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International Journal of Technology Management

International Journal of Technology Management (IJTM)

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International Journal of Technology Management (46 papers in press)

Special Issue on: Intangible Assets and Innovation Management

  •   Free full-text access Open AccessThe role of pre-formation intangible assets in the endowment of science-based university spin-offs
    ( Free Full-text Access ) CC-BY-NC-ND
    by Andrew Park, Azadeh Goudarzi, Pegah Yaghmaie, Jon Thomas, Elicia Maine 
    Abstract: Science-based university spin-offs face considerable technology and market uncertainty over extended periods of time, increasing the challenges of commercialization. Scientist-entrepreneurs can play formative roles in commercializing lab-based scientific inventions through the formation of well-endowed university spin-offs. Through case study analysis of three science-based university spin-offs within a biotechnology innovation ecosystem, we unpack the impact of pre-formation intangible assets of academic scientists (research excellence, patenting, and international networks) and their entrepreneurial capabilities on spin-off performance. We find evidence that the pre-formation intangible assets of scientists endow science-based university spin-offs through the development of their entrepreneurial capabilities. A theory-driven model is developed depicting the role of pre-formation intangible assets and entrepreneurial capabilities in endowing science-based university spin-offs. Recommendations are provided for scholars, practitioners, and policymakers to more effectively commercialize high potential inventions in the university lab through the development and deployment of pre-formation intangible assets and entrepreneurial capabilities.
    Keywords: Intangible assets; entrepreneurial capabilities; university spin-offs; scientist-entrepreneurs; academic scientists; dynamic capabilities; pre-formation; firm performance; biotechnology; science-based ventures; international networks.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2022.10054449
  •   Free full-text access Open AccessResearching Together in Academic Engagement in Engineering: A study of dual affiliated graduate students in Sweden
    ( Free Full-text Access ) CC-BY-NC-ND
    by Karin Berg, Karin Berg, Maureen McKelvey, Maureen McKelvey 
    Abstract: This article explores dual affiliated graduate students, which conduct research involving both universities and firms, which we conceptualize as a form of academic engagement, e.g. knowledge networks. We explore what they do during their studies as well as their perceptions about their contributions to the firms capacities for technology and innovation. So far, university-industry interactions in engineering are less researched than other fields, and this qualitative study focuses upon one department of Electrical Engineering in Sweden. First, we define and describe how the partner firms and universities organize this research collaboration as a form of academic engagement. Secondly, we propose a conceptual framework specifying how graduate students act as boundary-spanners between universities and firms. This framework is used for the empirical analysis, when exploring their perceptions of impact. Our results reveal the details of how they primarily engage in problem-solving activities in technology, which augment particularly the early stages of absorptive capacities in firms. Hence, academic engagement through dual affiliated graduate students relies on very specific activities and purposes of indirect pathways on innovation, which has practical implications.
    Keywords: Intangible assets; Dual affiliated PhD students; academic engagement; engineering; university-industry interactions; collaborative research; boundary spanner; absorptive capacity; engineering.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2023.10055000
  • The Relationship Between Creative Slack as an Intangible Asset and the Innovative Capabilities of the Firm   Order a copy of this article
    by Patrick Cohendet, Olivier Dupouet, Raouf Naggar, Romain Rampa, Laurent Simon 
    Abstract: The notion of creative slack purposefully refers to the notion of organizational slack proposed by Penrose (1959), who suggested that managers in organizations always have some stock of unused resources that inevitably accumulate when developing projects and are the primary factors determining the growth and innovation of the firm.\r\nIn this contribution, we aim at adding a new dimension to the notion of organizational slack: Our view is that in many innovative organizations the slack of unused ideas is essentially a creative one, which is accumulated in diverse communities through multiple projects. This creative slack is as a key intangible asset and a source of knowledge creation and innovation. \r\nTo explain how organizations may benefit in terms of innovation of the creative slack accumulated by communities , we rely on the analysis of two case studies, that of the Hydro-Quebec research institute (IREQ), and of Ubisoft Montreal.\r\n
    Keywords: organizational slack; creative slack; communities; innovation capabilities; intangible asset; growth of the firm.

  • Knowing thy Neighbor: Creating and Capturing Value from a Firms Alliance Experiences   Order a copy of this article
    by Desmond Ng, Leonardo Sánchez-Aragón, Chrystol Thomas-Winston 
    Abstract: Intellectual Assets, especially its relational forms, have become increasingly important to explain a firm's innovation. To examine relational forms of intellectual assets (IA), this study theoretically and empirically advances a concept of alliance management capability (AMC) to explain the value creation and capture aspects of a firms innovation process. The concepts of Value-Creating Alliance Experiences (VCAE) and Value Capturing Alliance Experiences (VCPAE) were introduced in which a firms ability to learn from these alliance experiences increases the firms ability to discover and govern partnerships that bring the firms innovations to market. Hypotheses were developed and empirically examined in the biotechnology industry. A contribution of this study is that a firms VCAE and VCPAE introduce a greater openness to a firms innovation process. This openness enables a firm to better adapt and respond to the opportunities of the market and thus impact a firms competitive advantage to innovate.
    Keywords: Relational Intellectual Assets; Alliance management Capability; Innovation.

    by Cristiano Antonelli, Guido Pialli 
    Abstract: Over recent decades, advanced economies have been characterized by reduced rates of productivity. In this article, we advance the hypothesis that one of the potential causes of this trend might be the new knowledge capitalization practices. Capitalization of intangible assets is justified by the limited exhaustibility of knowledge, which implies its slow obsolescence and, hence, having the potential of being capitalized to reflect its prolonged period of contribution to productivity. However, the capitalization of an increasing proportion of the assets that initially were accounted for as labour or intermediate inputs is having a direct effect on increasing capital and theoretical output and reducing Total Factor Productivity (TFP). Our empirical analysis based on US-listed firms shows that the capitalization of knowledge strongly reduces both the levels of TFP and, because of its fast increase in the last two decades, its rates of growth.
    Keywords: Total Factor Productivity; Intangible capital; Productivity slowdown; Technology production function; Output elasticity of knowledge.

