International Journal of Technology Management
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International Journal of Technology Management (36 papers in press)
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to review previous research on FinTech, which may be broadly understood as financial innovation that uses information technology to provide financial services. The paper describes a review of 88 refereed academic papers on the subject of FinTech published in journals that have high SJR2017 scores. Papers were categorized according to the type of companies leveraging FinTech (existing financial institutions vs. new entrants) and the type of value derived from FinTech innovation (new value-added vs. improved efficiency). Also considered were types of new value-added, geographical focus of the research, and research methodologies. The largest number of studies concerned the use of FinTech innovation by new entrants to offer solutions to social issues or build new financial ecosystems. Over half the studies were on FinTech in Asia or the European Union, and the most common methodology employed was the case study.
Keywords: FinTech; Financial Innovation; Innovation Management; Information Technology; Technology Management; Financial Inclusion; Bank Marketing.
Innovation behind the frontier: strategies of technological laggards
by Kim Wang
Abstract: Popular thinking such as innovate or die implies that constant innovation is the only way to survive. But what if there was a third option? Lagging can be a strategy that allows many firms to thrive. Yet the technology strategies of laggards have been little studied. To address this gap in the literature, we examine laggard technology strategies and their relationship with the technology frontier. We find that the decision to lag behind the frontier can be a strategic one and that the extent to which a firm lags is determined by the relevance of its dynamic capabilities to manage frontier competition.
Keywords: Competition; Technology frontier; Technological laggards; Technology deployment; Innovation.
Direct Subsidies or Tax Credits? The Effects of Different R&D Policy Tools
by Luqun Xie, Jiatao Li
Abstract: Governments increasingly recognize the benefits of direct subsidies and tax credits for supporting private sectors to adopt research and development (R&D) activities. However, the different reactions of firms toward these two types of measures have with advance financial support, whereas tax credits wait until the R&D expense has been incurred to pay back. Thus, the former is better at attenuating risk, but leaves recipients with less discretion in their research efforts. Firms with more financial resources can more easily overcome such constraints. Tax credits provide more flexibility to using the money. This can be especially beneficial for firms whose financial resources are limited. These ideas were tested using data on research support and research outcomes describing 2,748 Chinese firms in Beijing Zhongguancun Science Park between 2012 and 2015. Analyses of those data delivered support for the preceding arguments.
Keywords: subsidies; tax credits; policy effectiveness; innovation performance; China.
R&D investment along the firm life-cycle: New evidence from high-tech industries
by Cheng Yang, Ye Hua, Zhongsheng Hua
Abstract: Traditional life-cycle theory typically holds that firms are more innovative in their earlier life-cycle stages than in their later stages. However, this may not apply to firms in high-tech industries that heavily rely on innovation to build competitive advantages and that are equipped with rich innovation-related knowledge. This paper analyses R&D investment along the life-cycle for firms in high-tech sectors. We suggest that in addition to the introduction stage, firms motivation to make R&D investment is also higher in the decline stage than in other stages because firms resort to innovation to increase competitiveness in their decline stage. Besides, rich external and internal innovation-related knowledge further increases firms confidence in resorting to innovation. We also investigate the boundary conditions of the hypothesised baseline effects by considering the moderating effects of three environmental factors (environmental complexity, environmental dynamism and environmental munificence). Analyses of a dataset consisting of high-tech manufacturing firms during 1989-2018 reveal that in comparison with firms in other stages, firms in introduction and decline stages make more R&D investment, especially in complex and moderately munificent environments. In addition, environmental dynamism significantly reduces R&D investment motivation in the decline stage but does not influence it in the introduction stage. Our results offer insights into high-tech firms innovation pattern along their life-cycle.
Keywords: R&D investment; firm life-cycle; high-tech industries; environmental complexity; environmental dynamism; environmental munificence.
EXPLORING SUPPLY CHAIN AGILITY IN FMCG INDUSTRY
by Nesrine Eltawy, David Gallear
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to explore the need of supply chain agility within the fast moving consumer goods industry. This type of industry has been less studied by the agility researchers. However, it is characterised by high complexity level and dynamic nature. A case study of a multinational FMCG company operating in the Middle East was undertaken. The data collected came from a range of sources as advocated in case based approaches, namely interviews, documents and website archives. The findings confirm the salience of agility in the FMCG context and the attributes that underpin its effective deployment are identified. This paper contributes to the existing literature by examining the need and the attributes of supply chain agility in the under-researched context of the fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector. It also contributed to the literature by examining the supply chain agility for the first time in the Middle East region. rn
Keywords: Supply Chain Management; Agility; fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) Information sharing; Information technology; and Middle East business environment.
