Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Technology Management

International Journal of Technology Management (IJTM)

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International Journal of Technology Management (48 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Establishing regional institutions to facilitate university entrepreneurship in China: A grounded model of resource acquisition processes   Order a copy of this article
    by Shisong Jiang, Yanping Li, Limin Gong, Hui Yan 
    Abstract: This study introduces a new organisational form of university entrepreneurship: Research University Affiliated Regional Institutions (RUARIs). RUARIs are established by their parent universities and hosted by governments in different regions, with the aim of facilitating university entrepreneurship. On the basis of an inductive multiple-case study of four RUARIs located in Suzhou, Jiangsu, China, we develop a grounded model of the resource acquisition process to explain how research universities are motivated to establish their RUARIs and how they could facilitate RUARI performance. We found that research universities establish RUARIs with the motivation of acquiring external resources from host regions, and the economic and institutional distance between the home and host regions determines potential external resource acquisition. After entry, parent universities use two types of administration strategies, namely, autonomy delegation and resource backing, which influence RUARI performance. On the one hand, autonomy delegation plays a key role in realising the potential external resource acquisition determined upon entry. On the other hand, resource backing can be translated into internal resource acquisition. Finally, realised external and internal resource acquisitions are both beneficial to RUARI performance.
    Keywords: University entrepreneurship; Research universities; Regional institutions; Resource acquisition; Autonomy; Economic distance; Institutional distance.

  • Evaluation of Regional University Technology Transfer Performance in China based on Super-efficiency SBM   Order a copy of this article
    by Wang Jian, Zhao Min 
    Abstract: The improvement of university technology transfer (UTT) performance is significant for establishing the national and regional innovation system to pursue national innovation-driven development strategy. Based on the provincial and regional panel data in China from 2011 to 2015, this study employs super-efficiency slacks-based measure (SBM) model to calculate the holistic scores of regional UTT efficiency, and then performs the correlation analysis on several influencing factors of regional UTT. The results indicate that the gap between different regions is apparent in the holistic performance of regional UTT. Most provinces annual UTT are inefficient, that is, there are slacks in input or output, or both. There is a positive correlation between the regional UTT performance and R&D fund input intensity, the number of universities, and their location in the eastern region. Finally, suggestions on optimisation of UTT performance mechanism are proposed from the levels of university, region, and inter-region.
    Keywords: university technology transfer performance; efficiency score; super-efficiency SBM model; region; mechanism.

  • Dynamic patterns of technological innovation in magnesium alloys in the Korean automotive industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Duk Hee Lee, Yong Jin Kim 
    Abstract: Materials innovation is an important factor for industrial competitiveness and success. This study investigates materials innovation from organisational and technological perspectives, in the case of magnesium alloys in the Korean automotive industry. The patent citation network (20032014; Korean Intellectual Property Office) was employed, and centrality analysis and blockmodeling were performed. 1) Organisational perspective: The demand from automotive organisations decreased over the timeframe examined, while the demand and supply from knowledge providers and materials organisations increased. The connections between automotive organisations and the other organisations decreased, while the connections between materials organisations and knowledge providers increased. 2) Technological perspective: The role of materials technologies reduced, while the role of automotive technologies increased. There was a decrease in connections among materials technologies, and an increase in connections among automotive technologies. We relate these results to industry and policy changes in the Korean materials industry.
    Keywords: materials industry; automotive industry; technology management; technological innovation; materials innovation; technology spillover; organisational perspective; technological perspective; social network analysis; patent citations; patent citation network; magnesium alloys; Korea.

  • Technology Transfer Performance: A Comparative Analysis of Two Universities in Japan   Order a copy of this article
    by Takayuki Sakai, Kensuke Inai, Kenji Kutsuna, Bishnu Kumar Adhikary, Norbert Buzás 
    Abstract: An important form of technology transfer is the commercialization of university research, which is indispensable for industrial competitiveness and innovation. However, the technology transfer performance of universities varies widely. This paper compares the technology transfer performance of two Japanese universities: Kobe University, a large urban university, and Tokushima University, a small-scale university situated in a regional city. University attributes, researcher attributes, and the role played by the universities technology transfer organizations (TTOs) were examined, with the aim of understanding how these affect the commercialization of university research. Despite having characteristics that previous research suggests are associated with superior technology transfer performance, including large size, nearness to industrial clusters, and strong research capacity, Kobe University's licensing revenues are found to be far smaller than those of Tokushima University. Results from a questionnaire survey of researchers highlight differences between the universities' TTOs that have played a critical role in producing this outcome.
    Keywords: Academic Entrepreneur; Commercialization; Industry-Government-Academia Collaboration; Industry-University Cooperation; Japan; Researchers' Awareness; Researchers' Ability; Attributes of Universities; Technology Transfer; Technology Transfer Office; Technology Transfer Performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2021.10046227
  • How Does the Blockchain Find Its Way in the UAE? The Blockchain as a Sociotechnical System   Order a copy of this article
    by Donghee Shin, Nikolaos Stylos, Mian Asim, Yongjin Park, Russell B. Williams 
    Abstract: Blockchain is emerging as a powerful technological force that promises to change society's status quo. The UAE has taken a proactive approach to blockchain innovation and development. With the framing of blockchain as a sociotechnical system, blockchain initiatives in the UAE are critically examined in terms of prospects, challenges, and implications for future digital societies. Blockchain developmental trajectories are analysed from a sociotechnical lens, i.e., societal, technological, industrial, and economic trends that characterise the interfaces and interaction among people, organisations, technology, and society, eliciting underlying potential influences of cultural, ethical, and legal rhetoric. Despite strong initiatives, a series of challenges, such as trust, privacy, and transparency, have emerged as blockchain begins to develop its full potential. With these issues, sociotechnical concerns have increased regarding how to respond to the possible consequences that such a policy choice would entail, how to govern blockchains, and how to create a sustainable blockchain ecosystem. The socio-political ramifications of UAE blockchains are critically assessed to establish key features and conceptualise issues to unlock opportunities to guarantee a sociotechnical approach to blockchains.
    Keywords: Blockchain; trust; sociotechnical perspective; sociotechnical blockchain; UAE.