Regular Issues

  • Categorisation of mergers and acquisitions in Japan using corporate databases: A fundamental research for recommendation   Order a copy of this article
    by Bohua Shao, Kimitaka Asatani, Ichiro Sakata 
    Abstract: Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are recognized as an important strategy for corporate growth. In practice, M&A business requires significant time and energy investment and often fails. Hence, scientific M&A recommendation research is needed under such conditions. This study, focuses on M&A categorisation, which is fundamental for M&A recommendation. In this study, we used M&A data, financial data, and corporate data for M&A analysis. We found that the comparison of some financial indicators between the pairs of companies is informative for their relationships. We designed 14 features and used K-means clustering to categorise M&A cases. The 14 features are the features of acquirers, target features, and their relationship features. The M&A cases are categorised into clusters of distinctive characteristics such as additional consideration, high leverage, abundant experience, and more. Finally, we anticipated the M&A motivations of each cluster from these characteristics as well.
    Keywords: artificial intelligence; AI; clustering; mergers and acquisitions; M&A; prediction; recommendation; Japan.

  • Technical evolution and prediction of blockchain based on different evolution patterns by text mining and bibliometric methods   Order a copy of this article
    by Huiying Zhang, Runbo Zhao, Zuguo Yang 
    Abstract: Given the disruptive changes brought by blockchain in various industries, detailed evolutionary trajectories of blockchain technology (BCT) can enable us to learn it better. However, the evolution process is rarely explored in perspective of technology innovation management. A framework is proposed to analysis the evolution process of BTC based on different evolutionary patterns, which are constructed by the topic similarity relation. The results show: (1) BCT began to attract academic attention in 2017, mainly applying into the Internet of Things, financial services, healthcare, energy grids and smart contracts. BCT is adopted to solve privacy, trust and distributed problems in these fields. (2) Several valuable topics are identified as the emerging and lasting technical topics. (3) Two longest evolutionary paths are identified, one is related with the energy consumption issue caused by bitcoin mining, and the other one reveals the different developing stages of BCT applications based on the immutable characteristic.
    Keywords: Blockchain technology; emerging technology; topic relationship; evolutionary pattern; topic prediction; text mining.

  • Proactive environmental strategy, environmental innovation and firm performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaohong Liu, Zhaokun Guo, Yu Gong 
    Abstract: This paper investigates to what extent proactive environmental strategy (PES) can enable environmental innovation, and hence firm performance. Applying the theoretical lens of organizational ambidexterity, this study develops a research framework utilizing two PESs, i.e. environmental corporate social responsibility (ECSR) and environmental disclosure; three forms of environmental innovation, i.e. exploitative environmental innovation (EiEI), exploratory environmental innovation (ErEI); and a combination of EiEI and ErEI (CmEI). To examine the proposed hypotheses, a second-hand dataset including 658 Chinese industrial firms collated between 2010 and 2019 was employed for empirical analysis. The results reveal that, EiEI and CmEI can be enabled by both ECSR and environmental disclosure, whereas ErEI is facilitated by these two PESs with some years delay. Consequently, only CmEI has a positive effect on a firms performance. The derived implications for researchers and managers are also addressed.
    Keywords: proactive environmental strategy; environmental innovation; organizational ambidexterity; environmental corporate social responsibility; environmental disclosure; firm performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2022.10050795
  • How much do green and digital service innovations matter for firm performance? Understanding the mediating role of product creativity   Order a copy of this article
    by Mengmeng Wang 
    Abstract: The sudden outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has not only disrupted the worlds economy but has also profoundly changed the internal and external circumstances of its development. Amid this crisis, green and digital service innovations have increasingly become two key factors in sustainable development. Firms have become increasingly committed to meeting consumers growing demand for low-carbon sustainable development. For instance, they have enhanced their engagement in green and digital service innovations. Thus, this research theorizes and empirically examines the relationships among green and digital service innovations, product creativity, and firm performance. More specifically, I attempt to examine whether and how the two strategies affect product creativity in enhancing firm performance. I further consider product creativity to have two specific dimensions, namely, product effectiveness and novelty. Then, I explore how these dimensions contribute to the improvement of firm performance. More importantly, I provide an in-depth understanding of the roles of product effectiveness and novelty in mediating the potential effects of green and digital innovations on firm performance. The study provides insights to management scholars and offers practical guidelines on managerial actions that practicing managers can implement to understand and undertake service innovations in their new product development better.
    Keywords: green service innovation; digital service innovation; creativity; firm performance; China.

  • How does an employees green creativity influence environmental performance? Evidence from China   Order a copy of this article
    by Junbin Wang, Yangyan Shi, Mengmeng Wang, Byung Il Park, Michael Yao-Ping Peng, Nianqi Deng 
    Abstract: In recent decades, the literature has documented the importance of intellectual capital in corporate innovation and competitive edge. However, its influence on employee environmental performance in the Asia-Pacific region remains unclear. In this study, we used three multidimensional intellectual capital dimensions (i.e., green creativity, structural empowerment, and person-organization fit) to test the effects of employees green creativity on their environmental performance in organizational settings via the mediator of structural empowerment and examine whether person-organization fit moderated these effects. Using a sample of 235 Chinese employees working in different industries, we found that green creativity positively influences employees environmental performance. In addition, the effect is mediated by structural empowerment and moderated by person-organization fit. These findings may help firms in the Asia-Pacific region guide their employees daily activities to integrate potential environmental value into green innovation practice to enhance their competitiveness ultimately.
    Keywords: intellectual capital; green creativity; structural empowerment; person-organization fit; green innovation.

  • The technological traits of invention and the exit of high-tech startups   Order a copy of this article
    by Congshan Li 
    Abstract: Exit, either through initial public offering (IPO) or acquisition, represents success but is a low probability event for high-tech startups with technologically novel inventions. We theorize that IPO is a more probable exit route than acquisition for startups with technologically novel inventions, and that this relationship is positively moderated by the scientific knowledge origin and conventionality of inventions. We employ an improved measurement of technological novelty to empirically examine these hypotheses for a sample of healthcare startups. The empirical results support most of our hypotheses and indicate that when the invention of startups is characterized by either high novelty and high scientific knowledge origin or high technological novelty and low conventionality, acquisition might be more probable than IPO as an exit route.rn
    Keywords: technological novelty; high-tech startups; exit; IPO; acquisition.