Income Approach to Technology Valuation for Innovations
by JoonWhan Oh, Hyun Woo Park
Abstract: Until now, technology valuation has been dominated by the income approach, a forward-looking methodology that discounts future cash flow. To account for risk in technology valuation of innovations, a typical net present value (NPV) method is complemented with real option valuation method. Even though real option techniques account for risk changes in practice, such models are subject to criticism for reasons of mathematical complexity. We propose a modified income approach we refer to as Innotech that incorporates innovation characteristics and industry characteristics into the valuation model. Our modified approach for the valuation of innovative technology reduces challenges related to mathematical modeling and dependency on factors such as risk premium, expected cash flows and contributory charge.
Keywords: technology valuation; innovative technology; net present value (NPV); innovation characteristics; industry characteristics.
Special Issue on: Academic entrepreneurship in an Open Innovation world a way to overcome the resources shortage of academic spinoffs
by Mohammd Reza Fallah
Abstract: Globalization and increasing growth of technology as well as the changes in business environment have put start-ups in a difficult situation. Innovative tools like open innovation ecosystem are the best strategy to deal with these situations and gain a sustainable competitive advantage. The present study attempts to provide a paradigmatic model for conceptualization of the open innovation ecosystem in start-ups. Regarding the strategy, the current study employs a qualitative approach, and regarding its objective, the research is fundamental and descriptive-analytical in terms of its nature and method. To collect data, the meta-synthesis approach was utilized and the articles related to the research topic, published between 2010 and 2019, were reviewed. After analyzing the research findings via Glasier Granded Theory, 105 indicators/drivers were identified and 48 concepts were labeled into four categories and 15 sub-categories. The results showed that multiple absorptive capacity through dynamic facilitators and innovative empowerment , recombining shared synergy through engaging key customers, competitors, enterprises, businesses, and innovation centers, and the conceptualization and creation of open innovation ecosystem are possible.
Keywords: open innovation ecosystem; dynamic facilitators; innovative empowerment; multiple absorptive capacity; shared synergy.
From Ecosystem to Community. Combining Entrepreneurship and University engagement in an Open Innovation perspective
by Mariarosalba Angrisani, Davide Dell'Anno, Tom Hockaday
Abstract: The paper provides a new perspective for the analysis of academic entrepreneurship dynamics in an evolving Open Innovation context. Starting from an overview of the innovation (eco)systems approach and a focus on university engagement, we propose a paradigm shift towards the conceptualisation of an Innovation Community (IC) within and around Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) boundaries. The main goal of the study is to show that the concept of Innovation Community can be applied to a Knowledge-Intensive Hub, where open innovation processes successfully enhance knowledge flows in the context of advanced education programmes and spin-off firm creation and management. Our research is explorative in nature and contemplates examples of Open Innovation (OI) practices implemented inside a Knowledge-intensive Hub of an HEI that involves innovation, technology, and knowledge transfer processes. In order to achieve such aim, we chose to resort to a multiple case study methodology involving two typologies of technology transfer namely, one spin-off firm and two advanced post-graduate programmes including a private-public partnership. The unit of analysis selected for the study is a knowledge-intensive Hub which is expected to be addressed as an Innovation Community. The early outcomes confirm that the Innovation Community view can acquire a theoretical relevance when referring to open innovation contexts involving public, private, and institutional sectors. Regarding useful implications for practitioners, our research designs a further framework for technology transfer operators as well as for institutions at both local and national level to promote academic entrepreneurship in open innovation contexts.
Keywords: Innovation ecosystems; University Engagement; Innovation Community; Academic Entrepreneurship; Technology Transfer; Open Innovation.
Analysis of the survival determinants of University Spin-Offs in a cross-national sample
by David Rodeiro-Pazos, María Jesús Rodríguez-Gulías, Sara Fernández-López, Antonio Prencipe, Christian Corsi
Abstract: Understanding the dynamics related to university survival is a critical point for scholars and policymakers, especially in the technology transfer process. Drawing on the population and organizational ecology perspectives and the resource-based view of the firm, this paper aims to investigate the survival determinants of University Spin-Offs (USOs). After applying event analysis techniques in a cross-national dataset of 1,275 Italian and Spanish USOs over the period 2005-2013, the findings show that firm size, firm age, industrial partners, and firm efficiency positively influence the USOs survival, whereas patent activity decreases the USOs chances to survive. Additionally, a U-shaped relationship between financial leverage and the USOs survival emerges. Based on the emerging evidence, some policy and managerial implications are provided to help USOs to cross their Valley of Death.
Keywords: university spin-off; firm survival; event analysis; cross-national; resource-based theory.
