    Abstract: Technology innovation is a key driving force for economic growth, and many factors influence the difference in technological innovation between regions. In this paper, a new interpretation of the difference of technological innovation between countries from the genetic point of view of the organism was carried out. It is assumed that genetic differences between regions expressed as genetic distances in the paper may have a significant impact on the degree of innovation. Recently, a great deal of attention has been focused on identifying the migration path of ethnic groups using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) or finding the origin of each race. In order to conduct this study, genetic distances are measured by using various measures among ethnic groups, and their values are compared and analyzed. These measures, however, compare their values to each other, but they may say that the genetic distance are farther or closer, but statistically, they do not provide a significant difference between the proportions of alleles that constitute single nucleotide polymorphism among ethnic groups. This study demonstrates that there is a relationship between the test statistic about genetic equivalence and the genetic distance measure between two ethnic groups. Using this, the effects of genetic distance on the gap between technological innovations between individual countries were experimentally analyzed. As a result, both the absolute genetic distance and the relative genetic distance, which are indicators reflecting the genetic distance, showed a significant positive effect on the gap of technological innovation. In other words, the farther the genetic distance is, the larger the gap of technological innovation becomes.
    Keywords: Genetic distance; Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); Technological innovation; The absolute genetic distance; The relative genetic distance.

  • Government support, different types of collaborative R&D input, and performance: Evidence from China   Order a copy of this article
    by Hua Cheng, Zhiying ZHANG, Joseph Martial Nkongo Mvondo 
    Abstract: University-research institute-industry collaboration (URIC) has been widely regarded as one of the contributors to successful innovation. Research on the effects of subsidies and tax incentives on universities-research institute-industries collaborative innovation has received wide attention. This empirical study analyses whether tax incentives and government R&D subsidies could promote the input and output of URIC using panel data of China from 2009 to 2015. The result shows that tax incentives and subsidies to universities, to research institutes, and to industries, have significant effect on the input and output of URIC. The effects on output in descending order are subsidies to universities, subsidies to research institutes, subsidies to enterprises, and tax incentives. There are differences between subsidies and tax incentives on R&D input and output.
    Keywords: Subsidies; Tax incentives; University-research institute-industry collaboration; collaborative R&D input.

Special Issue on: Digital Innovation in Emerging Economies

  • How does value co-creation behaviour affect enterprise innovation performance?   Order a copy of this article
    by Baojian Zhang, Pengli Li, Xiaohang Yue 
    Abstract: The development of the digital economy drives the transformation of traditional competition and value creation models. In this context, value co-creation has become a new model of enterprise development. However, only a few studies have focused on inter-enterprise value co-creation and how value co-creation behaviour affects enterprise innovation performance. This study explores the internal mechanism of value co-creation behaviour affecting enterprise innovation performance by introducing resource integration, and examines the impact of network breadth on this mechanism. We collect 365 sample data of Chinese enterprises and conduct hypothesis testing using SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 22.0. Empirical results show that inter-enterprise value co-creation behaviour positively affects resource integration and enterprise innovation performance. Resource integration has a significant positive impact on enterprise innovation performance, and plays a partial mediation effect in the relationship between inter-enterprise value co-creation behaviour and innovation performance. Network breadth has an inverted U-shaped moderating effect on the positive relationship between value co-creation behaviour and resource integration and value co-creation behaviour and enterprise innovation performance. Conclusions can theoretically expand the existing explanations of enterprise innovation performance changes and guide enterprise value co-creation practice.
    Keywords: value co-creation behaviour; resource integration; network breadth; enterprise innovation performance.

  • The Performance and Innovation Speed of Utility Applications in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Jie Ren, Xibao Li 
    Abstract: Application or app innovation is an important form of innovation in the digital economy. App innovation in China is based on the users and markets. Using 474 utility apps from 217 Chinese companies, we examine the determinants of app innovation. We capture how data are valued in the digital era and find that multilevel factors influence app innovation performance. Specifically, first-mover advantage, firms experiences in app development and local institutions influence the survival of apps and the quality of app innovation. First-mover advantage, software developing experiences and venture capitalist status influence the product innovation process at the earlier stage of the app life cycle. Whether the company goes public and the marketization level influence the data-based innovation at the later stage of the app life cycle.
    Keywords: App innovation; utility software; multilevel model.