  • Influence of Social Capital of Innovation Network on Innovation -- the Moderating Effect of Knowledge Sharing and Knowledge Diffusion   Order a copy of this article
    by Xin Jin, Min Zhang, Guanghua Sun, Tor Eriksson 
    Abstract: Using patent data from high-tech firms in China from the years 2007 to 2018 as a sample, this study constructs 3 networks of firm innovation, knowledge-sharing, and knowledge-diffusion to investigate the impact of social capital on exploratory innovation and exploitative innovation. The results indicate that, first, there exists an inverted U-shaped correlation between social capital, exploratory innovation, and exploitative innovation. Second, the knowledge-sharing network has a moderating effect only on the correlation between cognitive capital and exploratory innovation. Third, the knowledge-diffusion network moderates the correlation between social capital of innovation network and different kinds of innovation. This study expands current knowledge on the connotation of social capital theory in innovation networks, and the findings have important practical implications for how firms in various fields use social capital to achieve efficient innovation.
    Keywords: Social capital; Innovation network; Exploratory innovation; Exploitative innovation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2022.10055888
  • Influence of Digital Product Convergence on the Disruptive Susceptibility of Value Networks and the Disruptive Potential: a Replication Case Study of the German Digital Camera Market   Order a copy of this article
    by Eva Fritsch, Govinda Ahuja, Stefan Hüsig 
    Abstract: Convergence and disruption are often observed in digitalized markets however, the relationship between them is not well understood. This paper aims to analyse whether new-market disruptive innovation (DI) caused by a digital product based on convergence has any influence on the concepts of disruptive susceptibility (DS) and disruptive potential (DP). To achieve this, the frameworks created by Klenner et al. (2013) and Keller and H
    Keywords: convergence; digital disruption; disruptive innovation; disruptive susceptibility; mobile phone camera; replication; technology forecasting.

  • Networks and innovation: enhancing the knowledge through a bibliometric network analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Julián Cárdenas, José Luis Ortega, Manuel Fernández-Esquinas 
    Abstract: The relationship between networks and innovation has become a prominent research area due to the high popularity of network theories and methods to determine the drivers of innovation. However, little consensus on the understanding of networks and sources of innovation has been achieved. To evaluate the current state of the research, we perform a bibliometric analysis of the scientific production of networks and innovation published in journals listed in Scopus. First, we show the characteristics of scientific production: the main disciplines working in the field, the evolution over time, the contributing countries, the international collaborations, and the most cited and referenced publications. Second, through keyword co-occurrence, co-citation, and bibliographic coupling analyses, we pinpoint whether this apparently heterogeneous research area is based on a common or different schools of thought. This is the first comprehensive study offering a general overview of the leading trends in the scientific production of networks and innovation.
    Keywords: network analysis; social capital; networking; innovation; bibliometrics.

  • Compete or Not? Evidence from Global Biopharmaceutical Innovation and Market   Order a copy of this article
    by Lili Zhang, Ying Guo, Yi Zhang, Jun Su 
    Abstract: Its necessary to analyse the technological innovation and market from the global level. We pay attention to the biopharmaceutical industry to study the relationship between them. We find all the technological innovation, market size, and market competition are developing in increasing tendencies generally. But the tendencies change strongly when encountering major events. Market size is more effective than market competition when either one affects technological innovation. Market competition can only bring about slight innovations, but the market size can affect all kinds of innovations. Therefore, the best choice to develop technology is to expand its market, rather than to increase or decrease competition. However, the topic novelty and death still can only be resulted by global major events. At that time, the chance should be seized and cooperation should be emphasized on, since the urgent practical needs will accelerate the development of technology.
    Keywords: technological innovation; market competition; market size; biopharmaceutical.

  • The Co-evolution Mechanism of Policy Mixes and Innovation Ecosystems: a Case Study of the New Energy Vehicle Industry in China   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Policy mixes have a pivotal effect on the context of innovation ecosystem (IE). However, few studies investigate the relationship between policy mixes and IEs. This study explores the co-evolution process and driving forces of policy mixes and IEs using the case of Chinas new energy vehicle (NEV) industry. The results show that this process can be divided into four phases: layout, consolidation, optimization, and redirection. The driving forces of the co-evolution come from both policy mixes and the IE, including the pull of value adoption, the push of co-innovation, the guidance of policy strategy, the boost of policy instruments and the promotion of policy processes, and different forces play leading roles in different phases. The enlightenment is that policymakers should consider the evolution phases and the main driving forces of each phase.
    Keywords: policy mixes; innovation ecosystem; co-evolution; driving force; NEV industry; China; value adoption; policy strategy; policy instrument.

  • Globalization or Regionalization of Technological Knowledge Learning in Multinational Corporations   Order a copy of this article
    by Feng Zhang 
    Abstract: This study exams the relationship between a global or regional distribution of technological knowledge learning activities of large multinational corporations (MNCs) and firm performance. This study focuses on explorative and exploitative learning activities of the worlds largest MNCs in the electronics and pharmaceutical industries between 1980 and 2018. Herfindahl Index is adapted to measure globalization vs. regionalization as one continuous variable. We find that the regionalization of exploration and exploitation are positively associated with firm innovative and financial performance. For innovative performance, the regionalization of exploration and exploitation is particularly important for pharmaceutical firms. In contrast, the regionalization of exploitation for electronics firms and the regionalization of exploration for pharmaceutical firms contribute to firm financial performance. This study contributes to both the MNC and organizational learning literature and offers managerial implications on organizing technological competence creating activities in large MNCs.
    Keywords: Regionalization; globalization; geographical distribution; technological knowledge learning; multinational corporations.

    by Zhenzhen Zhao, Marie Haikel-Elsabeh, Patricia Baudier, Damien Renard, Alexander Brem 
    Abstract: This research aims to consider, in the context of smart objects, the interplay of motivated consumer innovativeness (MCI), satisfaction, and word-of-mouth (WOM). Following earlier behavioral research through three phases of attitudes (cognition, affection, and conation), the study proposes that functional, hedonic, and social MCI (cognition) are positively related to satisfaction (affection), thus positively influencing WOM engagement (conation). In addition, it is shown that functional and hedonic MCI moderate the relationship between social MCI and satisfaction. Two quantitative studies across two smart object categories (1129 users of wearables and 511 users of smart home objects) highlight that both functional and hedonic MCI positively relate to satisfaction and WOM. Though the effect of social MCI on satisfaction is non-significant for smart home objects and very low for wearables, our findings confirmed that social MCI has an indirect impact on satisfaction through functional and hedonic MCI in both product categories.
    Keywords: consumer innovativeness; internet-of-things; product adoption; satisfaction; smart home; smart objects; wearable; word-of-mouth.