Special Issue on: ARTEM OCC 2020 Connecting Creativity, Innovation and Sustainable Development in the Age of Disruptions
by Lynn Lüdemann, Andreas Felber, Markus Golder
Abstract: Recycling belongs to the strategies for reducing the emission of carbon dioxide, which is one of the main causers of climate crisis. Instead of being recycled, textiles made of synthetic fibres are still mainly disposed by waste incineration or landfill, this means, that textiles currently have to be made of virgin material. Polyethylentherephtalat (PET) is mainly used for fibres (60??%) and for bottles (30?%). But only for PET-bottles different recycling processes exist. Within the frame of a governmentally-founded project a new recycling procedure for textiles was explored. The goal was to get staple fibres out of the textile waste by simultaneously maintaining their properties. Different technical steps were tested and a robust process chain was elabored. Secondly the proof of the ecological preferability with the help of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was provided. The environmental impact could be reduced up to 60%. Finally, the successful use of Environmental Product Declaration is proven.
Keywords: Recycling; Fibers; PET; Life Cycle Assessment; Environmental Product Declarations; Life Cycle Costing.
Fostering the Sustainable Development Goals with Technologies Underpinned by Frugal Innovation
by Alexander Ebolor, Nivedita Agarwal, Alexander Brem
Abstract: The race against time to attain the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) intensifies, with inequality, poor living conditions, and biodiversity threats still prevalent. Achieving the SDGs is constrained by limited resources that require frugal solutions that are affordable, easy-to-use, ecologically sustainable, and socially inclusive. The role of infrastructure companies developing technologies with a frugal orientation that focus on the 17 SDGs must be at the core of efforts, because sustainable infrastructure is critical to the SGDs. This paper examines how such company-efforts foster the SDGs through the lens of frugal innovation. An exploratory multiple case study methodology was used with a 3-step and 4-dimensional evaluation approach to determine what technologies are fostering the SDGs, and their frugal characteristics. The results show that alternative resource and energy innovations are at the core of how infrastructure companies are promoting sustainability and fostering the SDGs. Most cases cluster around ecological contributions (mainly climate and energy), with sustainability and cost-effectiveness being the common characteristics. Implications for theory and practice are discussed, as well implications for policy making.
Keywords: Sustainable development goals; SDGs; sustainability; frugal innovation; technology; sustainable cities; resource conservation; machine learning; artificial intelligence; infrastructure; infrastructure companies; frugal characteristics; cloud technology; clean energy; BoP.
Special Issue on: Managing Digitalisation How Entrepreneurship is Involved
by Elena G. Popkova, Bruno S. Sergi, Mojtaba Rezaei, Alberto Ferraris
Abstract: The transport and logistics system has always been an attractive sector for investments and entrepreneurship. Its importance becomes increasingly stressed by the advance in technology and the advent of digitalization. Consequently, the digital economy opens new possibilities for optimizing the transport and logistics section of national economies. Thus, this paper proposed and developed a conceptual model of digitalization of transport and logistics in Russia, a developing country where this sector may represent many entrepreneurship potentialities. The suggested model is based on new technologies related to Industry 4.0 as blockchain, big data, the Internet of Things, virtual reality, and artificial intelligence. Accordingly, this paper pointed out the key factors of digitalization of the industry: a) accessibility of financing, b) availability of digital technologies of Industry 4.0, c) public support for digitalization of transport and logistics and consumer preferences. Interestingly, the paper offers an intriguing economic approach to understand players' behaviors potential strategies based on the Prisoners dilemma. This provides some useful recommendations to public policymakers, investors, and entrepreneurs to govern the digitalization of transport and logistics in Russia.
Keywords: Digitalization; Transport; Logistics; Digitalization of Transport and Logistics Services; Entrepreneurship; Russia.
Exploring entrepreneurial genetic code of Smart Cities.
by Fernando Crecente, Maria Sarabia, Francisco Carrillo, María Teresa Del Val
Abstract: Smart Cities are key players of Digital Economy and their essence is to transformation living, housing and consuming in a sustainable way. The aim of this paper is to explore the entrepreneurial genetic code of smart cities. Using a sample of 48 Spanish cities obtained from databases such as National Statistics Institute (NSI) and Iberian Balance Analysis System between 2015-2019. Some demographic, economic and social variables are used for identifying smart universe understood as smart entrepreneurship and city. Logit modelling has been used to identify the significant variables to explain Smart Cities. Some of these variables are ICT entrepreneurship, university level and median age of citizens represent the core genetic code of Smart Cities. This paper concludes that Smart Entrepreneurship has a unique entrepreneurial genetic code which can create differences between Smart Cities. Entrepreneurship and City are the power couple to develop better smart ecosystems.
Keywords: Smart City; Entrepreneurship.