  • Industry competition, life cycle and export performance of Chinas cross-border e-commerce enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Shuzhong Ma, Qihui Liang 
    Abstract: This study explores the influencing factors of the export performance of cross-border e-commerce enterprises, based on the merchant data of Wisha cross-border e-commerce platform. The study finds that as the tenure of enterprises increases, the exports of cross-border e-commerce enterprises on platforms will show an inverted U-shaped trend that rises and declines. As competition on the platform decreases, the exports of cross-border e-commerce enterprises on platforms will also rise and fall. As the tenure of enterprises increases, the impact of industry competition on the performance of cross-border e-commerce exports gradually weakens, and moderate competition prolongs the cross-border e-commerce enterprise life cycle. Moreover, high-quality business services, diversified product selection, and low commodity prices will promote the export performance of cross-border e-commerce enterprises.
    Keywords: cross-border e-commerce platform; export performance; life cycle; industry concentration.

  • Do KIBS Facilitate Innovation in Manufacturing Firms in China?Evidence on Production-based Linkages   Order a copy of this article
    by Ting Zhao, Guanxu Wan, Meng Yang 
    Abstract: From the perspectives of knowledge-based theory and the spatial network of production, this paper develops a conceptual framework for studying how local protectionism in China influences the spatial knowledge spillover from knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) to the innovation outputs of manufacturing firms. We posit that local protectionism intensifies the influences that geographic proximity of KIBS pose on their manufacturing clients, which will further counteract the stimulating effect of innovation that KIBS bring to their clients across regions. Using a large panel data set including the number of manufacturing firms patent applications and the data related to KIBS among 283 prefecture cities and municipalities from 2003 to 2013 in China, we have quantified the spatial knowledge spillover from KIBS to manufacturing firms by production linkages with a subsystem calculation approach to input-output analysis. The empirical results reveal that there is indeed a prominent border effect of the spatial knowledge spillover from KIBS in different cities in China, which is only significantly positive within a limited distance of no more than 250 kilometers. Moreover, different-scale manufacturing firms present a high level of heterogeneity in leveraging such knowledge spillover effects. The larger the firm size, the more effective it will be to break up the barriers caused by the local protectionism. It is also found that the spatial knowledge spillover from cross-region KIBS significantly improves the innovation performance of manufacturing firms. This paper makes significant contributions to provide a comprehensive understanding of how local protectionism affects the relationship between KIBS and manufacturing sectors. Academic scholars will benefit from this study as it clarifies that specific institutional settings in China exert fundamental effects on firms innovation.
    Keywords: KIBS; spatial knowledge spillover; local protectionism; geographic proximity; innovation.

  • Learning from Institutional Diversity to Innovate: A Study of Chinese Exporters in Digital Industries   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiayi Wang, Zhenzhen Xie, Jiatao Li, Delin Yang 
    Abstract: While Chinese digital exporters such as Huawei and Lenovo are well known for their broad overseas markets, it is less explored how the markets institutional diversity influences their innovation performance. We propose that the institutional diversity of an exporters overseas markets tends to facilitate the exporters deliberate learning and adaptation, building a diverse knowledge pool that gives rise to innovation. The exporters capabilities and incentives for learning strengthen that positive relationship. We examined the argument with data of 14,701 Chinese digital exporters covering 20002007. We found that Chinese firms exporting to more institutionallydiverse markets sold more new products than those whose markets were less institutionally diverse. The benefits accrue more to the exporters with more carry-along trade business but less state-ownership. Managerial implications and future research directions are discussed.
    Keywords: institutional diversity; innovation; learning by exporting; absorptive capacity; emerging economies; China.

  • How Do Online Labor Markets Facilitate Transactions of Knowledge-Intensive Tasks? A Service Productization Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaohao Zhou, Ji-Ye Mao 
    Abstract: Despite the increasing importance of online labor markets (OLMs) in service economy, the majority of them transact only simple tasks, without the capability to handle knowledge-intensive ones because of their intangibility and subjective nature. Drawing on the service productization literature, this exploratory case study examines how a leading OLM successfully facilitated a variety of knowledge-intensive tasks such as website and logo design. We developed a process model of service productization on OLMs, which consists of three stages, service concretization, process standardization, and objective assessment. Each stage involves a set of regulating mechanisms for service packaging, transaction process management, and dispute arbitration, respectively, in addition to a variety of digital tools, to create product properties for services. We conclude that the regulating mechanisms and digital tools are essential to transact knowledge-intensive tasks on OLMs.
    Keywords: Service productization; online labor markets; online platforms; online service transactions;.