  • Creative Transdisciplinary Architectural Design as Means for Realising the Sustainable Development Goals in the Built Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Rana Geith, Sherif Goubran 
    Abstract: Attaining the sustainable development goals (SDGs) requires solutions synthesising multidisciplinary knowledge. We argue that architecture embraces the creative transdisciplinary required to address sustainable development challenges in the built environment. The paper proposes a framework that builds on how architecture, as a practice, encompasses a series of design-thinking domains with open possibilities, potential, and power for innovation. This framework comprises nine design domains: building technology, building materials, building construction, building management systems, indoor climate, recycling advancements, spatial planning, urban planning, and strategic planning. The framework is used to analyse case studies and to highlight how creative transdisciplinarity, integrated through architectural design, advances the realisation of global goals. The findings emphasise the often synergistic and innovative nature of the architecture solutions that link to multiple design domains with the SDGs. The paper concludes with a matrix that shows the interlinkages between the design domains and the SDGs, revealing a complex array of connections and overlaps.
    Keywords: transdisciplinarity; sustainable development goals; SDGs; sustainability; built environment; architecture; design domains.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2023.10054611
  • Cyberpunk as a frame for institutional change through blockchain applications? A narrative analysis of three blockchain projects examining their goals regarding established institutions   Order a copy of this article
    by Jan-Peter Schmitten, Julien Bucher 
    Abstract: Introduced in 2009, the founding narrative of blockchain technologies is one of the failures of the banking system and the disappointed hopes of freedom and democracy of the early internet. Blockchain technologies could rectify the lost trust and fulfil lost hopes by changing institutional arrangements and by removing intermediaries that resemble the corporate behemoths imagined in cyberpunk fiction. Using Greimas’ actantial-model, this study analyses how cyberpunk references are used by blockchain projects to frame their aims in terms of institutional change for more desirable futures. This study highlights the role of fictional stories in framing innovation and how they can reveal the institutional goals of organisations. A contrasting case without cyberpunk underscores the interpretive flexibility of blockchain technologies in terms of their potential to complement, change, or replace current institutions, leaving the
    Keywords: blockchain; institutional change; cyberpunk; framing; narrative; actantial-model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2023.10054816
  • University incubators and entrepreneurial universities: a case study of the process of setting up a university incubator in a developing country   Order a copy of this article
    by Ulvick Houssou, Klaus Peter SCHULZ, Mahamadou Biga-Diambeidou, Serge Abihona 
    Abstract: Universities can play a role in promoting frugal innovation by encouraging the valorisation and transfer of research to the socio-economic world as well as the development of skills related to the employability of students. Specifically, through the practices it promotes, an entrepreneurial university can encourage innovations that will benefit vulnerable communities and act in response to their challenges. In a context of weak financial support from public authorities, the University of Abomey-Calavi set up a project to promote entrepreneurship that advances frugal innovation. The present study bases its approach on identifying the actors and factors that favoured the development of its incubation program, five years after its implementation. The same applies to the identification of the frugal innovation practices that it puts in place. The results show, among other things, that the university created a specific organisational framework, with a relatively long incubation period, and mobilising resources from local stakeholders.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial university; University of Abomey-Calavi; university incubator; frugal innovation; developing countries.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2023.10055111
  • Dependencies as a barrier for continuous innovation in cyber-physical systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Siri Jagstedt, Niklas Mellegård, Kenneth Lind 
    Abstract: In the automotive domain, as an example of cyber-physical systems, continuous software deployment is actively explored to deliver increasingly capable features to existing fleets of vehicles. The distributed nature of software coupled with tight hardware integration and potentially tremendous variability between vehicles make ensuring compatibility of updated software a significant challenge
    Keywords: dependencies; product architecture; cyber-physical system; continuous deployment; continuous innovation; automotive; multi-brand organisations; product platform.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2023.10055598
  • The impact of CSR disclosure and the roles of actors in the innovation ecosystem on firms' green innovation performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Si Zhang, Yixin Xie, Peipei Yang 
    Abstract: This study explores how the disclosure of corporate social responsibility (CSR) influences firms’ green innovation performance and specifically scrutinises the roles of actors in the innovation ecosystem, including suppliers, users, and governments. We investigate the green innovation performance of 79 listed firms with 337 firm-year observations in China, covering the period from 2006 to 2020. The results show that not only firms' CSR disclosure but also firms' suppliers and users who are experienced in green practices can improve firms' green innovation performance. Moreover, suppliers with much green practice experience are also found to positively moderate the relationship between CSR disclosure and firms' green innovation performance. This study provides a new lens through which to understand the mechanisms of firms' green innovation and provides policy-makers and managers with a different mentality when formulating regulations and innovation strategies.
    Keywords: CSR disclosure; innovation ecosystem; green practices; green innovation performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2023.10055948
  • Spatial Evolution and Driving Force of Green Technological Innovation in China: The Perspective of Innovation Ecosystem   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuxuan Tang, Qiangming Yan, Tingting Xie, Yubin Chen 
    Abstract: The green innovation ecosystem is a holistic structure, generating synergistic effects of the innovation subjects and innovation milieus, which lead to a distinctive increase in green innovation outputs. However, discussions on the temporospatial characteristics of the evolution pattern and the influential factors behind spatial evolution remain rather limited. This paper analyses the spatial evolution of green technology development with a sample of green patent applications at the provincial level in China from 20092019. It systematises the indicators of innovation actors and external factors for green innovation output, using principle-component methods and establishing geographically weighted regression. The results show that green innovation output appears to diffuse rapidly in China. The evolution of the spatial pattern follows high value concentration diffusing to low value areas. Morans I indicates that the spillover effect of technology demonstrates a strong spatial correlation, driving a balanced development of green technology. The external factors shaping the innovation ecosystem for green innovation mainly stem from the policy and infrastructure environment for green development, while financial resource investment in Chinas green innovation ecosystem is insufficient.
    Keywords: green innovation output; innovation ecosystem; Moran’s index; spatial evolution; technological development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2023.10055988
  • Technology transfers to whom and why? TERGM analysis across regional green technology transfer network in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Yufen Chen, Keping Wang 
    Abstract: Building and improving the national green technology transfer system is significant for maintaining regional sustainable development. Based on the interprovincial green patent transfer data from 2006 to 2020, this paper constructs China's regional green technology transfer networks (CGTTNs) and studies the evolution of structural properties and the mechanisms of endogenous evolution. Results from social network analysis (SNA) and temporal exponential random graph model (TERGM) show the following. Firstly, the relationships within CGTTN are becoming increasingly close. However, the ability and efficiency of CGTTN organisations to use and integrate supplementary resources still need to be improved. Secondly, CGTTNs experience structural dependence effects, and the Matthew effect is obvious. The technology flow of CGTTNs has hierarchical characteristics, but has not yet formed network clustering. Thirdly, CGTTNs have intertemporal dependence effects, and path dependence and path creation coexist. These findings help provide knowledge to accelerate the diffusion of regional green technology innovation.
    Keywords: green technology transfer; social network analysis; SNA; temporal exponential random graph model; TERGM; endogenous evolution mechanism.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2023.10056152
  • Promoting green innovations for SMEs in emerging economies: Exploring the role of value supporters in innovation ecosystems   Order a copy of this article
    by Shengxi Yang, Jiaming Yang, Yanting Guo 
    Abstract: Innovation ecosystems represent one of the effective solutions to drive green innovation in emerging economies. Despite joining the ecosystem, numerous small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) still face barriers in the implementation of green innovation. A specific type of complementors within the innovation ecosystem, namely value supporters, plays a pivotal role in facilitating the innovative activities of SMEs, yet the existing research has largely labelled it as a broad term of complementors without differentiating the heterogeneous traits and characteristic behaviours that determine their engagement in value creation activities. Following an inductive approach, we conduct an explorative case study on Bering 3D, a leading 3D printing company in China. Our findings show that the value supporter assists SMEs in achieving green innovation by supplementing, translating, and expanding mechanisms. These mechanisms are efficacious in reducing SMEs innovation resource constraints and boosting their initiative. We contribute to the innovation ecosystem and green innovation literature.
    Keywords: value support; innovation ecosystem; green innovation; emerging economy; small and medium-sized enterprises; SMEs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2023.10056229
  • Use Cross-border M&As to Build Innovation Ecosystems: ESG practices, Governmental Control, and EMNEs' Green Technological Innovation   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaoting Hu, Wenjing Lyu, Rongjia Zhang 
