Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Technology Management

International Journal of Technology Management (IJTM)

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International Journal of Technology Management (55 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • R&D investment along the firm life-cycle: New evidence from high-tech industries   Order a copy of this article
    by Cheng Yang, Ye Hua, Zhongsheng Hua 
    Abstract: Traditional life-cycle theory typically holds that firms are more innovative in their earlier life-cycle stages than in their later stages. However, this may not apply to firms in high-tech industries that heavily rely on innovation to build competitive advantages and that are equipped with rich innovation-related knowledge. This paper analyses R&D investment along the life-cycle for firms in high-tech sectors. We suggest that in addition to the introduction stage, firms motivation to make R&D investment is also higher in the decline stage than in other stages because firms resort to innovation to increase competitiveness in their decline stage. Besides, rich external and internal innovation-related knowledge further increases firms confidence in resorting to innovation. We also investigate the boundary conditions of the hypothesised baseline effects by considering the moderating effects of three environmental factors (environmental complexity, environmental dynamism and environmental munificence). Analyses of a dataset consisting of high-tech manufacturing firms during 1989-2018 reveal that in comparison with firms in other stages, firms in introduction and decline stages make more R&D investment, especially in complex and moderately munificent environments. In addition, environmental dynamism significantly reduces R&D investment motivation in the decline stage but does not influence it in the introduction stage. Our results offer insights into high-tech firms innovation pattern along their life-cycle.
    Keywords: R&D investment; firm life-cycle; high-tech industries; environmental complexity; environmental dynamism; environmental munificence.

  • Income Approach to Technology Valuation for Innovations   Order a copy of this article
    by JoonWhan Oh, Hyun Woo Park 
    Abstract: Until now, technology valuation has been dominated by the income approach, a forward-looking methodology that discounts future cash flow. To account for risk in technology valuation of innovations, a typical net present value (NPV) method is complemented with real option valuation method. Even though real option techniques account for risk changes in practice, such models are subject to criticism for reasons of mathematical complexity. We propose a modified income approach we refer to as Innotech that incorporates innovation characteristics and industry characteristics into the valuation model. Our modified approach for the valuation of innovative technology reduces challenges related to mathematical modeling and dependency on factors such as risk premium, expected cash flows and contributory charge.
    Keywords: technology valuation; innovative technology; net present value (NPV); innovation characteristics; industry characteristics.

  • Smart Factory: A Game Changer or Another Fad in the Era of Fourth Industrial Revolution   Order a copy of this article
    by Hokey Min 
    Abstract: With rapid technological innovations, todays world is often characterized by never-ending changes in our life styles, socio-economic status, and interactions among ourselves. These changes are further accelerated with the emergence of the fourth industrial revolution (industry 4.0) that started in Germany in 2011. In particular, this revolution has begun to transform the way we manufacture products and deliver those products to customers. One of those transformations includes the increasing adoption of smart factory concepts. Despite increased attention to a smart factory, its fundamentals, application areas, and potential impacts on firm performances are not well documented in the literature. To help manufacturing firms better understand smart factory concepts and successfully build a smart factory within a supply chain, this paper synthesizes the evolution of smart factory concepts, designs underlying architecture, develops specific milestones for monitoring the progress of smart factory adoption, and then identifies key success factors for its implementation in global business environments.
    Keywords: smart factory; fourth industrial revolution; technological innovation; change management.

  • Single- or multi-sided business models: How does time perception influence business model choice?   Order a copy of this article
    by Ritalba Lamendola, Corine Genet 
    Abstract: Various cognitive factors can influence managerial decisions about business models; in particular, this article reveals how time representation affects entrepreneurs business model choices over time. By studying four start-ups pursuing emerging Internet-of-Things applications in real-life contexts, this article reveals that when the entrepreneurs perceive time urgency, they rely on information and knowledge from their personal backgrounds and adopt single-sided business models. Conversely, when no perceived time urgency exists, entrepreneurs devote more time to exploring their environments and can develop alternative business model configurations. This research contributes to debates about the relationship between technology and business models and reveals that the type of technology affects an entrepreneurs time perception, which influences business model choice. The findings then can help entrepreneurs select a business model by acknowledging how their unconscious mental representation of time influences their choice.
    Keywords: bbusiness models; time perception; multi-sided business model; Internet of Things (IoT); business model process; business model and technology.