Gendered linguistic structures and the innovation performance of new ventures in emerging countries: The moderating effects of digitalization and the entrepreneurial ecosystem
by Xuemei Xie, Yonghui Wu, F. Javier Sendra García
Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between gendered linguistic structures and new ventures innovation performance in emerging countries, as well as the gender gap in this relationship. Using a sample of 29,637 observations from 30 emerging countries in the period 20072016, this study shows that in countries where the dominant languages structure incorporates high-level gendered linguistic structures, there is a greater negative effect on innovation performance than is the case for countries with low-level gendered linguistic structures, and also that this negative effect is stronger for female entrepreneurs than it is for male entrepreneurs. These findings reveal that gendered linguistic structures reinforce gender stereotypes and discourage females performance in innovation endeavors. We further find this negative relationship is moderated by both digitalization (i.e., the levels of national digitization and digital infrastructure) and the entrepreneurial ecosystem, such that in countries with high degrees of national digitization, digital infrastructure, and entrepreneurial ecosystems, the negative effect of gendered linguistic structures on new ventures innovation performance is alleviated.
Keywords: gendered linguistic structures; innovation performance; national digitization level; digital infrastructure; entrepreneurial ecosystem.
How Women Entrepreneurs Manage the Digitalization of their Business: Initiating a Dialogue between the Entrepreneurship as Practice Approach and the Theory of Bricolage
by Séverine Le Loarne - Lemaire, Gael Bertrand, Adnane Maalaoui, Sascha Kraus, Paul Jones
Abstract: This research seeks to explain how women make their businesses digital through the prism of bricolage and practice. Based on the fact that women often create small ventures in service activities without much digital content and find it hard to make the business model of their venture evolve to make their business grow, we argue that this population of entrepreneurs feels threatened by the pressure to add digital technologies to existing business models. In an attempt to understand how women entrepreneurs manage to make their ventures digital, the analysis of three extreme cases from the mentoring industry through two theoretical prismsbricolage and entrepreneurship as a practice (EAP)reveals that women who bricole while making their business digital are mostly those who are not embedded in masculine norms of entrepreneurship. Firstly, we note signs of bricolage cognition during the digitalization. Secondly, data allow us to raise the hypothesis according to which bricolage cognition might be gendered. Thirdly, we note that the choice of a familial or conventional bricolage as expressed in the three cases is mostly led by practices of networking and by the social beliefs women have inherited from their past experiences or from exchanges with their peers. The article also provides a first dialogue between the emerging literature on EAP and the already widely diffused theory of bricolage.
Keywords: gender; digitalization; entrepreneurship as practice; EAP; bricolage.
Special Issue on: Green Innovation and International Business in Emerging Economies
by Zheng Dong, Tao Meng, Yuqiao Guan, Feifei Zhao
Abstract: With the continuous deepening of the development of the sharing economy, the way of resource allocation of companies, innovative and entrepreneurial activities, consumers consumption habits and social behaviors are undergoing a profound change. The academic and business circles have a strong interest in how the sharing economy has exerted such a huge effect. In practice, a number of unicorn companies in sharing economy have emerged explosively in China and have quickly become leaders in related industries. Why did these companies have explosive growth? What are the characteristics of the business model behind them? What are the differences in the driving logic of sharing economy companies with different business models? This research uses the method of qualitative comparative analysis (FSQCA) to analyze the business models of 26 unicorn companies of sharing economy in China, and have obtained four typical business model configurations of sharing economy unicorn companies, i.e. the platform transaction type, technology-mission promotion type, capital promotion type and interpersonal interaction type, respectively, and their characteristics and underlying driving logic are illustrated.
Keywords: sharing economy; unicorn; business model.
Exploring the influence of resource management between green innovation strategy and sustainable competitive advantage: the differences between emerging and traditional industries
by Yang Gao, Yu Sun, Yu-Hsi Yuan, Xingqun Xue, Fan Sheng
Abstract: Green innovation strategy is an essential way for enterprises to deal with the deteriorating ecological environment. However, the existing studies pay little attention to the affect path of green innovation strategy on sustainable competitive advantage, and the differences among different industries are not yet clear. In order to solve these problems, from the perspective of resource management, this paper puts forward a theoretical framework on the affect path of green innovation strategy on sustainable competitive advantage at different industry dynamic levels. We selected 210 enterprises in traditional industries and 219 enterprises in emerging industries, and used multiple hierarchical regression methods for empirical testing to reveal the important role of the two core ways in resource management (resource integration and reconfiguration). This study extends the theory of strategic management and sustainable competitive advantage, and provides a useful reference for enterprises to practice green behaviour.
Keywords: green innovation strategy; sustainable competitive advantage; resource integration; resource reconstruction.
Pricing and green innovation decision of green supply chain enterprises
by Min Yang, Jingxian Wang
Abstract: With the development of globalisation, people's awareness of environmental protection is gradually increasing. The purpose of this article is to study how companies can avoid risks, improve market competitiveness, and expand their profits under the concept of green innovation. From the perspectives of competitive environment, risk aversion and supply chain innovation, this paper uses game theory to analyse the number of green supply chain companies and how companies can achieve green pricing and decision-making innovation, and compared the different sales models of retailers, manufacturers and middlemen. The results of the study are as follows: the green innovation model has increased the profits of retailers and manufacturers by 20.53%; and 34.09%, and the revenue increase rates of the three sales models are 31.43%, 39.39%, and 41.67%, respectively.