    Abstract: Multinational enterprises in emerging economies (EMNEs) increasingly leverage cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) to acquire strategic complementary assets to construct their innovation ecosystems. However, how will the EMNEs utilise the interactions between essential actors in their innovation ecosystems (i.e., EMNEs themselves, government, and national innovation systems) to conduct post-acquisition green innovation stays unclear. Based on the data of cross-border M&As completed by Chinese listed manufacturing firms during 20092015, this study finds that EMNEs environmental, social, and governance (ESG) practices positively affect their post-acquisition green innovation. However, the knowledge distance between China and the host countries weakens the relationship. Meanwhile, Chinese governmental control over the economy promotes EMNEs green innovation, and environmental subsidies strengthen the impacts. This study contributes to the innovation ecosystem and international business literature by shedding light on the construction of the innovation ecosystem of technology laggards and synergistically considering the influence of different actors involved and their interactions on EMNEs post-acquisition green innovation.
    Keywords: cross-border M&As; innovation ecosystems; green innovation; ESG practices; governmental control over the economy; EMNEs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2023.10056230
  • Effect of the Digital Transformation of Firms in a Developing Country on their Reverse Innovation: The Complementary Roles of Multi-Contexts   Order a copy of this article
    by Xu Chu, Yuntao Bai 
    Abstract: Reverse innovation (RI) research on multinational companies (MNCs) in developed countries has flourished, while the driving mechanism of RI in firms in developing countries remains understudied. From a resource dependence theory perspective, this study proposes that digital transformation (DT) can serve as a strategic arrangement with convergence, connectivity, and image-shaping functions to help overcome the liability of foreignness of firms in developing countries, thereby facilitating their RI. Our evidence of 17,397 observations from Chinese listed manufacturing companies supports the relationship between DT and RI. Additionally, we find that several contextual factors (e.g., executives' overseas backgrounds (OSB), firms' internationalisation degree (INT), and regional market intermediaries' development (RMI)) facilitate a positive DT-RI relationship by reducing firms' liability of foreignness. Our research contributes to RI's driving mechanism from firms in developing countries through the DT perspective and the awareness of the complementary roles of multi-contexts.
    Keywords: digital transformation; DT; reverse innovation; RI; multi-contexts; complementary roles.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2023.10056266
  • The complementary effect of quality management and proactive market orientation on radical product innovation under environmental uncertainty   Order a copy of this article
    by Younès El Manzani, Jean-Jack Cegarra 
    Abstract: Empirical research shows that there is a synergistic relationship between quality management and market orientation that promotes the creation and delivery of value, customer satisfaction and performance (El Manzani, 2021). By calling on the theory of dynamic capabilities, the main objective of this research is to enrich the literature by studying the effect of the complementarity between quality management and proactive market orientation on radical product innovation, considering the moderating role of environmental uncertainty in this relationship. The results of a quantitative study of 130 ISO 9001 certified companies that have rolled out radical product innovations reveal that the complementarity between quality management and proactive market orientation improves radical product innovation. This synergistic effect becomes more pronounced when the level of environmental uncertainty is high.
    Keywords: quality management (ISO 9001); proactive market orientation; PMO; TQM; complementarity; radical product innovation; RPI; environmental uncertainty; PLS-SEM; Morocco.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2023.10055635
  • Evaluating government intervention in academic entrepreneurship: an identity perspective and evidence from China   Order a copy of this article
    by Yijia Dai, Jing Xu 
    Abstract: Government often seeks the creation of academic spin-offs as a critical mechanism of technology transfer. However, most academic ventures that government backs do not grow as expected. This paper aims to re-examine the effect of government intervention from an identity perspective, claiming that government imposes a higher social vision than private investors do. By empirically investigating the performance of academic spin-offs listed in China between 2008 and 2016, we find that although spin-offs controlled by government exhibit weaker financial performance than those controlled by private investor, they produce more innovative outputs. Extending this identity view to management behaviour, we further find that certain governance mechanisms - financial incentives and ownership concentration - can moderate both the financial and innovative performance of spin-offs under government control, providing policymakers with an important lesson on adjusting strategies when engaging in academic entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: academic spin-offs; government intervention; academic entrepreneurship; identity theory; technology transfer; China.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2022.10052215
  • How firm's technology convergence effects market value: moderating effect of institutional contingencies in emerging markets   Order a copy of this article
    by Shuangying Chen, Feng Fu, Qiyue Li 
    Abstract: Although technology convergence has been examined by technological management literature, the effect of a firm's technology convergence on performance and the contingencies influencing the above relationship have remained largely unexplored. Drawing upon institutional theory and technological strategy perspective, this study examines how a firm's technology convergence influences market value and how institutional contingencies moderate the role in the markets of an emerging economy. The sample chosen is Chinese listed high-technology firms between 2002 and 2010. The findings indicate that the relationship between a firm's technology convergence and market value follows an inverted U-shaped pattern. The relationship is strengthened by political participation; however, it is weakened by strong regional intellectual property regimes and those with state ownership. This study provides theoretical insights and managerial implications that might underlie some of the key findings on technology convergence in emerging markets.
    Keywords: technology convergence; firm market value; political participation; state-owned enterprises; SOEs; regional intellectual property.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2023.10055634
  • Digital economy research: a bibliometric analysis of its evolution and future study areas   Order a copy of this article
    by Shao-Bu Wang, Xian-Hong Peng, Justin Zuopeng Zhang 
    Abstract: This paper explores the research themes, hotspots, and evolution process of the global digital economy by conducting a bibliometric analysis using VOSviewer and CiteSpace visualisation tools to sort out relevant literature. Extracting source data from the Web of Science database, we analyse the knowledge mapping structure of the international digital economy research and summarise its discipline distribution, research teams, journal distributions, research hotspots and evolution process. Our findings show that the global digital economy research has gone through different evolutionary periods: embryonic (1996-2008), development (2009-2016) and acceleration (after 2016). Privacy protection, business models, financial technology, entrepreneurship, internet, and infrastructure are hot areas of digital economy research. Information technology drives the further development of the digital economy. This study provides certain enlightenment for future digital economy research.
    Keywords: digital economy; bibliometrics; evolution; visualisation; research hotspot; innovation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2022.10052487
  • Cooperation alliance, technical value, and standards dynamics   Order a copy of this article
    by Weijun Cui, Cheng Sun, Guang Chen, Jue Liu, Jie Wu, Zheng Liu 
    Abstract: In this paper, based on ETSI data from the Searle Center and through the application of resource-based view (RBV) and prospect theory, the impact mechanism of a standards-setting cooperation alliance on standard dynamics is investigated from the perspective of a coopetition strategy. The impacts of size of cooperation alliance (SCA) on standard survival and advancement are studied, and the moderating effect of the technical value of standards is also explored. The research findings are as listed below: 1) the standards formulation SCA has a positive impact on standard survival; 2) the standards formulation SCA has a negative impact on standards advancement; 3) the technical value of standards has a significant positive moderating effect on the relationship between SCA and standard survival; 4) the technical value of standards has a significant weakening effect on the relationship between SCA and standards enhancement.
    Keywords: technical standards; cooperation alliance; standards survival; standards upgrading; technical value.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2023.10055636
  • Predicting future new technology trade relations among regional comprehensive economic partnership member countries - based on a link prediction method   Order a copy of this article
    by Xinli Qi, Changping Zhao, Yu Gong, Zhenghui Yuan, Yangyan Shi 
    Abstract: Based on 2009-2018 technical trade data, this article uses link prediction methods to explore RCEP's potential technological innovation cooperation and trade relationship rules from the perspective of physical topology networks and national node attributes, and to predict the possible RCEP technical trade links that may be established in the future. The research results show that: 1) the number of national trading partners in a node country has a positive impact on the potential links of its technology trade; 2) countries with technology trade cooperation will be more likely to conduct technology transactions in the future; 3) there will be more technology trade between RCEP and EU countries in the future; 4) ASEAN countries and enterprises have weak capacity to establish new technological trade relations. Priority should be given to expanding technology trade with other RCEP enterprises to enhance ASEAN's international technology trading capacity.
    Keywords: RCEP; international technology trade; technological innovation cooperation; social network; link prediction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2022.10052429
  • Supply chain sustainability during an uncertain environment: examining the moderating role of leadership support   Order a copy of this article
    by Sheshadri Chatterjee, Ranjan Chaudhuri, Demetris Vrontis 
    Abstract: The uncertain environment because of the COVID-19 pandemic has immensely impacted the global supply chain, as several countries-imposed travel restrictions. In such a situation, the present study aims at investigating impacts of customer relationship management (CRM) competency, information technology (IT) competency, and contingency management on supply chain management (SCM). The present work examines how leadership support affects supply chain sustainability. From theories as well as from literature inputs, we have developed a conceptual model. Validation of the conceptual model was done using the PLS-SEM technique to analyse 311 responses from the different organisations in India. The study found that CRM competency, IT competency, and appropriate contingency management have significant impacts on supply chain sustainability during uncertain environments. The role of the moderator 'leadership support' also impacts sustainability in supply chain during such crisis.
    Keywords: CRM competency; COVID-19; supply chain sustainability; SCS; IT competency; leadership support; contingency.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2022.10048431