  • How can Digital Technology-Related Acquisitions Affect a Firm's Innovation Performance?   Order a copy of this article
    by Jianghua Zhou, Chenrui Liu, Xiaoqiang Xing, Jizhen Li 
    Abstract: This paper studies how acquiring digital firms affects the post-acquisition innovation performance of traditional firms. Based on the longitudinal dataset of Chinese listed firms from 2007 to 2017, our findings show that digital technology-related acquisitions have a positive effect on a firm's innovation performance. Moreover, the construction of regional-level digital infrastructure plays a positive moderating role in this relationship. Furthermore, we propose a contingency model to investigate the moderating effect of internal digital investment and unabsorbed slack. The results indicate that the acquirer's internal digital investment has a positive moderating effect on the relationship between digital technology-related acquisitions and innovation performance. Meanwhile, the acquirer's unabsorbed slack also moderates this relationship positively. Our paper expands the contingency perspective within a traditional firm's digital transformation and has implications for future research and management practices.
    Keywords: digital technology-related acquisitions; digital infrastructure; internal digital investment; unabsorbed slack; innovation performance.

  • Driving Factors of Digital Transformation for Manufacturing Enterprises: A Multi-case Study from China   Order a copy of this article
    by Yanyu Wang, Xin Su 
    Abstract: With diminishing low-cost advantages, the Chinese manufacturing industry is actively engaged in digital transformation under the pressure of global competition. By analyzing the gaps between existing technology-adoption theories and digital transformation practices, we developed a theoretical framework of factors influencing artificial intelligence (AI) adoption in enterprises based on the technology-organization-environment (TOE) framework. Using three case studies of Chinese heavy-manufacturing enterprises, this article explores three important aspects of digital transformation empowered by AI: technological, organizational, and environmental driving factors, and we propose an AI business model to clarify the mechanism of AI technological adoption in the manufacturing industry. This study is an in-depth summary and exploration of the digital transformation of Chinas manufacturing industry. It theoretically supplements related research in the field of AI technology adoption, and more important, provides practical experience in moving toward a digital transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry.
    Keywords: Digital transformation; Manufacturing industry; Artificial intelligence; China; Driving factors; Case study; Technology adoption; TOE framework.

  • Reducing Uncertainty Through Imitation in Technological Innovation: The Different Moderating Roles of Digitised and Traditional Coverage   Order a copy of this article
    by Xuanjin Chen, Xin Pan, Xibao Li 
    Abstract: This paper investigates which traits of peer firms are selected for an imitation when firms decide on future technological innovation. In the context of trait-based imitation, we suggest that firms try to imitate peer firms that have a higher level of state ownership to reduce market and political risks and to follow the innovation trajectories of high-status firms to mitigate technical uncertainties and fuzziness. An analysis of data from Chinese firms listed between 2010 and 2015 supports our hypothesis. Additionally, we find that digitised coverage (i.e. internet coverage) exhibits a stronger moderating role than traditional coverage (i.e. newspaper coverage). Our study contributes to the digital innovation literature by identifying two important traits that firms can rely on, providing evidence of digitisation's advantage.
    Keywords: technological innovation; state ownership; status; digitisation.

  • Multi-Sided Platform Research Over the Past Three Decades: A Bibliometric Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiao Jia, Michael A. Cusumano, Jin Chen 
    Abstract: Over the past thirty years, numerous scholars in economics and various management fields have studied a phenomenon that we now refer to as platforms digital businesses that link multiple market sides and generate network effects. In this review article, after definition clarification, we conducted a bibliometric analysis based on 578 peer-reviewed articles published during the past three decades in order to describe the research trends and issues. According to keywords analysis, we find that it is most useful to organize the research into seven streams (strategy, architecture, governance, business model and customer relations, multi-platform bundles, ecosystem participants, and technological innovation) and three separate but overlapping levels of analysis (business, corporate, and ecosystem). We present this framework and then conclude with a statistical summary and commentary review for each level of analysis.
    Keywords: Multi-sided platforms; Literature bibliometric; Research review.