  • Inward or Outward? Direction of Knowledge Flow and Firm Efficiency   Order a copy of this article
    by Minjung Shon, Daeho Lee, Changjun Lee 
    Abstract: With the acceleration of technology development and the expansion of convergence, open innovation has become an important tool and inevitable company strategy. To measure the value of open innovation, this paper introduces the technical efficiency (TE) and technology gap ratio (TGR) among the different strategic groups in terms of open innovation. It categorizes firms by their innovation strategy: inward, outward, bidirectional open innovation, and closed innovation. Stochastic frontier analysis is used to measure the average TE within each group, and meta-frontier analysis allows a comparison of the average TGR between groups. The results show that the TE of outward open innovation is highest among groups; however, inward open innovation is most efficient in terms of TGR. For robustness of results, this paper conducts Tobit regression to identify the factors relating to company efficiency.
    Keywords: technology transfer; open innovation; inward strategy; outward strategy; technical efficiency; meta-frontier analysis.

  • Innovators imitation: Whether and how does reactive search affect the performance of incumbent firms? Evidence from China   Order a copy of this article
    by Yanting Guo, Wanru Deng, Shan Hu, Gang Zheng 
    Abstract: The competitive interaction between incumbents and new entrants has been a central topic in the field of strategic management. This study examines whether and under what conditions reactive search activities help incumbent firms avoid dethronement in the face of external challenges caused by the entry of new entrants. Based on a sample of 236 Chinese firms, we find that both reactive technology search and reactive market search positively affect firm performance. Moreover, the dynamic capability of established firms strengthens the relationship between reactive technology search and innovative performance, as well as that between reactive market search and operational performance. These findings contribute to the literature on competitive dynamics and knowledge search.
    Keywords: reactive search; dynamic capability; performance; competitive dynamics; incumbent.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2021.10045509
  • Matching buyer-supplier interaction with governance mechanisms for business performance: the moderated mediation model with innovation ambidexterity   Order a copy of this article
    by Yu Wang, Tao Jia, Jinliang Chen, Hongyi Sun 
    Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the relationships among buyer-supplier interaction (BSI), innovation ambidexterity, and business performance. It postulates that BSI contributes to innovation ambidexterity that serves to benefit business performance. Building on organisational information processing theory, this study clarifies boundary conditions in terms of governance mechanisms. The SPSS version of PROCESS was employed to test hypotheses using ordinary least squares regression based on survey data collected from 184 Hong Kong manufacturing firms. The results show that innovation ambidexterity mediates the relationship between BSI and business performance. Furthermore, the indirect relationship is strengthened by the interplay of contracts and trust in its first stage.
    Keywords: buyer-supplier interaction; governance mechanism; contract; trust; innovation ambidexterity; exploitative innovation; exploratory innovation; knowledge recombination; organisational information processing theory; information processing requirement; information processing capacity; fit as moderation; moderated mediation.

  • Does CSR Foster Innovation Performance? The Moderating Effect of Ownership Structure   Order a copy of this article
    by Luu Nguyen, Yuexin Shao, Shouming Chen 
    Abstract: Based on the integration of stakeholder theory and the knowledge-based view, this paper seeks to investigate the effect of firms active engagement in corporate social responsibility (CSR) on their innovation performance. It is proposed that socially responsible firms, due to their enhanced relationship with stakeholders, could foster innovation performance through the improvement of knowledge acquisition. The moderating effects of two aspects of ownership structure, namely, ownership-control separation and ownership concentration, are examined to highlight the influence of corporate governance over agency problems on the focal relationship. The research uses a longitudinal analysis on a sample of 11,021 observations, including 2,531 firms listed on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Exchanges from 2011 to 2016. The results show that participation in CSR activities is positively related to a firms innovation performance. The positive relationship is stronger when ownership is more concentrated and ownership rights are less separated from control rights.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; innovation performance; ownership concentration; ownership-control separation; sustainable development.

  • A Comparison of the Operational Models of publicly-funded Open Access Nano Research Infrastructures   Order a copy of this article
    by Susan Anson, Jürgen Mohr, Christian Kübel 
    Abstract: This study provides an empirical overview of Nano Fabrication and Characterisation Research Infrastructures (NFCRIs), and uses this to gain an insight into the similarities and differences in the modes of operation. This will provide a context for future comparative studies of NFCRIs and will highlight parameters which are currently most frequently recorded by the NFCRIs and which may be suitable for evaluation as Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). This study also aims to provide a reference document providing funding bodies and host organisations (universities and research centres) an overview of models employed for the operation of NFCRIS.
    Keywords: benchmarking; clean room; International; nanolabs; nano research facilities; nano research infrastructures; nanotechnology; open Access; operational models; public Funding; research Management; technological Expertise; technology Management; Characterisation; Nanofabrication;.

  • The purchase of innovative components: a new link between open innovation and black box integration   Order a copy of this article
    by Antonello Cammarano, Francesca Michelino, Mauro Caputo 
    Abstract: The work aims at signalling the relevance of the purchase of innovative components as a means to carry out open innovation strategies in the presence of black-box approaches and complex product development. Indeed, the wide literature on open innovation is continuously evolving with many contributions, but the relationship between open innovation and black-box approaches was never explored. Specifically, the purchase of innovative components has never been considered as an open innovation practice, even though it refers to the acquisition of innovative components that allow an OEM to incorporate innovative efforts of its suppliers and enhance the innovation of the overall end product. Hence, the paper proposes argumentation to prove the real compatibility, finding two general features among all the practices of the open innovation paradigm. This allows to extend the open innovation paradigm to black-box buyer-supplier relationships, but also suggests scholars to reflect on the existence of any closed innovation.
    Keywords: Open innovation; Closed innovation; Open innovation practices; Buyer-supplier relationships; Black-box; Modularity; Component innovation; Purchase of components; Supplier innovation.

  • How do Small and Medium-sized Enterprises learn through Collaborative Networks for Innovation? A mixed methodology to explore absorptive capacity supporting learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Nestor Fabian Ayala, Marie Anne Le Dain, Lamiae Benhayoun-Sadafiyine, Arthur Marcon, Carine Dominguez-Pery 
    Abstract: This study investigates how an SME learns in a Collaborative Network for Innovation (CNI) context by deploying Absorptive Capacity (ACAP) practices. More specifically, we explore the effects of ACAP practices for reciprocal learning upon those used for one-way learning throughout the network creation and operation stages. To hypothesize these effects, we relied on prior literature and empirical evidence drawn from interviews with 13 SMEs embedded in three different CNIs. We then used PLS regression to test these hypotheses based on data collected from 74 SMEs. Results show that ACAP for reciprocal learning has different effects on ACAP for one-way learning, depending on the network stage. This study provides a better understanding of the development of both learnings throughout a CNI. It also raises practitioners awareness of the most important aspects of ACAP for deriving valuable learnings from their network experiences.
    Keywords: Absorptive Capacity; Interorganizational learning; Collaborative Network for Innovation; SME; Open Innovation; Mixed methods.