Special Issue on: The Role of Technological Innovation for Pandemic Fighting The Case of COVID-19

  • Looking at Smart Cities Through the Lens of a Pandemic Era: A Systematic Literature Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Gabriel Souto Fischer, Vinicius Facco Rodrigues, Rodrigo Da Rosa Righi, Cristiano André Da Costa, Lucas Micol Policarpo, Rafael Gustavo Gaspar Silva 
    Abstract: Health institutions and hospitals are essential in ensuring the appropriate treatment of human health. One of the major concerns is the increasingly overcrowded patients care queues, who end up waiting for longer times without adequate treatment for their health situations. The global COVID-19 pandemic heightened this problem. In an increasingly connected environment, such as smart cities, people's health can be monitored, so scenarios requiring medical support can be identified beforehand. Looking at the literature, we did not find comprehensive surveys that address smart cities' approaches to handling the pandemic landscape. Based on this background, we propose a systematic literature review discussing the following issues: involved players and their interactions, processing techniques to generate value for the population, smart city architectures to cover pandemic situations, and data standards and technologies applied in this context. We have studied 58 articles, answering research questions regarding the abovementioned topics. As contributions, we add to the literature a state-of-the-art vision regarding challenges, open issues, and trends in the combination of smart cities and their support for pandemic situations.
    Keywords: Smart cities; Health; Sensors; Taxonomy; Pandemic; Healthcare environments; Survey.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2022.10053779
  • The Impact of New Media Technologies on Persuasive Communication in the Time of Global Crisis   Order a copy of this article
    by Talayeh Ghofrani 
    Abstract: Corona Virus global pandemic and the growing need of governments and health organizations to direct respected societies to conduct new behaviour and health protocols have stressed the critical role of persuasive communications. This paper intends to show how new digital technologies and social platforms have provided the effective tools and techniques required for such purposes. The paper focuses on different aspects of technology changes in persuasive communications, elaborates the critical factors for a persuasive strategy to be more effective, and shows how these factors can be used. The study classifies the main factors in provision and likelihood of acceptance of persuasive content and the role that technology plays in each factor. It also provides a new method for governments and health organizations to actuate the public into appropriate responses to the outbreak.
    Keywords: Persuasive Communication; Persuasive Technologies; Persuasive Contents; New Media Technologies; COVID-19.