Special Issue on: ARTEM OCC 2020 Connecting Creativity, Innovation and Sustainable Development in the Age of Disruptions

  • Development of a Recycling Process for Textiles made from PET, and Proof of its Environmental Preference with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)   Order a copy of this article
    by Lynn Lüdemann, Andreas Felber, Markus Golder 
    Abstract: Recycling belongs to the strategies for reducing the emission of carbon dioxide, which is one of the main causers of climate crisis. Instead of being recycled, textiles made of synthetic fibres are still mainly disposed by waste incineration or landfill, this means, that textiles currently have to be made of virgin material. Polyethylentherephtalat (PET) is mainly used for fibres (60??%) and for bottles (30?%). But only for PET-bottles different recycling processes exist. Within the frame of a governmentally-founded project a new recycling procedure for textiles was explored. The goal was to get staple fibres out of the textile waste by simultaneously maintaining their properties. Different technical steps were tested and a robust process chain was elabored. Secondly the proof of the ecological preferability with the help of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was provided. The environmental impact could be reduced up to 60%. Finally, the successful use of Environmental Product Declaration is proven.
    Keywords: Recycling; Fibers; PET; Life Cycle Assessment; Environmental Product Declarations; Life Cycle Costing.

  • Fostering the Sustainable Development Goals with Technologies Underpinned by Frugal Innovation   Order a copy of this article
    by Alexander Ebolor, Nivedita Agarwal, Alexander Brem 
    Abstract: The race against time to attain the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) intensifies, with inequality, poor living conditions, and biodiversity threats still prevalent. Achieving the SDGs is constrained by limited resources that require frugal solutions that are affordable, easy-to-use, ecologically sustainable, and socially inclusive. The role of infrastructure companies developing technologies with a frugal orientation that focus on the 17 SDGs must be at the core of efforts, because sustainable infrastructure is critical to the SGDs. This paper examines how such company-efforts foster the SDGs through the lens of frugal innovation. An exploratory multiple case study methodology was used with a 3-step and 4-dimensional evaluation approach to determine what technologies are fostering the SDGs, and their frugal characteristics. The results show that alternative resource and energy innovations are at the core of how infrastructure companies are promoting sustainability and fostering the SDGs. Most cases cluster around ecological contributions (mainly climate and energy), with sustainability and cost-effectiveness being the common characteristics. Implications for theory and practice are discussed, as well implications for policy making.
    Keywords: Sustainable development goals; SDGs; sustainability; frugal innovation; technology; sustainable cities; resource conservation; machine learning; artificial intelligence; infrastructure; infrastructure companies; frugal characteristics; cloud technology; clean energy; BoP.

  • Team Creativity: The Interplay of Shared Mental Models and the Ideation Process   Order a copy of this article
    by Diana Heinbucher, Julien Bucher 
    Abstract: This paper aims to explicate the role of shared mental models in the ideation process of innovation teams by investigating whether and how shared mental models influence the innovativeness of teams. A multi-level analysis was conducted using a case study research design grounded in the theories of team creativity and shared mental models. Surveys, participant observation and group discussions were used to gather data on 53 participants divided into 10 teams in an experimental setting. Shared mental models regarding interaction patterns, processing strategies, coordinated responsibilities and the acceptance and coordination of knowledge had a positive impact on task processing, team interaction and outputs.
    Keywords: case study; ideation; innovation teams; group discussion; joint displays; multi-level analysis; observation; shared mental models; survey; team creativity; team interaction; task processing.

  • Application and Validation of a Disruptive Potential Methodology for Digital Two-Sided PlatformsThe Case of Marketplace Lending in Germany   Order a copy of this article
    by Sabine Pur, Stefan Huesig, Christoph Schmidhammer 
    Abstract: In this paper, we apply and validate a state of the art ex-ante approach to analyze potentially disruptive innovations. Our approach enables quantifying the disruptive potential of digital two-sided platforms as a measure in general, separately for each market side, and for different market players. This approach also pays attention to possible firm heterogeneity on each market side. We illustrate our approach by applying it to and evaluating the case of marketplace lending in Germany in 2015 and 2019. Following the first application of the framework in 2015, the market has developed to such an extent that the ex-ante analysis can be evaluated with ex-post figures and facts from 2019. The results indicate that the proposed framework supports predictions of the disruptive potential in the context of digital two-sided platforms surprisingly accurately, so that we encourage further validations in other areas of ex-ante innovation research.
    Keywords: disruptive innovation; disruptive potential; ex-ante method; ex-ante approach; forecasting; method validation; case studies; online lending; peer-to-peer lending; p2p lending; marketplace lending; two-sided markets; multi-sided markets; business model; business model innovation.