Keywords: green supply chain; green innovation; pricing strategy; business management.
An empirical study between OHSAS 18001 certification and innovation efficiency in green management: the moderating role of pay disparity and ownership
by Wenqing Wu, Kun Shi, Yuming Zhai, Guangshu Xu, Xin Jiang
Abstract: This study explores the impact of Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 18001 (OHSAS 18001) certification on innovation efficiency in green management and seeks to assist senior managers in understanding the ideal structural environment to maximise the innovation potential of the certification system. We examine the ownership status of organisations and the pay disparity between employees and executives to determine whether they influence the ability of OHSAS 18001 to promote innovation efficiency. We analyse data from 1,905 Chinese listed companies using stochastic frontier analysis to determine the innovation efficiency of OHSAS 18001-certified companies. We find that OHSAS 18001 stimulates firm innovation efficiency. However, this improvement in innovation efficiency is dependent on the level of pay disparity between executive and non-executive employees. We also demonstrate that the effect of OHSAS 18001 on innovation efficiency is closely related to enterprise ownership, whereby state-owned enterprises are less likely to realise the innovation potential of OHSAS 18001 than privately-owned organisations are.
Keywords: OHSAS 18001; innovation efficiency; green management; pay disparity; ownership; state-owned enterprises; SOEs.
A comparative study of service trade competitiveness for green innovation development using the WWYZ model - based on China and the 26 countries along 'the Belt and Road'
by Ling Yang, Haomei Zeng, Pengzhi Xu
Abstract: The service industry is known as the 'green engine' of economic development due to its low pollution and high efficiency. We found that China's service industry is slowly participating more in the upstream production activities of the GVC for green innovation development. The degree of GVC forward participation in China's service industry was significantly affected by the 2008 financial crisis, showing a downward trend. The degree of GVC backward participation continued to decline except for 2009-2011, during which it varied more greatly than of the degree of GVC forward participation. Although China's degree of GVC participation is relatively small compared to the 26 countries along 'the Belt and Road', its GVC position is comparatively high. Therefore, China should strengthen its industrial complementation with the 26 countries along 'the Belt and Road' through capacity cooperation and achieve mutual benefits from green innovation development.
Keywords: global value chain; GVC; service trade competitiveness; the Belt and Road; China.
Environmental regulation, subsidy and underperforming firms' R&D expenditure: evidence from Chinese listed companies
by Xiaoling Chen, Qiang Li
Abstract: Behavioural theory examines how the intensity of underperformance influences firms' strategic decisions such as research and development (R&D) investment, but inconsistent inclusions arise. Moreover, insufficient attention is paid to the effect of institutional environments. Drawing on behavioural theory and institutional theory, we argue that the level of government environmental regulation and subsidy has a positive effect on the relationship between performance feedback and R&D expenditure through intensifying perceived knowledge deficiency and alleviating resource constraints. We test these arguments with 711 firm-year observations of Chinese listed companies in 16 environmentally disruptive sectors during the period of 2008 to 2015, finding empirical support. Our study contributes to behavioural theory and R&D literature by showing that uncertain attribution of performance shortfalls and severe resource constraints can result in firms' passive R&D decisions in response to underperformance, but government regulation and subsidy can help contain this problem.
Keywords: underperformance; performance feedback; performance shortfall; research and development; R&D; environment regulatory; subsidy; institutional environment; resource constraint; emerging economies.
The effect of green economic growth on the foreign investment behaviour of heterogeneous enterprises
by Xiaohui Wei, Yingji Li
Abstract: In view of the current domestic research on green economy and investment behaviour, it is still lacking. This article will innovatively combine the two, and use a new perspective to study the impact of foreign investment by heterogeneous companies on China s green economic growth. First of all, this article has an in-depth understanding of the theoretical knowledge of green economy; then established the evaluation index system and experimental model of the impact of foreign investment banks of heterogeneous enterprises on the growth of green economy. This article uses four core factors for analysis and statistics of the differences in status factors. Finally, it is concluded that foreign-funded enterprises with heterogeneous behaviour will affect the local green economic growth, and this effect is regular and bidirectional.
Keywords: heterogeneous enterprise; outbound investment; green economy; new and new trade.