  • The impact of competition and collaboration networks on innovation performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Jingjing Zhang, Yan Yan, Jiancheng Guan 
    Abstract: Both collaboration and competition networks have received considerable attention in the inter-organizational network literature. However, prior studies treat them as more or less isolated networks. This study highlights that the two networks should be studied together to better understand which combination of the different levels of the characteristics of competition and collaboration networks is optimal for a firms innovation performance. We construct product and technological competition networks to describe competition networks and use alliance and technological collaboration networks to represent collaboration networks. We focus on the tie strength and density of ego competition and collaboration networks. We combine multiple data sources and finally examine 12,068 firms in the Chinese computer and communication industries from the year 2000 to 2013 to test our hypotheses. We find that firms with weak competition and strong collaboration strength and firms embedded in dense competition and sparse collaboration ego networks exhibit high innovation performance. We advance the current research on competition and collaboration networks and contribute to the current debates about the significance of the two network features for improving a firms innovation performance.
    Keywords: collaboration network; competition network; tie strength; network density; innovation performance; patent.

  • Tax incentive, R&D manipulation and enterprises innovation performance: the moderating role of political connections   Order a copy of this article
    by Ran Xiong, Ping Wei, Jingyi Yang, Antonio Cristofini Luis 
    Abstract: Mainland China has a tax incentive named the policy of recognising HTEs, providing a 15% preferential tax rate to enterprises whose investment in R&D exceeds a given notch. We evaluate how recognising HTEs affects enterprises innovation performance and explore the moderating role of political connections and R&D manipulation. Results show that the recognition of HTEs relates positively to enterprises innovation performance but that political connections negatively moderate the relationship between recognising HTEs and enterprises innovation performance. However, the moderating effect exists only in regions with more government intervention, less financial development, and less protection for intellectual property. Further analysis shows that political connections significantly increase enterprises efforts to manipulate reports of their R&D expenses, and such manipulation weakens the relationship between their R&D investment and output. Our conclusions provide evidence of the distortion created by this tax incentive, and they offer a theoretical reference for improving the policy of recognising HTEs.
    Keywords: the recognition of HTEs; innovation performance; political connections; R&D manipulation.

  • The Reverse Innovation Strategies of the Latecomer FirmsA Multiple-Case Study from China   Order a copy of this article
    by Jia Ma, Yusen Xu 
    Abstract: The reverse innovation strategies for latecomer firms are situation-dependent. Based on the multiple-case study, how the latecomer firms adopt the reverse innovation strategy in different situations has been investigated. The market demand difference and technology gap between the developing country and developed country are proposed as the situational determinant of reverse innovation. Four reverse innovation strategies of the latecomer firms are illustrated coupling four different situations, including rapid-penetration strategy, differentiation-driven strategy, development-centered strategy and full-range strategy. A strategy selection framework of reverse innovation for latecomer firms is build up supported by the contingency theory. Two strategy evolution paths about how the latecomers achieve the overall reverse innovation have been identified. This paper contributes to theory on how latecomer firms accomplish the reverse innovation in resource constraints and enrich the understanding of reverse innovation strategy based on contingency approach.
    Keywords: Reverse Innovation; Latecomer Firm; Reverse Innovation Opportunity; Emerging Market; Innovation Strategy.

  • A Theoretical Basis for the Sponsored Location Program as a Form of Joint Marketing: A Mixed Bundling Model Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Yoshihiro Ito, Hideo Noda 
    Abstract: This study provides the theoretical basis for a sponsored location program a joint marketing e?ort designed to benefit all participating parties. We present a mixed bundling model involving two firms: an online game company and an alliance partner. Our model assumes joint sales by the two firms, with generated profit allocated between them. The model implies that under a conventional sponsored location program, changing from separate sales to mixed bundling allows only one, but not both, of the firms to increase profits. But when both firms are free to set prices, changing the retailing mode allows both to increase profits.
    Keywords: Joint marketing; Mixed bundling; Pok´emon Go; Separate selling; Sponsored location program; AR game.

  • Open Innovation and Closed Innovation: A Simulation Study on Market Conditions and Innovation Strategies   Order a copy of this article
    by Georg Nawroth, Alexander Brem, Christian Rymarczyk 
    Abstract: The role of open or closed innovation strategies regarding the innovation or rather entrepreneurial success is not solved yet. Therefore, this simulation study examines by means of a multi-agent system the effects of open innovation (OI) on the entrepreneurial success of SMEs under differently parameterized market conditions. The simulation study shows that different market conditions and the characteristics of human resource allocation of a company have a relevant influence on the success of an innovation strategy. The experiments showed that OI can mainly take advantage of more human resources, whereas closed innovation lags behind OI in the financial aspect but exceeds OI in terms of market share. Furthermore, the simulation revealed that concrete company situations and market conditions have different effects on the examined innovation strategies. These findings help to stimulate further, even empirical, research efforts.
    Keywords: Open Innovation; Closed Innovation; Market Conditions; Simulation; Innovation Strategy.

  • Assessing the Effect of Business Intelligence Quality on Enterprise Innovation Performance: A Knowledge Dynamic Capability Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Kuan Yan, Enjun Xia, Jun Li, Jieping Huang 
    Abstract: Enterprises leverage business intelligence (BI) to promote competitive advantages. However, there is still a lack of understanding of BI quality and innovation performance. This research constructed a model of the impact of BIs system quality and information quality on innovation performance through the IS success and dynamic capabilities framework, investigated the mediation effect of knowledge sharing and absorptive capability and examined heterogeneity with potential IT differences between industries. The results with Chinese enterprise data show that both system quality and information quality are positively related to knowledge sharing, and system quality is positively related to absorptive capability, while information quality is not. Through the mediation effect of knowledge sharing and absorptive capability, system quality partially facilitates innovation performance, while information quality completely facilitates innovation performance, although indirectly. There is no significant relationship between system quality and knowledge sharing among traditional industries. These findings contribute new insights into BI-enabled innovation.
    Keywords: Business intelligence quality; System quality; Information quality; Innovation performance; Dynamic capabilities; Knowledge sharing; Absorptive capability.