  • The impact of playful interventions for idea generation processes: A Case study of an automotive producer   Order a copy of this article
    by Jonas Worede Tarekegne, Klaus-Peter Schulz 
    Abstract: In this article we consider intervention methods for idea generation workshops in the automotive industry. The growing complexity of innovation, particularly through combining products and services in a sustainable way, require methodical approaches that facilitate creativity and integrate multiple perspectives. Hands-on modelling, playfulness, and bodily experience are principles that are gaining growing interest beyond artists and designers. However, in the rather traditional innovation environment of the automotive industry the question arises, what intervention methods based on these principles can contribute to innovation? We therefore applied three different methods: drama intervention, tool-kit-based modelling, and gaming, independent of each other in idea generation workshops of an automobile producer. We assessed the quantity and quality of ideas developed with each method, and also the workshop experience of participants in an exploratory study. It turned out that there is no significant difference between the methods, however in comparison to traditional workshops, the output number and quality is higher. Furthermore, participants capitalized from the workshop experience and considered it as inspiration for their daily collaboration.
    Keywords: idea generation workshop; playful intervention; gaming; toolkit-based modelling; drama intervention; automotive industry.

  • Sharing offline and for idealistic purposes in Germany   Order a copy of this article
    by Anja Herrmann-Fankhaenel, Erne Schell 
    Abstract: The aim of this research is to investigate the German sharing economy in its offline and online dimensions and the nature of its commercial and idealistic intentions. Using quantitative research, 505 cases were empirically gathered and analysed against the theoretical background of inherent features. In particular, the study investigates technology involvement within the sharing economy and how it varies between the online, offline, and hybrid interactions of users and the indicators of idealistic intentions, such as financial interactions and profit orientation. With the aid of eleven theory-driven variables, data is descriptively illustrated and subsequently evaluated within the scope of a two-step cluster analysis. The German sharing economy demonstrates a seven-cluster solution, with a majority of offline-organized cases. Evidently, idealistic sharing models exist, especially within the offline dimension, yet online and hybrid models also reveal idealistic characteristics, which stand contrary to theoretical assumptions.
    Keywords: Sharing Economy; Offline Sharing Economy; Idealistic and Commercial Sharing Models; Hybrid Sharing; Germany.

  • A Quantitative Analysis of the Fostering Factors of Responsible Innovation with a Special Focus on Imagination and Women in Tech   Order a copy of this article
    by Julia Breßler, Lisa Hegemann 
    Abstract: The search of technologies for the future of mankind is increasingly recognized as a powerful force for a sustainable life. This requires an implication of ethical, legal and social issues in the development process. Yet despite the extensive stream of research on sustainable technology and innovation, we know little about fostering factors of responsible innovation. In this study, we investigate the roles of imagination and female technology workers for the generation of responsible innovation. We also explore the dimensions of responsible innovation. We examined this issue by conceptualizing a Responsible Innovation Index, which is applied in a quantitative analysis of two data sets with a scope of more than 650 objects. Our findings highlight that female tech workers especially strengthen the inclusion function of responsible innovation. However, the results also show that the imagination is influenced by socio-cultural circumstances. Our work constitutes a step forward a more \"realistic\" picture of supporting factors of responsible innovation.
    Keywords: Responsible Innovation; Women in Tech; Imagination; Sustainability; Inclusion.

  • Organising for AI-powered Innovation Through Design: The Case of Hitachi Vantara   Order a copy of this article
    by Denis Dennehy, Bill Schmarzo, Mouwafac Sidaoui 
    Abstract: How Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies can foster innovation is challenging as data scientists must learn to bridge analytical mastery and intuitive decision-making. In recent years, design thinking, a human-centred, problem-solving approach has been used by researchers to address complex social problems. However, a rigorous study of the application of design thinking in the context of digital innovation is absent from current discourse. This study, based on a revelatory case study, explores how design thinking can foster the development of AI-powered innovations, by bridging the divide between human-centric and machine-centric activities. The study extends the concept of design thinking within digital innovation and provides a new lens to consider studies of organisations engaged in AI-powered innovations. By extending the generalisability of design thinking, we provide novel insights about the challenges, benefits, and lessons learned when data scientists adopt design thinking to bridge and balance their analytical and intuitive thinking.
    Keywords: artificial intelligence; AI; data science; data scientist; design thinking; innovation; business value; case study.