Social intrapreneurship: the foundation of CSR practices
by Nadia Tavakoli, Marco De Sisto
Abstract: Despite the acknowledged importance of social intrapreneurs for the implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies, the literature on social intrapreneurship (SI) is still limited and weakly integrated. Furthermore, regardless of the growing imperative for companies operating in the Asia-Pacific region to become more socially and environmentally responsible, studies on SI have rarely addressed this part of the world from the cultural perspective. The aim of the current paper is to address this gap by developing a multi-level analytical framework to understand whether SI practices have been promoted and integrated into Australian firms' strategies. Through several in-depth semi-structured interviews, the study reveals new and important antecedents for SI, such as organisational climate (financial and non-financial rewards and targeted training sessions) and individual background (family of origin). By drawing a clear and comprehensive multi-level framework, our study informs both researchers and practitioners on how to manage SI, and consequently, benefit CSR practices.
Keywords: social intrapreneurship; SI; social intrapreneurs; corporate social responsibility; CSR; social and environmental innovation; Asia-Pacific region.
The impact of institutional innovation on internal control: evidence from Chinese state-owned enterprises
by Lei Ruan, Heng Liu
Abstract: Since mixed ownership reform is an important innovation of China's state-owned enterprise property rights system, whether the intervention of heterogeneous property rights can promote the reform of the state-owned enterprise governance system has attracted much attention from the outside world. To comprehensively evaluate the policy effects of China's state-owned enterprise property rights system innovation, we use an analysis of PSM-DID model to empirically test the impact of mixed ownership reform of state-owned enterprises on their internal control quality. Large sample data analysis shows that the internal control quality of state-owned enterprises that have undergone mixed ownership reform is significantly greater than that of state-owned enterprises that have not undergone mixed ownership reform. The research conclusion shows that heterogeneous property rights have played an active role in repairing the 'owner absence' and 'insider control' of state-owned enterprises, and the internal control system of state-owned enterprises has been substantially improved.
Keywords: institutional innovation; property right; state-owned enterprise; mixed ownership reform; internal control.
Does government behaviour or enterprise investment improve regional innovation performance? - evidence from China
by Ye Zheng, Wei Han, Ruoyu Yang
Abstract: Whether government behaviour or enterprise investment promotes regional innovation performance more effectively remains unclear. This study empirically analyses Chinese panel data from 2008 to 2016 and examines the influences of the determination of high and new technology enterprises, enterprise R&D investment, and institutional environment on regional innovation performance. The results indicate that the determination of high and new technology enterprises has a limited positive effect on regional innovation performance, whereas enterprise R&D investment has a mostly positive significant effect. Furthermore, the institutional environment has a positive moderating effect on enterprise R&D investment relationships and a negative moderating effect on tax burden relationships. Moreover, all these relationships are affected by locational factors, particularly in the eastern region. Based on these findings, this study proposes corresponding policy suggestions.
Keywords: government behaviour; determination of HNTEs; enterprise tax burden; R&D investment; regional innovation performance; RIP.
An empirical study on Chinese enterprise effectuation, market ambidexterity and entrepreneurial performance
by Di Zhou, Chenglin Liao
Abstract: With the rapid development of innovative economy, effectuation plays a crucial role in the decision-making process of new ventures; however, several inconsistencies persist regarding the correlation between effectuation and entrepreneurial performance. Drawing lessons from the organisational ambidexterity theory, this study used market ambidexterity of new ventures as a mediator variable to determine the correlation between effectuation and entrepreneurial performance in the market domain. Using data from a large sample of enterprises, we found that effectuation markedly affects the balance and interplay of market exploration and market exploitation, although its impact mechanism is different. In addition, effectuation positively affects the operating performance and growth performance; the balance of market ambidexterity positively affects the operating performance, whereas the interplay of market ambidexterity positively affects growth performance. Overall, this study offers several managerial implications for new ventures to apply effectuation to attain market ambidexterity and enhance entrepreneurial performance.
Keywords: ambidexterity theory; effectuation; entrepreneurial performance; market ambidexterity.
Constructing a green financial innovation system with the PPP environmental protection industry fund
by Yi Sun, Yuliang Sun, Xuetao Li
Abstract: PPP projects are currently an important part of a country's socialist market economy and play an important role in the income generation of a country's national economy. Under the guidance of the concept of sustainable development, the concept of green finance was born. The purpose of this article is to study the construction of a green financial innovation system based on the PPP environmental protection industry fund. This article mainly focuses on the PPP-based green financial innovation system and the environmental protection industry fund as the main research content, discusses the important role of the green financial innovation system and the environmental protection industry in the current social development, and then combines the two to build a green financial innovation system. A simulation experiment was carried out using the green investment development indicator system, and the results showed that the use of the system constructed in this paper to implement PPP projects reduced its carbon dioxide emissions by 30%.
Keywords: PPP environmental protection industry fund; green finance; innovation system; sustainable development; operation mode.