  • Does Technological Proximity Accelerate Innovation Speed in R&D Collaboration? The Evidence of Rapid Vaccine R&D for Fighting COVID-19 Pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Xintong Wu, Weinan Wang 
    Abstract: With the urgency of COVID-19, international appeals encourage worldwide collaborations in rapid vaccine R&D. Rapid R&D projects raise the priority of innovation speed and call for the reconsideration of R&D collaboration mechanisms. This research focuses on R&D collaboration teams and examines the impact of technological proximity on innovation speed and its contingencies absorptive capacity and government involvement. Specifically, adopting the data of COVID-19 vaccine R&D projects from the WHO database, the results indicate that in R&D collaboration, technological proximity among partners makes an inverted U-shaped effect on innovation speed, which is positively moderated by the teams absorptive capacity. However, the moderating effect of government involvement is insignificant. This result provides implications for government officials and developers to balance technological similarity and heterogeneity, choose cooperation partners based on technological proximity, and achieve innovations rapidly.
    Keywords: Vaccine R&D; Rapid R&D programs; R&D Collaboration; Innovation Speed; COVID-19.

  • The preventive value effect of firm innovation: The impact of COVID-19   Order a copy of this article
    by Hongjun Xiao, Zhen Yang, Hongcheng Ling, Zhe Zhang 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted great pressure on firms to secure their survival and transformation in the face of external shocks. Firm innovation is an important way to effectively respond to external shocks and improve the contingency and dynamic capabilities of enterprises. This study uses Chinas Shanghai and Shenzhen A-share listed companies as the research sample to examine the preventive value of firm innovation given the impact of COVID-19 and verifies the moderating effect of enterprise internal control and corporate social responsibility. The findings show a significant positive correlation between firm innovation and cumulative excess return during the event window. The moderating effect test shows that internal control and corporate social responsibility have a positive moderating effect on the relationship between firm innovation and the event window, indicating that the two can enhance the preventive value of firm innovation in light of COVID-19.
    Keywords: COVID-19;Firm innovation; Preventive value; Corporate social responsibility; Internal control; Stakeholders.

  • How Influencing Factors of Intention to Use Smart Watches Changed in Pandemic Times in Germany A Comparison   Order a copy of this article
    by Kristina Hall, Severin Oesterle, Laura Watkowski, Christoph Buck 
    Abstract: The use of smart wearables, especially smartwatches, has increased significantly in recent years. Driven by the COVID-19 pandemic, personal self-tracking has never been more relevant. However, it is not yet clear which factors, functional or non-functional, influence the pre-adoption of smartwatches and to what extent the COVID-19 pandemic has changed their weighting. To address this research gap, we reviewed the relevant literature and subsequently developed a conceptual model based on existing acceptance models and analysed our online gathered empirical data using structural equation modelling. Our findings reveal significant differences over time, mainly driven by non-functional characteristics (i.e., perceived aesthetics, perceived price, perceived enjoyment). In addition, fashion consciousness seems to influence the relationship between perceived haptics and intention to use only during pandemic times. Our findings shed light on the importance of contextual behavioural changes on technology use and provide practical and theoretical implications for manufacturers, users, and society.
    Keywords: COVID-19; mHealth; intention to use; functional and non-functional factors; PLS-SEM; online survey; TAM; wearables; smart watches.