    by Isabel Diez-Vial, Jose Antonio Belso-Martínez, Mª José Lopez-Sanchez 
    Abstract: The objective of this research is to identify the alliance network configuration that would be best for improving an organizations innovation capacity. We focus on the ego-network that each innovating organization establishes with its partners to evaluate how partner centrality, constraint and novelty affect how organizations harness exploration and exploitation in their innovation capacity. We also differentiate between scientific agents (mainly universities, research labs, and hospitals) and other organizations. Empirical evidence has been gathered for 133 Spanish biotechnology organizations from 2006 to 2016, which resulted in 1,197 observations. The results indicate that exploration innovation capacity is positively related to organizations that are central, while exploitation is positively related to constraint and negatively influenced by the addition of new partners. The ego-network of scientific agents is also characterized by high centrality, but high constraint configurations negatively affect their exploration innovation capacity, while alliances with new partners benefit their exploitation capacity.
    Keywords: exploration; exploitation; ego-networks; alliance; supporting organizations.

  • Two Stages' Performance Analysis of Taiwanese IC Design Industry: A Dynamic Network Slacks-Based Data Envelopment Analysis Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Ching-cheng Lu, Xiang Chen 
    Abstract: The Integrated Circuit (IC) industry is a very significant role for Taiwanese exports, since Taiwan is a trade-oriented small open economy. This paper is to assess the performance of efficiency and total factor productivity (TFP) of the 47 publicly-traded companies in Taiwans IC design industry by applying the dynamic network non-oriented slacks-based data envelopment analysis models (DN non-oriented DEA models) to estimate dynamic efficiency score and Malmquist Index. The aim is to evaluate their production, market, overall efficiencies and the productivity change between 2010 and 2014.The dynamic efficiency measure indicates the level of efficiency increases in the first two years, after then declines. Malmquist productivity analysis shows a significant decline in the production stage between 2010 and 2014. It is suggested that Taiwanese IC Design Industry should strength the exchange of the IC design experience and try to cooperate with universities in research and development to improve production performance.
    Keywords: IC Design Industry; Dynamic network DEA; SBM; Operational Efficiency; Malmquist Productivity Index.

  • The Repelling Factors of the Management Accounting Methods under the COVID-19Case Studies Based on the Scenario of Private Enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Chunyan Yang, Chunyan Yang, Chunyan Yang, Fangxin Di, Fangxin Di, Fangxin Di 
    Abstract: The new crown epidemic has brought various impacts to companies such as shrinking front-end consumption, and restricted personnel mobility. It also brings severe challenges to companys normal production and operation. Since the outbreak of the epidemic, all private enterprises have overcome numerous difficulties and made every effort to promote the resumption of work and production in an orderly manner while organizing member units to prevent and fight the epidemic. This article first briefly introduces the measures and effects of private enterprises in response to the epidemic. After the resumption of work and production, in order to reduce the probability of infection on the way, more families choose to travel in private cars, and passenger traffic is expected to rebound sharply. Due to the impact of the epidemic on people\'s psychology, the recovery time span of passenger traffic may be even greater, and it is expected to continue until the end of the second quarter, or even the third quarter. In terms of freight, the impact of the delayed resumption of work on society is expected to be compensated after the resumption of work. At the same time, in order to stabilize the economy, the central government will also introduce more loose fiscal policies, strengthen economic development momentum, and promote a substantial release of road freight traffic.
    Keywords: Repelling factors; Management accounting methods; COVID -19; Private enterprises.

  • Managing Platform-based Ecosystems in B2B Markets: Out-bound Open Innovation Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Chung-Lin Tsai, Joon Mo Ahn, Letizia Mortara 
    Abstract: Technology advancements are underpinning firms in shaping their products and services into digital platforms to foster value co-creation in their platform-based ecosystems. While existing research has mainly focused on business-to-customer (B2C) platforms, relatively little research has been conducted on business-tobusiness (B2B) platforms. To address this research gap, this study employs a case study approach to collect and examine three out-bound open innovation (OI) application cases in the context of B2B platforms, namely, TSMC, IBM and CNT Tech. The case analysis results show that the coverage of B2B markets can be expanded and diversified by OI. To improve the quality of platform offerings (not only platform services but also complementary innovations), the case firms implemented OI applications comprising two phases that manage knowledge outflows (with boundary resources) and inflows (with input/output controls) across their organisational boundaries. Knowledge sharing provided a B2B platform owner new market creation opportunities, and complementors combined and pivoted some of the platform owners core technologies, consequently diversifying the platforms applications and making platform ecosystem more dynamic and vibrant.
    Keywords: platform-based ecosystems; digital platforms; out-bound open innovation.