  • The Impact of Government Subsidies on The Human Resources and Innovation Output of Makerspaces According to Signal Theory   Order a copy of this article
    by Haihua Wang, Chujiang Xue, Yu Li, Pengjin Zhao 
    Abstract: In addition to solving the externality problem of innovation, government subsidies (GSs) also serve as a signal to attract talents. This research investigated the signal effect of GSs on human resources in terms of improving innovation output. We used the least squares method and bootstrapping technique to conduct an empirical study on Chinas makerspaces in 2017 and employed a robustness test on the data from 2017 to 2019. The results indicate that the signal effect released by GSs can help a makerspace attract more talents so as to realize innovation efficiently. Moreover, the same amount of GSs can attract more talents to a private makerspace than to a state-owned counterpart. Furthermore, regions with high degree of marketization can help makerspaces attract talents; that is, the moderating effect of ownership is further moderated by the marketization degree.
    Keywords: makerspace; signal theory; government subsidies; human resources; innovation output.

  • A complementor selection framework to nurture R&D ecosystems based on multidimensional patent data   Order a copy of this article
    by Fenfen Wei, Nanping Feng, Xinyu Liu, Furong Ruan, Shanlin Yang 
    Abstract: Complementor selection is a crucial factor which impacts collaborative innovation performance in platform-based innovation ecosystems (PIEs). However, the existing literature pays little attention to their selection and relevant criteria, and supplier selection methods cannot meet the selection requirements of PIEs. Therefore, this study offers platform leaders a framework for complementor selection to nurture research and development (R&D) ecosystems using multidimensional patent data. In this framework, (a) the search for complementors is worldwide, thereby expanding the search scope and improving the acquisition of resources for customer-oriented solutions; (b) the evaluation of potential complementors is based on multidimensional patent data, thus reducing dependence on experts and enhancing the reliability of evaluation results; and (c) cluster analysis identifies general, developmental, and core potential complementors, enabling platform leaders to conduct classified selection and management of them. Finally, an empirical case study was performed by applying the proposed framework to verify its feasibility and effectiveness.
    Keywords: complementor selection; complementor ecosystem; R&D collaboration; patent data; cluster.

  • Examining dynamic system integration capabilities in knowledge boundaries of convergent service architectures: two cases of a telecommunication company   Order a copy of this article
    by Jongseok Kim, Ian Miles 
    Abstract: This study examines the changes in a firms system integration capabilities and knowledge boundaries. The notion of dynamic capability is found to be relevant to the creation and evolution of system integration capabilities required for innovation in complex product system (CoPS). A dynamic system integration capability enabled the creation of new service architecture, which can be seen as determining the knowledge boundary for the CoPS innovation. Two cases are examined, featuring the same firm, where shifts of knowledge boundaries related to different service architectures (in both cases involving provision of music services over mobile networks). In particular, capabilities concerning the customer interface elements of the service architecture were critical. In a network-based service industry, the customer interface is the location for the simultaneous delivery and consumption of the service. This enables the firm to exploit network effects and to use, or support use of, various digital devices including operating systems. This makes the knowledge boundary of a service architecture in a network-based service more complex than those of non-network-based services and material products. The dynamic capabilities are necessitated by the phenomenon of digital convergence and hybridization of different electronic service systems. Finally, this study reports an abnormal case of CoPS innovation, featuring less complexity of learning because the technological properties and systems of a service architecture and business strategy reduce requirements for the technological function of CoPS.
    Keywords: complex product systems (CoPS); dynamic capabilities; system integration; knowledge boundary; service architecture; innovation.

  • Is the correlation between knowledge sharing and firm innovation performance contingent on network trust and hierarchical culture? Evidence from the Chinese high-tech sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Francis Boadu, Yifei Du, Yu Xie, Elizabeth Dwomo-Fokuo 
    Abstract: Innovation is of great significance to firms seeking competitive advantage and survival. Building upon the knowledge-based view, we explore whether the association between knowledge sharing and firm innovation performance is contingent on network trust and hierarchical culture. Using a survey dataset from 151 Chinese high-tech employees. We find that (1) knowledge sharing affects firm innovation performance; (2) knowledge sharing influences network trust; (3) Network trust played a significant mediation role in the knowledge sharing firm innovation performance relationship; (4) network trust affects firm innovation performance; (5) Hierarchical culture significantly moderates the correlation among network trust and firm innovation performance. The study proposes a moderated mediation model to fully illustrate the linkages amongst knowledge sharing, network trust, hierarchical culture, and innovation performance to offer a guide regarding how high-tech sectors can attain superior innovation outcomes.
    Keywords: Knowledge sharing; network trust; hierarchical culture; firm innovation performance.

  • Agglomeration and flow of innovation elements and the impact on regional innovation efficiency   Order a copy of this article
    by Haichao Yu, Haiqian Ke, Yunling Ye, Fei Fan 
    Abstract: Knowledge and technology, as representatives of innovation elements agglomeration, are key to enhancing regional innovation ability. Based on panel data from 283 Chinese cities spanning 20042017, this study determines the regional innovation efficiency and agglomeration of regional innovation elements, and establishes the spatial matrix of innovation element flow. Using spatial econometric and intermediary effect models, the study investigates the spillover effects and transmission mechanism of the agglomeration of innovation elements and their flow on regional innovation efficiency. The regression results demonstrate that the agglomeration of innovation elements, characterized by knowledge and technology, significantly and positively influences innovation efficiency. The agglomeration of regional knowledge has a positive spatial spillover effect on innovation efficiency, while the agglomeration of regional technology has a negative spatial spillover effect. Moreover, the flow of innovative personnel and innovation capital between regions is conducive to the spatial spillover of knowledge, with the positive spillover effect of regional innovation capital being greater than that of innovative personnel. The agglomeration of regional innovation elements can affect regional innovation efficiency through transmission mechanisms such as the opening-up level, ecological environment, and information services.
    Keywords: innovation elements’ agglomeration; innovation elements flow; innovation efficiency; spatial Durbin model; intermediary effect model.