  • Firm and non-firm actor collaborations as a determinant of countries readiness, progress and success for developing COVID-19 vaccines   Order a copy of this article
    by Jahan Ara Peerally, Claudia De Fuentes, Fernando Santiago, Julia Paranhos 
    Abstract: Using the national technological capability (NTC) approach, we examine the influence of different configurations of firm and non-firm actors collaborations on countries level of readiness, progress and success for developing a COVID-19 vaccine. We create a country index which captures the spectrum from readiness, progress to success. The effects of NTC macro-level determinants and the micro-level collaborations on the index are informative. Higher levels of progress and success by countries are determined by (i) NTCs which focus on sound supporting healthcare institutions; (ii) advanced NTCs and advanced biopharmaceutical sector capabilities which also lead to better global collaborations by firm and non-firm actors; and (iii) non-firm sector collaborations. For lower readiness and progress countries, (i) the bulk of knowledge for developing a vaccine reside in interfirm collaborations; and (ii) non-firm collaborations negatively impact their readiness, progress, and success. We discuss the implications of these results for policy, practice, and future research.
    Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine; national technological capabilities; firms; non-firms; collaborations.

Special Issue on: Technology Management in Carbon Neutrality Challenges, Methods and Applications in Industry 4.0 Era

  • ICT-empowered rural e-commerce development in China: An adaptive structuration perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaoshan Yang, Yan Jiang, Xiaowei Chen, Fu Jia 
    Abstract: The emergence of e-commerce has rejuvenated Chinas backwards and poor remote rural areas. However, knowledge about how information and communication technology (ICT) develops e-commerce business in rural areas is still limited. From the perspective of adaptive structuration theory (AST), we conducted an in-depth case study of four typical e-commerce companies in Chinas rural areas. The findings suggest that, facilitated by ICT, the development of rural e-commerce consists of the formation of platform strategy (including quality management and revenue structure) and the enactment of related services (including supply chain management and marketing services). This process is influenced by firm-specific characteristics and ultimately leads to the intended/unintended outcomes for e-commerce companies and rural development. This study contributes to the information systems (IS) literature by explaining how e-commerce companies utilize ICT to develop their e-commerce business in rural areas from a novel AST perspective.
    Keywords: ICT; e-commerce business; case studies; adaptive structuration theory; China.

  • Impact of Green Subsidies on Green Innovation of Environmental Service firms in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaofeng Xu, Xiangyu Chen, Yiqi Li, Guangrui Jiang 
    Abstract: This research investigates the influence of green subsidies on the green innovation of environmental service firms using multiple linear regression. It covers the years 2014 through 2020 for environmental service firms listed on the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges. The results demonstrate that (1) green subsidies can encourage the green innovation of environmental service firms, and research and development (R&D) investment mediates this effect; (2) the intensity of environmental regulation moderates the relationship between R&D investment and green innovation in a negative manner; and (3) in less developed regions, green subsidies are more effective for promoting green innovation. These findings may assist the Government in establishing green subsidy programs and developing sensible environmental policies to promote the green development of environmental service firms.
    Keywords: green subsidies; green innovation; environmental regulation; environmental service.

  • A Study on the Influence of Government Subsidies on Enterprises Innovative Performance in Chinese Patent-Intensive Industries   Order a copy of this article
    by Yifan Zhang, Yunfei Liu, Jingjing Wang, Nuozhou Huang 
    Abstract: The purpose of this article is to analyze the impact of government subsidies on investments in research and development (R&D) and the innovative performance of Chinese patent-intensive industries. Patent-intensive industries listed on the Shenzhen and Shanghai Stock Exchanges from 2013 to 2019 were chosen as the research samples, and the study methods included univariate linear regression and exponential regression analyses. The principal results were as follows: (1) Government subsidies had a direct positive effect on firms' innovative performance, and R&D investment played a mediating role. (2) This facilitation effect was greater in state-owned enterprises. (3) The facilitation was also higher in the Greater Bay Area. Accordingly, the government should increase innovation R&D subsidies for patent-intensive enterprises, while enterprises should improve their R&D capabilities, thereby boosting their efficiency of innovation transformation.
    Keywords: Government subsidies; R&D investment; innovative performance.

  • How does Product Innovation Affect the Performance of University-industry Collaboration? A Dynamic Knowledge Transfer Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Huiyong Yi, Qian Zhang 
    Abstract: Product innovation is gradually being noticed in university-industry collaboration (UIC), yet research on its impact on performance is scarce. A dynamic knowledge transfer perspective is presented in our paper, which is an integration of the dynamic nature of knowledge transfer and dynamic strategies, exploring R&D effort strategies in UIC. Further, we apply a Stackelberg differential game to portray the knowledge transfer process and investigate how product innovation affects UIC performance. The results indicate that in the scenario where the leadership positions of the two participants can be interchanged, stronger performance occurs in the case of university leadership. Equilibrium strategies that maximize the revenues always exist no matter who is the game leader, and revenues are U-shaped correlated with product innovativeness. Intriguingly, our research shows that enterprises' revenue-sharing ratios don't always lead to higher profits. Our study provides several insights for both universities and firms.
    Keywords: university-industry collaboration; performance; knowledge transfer; Stackelberg differential game.

  • Do carbon emissions trading pilots effectively reduce CO2 emissions? County-level evidence from eastern China   Order a copy of this article
    by Jian Yang, Chunli Liu, Xin Liu 
    Abstract: Over the past few years, China has been committed to effectively controlling greenhouse gas emissions and achieving peak the carbonemissions in 2030 and carbon neutrality in 2060. For these purposes, China has taken a series of measures to strengthen intervention in industrial carbon emissions, among which the most important is a pilot project on carbon emissions trading since 2013. Few previous studies conducted on the emission-reduction effect of pilot projects have been from a county-level perspective. In this study, we employ a differences-in-differences method to empirically estimate the policy effect of such a pilot project, based on county-level data covering 413 units in eastern China. Our major findings show that carbon emissions trading polits have an effective emission-reduction effect on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, while reporting a positive correlation with CO2 emission intensity. Another major finding is that the Environmental Kuznets Curve holds for the relationship between carbon emissions and economic growth. Our findings on the trading pilot suggest that governments at all levels should continue promoting a trading market framework that considers the regional heterogeneity. Additional measures should also be taken to create positive policy effects on carbon efficiency.
    Keywords: carbon emissions trading pilot; CO2 emissions; CO2 emission intensity; emission-reduction effect.