Cultural industries in emerging economies under the background of economic globalisation and information networks
by Yunkai Xu, Dongxin Li
Abstract: This article uses a variety of survey methods to conduct investigations and analyses the proportion and economic benefits of cultural industries in China's emerging markets in the past five years, as well as the impact of new cultural industries and economic industries in the context of economic globalisation. The research results show that in the total economic output value, the proportion of new cultural industries is getting higher and higher, which stems from the support of national policies. However, it also inevitably has some shortcomings, such as the rigid content form of some cultural industries, which is inconsistent with consumer psychology; the level of industrial clusters is low, the market environment problems are prominent; the protection of intellectual property rights is not strong enough, and infringements occur from time to time, etc. Only by solving these problems can the cultural industry achieve healthy and substantial development.
Keywords: economic globalisation; information network; emerging economies; cultural industry.
Special Issue on: Deep Learning for Organisational Knowledge Retention
by Bin Song
Abstract: In the recent past, the rise of hundreds of AI Artists and their interest in artificial intelligence algorithms and policies produce realistic arts in social-cultural perspectives. They create incredible pictures, sophisticated techniques, transcendent music, and even believable film scripts. Such works by AI artists concerns about the essence of art and the role of human imagination in future societies. This research is to establish an AI-based Improved Support Vector Machine Algorithm (ISVMA) for developing and evaluating significant variations of design in art history to a close analysis of the past, the complexities, and the modeling methods of human artistic creation. Furthermore, the foster collaboration between the imagination of machines and art, which is commonly described as parallel However not in competition with human artists and with their emotional and social intentions. Instead, the relationship between the innovation of humans and computers, the way to optimize the artistic abilities of all parties, has been discussed in this research.
Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Fine Arts; Policies; social perspectives;.
An empirical analysis of the OFDI influence on financing constraints based on listed companies in China
by Xiao-dong Wang, Lei Tu, Jing-lu Li, Yue-gang Song
Abstract: In China, where financing constraints are commonly seen in many companies, but at the same time, OFDI companies are experiencing increasing cash flows, the question that whether OFDI will influence a companys financing constraints draws researchers attention. This paper-based on empirical analysis finds that: (1) OFDI mediates Chinese companies financing constraints by lowering their outside financing cost, optimizing the channels and the quality of their external financing, and enhancing the supplementing ability of outside funding to companies cash flows. And this result is mainly achieved through OFDIs contact effect, which draws closer the topographical coldness between the host OFDI country and the OFDI investor, mediates information asymmetry, and lowers outside investors risk premium. But this mediating effect differs by OFDI companies property nature, targeted countrys income level, and OFDI motivation. (2) Compared with state-owned companies, OFDIs financing constraint mediating effect is more substantial in private-owned companies; for targeted countries income levels. OFDI in developed countries has a more significant mediating effect; compared with other motivations, OFDI, which is market-oriented, has the most substantial mediating effect. The analysis in this paper extends research on OFDIs economic consequences in emerging economies and offers instructions for the government to guide the investment behavior of listed companies.
Keywords: Financing; Constraints; OFDI; Contact Effect.
Analysis of Internet Finance Development Trend of Chinese E-commerce Enterprises Based on P2P Platform
by Shuang Zhao
Abstract: With the progress of modern information and Internet technology, the monetary services business has become one of the most far-reaching areas affected by the Internet after commercial distribution. Many Internet-based financial services models emerge as the times require, and have a profound impact on the related industries. At a similar time, with the fast growth of e-commerce in China, Internet finance is becoming a new financing force and a sharp tool to solve the funding problems of unimportant and micro-enterprises. The purpose of the P2P platform model is to provide a convenient and efficient online lending platform for borrowers who are in dire need of loans and investors who lack financial channels. As a pioneer of business innovation, Internet finance based on e-commerce platform has developed rapidly with its unique advantages. With the numerous risks, people's awareness of risk control has risen to a new level. To analyze the current development trend of P2P platform, this paper designs an innovative model combining the static credit information system of P2P platform and the dynamic monitoring of third-party payment platform based on the current credit rating system.
Keywords: P2P; Chinese E-commerce Enterprises; Internet Finance;.
THE ROLE OF AI ASSISTED SOCIO-CULTURAL FRAMEWORKS IN ACADEMIC CHANGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION GROWTH
by Ying Pan, Pingyu Yang
Abstract: The "growth" of academics in higher education is focused on quality improvements in teaching. However, the analysis has shown that the sense of academics significantly affects their practices that have been unaddressed due to inconsistent contextual conditions. This paper proposes a framework to study teachers' workplaces on the subjective factors that improve educational enhancement, supported by Artificial Intelligence (AI). Here, the administrative documents are analyzed in the theory of history and culture framework, and it provides a technique for both traditional data analysis and modeling estimation of individual output in the feedforward neural networks. A traditional statistical procedure is used to evaluate the variables that influence the success of students. Several differences in the teacher's socio-cultural context are identified based on the performance of the feed-forward neural network model, and it is measured by error rate reduction of 0.33, uncertainty matrix, the performance level of students. The feed-forward network model is the platform, and it is useful for predicting future academic Achievement of students. Departmental teaching cultures and behavioral practices have affected both positive and negative behavior in higher education teaching, which has been firmly addressed in this paper.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; socio-cultural context; higher education.