  • The impact of demand-pull and supply-push policies on technological innovation: Does the type of policy matter?   Order a copy of this article
    by Fang Yuan, Mingshan Li, Xiaohua Sun, Yu Zhai 
    Abstract: This paper probes the significance and impact of industrial policy supports on innovation promotion for the equipment manufacturing industry in China. By comprehensively sorting out the policy incentives in accordance with the types of demand-pull and supply-push, we go beyond the literature by further highlighting the differentiated effects of these two instrumental categories on different types of innovation. Based on panel data from 28 provinces in China, we applied a difference-in-differences method and used granted inventions and utility models for patents to indicate product innovation and process innovation, respectively. According to the empirical results, demand-pull policies strongly promotes process innovation, while supply-push policies could significantly foster product innovation activities. In addition, demand-pull policies take effect with a time lag for process innovation. However, the impact of supply-push policies on product innovation reaches its apex one year later and then decreases over time. Our findings indicate that the incentive effect on firm innovation primarily comes from the enhancement of R&D investments. The conclusion presents strategic policymaking suggestions based on the findings with specific reference to China and other similar transitional economies.
    Keywords: industrial technological policy; product innovation; process innovation; China’s equipment manufacturing industry; difference-in-differences method.

  • Disproportional ownership structures and corporate R&D investment: From the investor protection perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Yu Zhou, Hongzhang Zhu, Xinyu Hu, Xiaoxi Chang 
    Abstract: Disproportional ownership structures are promised to stimulate innovation. However, very few studies have empirically examined this relationship and compared the dual-class equity structure and stock pyramid structure, two forms of disproportional ownership structures. In this research, from the investor protection perspective by integrating contact and legal perspectives, we explored the impact of disproportional ownership structures on firms R&D. Using data consisting of Chinese firms with disproportional ownership structures from 2008 to 2018, we found that compared with pyramidal firms, dual-class firms engaged in more R&D investments. We also found that ownership-control rights divergence negatively moderated the dual-class equity structure and R&D investment relationship, while equity restriction further weakened this moderating effect.
    Keywords: Ownership structure; Dual-class equity structure; Ownership-control rights divergence; R&D investment; Investor protection.

  • Supportive formal institutions, entrepreneurial learning, and new venture performance: A study from Chinas Emerging economies   Order a copy of this article
    by Xingqun Lv, Bin Zhou, Biaoan Shan 
    Abstract: By integrating Institutional theory with Signal detection theory, this study establishes a framework for examining the impact of macro-institutions on micro-entrepreneurial behaviour in emerging economies. We examine the effect of supportive formal institutions on new venture performance we also examine the mediating role of entrepreneurial learning and the moderating role of entrepreneurial team trust between them. Using China as a representative country in emerging economies, the empirical analysis results suggest that entrepreneurial learning (EL) plays a positive mediating role the relationship between supportive formal institutions and new venture performance, and entrepreneurial team trust can strengthen the relationship between supportive formal institutions and new venture performance. The empirical results add to some insights about the effect of formal institutions and informal institutions (entrepreneurial team trust) on new venture performance, and they also have a number of implications for entrepreneurs in emerging economies to operate their new ventures.
    Keywords: Supportive formal institutions; Entrepreneurial learning; Entrepreneurial team trust; New venture performance.

  • The Evolution of Complexity in Information Management and the Profitability of Cryptocurrencies   Order a copy of this article
    by Jorge Romero 
    Abstract: The interaction between the increased complexity of information management applications and the demand for those applications has not been completely understood. Still, it is essential to researchers in business and information management, given the intense focus on improving efficiency and profitability in the future. In the last few years, some of the main information management applications and events that have increased the complexity of information technology processes include the mining of cryptocurrencies. With the growth of new business transactions using cryptocurrencies and the enormous number of algorithms used by miners to mine cryptocurrencies, the complexity of processes and network congestion has become a factor to consider in the future. While most of the studies related to this topic have focused on the technical side of the mining of cryptocurrencies, this study focuses on the evolution of complexity in information management processes and looks into the future profitability of cryptocurrencies.
    Keywords: Profitability of Cryptocurrencies; Technologies; Complexity; Business Calculators.

  • Mechanisation and path analysis of dominant technology in emerging energy industry ----Based on CA model and fsQCA method   Order a copy of this article
    by Hongying Wang, Bing Sun 
    Abstract: Recently, the conflict between Russia and Ukraine has exacerbated the risk of global energy supply and posed a great threat to world energy security. As an area in short supply fossil energy reserves in the world, European countries dependent on Russia in an all-round way. The conflict between Russia and Ukraine and the sanctions against Russia will reshape the trade pattern of the internab vtional oil and gas market and have a comprehensive impact on the EU's oil and gas supply, power security and key resource supply chain. Therefore, Europe and even the world have paid close attention to the growth of emerging energy industry, and the diffusion mechanisation as well as path of dominant technology in emerging energy industry have become particularly important. The paper builds the diffusion model of emerging energy industry's dominant technology as well as illustrating the diffusion mechanisation on the basis of CA model. The mechanisation indicates that owing to the existing relatively perfect market environment and policy environment, as far as the emerging energy industry,the diffusion of dominant technology majorly rests with power of propaganda, the quantity of opinion leaders who hold positive and negative attitudes, enterprise scope of strong chain and weak chain. We also use fsQCA method to analyze and classify the diffusion paths of dominant technologies which are utilized in emerging energy industry. The conclusion of this essay can provide a reference for the relevant enterprise management and government agencies in the decision-making of technology selection and strategic layout.
    Keywords: emerging energy industry; dominant technology; CA model; fsQCA.

  • Evaluating government intervention in academic entrepreneurship: An identity perspective and evidence from China   Order a copy of this article
    by Yijia Dai, Jing Xu 
    Abstract: Government often seeks the creation of academic spin-offs as a critical mechanism of technology transfer. However, most academic ventures that government backs do not grow as expected. This paper aims to reexamine the effect of government intervention from an identity perspective, claiming that government imposes a higher social vision than private investors do. By empirically investigating the performance of academic spin-offs listed in China between 2008 and 2016, we find that although spin-offs controlled by government exhibit weaker financial performance than those controlled by private investor, they produce more innovative outputs. Extending this identity view to management behaviour, we further find that certain governance mechanismsfinancial incentives and ownership concentrationcan moderate both the financial and innovative performance of spin-offs under government control, providing policy makers with an important lesson on adjusting strategies when engaging in academic entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: academic spin-offs; government intervention; academic entrepreneurship; identity theory; technology transfer.