  • Private Value of Innovation in Canadian Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Bonwoo Koo, Brian Cozzarin 
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to measure and quantify the private value of innovation, in contrast to other studies which use a partial equilibrium approach to estimate the social value of innovation. We use firm-level revenue and expenditure data to create industry level returns to an average manufacturing firm. We show that firms that perform both product and process innovations reap more than those that perform either process innovation or product innovation in isolation, and product-only innovators reap larger rewards than process-only innovators. The industrial profile of innovation in Canada ranks the transportation sector first, and the remaining top five industries are primary metals, petroleum-chemical-pharmaceuticals, food-beverages, plastics-rubber and wood. While Canada is no longer a country of just Hewers of wood and drawers of water, a recent $2.2 billion Federal program targets primarily the transportation-aerospace sector to the detriment of the less newsworthy sectors.
    Keywords: private value; innovation expenditure; product innovation; process innovation.

  • Strategic Focus, Strategic Blur, and Environmental Turbulence in Nascent Entrepreneurial Ventures   Order a copy of this article
    by Gregory Stock, Christopher McDermott, Margaret McDermott 
    Abstract: This study examines how strategic focus, strategic blur, and environmental turbulence affect performance in nascent entrepreneurial ventures. We build on the idea of Porters (1980) generic strategies to develop the constructs of strategic focus and strategic blur. Strategic focus is conceptualized as an emphasis on a single competitive priority, while strategic blur is conceptualized as the opposite of strategic focus and is defined as the simultaneous emphasis on all competitive priorities. In addition, we consider how environmental turbulence moderates the effects of focus and blur on venture performance, which is measured by the attainment of initial profitability. We employ data from the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics II (PSED II), and we find that focus does not have a significant effect, either directly or in combination with turbulence. However, the interaction between strategic blur and environmental turbulence is significant. We conclude with implications for research and practice.
    Keywords: Strategic focus; strategic blur; turbulence; nascent; entrepreneurial ventures; Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics II; strategy; competitive priorities; logistic regression; competitive environment; operations.

  • Uncertainty Measurement and Regional Comparison of the Technology Transfer Process an Empirical Study Based on Data from 30 Provinces in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Yingying Qiu, Feng Feng, Leiyong Zhang 
    Abstract: Technology transfer is a stage-by-stage process that is full of uncertainties. This study uses a Graphical Evaluation Review Technology (GERT) network to construct an uncertainty measurement model of the technology transfer process. In addition, the science and technology data input from the 30 provinces and autonomous regions of the provinces in China are used to measure the uncertainty associated with technology transfer in each province. It is concluded that the uncertainty associated with technology transfer in China varies from region to region and has a negative correlation with the level of economic development. Thereafter, with the help of construction of uncertainty difference matrix, the policy recommendation is put forward that reducing target phase uncertainty can largely promote transformation of science and technology.
    Keywords: Technology transfer; Uncertainty; Graphical Evaluation Review Technology network; Target stage; Difference matrix.

  • How Does a New Venture Build a New Products Legitimacy? Evidence from Digital Innovations in an Established Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei Zhang, Liyan Wang, Yongyi Zhao, Qixin Ye 
    Abstract: Any significantly new product will face legitimacy challenges when it enters the market, and even more so when launched by a new venture. We draw on an in-depth case study to explore the challenge of achieving product legitimacy, defined as a generalized perception or assumption that the features of a product are desirable, proper or appropriate within a business ecosystem with a particular set of norms, values and beliefs. From our analysis of a new venture who applied new digital technology to successfully launch new products in an established industry and emerging economy context, we identify four strategies by which the venture built legitimacy for its new products: orienting, leveraging, designing and enacting. We also find, by adopting appropriate ecosystem strategies, the venture was able to increase the value creation for customers and further enhance the legitimacy of their new products. This suggests that economic factors, rather than social factors that are more often highlighted in studies based in institutional theory, may have the greatest impact on the legitimacy of new products.
    Keywords: New venture; new product; legitimacy; entrepreneurship; strategy; digital innovation; ecosystem; value creation; established industry.

  • Mission-based Strategic Management Model for National R&D Programs in Korea   Order a copy of this article
    by Jae-Keun Lee 
    Abstract: Korea began rapidly industrializing in the early 1980s, following a drastic increase in its R&D budget. However, continued growth has made national R&D program governance complex and has created a chronic overlap in R&D investments. This study proposes a systematic approach for the effective management of Koreas national R&D programs. The discussion begins by reviewing each programs raison d
    Keywords: national R&D program; Korea; governance; mission; strategic program portfolio model; mission construct; mission fulfilment; mission uniqueness.