  • How can makerspace contribute to training for complex technological innovation? the case of aviation-based training for surgery robotics.   Order a copy of this article
    by Adam Seymour, Klaus-Peter Schulz 
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to explore the learning environment for robotic simulation and the potential of makerspace to contribute to professional practice and ongoing professional development for students and educators. Empirically, we base our suggestions on experience of simulation-based training implemented in the Stan Institute of robotic surgery training in the city of Nancy, France. Based on the results obtained from this study, the makerspace approach was identified as a promising solution for students and trainers to overcome challenges in relation to skill acquisition and assessment of student competencies in a multimodal technological environment.
    Keywords: robotic surgery; simulation; makerspace; training; innovation; technology; aviation; professional development.

Special Issue on: Green Innovation and International Business in Emerging Economies

  • Research on the Business Model of Sharing Economy Unicorn Enterprises in Emerging Economies--Based on fsQCA Method   Order a copy of this article
    by Zheng Dong, Tao Meng, Yuqiao Guan, Feifei Zhao 
    Abstract: With the continuous deepening of the development of the sharing economy, the way of resource allocation of companies, innovative and entrepreneurial activities, consumers consumption habits and social behaviors are undergoing a profound change. The academic and business circles have a strong interest in how the sharing economy has exerted such a huge effect. In practice, a number of unicorn companies in sharing economy have emerged explosively in China and have quickly become leaders in related industries. Why did these companies have explosive growth? What are the characteristics of the business model behind them? What are the differences in the driving logic of sharing economy companies with different business models? This research uses the method of qualitative comparative analysis (FSQCA) to analyze the business models of 26 unicorn companies of sharing economy in China, and have obtained four typical business model configurations of sharing economy unicorn companies, i.e. the platform transaction type, technology-mission promotion type, capital promotion type and interpersonal interaction type, respectively, and their characteristics and underlying driving logic are illustrated.
    Keywords: sharing economy; unicorn; business model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2021.10040251
     
  • The Repelling Factors of the Management Accounting Methods under the COVID-19Case Studies Based on the Scenario of Private Enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Chunyan Yang, Chunyan Yang, Chunyan Yang, Fangxin Di, Fangxin Di, Fangxin Di 
    Abstract: The new crown epidemic has brought various impacts to companies such as shrinking front-end consumption, and restricted personnel mobility. It also brings severe challenges to companys normal production and operation. Since the outbreak of the epidemic, all private enterprises have overcome numerous difficulties and made every effort to promote the resumption of work and production in an orderly manner while organizing member units to prevent and fight the epidemic. This article first briefly introduces the measures and effects of private enterprises in response to the epidemic. After the resumption of work and production, in order to reduce the probability of infection on the way, more families choose to travel in private cars, and passenger traffic is expected to rebound sharply. Due to the impact of the epidemic on people\'s psychology, the recovery time span of passenger traffic may be even greater, and it is expected to continue until the end of the second quarter, or even the third quarter. In terms of freight, the impact of the delayed resumption of work on society is expected to be compensated after the resumption of work. At the same time, in order to stabilize the economy, the central government will also introduce more loose fiscal policies, strengthen economic development momentum, and promote a substantial release of road freight traffic.
    Keywords: Repelling factors; Management accounting methods; COVID -19; Private enterprises.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2021.10042524
     

Special Issue on: Supply Chain Innovation Management in the Uncertain Era

  • Pricing and Quality Decisions in Platform-Based Retailing with Targeted Promotion   Order a copy of this article
    by Chenchen Yang, Junsong Bian, Yuqiao Zhang 
    Abstract: This paper considers a platform-based supply chain consisting of a firm launching a new product with a targeted promotion strategy based on innovation on a retailing platform. We examine the firm's optimal decisions on pricing, product quality design and promotional effort to deal with market uncertainty. First, with exogenous quality, we show that market size has a positive impact on the optimal effort level, which is contrary to the intuition that the optimal effort level decreases with the existing market size due to concave increasing costs. This is because the firm will increase the corresponding price if the market size increases, which makes the marginal income higher than the marginal cost. Therefore, the firm has an incentive to invest more effort in promotion. Furthermore, we study the scenario with endogenous quality but exogenous price and find that the optimal effort level will decrease with market size if the market size is sufficiently large. The reason is that retaining a marginal customer by improving quality is more economical than raising the promotion effort level in this case. Finally, with endogenous effort, price, and quality decisions, our result indicates that the firm exerts more efforts in such a platform-based targeted promotion than in the former scenarios when facing strict industry standards.
    Keywords: product innovation; market uncertainty; targeted promotion; quality design; pricing; new product launching.