  • How Firms Technology Convergence Effects Market Value: Moderating Effect of Institutional Contingencies in Emerging Markets   Order a copy of this article
    by Shuangying Chen, Feng Fu, Qiyue Li 
    Abstract: Although technology convergence has been examined by technological management literature, the effect of a firms technology convergence on performance and the contingencies influencing the above relationship have remained largely unexplored. Drawing upon institutional theory and technological strategy perspective, this study examines how a firms technology convergence influences market value and how institutional contingencies moderate the role in the markets of an emerging economy. The sample chosen is Chinese listed high-technology firms between 2002 and 2010. The findings indicate that the relationship between a firms technology convergence and market value follows an inverted U-shaped pattern. The relationship is strengthened by political participation; however, it is weakened by strong regional intellectual property regimes and those with state ownership. This study provides theoretical insights and managerial implications that might underlie some of the key findings on technology convergence in emerging markets.
    Keywords: Technology convergence; firm market value; political participation; state-owned enterprises; regional intellectual property.

  • Digital Economy Research: A Bibliometric Analysis of its Evolution and Future Study Areas   Order a copy of this article
    by Shao-Bu Wang, Xian-Hong Peng, Justin Zuopeng Zhang 
    Abstract: This paper explores the research themes, hotspots, and evolution process of the global digital economy by conducting a bibliometric analysis using VOSviewer and CiteSpace visualization tools to sort out relevant literature. Extracting source data from the Web of Science database, we analyze the knowledge mapping structure of the international digital economy research and summarize its discipline distribution, research teams, journal distributions, research hotspots, and evolution process. Our findings show that the global digital economy research has gone through different evolutionary periods: embryonic (1996-2008), development (2009-2016), and acceleration (after 2016). Privacy protection, business models, financial technology, entrepreneurship, Internet, and infrastructure are hot areas of digital economy research. Information technology drives the further development of the digital economy. This study provides certain enlightenment for future digital economy research.
    Keywords: digital economy; bibliometrics; evolution; innovation; visualization; research hotspot.

  • The complementary effect of quality management and proactive market orientation on radical product innovation under environmental uncertainty   Order a copy of this article
    by Younès El Manzani, Jean-Jack Cegarra 
    Abstract: Empirical research shows that there is a synergistic relationship between quality management and market orientation that promotes the creation and delivery of value, customer satisfaction, and performance (El Manzani, 2021). By calling on the theory of dynamic capabilities, the main objective of this research is to enrich the literature by studying the effect of the complementarity between quality management and proactive market orientation on radical product innovation, considering the moderating role of environmental uncertainty in this relationship. The results of a quantitative study of 130 ISO 9001 certified companies that have rolled out radical product innovations reveal that the complementarity between quality management and proactive market orientation improves radical product innovation. This synergistic effect becomes more pronounced when the level of environmental uncertainty is high.
    Keywords: quality management (ISO 9001); TQM; proactive market orientation; complementarity; radical product innovation; environmental uncertainty; PLS-SEM; Morocco.

  • Managing platform-based ecosystems in B2B markets – out-bound open innovation perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Chung-Lin Tsai, Joon Mo Ahn, Letizia Mortara 
    Abstract: Technology advancements are underpinning firms in shaping their products and services into digital platforms to foster value co-creation in their platform-based ecosystems. While existing research has mainly focused on business-to-consumer (B2C) platforms, relatively little research has been conducted on business-to-business (B2B) platforms. To address this research gap, this study employs a case study approach to collect and examine three out-bound open innovation (OI) application cases in the context of B2B platforms, namely, TSMC, IBM and CNT Tech. The case analysis results show that the coverage of B2B markets can be expanded and diversified by OI. To improve the quality of platform offerings (not only platform services but also complementary innovations), the case firms implemented OI applications comprising two phases that manage knowledge outflows (with boundary resources) and inflows (with input/output controls) across their organisational boundaries. Knowledge sharing provided B2B platform owners new market creation opportunities, combined complementors, and pivoted some of the platform owners' core technologies, consequently diversifying the platforms' applications and making platform ecosystem more dynamic and vibrant.
    Keywords: platform-based ecosystems; digital platforms; out-bound open innovation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2022.10048335
  • Strategic focus, strategic blur, and environmental turbulence in nascent entrepreneurial ventures   Order a copy of this article
    by Gregory N. Stock, Christopher McDermott, Margaret McDermott 
    Abstract: This study examines how strategic focus, strategic blur, and environmental turbulence affect performance in nascent entrepreneurial ventures. We build on the idea of Porter's (1980) generic strategies to develop the constructs of strategic focus and strategic blur. Strategic focus is conceptualised as an emphasis on a single strategic performance dimension. In contrast, strategic blur, a construct originated in this study, is the opposite of strategic focus. We define strategic blur as the simultaneous emphasis on all strategic dimensions. In addition, we consider how environmental turbulence moderates the effects of focus and blur on venture performance, which is measured by the attainment of initial profitability. We employ data from the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics II (PSED II), and we find that focus does not have a significant effect, either directly or in combination with turbulence. However, the interaction between strategic blur and environmental turbulence is statistically significant. We conclude with implications for research and practice.
    Keywords: strategic focus; strategic blur; turbulence; nascent; entrepreneurial ventures; Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics II; PSED II; strategy; competitive priorities; logistic regression; competitive environment; operations.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2022.10048337
  • The influencing factors of industry innovation networking: evidence from Shanghai's high-tech industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Xianzhong Cao, Tangwei Teng, Gang Zeng, Han Bao, Lan Lin 
    Abstract: The influence factor of innovation network is an important research field of human geography. This paper aims to examine the factors, paths, and mechanisms influencing networking of Shanghai's high-tech industry with focus on the biomedical, new material, equipment manufacturing and electronic information. Based on the data from high-tech firms' annual reports by Shanghai's Science and Technology Commission, the results highlight firm development stage, firm scale, and industry position as the main factors promoting innovation networking. In addition, government intervention plays the largest role in the new material industry mainly through investment in innovation activities and taxation intervention in innovation network construction. The impact of firm ownership, spatial location, and intermediary services on the four high-tech industries' innovation networks is relatively smaller. Finally, this study summarises the impact mechanisms for innovation networking in Shanghai's high-tech industries.
    Keywords: innovation networks; influencing factors; high-tech industry; structural equation model; SEM; impact mechanisms.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2022.10048340
  • Uncertainty measurement and regional comparison of the technology transfer process – an empirical study based on data from 30 provinces in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Yingying Qiu, Feng Feng, Leiyong Zhang, Xingteng Li 
    Abstract: Technology transfer is a stage-by-stage process that is full of uncertainties. This study uses a graphical evaluation review technology (GERT) network to construct an uncertainty measurement model of the technology transfer process. In addition, the science and technology data input from the 30 provinces and autonomous regions of the provinces in China are used to measure the uncertainty associated with technology transfer in each province. It is concluded that the uncertainty associated with technology transfer in China varies from region to region and has a negative correlation with the level of economic development. Thereafter, with the help of construction of uncertainty difference matrix, the policy recommendation is put forward, in which reducing 'target phase' uncertainty can largely promote transformation of science and technology.
    Keywords: technology transfer; uncertainty; graphical evaluation review technology network; target stage; difference matrix.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2022.10048338
  • Impact of partner heterogeneity on innovation performance through interaction behaviour in Chinese complex product R&D industries   Order a copy of this article
    by Naiding Yang, Fangmei WangDu, Yanlu Zhang, Juan Du, Sayed Muhammad Fawad Sharif 
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of partner heterogeneity, in terms of knowledge, resource, cognitive, and ecological, on innovation performance with the mediation role of interaction behaviour through interactive innovation lens. The analysis of 206 survey questionnaires reflects that knowledge and resource heterogeneities significantly and positively affect interaction behaviour and innovation performance. Ecological heterogeneity has an inverted U-shaped effect on interaction behaviour and innovation performance. Cognitive heterogeneity has an inverted U-shaped effect on innovation performance but is insignificant to interaction behaviour. Interaction behaviour is significantly related to innovation performance as well as mediates the effects of partner heterogeneity except for cognitive heterogeneity. The presence of circular causality and self-reinforcing mechanisms between partner heterogeneity and innovation performance were first confirmed in our study. The study contributes to the theory of interactive innovation, partner heterogeneity, and innovation management literature. To practitioners in Chinese complex product R&D industry, this study advises to interact with the industry players at multiple levels, however, the gap with respect to cognition and geography must not be too high.
    Keywords: partner heterogeneity; interaction behaviour; innovation performance; complex product; R&D.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2021.10044359
  • Mission-based strategic management model for national R&D programs in Republic of Korea   Order a copy of this article
    by Jae-Keun Lee 
    Abstract: Korea began rapidly industrialising in the early 1980s, following a drastic increase in its R&D budget. However, continued growth has made national R&D program governance complex and has created a chronic overlap in R&D investments. This study proposes a systematic approach for the effective management of Korea's national R&D programs. The discussion begins by reviewing each program's raison d'être. Although a program's mission is often only vaguely described in the literature, this study devises a set of selected and structured components comprised of four essential dimensions: purpose, philosophy, definition, and goals. Mission fulfilment and uniqueness form a framework for a strategic program portfolio model. The study explains that a mission-based model enables the comprehensive life-cycle management of a set of programs. In addition, this study presents an empirical example to demonstrate the validity of the model and elicit its implications.
    Keywords: national R&D program; NRDP; Republic of Korea; governance; mission; strategic program portfolio model; SPPM; mission construct; mission fulfilment; mission uniqueness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2022.10048339
  • Private value of innovation in Canadian industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Brian Paul Cozzarin, Bonwoo Koo 
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to measure and quantify the private value of innovation, in contrast to other studies which use a partial equilibrium approach to estimate the social value of innovation. We use firm-level revenue and expenditure data to create industry level returns to an average manufacturing firm. We show that firms that perform both product and process innovations reap more than those that perform either process innovation or product innovation in isolation, and product-only innovators reap larger rewards than process-only innovators. The industrial profile of innovation in Canada ranks the transportation sector first, and the remaining top five industries are primary metals, petroleum-chemical-pharmaceuticals, food-beverages, plastics-rubber and wood. While Canada is no longer a country of just 'Hewers of wood and drawers of water', a recent $2.2 billion Federal program targets primarily the transportation-aerospace sector to the detriment of the less newsworthy sectors.
    Keywords: product innovation; process innovation; R&D; private value.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2022.10048336