  • Impact of Partner Heterogeneity on Innovation Performance through Interaction Behavior in Chinese Complex Product R&D Industries   Order a copy of this article
    by Naiding Yang, Fangmei WangDu, Yanlu Zhang 
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of partner heterogeneity, in terms of knowledge, resource, cognitive, and ecological, on innovation performance with the mediation role of interaction behavior through interactive innovation lens. The analysis of 206 survey questionnaires reflects that knowledge and resource heterogeneities significantly and positively affect interaction behavior and innovation performance. Ecological heterogeneity has an inverted U-shaped effect on interaction behavior and innovation performance. Cognitive heterogeneity has an inverted U-shaped effect on innovation performance but is insignificant to interaction behavior. Interaction behavior is significantly related to innovation performance as well as mediates the effects of partner heterogeneity except for cognitive heterogeneity. The presence of circular causality and self-reinforcing mechanisms between partner heterogeneity and innovation performance were first confirmed in our study. The study contributes to the theory of interactive innovation, partner heterogeneity, and innovation management literature. To practitioners in Chinese complex product R&D industry, this study advises to interact with the industry players at multiple levels, however, the gap with respect to cognition and geography must not be too high.
    Keywords: Partner heterogeneity; Interaction behavior; Innovation performance; Complex product; R&D.

  • The Influencing Factors of Industry Innovation Networking: Evidence from Shanghais High-tech Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Xianzhong Cao 
    Abstract: The influence factor of innovation network is an important research field of human geography. This paper aims to examine the factors, paths, and mechanisms influencing networking of Shanghai's high-tech industry with focus on the biomedical, new material, equipment manufacturing and electronic information. Based On the data from high-tech firms annual reports by Shanghais Science and Technology Commission, the results highlight that firm development stage, firm scale, and industry position as the main factors promoting innovation networking. In addition, government intervention plays the largest role in the new material industry mainly through investment in innovation activities and taxation intervention in innovation network construction. The impact of firm ownership, spatial location, and intermediary services on the four high-tech industries innovation networks is relatively smaller. Finally, this study summarizes the impact mechanisms for innovation networking in Shanghais high-tech industries.
    Keywords: innovation networks; influencing factors; high-tech industry; Shanghai; structural equation model; impact mechanisms.

  • Establishing regional institutions to facilitate university entrepreneurship in China: A grounded model of resource acquisition processes   Order a copy of this article
    by Shisong Jiang, Yanping Li, Limin Gong, Hui Yan 
    Abstract: This study introduces a new organisational form of university entrepreneurship: Research University Affiliated Regional Institutions (RUARIs). RUARIs are established by their parent universities and hosted by governments in different regions, with the aim of facilitating university entrepreneurship. On the basis of an inductive multiple-case study of four RUARIs located in Suzhou, Jiangsu, China, we develop a grounded model of the resource acquisition process to explain how research universities are motivated to establish their RUARIs and how they could facilitate RUARI performance. We found that research universities establish RUARIs with the motivation of acquiring external resources from host regions, and the economic and institutional distance between the home and host regions determines potential external resource acquisition. After entry, parent universities use two types of administration strategies, namely, autonomy delegation and resource backing, which influence RUARI performance. On the one hand, autonomy delegation plays a key role in realising the potential external resource acquisition determined upon entry. On the other hand, resource backing can be translated into internal resource acquisition. Finally, realised external and internal resource acquisitions are both beneficial to RUARI performance.
    Keywords: University entrepreneurship; Research universities; Regional institutions; Resource acquisition; Autonomy; Economic distance; Institutional distance.

Special Issue on: Academic entrepreneurship in an Open Innovation world a way to overcome the resources shortage of academic spinoffs

  • Presenting a Paradigmatic Model for Conceptualization of Open Innovation Ecosystem in Start-ups Using Meta-Synthesis Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammd Reza Fallah 
    Abstract: Globalization and increasing growth of technology as well as the changes in business environment have put start-ups in a difficult situation. Innovative tools like open innovation ecosystem are the best strategy to deal with these situations and gain a sustainable competitive advantage. The present study attempts to provide a paradigmatic model for conceptualization of the open innovation ecosystem in start-ups. Regarding the strategy, the current study employs a qualitative approach, and regarding its objective, the research is fundamental and descriptive-analytical in terms of its nature and method. To collect data, the meta-synthesis approach was utilized and the articles related to the research topic, published between 2010 and 2019, were reviewed. After analyzing the research findings via Glasier Granded Theory, 105 indicators/drivers were identified and 48 concepts were labeled into four categories and 15 sub-categories. The results showed that multiple absorptive capacity through dynamic facilitators and innovative empowerment , recombining shared synergy through engaging key customers, competitors, enterprises, businesses, and innovation centers, and the conceptualization and creation of open innovation ecosystem are possible.
    Keywords: open innovation ecosystem; dynamic facilitators; innovative empowerment; multiple absorptive capacity; shared synergy.