ACQUIRING AND PROCESSING MOVEMENT INFORMATION FROM VARIOUS SOURCES USING INTELLIGENT AI COGNITIVE MODEL FOR SPORTS ACTIVITIES
by Yingqing Guo, Xin Wang
Abstract: The overarching purpose of this research is to demonstrate the value of artificial intelligence (AI) strategies in sports for utilizing weight lifting policies. In specific, the work centered on the use of pattern recognition techniques to test training system exercises conducted for weight lifting policies. To quantify critical displacement and strength, the determinants during workouts has the data acquisitions that has been carried out using optimized force sensors linked with different weight machines. Consequently, certain essential properties such as time intervals or travel rates may be deduced based on the data collected using Artificial Intelligent (AI) techniques. These parameters has been used to create smart methods that adapt traditional machine learning principles for automatic evaluation of the exercise technique and provide adequate feedback. The obtained modeling results showed good performance and forecast results, which indicated the feasibility and the capacity of AI techniques when automatically measuring performance on weight training equipment has been analyzed.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligent; machine learning; cognitive; sports.
STUDY OF EMPLOYEE BEHAVIOR BASED ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LINGUISTIC AND SPEECH ANALYSIS
by Weixuan Hu, Shukuan Zhao
Abstract: Recently, the difference between the vision and experience of human resource management has been validated using Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. Further, computational strategies helps to analyses the employees Linguistic and speech analysis (AILSA) in an effective manner This research recognizes four difficulties in Human resource (HR) usage of data science practices: (1) HR concept complexity; (2) limited data collection limitations; (3) justice and legal limitations linked ethics issues; and (4) management feedback from workers by evidence-based Algorithms. Furthermore, to analyses the real solutions for these problems, AI-assisted concepts of superposition-causal reasoning, randomization and the formalization of procedures- could be economically validated and socially appropriate to use managerial data analysis which have been designed and developed.
Keywords: Employee behavior; Artificial Intelligence; Linguistic; Speech Analysis; Managerial Data Analysis.
25-year cycle evolution theory: relationship between German economic development mode and human resource management innovation after World War II
by Xinqi Lin, Jiawei Shi
Abstract: After the Second World War, Germany created the economic miracle by improve its economic development model, triggered many rounds of climax of management innovation. In 2011, some scholars proposed the 25-year cycle evolution theory. This paper review and analyses the German transformation of economic development mode and the history of the human resources management innovation in the last century. Then the study finds out the periodic features in the Germany case and deduces the 25-year cycle evolution theory and its role of the transmission mechanism. Finally, to represent the level of human resources management innovation, the study process the data of IMD World Talent Report conducted by International Institute for Management Development, and generated the human resources management innovation index. Moreover, to represent its economic development level, the study generates the GDP growth rate conversion index from the German historical GDP data. Meanwhile, the applied statistical test analysed the volatility characteristics and causation relationship between economic development and human resources management innovation. The empirical analysis also predicts the development trend in the future and verifies the rationality of the 25-year cycle evolution theory, and provides a solid mathematical foundation for further enriching the theory and its hypothesis.
Keywords: 25-year cycle evolution theory; Economic cycle; Economic Development Mode; Human resource management innovation; causality test.
Special Issue on: Supply Chain Innovation Management in the Uncertain Era
by Chenchen Yang, Junsong Bian, Yuqiao Zhang
Abstract: This paper considers a platform-based supply chain consisting of a firm launching a new product with a targeted promotion strategy based on innovation on a retailing platform. We examine the firm's optimal decisions on pricing, product quality design and promotional effort to deal with market uncertainty. First, with exogenous quality, we show that market size has a positive impact on the optimal effort level, which is contrary to the intuition that the optimal effort level decreases with the existing market size due to concave increasing costs. This is because the firm will increase the corresponding price if the market size increases, which makes the marginal income higher than the marginal cost. Therefore, the firm has an incentive to invest more effort in promotion. Furthermore, we study the scenario with endogenous quality but exogenous price and find that the optimal effort level will decrease with market size if the market size is sufficiently large. The reason is that retaining a marginal customer by improving quality is more economical than raising the promotion effort level in this case. Finally, with endogenous effort, price, and quality decisions, our result indicates that the firm exerts more efforts in such a platform-based targeted promotion than in the former scenarios when facing strict industry standards.
Keywords: product innovation; market uncertainty; targeted promotion; quality design; pricing; new product launching.