Special Issue on: Supply Chain Innovation Management in the Uncertain Era

  • Pricing and Quality Decisions in Platform-Based Retailing with Targeted Promotion   Order a copy of this article
    by Chenchen Yang, Junsong Bian, Yuqiao Zhang 
    Abstract: This paper considers a platform-based supply chain consisting of a firm launching a new product with a targeted promotion strategy based on innovation on a retailing platform. We examine the firm's optimal decisions on pricing, product quality design and promotional effort to deal with market uncertainty. First, with exogenous quality, we show that market size has a positive impact on the optimal effort level, which is contrary to the intuition that the optimal effort level decreases with the existing market size due to concave increasing costs. This is because the firm will increase the corresponding price if the market size increases, which makes the marginal income higher than the marginal cost. Therefore, the firm has an incentive to invest more effort in promotion. Furthermore, we study the scenario with endogenous quality but exogenous price and find that the optimal effort level will decrease with market size if the market size is sufficiently large. The reason is that retaining a marginal customer by improving quality is more economical than raising the promotion effort level in this case. Finally, with endogenous effort, price, and quality decisions, our result indicates that the firm exerts more efforts in such a platform-based targeted promotion than in the former scenarios when facing strict industry standards.
    Keywords: product innovation; market uncertainty; targeted promotion; quality design; pricing; new product launching.

  • Uncertain cost information sharing strategy in a closed-loop supply chain   Order a copy of this article
    by Qiuling Meng, Lijuan Wan, Quanwu Zhao 
    Abstract: Remanufacturing is a meaningful way to realize the circular economy, and many manufacturers practice it. Usually, the manufacturer keeps private information about remanufacturing costs because remanufacturing is a relatively new business with an uncertain and complicated remanufacturing process. As a result, the asymmetric information will hinder the development of remanufacturing. To address this problem, we study cost information sharing issues in a supply chain with remanufacturing in this paper. We consider a manufacturer sourcing critical components from a supplier to manufacturing new products and collecting end-of-use products for remanufacturing. In our model, the volume of new products constrains the output of remanufacturing (i.e., quantity constraint). When the quantity constraint works, sharing information lowers the wholesale price. It is advantageous to the manufacturer within a moderate new product cost. Furthermore, we show that sharing information can benefit both social welfare and the environment.
    Keywords: supply chain management; remanufacturing; information sharing; environmental performance; game theory.