  • From Ecosystem to Community. Combining Entrepreneurship and University engagement in an Open Innovation perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Mariarosalba Angrisani, Davide Dell'Anno, Tom Hockaday 
    Abstract: The paper provides a new perspective for the analysis of academic entrepreneurship dynamics in an evolving Open Innovation context. Starting from an overview of the innovation (eco)systems approach and a focus on university engagement, we propose a paradigm shift towards the conceptualisation of an Innovation Community (IC) within and around Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) boundaries. The main goal of the study is to show that the concept of Innovation Community can be applied to a Knowledge-Intensive Hub, where open innovation processes successfully enhance knowledge flows in the context of advanced education programmes and spin-off firm creation and management. Our research is explorative in nature and contemplates examples of Open Innovation (OI) practices implemented inside a Knowledge-intensive Hub of an HEI that involves innovation, technology, and knowledge transfer processes. In order to achieve such aim, we chose to resort to a multiple case study methodology involving two typologies of technology transfer namely, one spin-off firm and two advanced post-graduate programmes including a private-public partnership. The unit of analysis selected for the study is a knowledge-intensive Hub which is expected to be addressed as an Innovation Community. The early outcomes confirm that the Innovation Community view can acquire a theoretical relevance when referring to open innovation contexts involving public, private, and institutional sectors. Regarding useful implications for practitioners, our research designs a further framework for technology transfer operators as well as for institutions at both local and national level to promote academic entrepreneurship in open innovation contexts.
    Keywords: Innovation ecosystems; University Engagement; Innovation Community; Academic Entrepreneurship; Technology Transfer; Open Innovation.

  • Analysis of the survival determinants of University Spin-Offs in a cross-national sample   Order a copy of this article
    by David Rodeiro-Pazos, María Jesús Rodríguez-Gulías, Sara Fernández-López, Antonio Prencipe, Christian Corsi 
    Abstract: Understanding the dynamics related to university survival is a critical point for scholars and policymakers, especially in the technology transfer process. Drawing on the population and organizational ecology perspectives and the resource-based view of the firm, this paper aims to investigate the survival determinants of University Spin-Offs (USOs). After applying event analysis techniques in a cross-national dataset of 1,275 Italian and Spanish USOs over the period 2005-2013, the findings show that firm size, firm age, industrial partners, and firm efficiency positively influence the USOs survival, whereas patent activity decreases the USOs chances to survive. Additionally, a U-shaped relationship between financial leverage and the USOs survival emerges. Based on the emerging evidence, some policy and managerial implications are provided to help USOs to cross their Valley of Death.
    Keywords: university spin-off; firm survival; event analysis; cross-national; resource-based theory.

  • Innovative Difference Based on Genetic Distance Model: An Empirical Analysis of Technology Innovation   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhenhong Xiao, Kwanghun Kim, Kumchol Ri 
    Abstract: Technology innovation is a key driving force for economic growth, and many factors influence the difference in technological innovation between regions. In this paper, a new interpretation of the difference of technological innovation between countries from the genetic point of view of the organism was carried out. It is assumed that genetic differences between regions expressed as genetic distances in the paper may have a significant impact on the degree of innovation. Recently, a great deal of attention has been focused on identifying the migration path of ethnic groups using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) or finding the origin of each race. In order to conduct this study, genetic distances are measured by using various measures among ethnic groups, and their values are compared and analyzed. These measures, however, compare their values to each other, but they may say that the genetic distance are farther or closer, but statistically, they do not provide a significant difference between the proportions of alleles that constitute single nucleotide polymorphism among ethnic groups. This study demonstrates that there is a relationship between the test statistic about genetic equivalence and the genetic distance measure between two ethnic groups. Using this, the effects of genetic distance on the gap between technological innovations between individual countries were experimentally analyzed. As a result, both the absolute genetic distance and the relative genetic distance, which are indicators reflecting the genetic distance, showed a significant positive effect on the gap of technological innovation. In other words, the farther the genetic distance is, the larger the gap of technological innovation becomes.
    Keywords: Genetic distance; Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); Technological innovation; The absolute genetic distance; The relative genetic distance.