Special Issue on: Technological Innovation and Management in the Era of Industry 4.0

  • Analysis of the quality improvement path of supply chain management under the background of industry 4.0   Order a copy of this article
    by Qiang Wang, Jingwei Shang 
    Abstract: In view of the influence of the quality of supply chain management in the process of enterprise development, reducing the market competitiveness and customer satisfaction, this paper puts forward the path of improving the quality of supply chain management under the background of industry 4.0. Through the analysis of the coordination structure dimension of supply chain management quality strategy level and the coordination structure dimension of executive level, it is determined that there are some problems in the process of supply chain management quality improvement, such as the failure of the incoming inspection department to inspect as required, the lack of supplier control ability, and the imperfection of supplier quality management process and mechanism, Strengthen the quality control of suppliers in key links, explore the quality improvement path of supply chain management, so as to improve the market competitiveness and customer satisfaction.
    Keywords: Background of industry 4.0 ; supply chain management; quality improvement; path analysis;rn.

  • Innovation and application of enterprises supply chain management mode under the background of industry 4.0   Order a copy of this article
    by Wangshu Su, Hui Chen 
    Abstract: Under the background of industry 4.0, aiming at the problems of low management performance and poor profitability of traditional enterprises supply chain management mode, this paper discusses the innovation and application of enterprises supply chain management mode under the background of industry 4.0. Firstly, the evolution and development characteristics of industry 4.0 background are analyzed, and the operation structure and management content of enterprises supply chain are determined. Secondly, the data of supply chain management is collected to determine the problems of supply chain management mode. Thirdly, the idea of establishing electronic supply chain management is put forward, introducing advanced management technology and establishing long-term supplier partnership. Finally, this management model is applied to the actual management work, and it is found that the comprehensive indicator of enterprise management performance is improved by about 0.25, this management model has good application effect.
    Keywords: Industry 4.0; enterprise’s supply chain; supply chain management; management mode innovation; management mode application;.

  • The interface between marketing and R&D based on process management   Order a copy of this article
    by Qiaoying Ding 
    Abstract: Traditional product research and development work has some problems, such as information asymmetry between departments and poor connection with marketing work, which affects the progress of product marketing work. From the perspective of process management, this paper studies the interface between marketing and R&D. Based on the analysis of the disadvantages of the traditional product research and development and marketing process, the interface conditions of product research and development and marketing are integrated, the corresponding interface mechanism is established, and the department process structure is innovated on the basis of making the two achieve effective collaborative management. Through empirical analysis, it can be seen that enterprises can build a process collaborative management scheme based on customer needs and forward the customer demand information to the R&D department through the information docking platform, so as to enhance the market competitiveness of products through the effective interface between marketing and R&D.
    Keywords: Process management; Collaborative management; Marketing; Product research and development.

  • Analysis on the Production Technology Innovation and Management Path of Industrial Enterprises under the Trend of Industry 4.0   Order a copy of this article
    by Qing Zhang, Abdul Rashid Abdullah, Choo Wei Chong, Mass Hareeza Ali 
    Abstract: In order to improve the development of production technology of industrial enterprises, this paper puts forward the analysis method of production technology innovation and management path of industrial enterprises. Based on the characteristics of production technology innovation of industrial enterprises, this paper analyzes the existing problems of production technology innovation of industrial enterprises, constructs the evaluation model of production technology innovation ability of industrial enterprises according to the analysis results, and puts forward the corresponding production technology management path of industrial enterprises under the trend of industry 4.0. The case study shows that this method can effectively reduce production costs, and the efficiency of internal management is always higher than 90%.
    Keywords: Industry 4.0 trend; Industrial Enterprises; Production technology innovation; Management path.