  • Supply chain sustainability during an uncertain environment: Examining the moderating role of leadership support   Order a copy of this article
    by Sheshadri Chatterjee, Ranjan Chaudhuri, Demetris Vrontis 
    Abstract: The uncertain environment because of the COVID-19 pandemic has immensely impacted the global supply chain, as several countries-imposed travel restrictions. In such a situation, the present study aims at investigating impacts of customer relationship management (CRM) competency, information technology (IT) competency, and contingency management on supply chain management (SCM). The present work examines how leadership support affects supply chain sustainability. From theories as well as from literature inputs, we have developed a conceptual model. Validation of the conceptual model was done using the PLS-SEM technique to analyse 311 responses from the different organizations in India. The study found that CRM competency, IT competency, and appropriate contingency management have significant impacts on supply chain sustainability during uncertain environments. The role of the moderator leadership support also impacts sustainability in supply chain during such crisis.
    Keywords: CRM Competency; COVID-19; Supply chain sustainability; IT Competency; Leadership support; Contingency.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2022.10048431

Special Issue on: Technological Innovation and Management in the Era of Industry 4.0

  • Analysis of the quality improvement path of supply chain management under the background of industry 4.0   Order a copy of this article
    by Qiang Wang, Jingwei Shang 
    Abstract: In view of the influence of the quality of supply chain management in the process of enterprise development, reducing the market competitiveness and customer satisfaction, this paper puts forward the path of improving the quality of supply chain management under the background of industry 4.0. Through the analysis of the coordination structure dimension of supply chain management quality strategy level and the coordination structure dimension of executive level, it is determined that there are some problems in the process of supply chain management quality improvement, such as the failure of the incoming inspection department to inspect as required, the lack of supplier control ability, and the imperfection of supplier quality management process and mechanism, Strengthen the quality control of suppliers in key links, explore the quality improvement path of supply chain management, so as to improve the market competitiveness and customer satisfaction.
    Keywords: Background of industry 4.0 ; supply chain management; quality improvement; path analysis;rn.

  • Innovation and application of enterprises supply chain management mode under the background of industry 4.0   Order a copy of this article
    by Wangshu Su, Hui Chen 
    Abstract: Under the background of industry 4.0, aiming at the problems of low management performance and poor profitability of traditional enterprises supply chain management mode, this paper discusses the innovation and application of enterprises supply chain management mode under the background of industry 4.0. Firstly, the evolution and development characteristics of industry 4.0 background are analyzed, and the operation structure and management content of enterprises supply chain are determined. Secondly, the data of supply chain management is collected to determine the problems of supply chain management mode. Thirdly, the idea of establishing electronic supply chain management is put forward, introducing advanced management technology and establishing long-term supplier partnership. Finally, this management model is applied to the actual management work, and it is found that the comprehensive indicator of enterprise management performance is improved by about 0.25, this management model has good application effect.
    Keywords: Industry 4.0; enterprise’s supply chain; supply chain management; management mode innovation; management mode application;.

  • The interface between marketing and R&D based on process management   Order a copy of this article
    by Qiaoying Ding 
    Abstract: Traditional product research and development work has some problems, such as information asymmetry between departments and poor connection with marketing work, which affects the progress of product marketing work. From the perspective of process management, this paper studies the interface between marketing and R&D. Based on the analysis of the disadvantages of the traditional product research and development and marketing process, the interface conditions of product research and development and marketing are integrated, the corresponding interface mechanism is established, and the department process structure is innovated on the basis of making the two achieve effective collaborative management. Through empirical analysis, it can be seen that enterprises can build a process collaborative management scheme based on customer needs and forward the customer demand information to the R&D department through the information docking platform, so as to enhance the market competitiveness of products through the effective interface between marketing and R&D.
    Keywords: Process management; Collaborative management; Marketing; Product research and development.

  • Analysis on the Production Technology Innovation and Management Path of Industrial Enterprises under the Trend of Industry 4.0   Order a copy of this article
    by Qing Zhang, Abdul Rashid Abdullah, Choo Wei Chong, Mass Hareeza Ali 
    Abstract: In order to improve the development of production technology of industrial enterprises, this paper puts forward the analysis method of production technology innovation and management path of industrial enterprises. Based on the characteristics of production technology innovation of industrial enterprises, this paper analyzes the existing problems of production technology innovation of industrial enterprises, constructs the evaluation model of production technology innovation ability of industrial enterprises according to the analysis results, and puts forward the corresponding production technology management path of industrial enterprises under the trend of industry 4.0. The case study shows that this method can effectively reduce production costs, and the efficiency of internal management is always higher than 90%.
    Keywords: Industry 4.0 trend; Industrial Enterprises; Production technology innovation; Management path.

  • The technological innovation effect of industrial chain under the "double cycle" pattern in the post epidemic Era   Order a copy of this article
    by SHUAI RUAN, SeungBin Choi 
    Abstract: In order to improve the economic benefits of enterprises under continuing influence of COVID-19, the technological innovation effect of industrial chain under the "double cycle" pattern in the post epidemic era is studied in this paper. The fractional planning and integral planning functions of the industrial chain are obtained by constructing the CCR model, and the BCC model calculation of the innovation effect of the enterprise industrial chain is realized by the Chames-Cooper transformation. The data efficiency value of technological innovation effect of industrial chain under the "double cycle" pattern is obtained via the SBM network model for analysis on the technological innovation effect of industrial chain. The experimental results show that the effect of industrial chain technological innovation is analyzed from the aspects of main business income and the profit margin of enterprises extending the industrial chain and connecting the industrial chain. The highest profit margin after connecting the industrial chain technological innovation is 34.2%, which proves that technological innovation can improve the economic benefits of enterprises.
    Keywords: Double circulation; Industrial chain; The effect of technological innovation; economic performance.

  • An empirical analysis of critical factors of Industry 4.0: A contingency theory perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Manjot Singh Bhatia, Saurabh Kumar 
    Abstract: The implementation of Industry 4.0 (I4) technologies have gained momentum due to several inherent benefits associated with their adoption. However, the benefits of I4 technologies are yet to be realized to the full potential, specifically in the case of emerging economies. Managers need to focus on certain critical factors for the successful implementation of I4 technologies. Though some studies have proposed factors for implementing I4 technologies, empirical examination of critical factors still lacks in the published literature. This study proposes and empirically analyzes the critical factors for adopting I4 technologies in the following Indian manufacturing industries: electrical/electronics, automotive, textiles, paper and plastics. The key factors across six different categories (organizational, workforce management, external support, technological infrastructure, usage of data and regulations) are examined. Further, the contingency effects of firm size and industry sector are also examined. The results are useful for managers in manufacturing industries as it can help them to understand the key factors for adopting I4 technologies. The results are equally useful for managers who are planning to implement I4 technologies in their firms or are in the early phase of I4 implementation.
    Keywords: Industry 4.0; critical success factors; India; manufacturing.