  • Government support, different types of collaborative R&D input, and performance: Evidence from China   Order a copy of this article
    by Hua Cheng, Zhiying ZHANG, Joseph Martial Nkongo Mvondo 
    Abstract: University-research institute-industry collaboration (URIC) has been widely regarded as one of the contributors to successful innovation. Research on the effects of subsidies and tax incentives on universities-research institute-industries collaborative innovation has received wide attention. This empirical study analyses whether tax incentives and government R&D subsidies could promote the input and output of URIC using panel data of China from 2009 to 2015. The result shows that tax incentives and subsidies to universities, to research institutes, and to industries, have significant effect on the input and output of URIC. The effects on output in descending order are subsidies to universities, subsidies to research institutes, subsidies to enterprises, and tax incentives. There are differences between subsidies and tax incentives on R&D input and output.
    Keywords: Subsidies; Tax incentives; University-research institute-industry collaboration; collaborative R&D input.

Special Issue on: Digital Innovation in Emerging Economies

  • How does value co-creation behaviour affect enterprise innovation performance?   Order a copy of this article
    by Baojian Zhang, Pengli Li, Xiaohang Yue 
    Abstract: The development of the digital economy drives the transformation of traditional competition and value creation models. In this context, value co-creation has become a new model of enterprise development. However, only a few studies have focused on inter-enterprise value co-creation and how value co-creation behaviour affects enterprise innovation performance. This study explores the internal mechanism of value co-creation behaviour affecting enterprise innovation performance by introducing resource integration, and examines the impact of network breadth on this mechanism. We collect 365 sample data of Chinese enterprises and conduct hypothesis testing using SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 22.0. Empirical results show that inter-enterprise value co-creation behaviour positively affects resource integration and enterprise innovation performance. Resource integration has a significant positive impact on enterprise innovation performance, and plays a partial mediation effect in the relationship between inter-enterprise value co-creation behaviour and innovation performance. Network breadth has an inverted U-shaped moderating effect on the positive relationship between value co-creation behaviour and resource integration and value co-creation behaviour and enterprise innovation performance. Conclusions can theoretically expand the existing explanations of enterprise innovation performance changes and guide enterprise value co-creation practice.
    Keywords: value co-creation behaviour; resource integration; network breadth; enterprise innovation performance.

  • The Performance and Innovation Speed of Utility Applications in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Jie Ren, Xibao Li 
    Abstract: Application or app innovation is an important form of innovation in the digital economy. App innovation in China is based on the users and markets. Using 474 utility apps from 217 Chinese companies, we examine the determinants of app innovation. We capture how data are valued in the digital era and find that multilevel factors influence app innovation performance. Specifically, first-mover advantage, firms experiences in app development and local institutions influence the survival of apps and the quality of app innovation. First-mover advantage, software developing experiences and venture capitalist status influence the product innovation process at the earlier stage of the app life cycle. Whether the company goes public and the marketization level influence the data-based innovation at the later stage of the app life cycle.
    Keywords: App innovation; utility software; multilevel model.

  • Industry competition, life cycle and export performance of Chinas cross-border e-commerce enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Shuzhong Ma, Qihui Liang 
    Abstract: This study explores the influencing factors of the export performance of cross-border e-commerce enterprises, based on the merchant data of Wisha cross-border e-commerce platform. The study finds that as the tenure of enterprises increases, the exports of cross-border e-commerce enterprises on platforms will show an inverted U-shaped trend that rises and declines. As competition on the platform decreases, the exports of cross-border e-commerce enterprises on platforms will also rise and fall. As the tenure of enterprises increases, the impact of industry competition on the performance of cross-border e-commerce exports gradually weakens, and moderate competition prolongs the cross-border e-commerce enterprise life cycle. Moreover, high-quality business services, diversified product selection, and low commodity prices will promote the export performance of cross-border e-commerce enterprises.
    Keywords: cross-border e-commerce platform; export performance; life cycle; industry concentration.

  • Do KIBS Facilitate Innovation in Manufacturing Firms in China?Evidence on Production-based Linkages   Order a copy of this article
    by Ting Zhao, Guanxu Wan, Meng Yang 
    Abstract: From the perspectives of knowledge-based theory and the spatial network of production, this paper develops a conceptual framework for studying how local protectionism in China influences the spatial knowledge spillover from knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) to the innovation outputs of manufacturing firms. We posit that local protectionism intensifies the influences that geographic proximity of KIBS pose on their manufacturing clients, which will further counteract the stimulating effect of innovation that KIBS bring to their clients across regions. Using a large panel data set including the number of manufacturing firms patent applications and the data related to KIBS among 283 prefecture cities and municipalities from 2003 to 2013 in China, we have quantified the spatial knowledge spillover from KIBS to manufacturing firms by production linkages with a subsystem calculation approach to input-output analysis. The empirical results reveal that there is indeed a prominent border effect of the spatial knowledge spillover from KIBS in different cities in China, which is only significantly positive within a limited distance of no more than 250 kilometers. Moreover, different-scale manufacturing firms present a high level of heterogeneity in leveraging such knowledge spillover effects. The larger the firm size, the more effective it will be to break up the barriers caused by the local protectionism. It is also found that the spatial knowledge spillover from cross-region KIBS significantly improves the innovation performance of manufacturing firms. This paper makes significant contributions to provide a comprehensive understanding of how local protectionism affects the relationship between KIBS and manufacturing sectors. Academic scholars will benefit from this study as it clarifies that specific institutional settings in China exert fundamental effects on firms innovation.
    Keywords: KIBS; spatial knowledge spillover; local protectionism; geographic proximity; innovation.

  • Learning from Institutional Diversity to Innovate: A Study of Chinese Exporters in Digital Industries   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiayi Wang, Zhenzhen Xie, Jiatao Li, Delin Yang 
    Abstract: While Chinese digital exporters such as Huawei and Lenovo are well known for their broad overseas markets, it is less explored how the markets institutional diversity influences their innovation performance. We propose that the institutional diversity of an exporters overseas markets tends to facilitate the exporters deliberate learning and adaptation, building a diverse knowledge pool that gives rise to innovation. The exporters capabilities and incentives for learning strengthen that positive relationship. We examined the argument with data of 14,701 Chinese digital exporters covering 20002007. We found that Chinese firms exporting to more institutionallydiverse markets sold more new products than those whose markets were less institutionally diverse. The benefits accrue more to the exporters with more carry-along trade business but less state-ownership. Managerial implications and future research directions are discussed.
    Keywords: institutional diversity; innovation; learning by exporting; absorptive capacity; emerging economies; China.

  • How Do Online Labor Markets Facilitate Transactions of Knowledge-Intensive Tasks? A Service Productization Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaohao Zhou, Ji-Ye Mao 
    Abstract: Despite the increasing importance of online labor markets (OLMs) in service economy, the majority of them transact only simple tasks, without the capability to handle knowledge-intensive ones because of their intangibility and subjective nature. Drawing on the service productization literature, this exploratory case study examines how a leading OLM successfully facilitated a variety of knowledge-intensive tasks such as website and logo design. We developed a process model of service productization on OLMs, which consists of three stages, service concretization, process standardization, and objective assessment. Each stage involves a set of regulating mechanisms for service packaging, transaction process management, and dispute arbitration, respectively, in addition to a variety of digital tools, to create product properties for services. We conclude that the regulating mechanisms and digital tools are essential to transact knowledge-intensive tasks on OLMs.
    Keywords: Service productization; online labor markets; online platforms; online service transactions;.

  • How can Digital Technology-Related Acquisitions Affect a Firm's Innovation Performance?   Order a copy of this article
    by Jianghua Zhou, Chenrui Liu, Xiaoqiang Xing, Jizhen Li 
    Abstract: This paper studies how acquiring digital firms affects the post-acquisition innovation performance of traditional firms. Based on the longitudinal dataset of Chinese listed firms from 2007 to 2017, our findings show that digital technology-related acquisitions have a positive effect on a firm's innovation performance. Moreover, the construction of regional-level digital infrastructure plays a positive moderating role in this relationship. Furthermore, we propose a contingency model to investigate the moderating effect of internal digital investment and unabsorbed slack. The results indicate that the acquirer's internal digital investment has a positive moderating effect on the relationship between digital technology-related acquisitions and innovation performance. Meanwhile, the acquirer's unabsorbed slack also moderates this relationship positively. Our paper expands the contingency perspective within a traditional firm's digital transformation and has implications for future research and management practices.
    Keywords: digital technology-related acquisitions; digital infrastructure; internal digital investment; unabsorbed slack; innovation performance.

  • Driving Factors of Digital Transformation for Manufacturing Enterprises: A Multi-case Study from China   Order a copy of this article
    by Yanyu Wang, Xin Su 
    Abstract: With diminishing low-cost advantages, the Chinese manufacturing industry is actively engaged in digital transformation under the pressure of global competition. By analyzing the gaps between existing technology-adoption theories and digital transformation practices, we developed a theoretical framework of factors influencing artificial intelligence (AI) adoption in enterprises based on the technology-organization-environment (TOE) framework. Using three case studies of Chinese heavy-manufacturing enterprises, this article explores three important aspects of digital transformation empowered by AI: technological, organizational, and environmental driving factors, and we propose an AI business model to clarify the mechanism of AI technological adoption in the manufacturing industry. This study is an in-depth summary and exploration of the digital transformation of Chinas manufacturing industry. It theoretically supplements related research in the field of AI technology adoption, and more important, provides practical experience in moving toward a digital transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry.
    Keywords: Digital transformation; Manufacturing industry; Artificial intelligence; China; Driving factors; Case study; Technology adoption; TOE framework.

  • Reducing Uncertainty Through Imitation in Technological Innovation: The Different Moderating Roles of Digitised and Traditional Coverage   Order a copy of this article
    by Xuanjin Chen, Xin Pan, Xibao Li 
    Abstract: This paper investigates which traits of peer firms are selected for an imitation when firms decide on future technological innovation. In the context of trait-based imitation, we suggest that firms try to imitate peer firms that have a higher level of state ownership to reduce market and political risks and to follow the innovation trajectories of high-status firms to mitigate technical uncertainties and fuzziness. An analysis of data from Chinese firms listed between 2010 and 2015 supports our hypothesis. Additionally, we find that digitised coverage (i.e. internet coverage) exhibits a stronger moderating role than traditional coverage (i.e. newspaper coverage). Our study contributes to the digital innovation literature by identifying two important traits that firms can rely on, providing evidence of digitisation's advantage.
    Keywords: technological innovation; state ownership; status; digitisation.

Special Issue on: ARTEM OCC 2020 Connecting Creativity, Innovation and Sustainable Development in the Age of Disruptions

  • Development of a Recycling Process for Textiles made from PET, and Proof of its Environmental Preference with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)   Order a copy of this article
    by Lynn Lüdemann, Andreas Felber, Markus Golder 
    Abstract: Recycling belongs to the strategies for reducing the emission of carbon dioxide, which is one of the main causers of climate crisis. Instead of being recycled, textiles made of synthetic fibres are still mainly disposed by waste incineration or landfill, this means, that textiles currently have to be made of virgin material. Polyethylentherephtalat (PET) is mainly used for fibres (60??%) and for bottles (30?%). But only for PET-bottles different recycling processes exist. Within the frame of a governmentally-founded project a new recycling procedure for textiles was explored. The goal was to get staple fibres out of the textile waste by simultaneously maintaining their properties. Different technical steps were tested and a robust process chain was elabored. Secondly the proof of the ecological preferability with the help of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was provided. The environmental impact could be reduced up to 60%. Finally, the successful use of Environmental Product Declaration is proven.
    Keywords: Recycling; Fibers; PET; Life Cycle Assessment; Environmental Product Declarations; Life Cycle Costing.

  • Fostering the Sustainable Development Goals with Technologies Underpinned by Frugal Innovation   Order a copy of this article
    by Alexander Ebolor, Nivedita Agarwal, Alexander Brem 
    Abstract: The race against time to attain the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) intensifies, with inequality, poor living conditions, and biodiversity threats still prevalent. Achieving the SDGs is constrained by limited resources that require frugal solutions that are affordable, easy-to-use, ecologically sustainable, and socially inclusive. The role of infrastructure companies developing technologies with a frugal orientation that focus on the 17 SDGs must be at the core of efforts, because sustainable infrastructure is critical to the SGDs. This paper examines how such company-efforts foster the SDGs through the lens of frugal innovation. An exploratory multiple case study methodology was used with a 3-step and 4-dimensional evaluation approach to determine what technologies are fostering the SDGs, and their frugal characteristics. The results show that alternative resource and energy innovations are at the core of how infrastructure companies are promoting sustainability and fostering the SDGs. Most cases cluster around ecological contributions (mainly climate and energy), with sustainability and cost-effectiveness being the common characteristics. Implications for theory and practice are discussed, as well implications for policy making.
    Keywords: Sustainable development goals; SDGs; sustainability; frugal innovation; technology; sustainable cities; resource conservation; machine learning; artificial intelligence; infrastructure; infrastructure companies; frugal characteristics; cloud technology; clean energy; BoP.

  • Team Creativity: The Interplay of Shared Mental Models and the Ideation Process   Order a copy of this article
    by Diana Heinbucher, Julien Bucher 
    Abstract: This paper aims to explicate the role of shared mental models in the ideation process of innovation teams by investigating whether and how shared mental models influence the innovativeness of teams. A multi-level analysis was conducted using a case study research design grounded in the theories of team creativity and shared mental models. Surveys, participant observation and group discussions were used to gather data on 53 participants divided into 10 teams in an experimental setting. Shared mental models regarding interaction patterns, processing strategies, coordinated responsibilities and the acceptance and coordination of knowledge had a positive impact on task processing, team interaction and outputs.
    Keywords: case study; ideation; innovation teams; group discussion; joint displays; multi-level analysis; observation; shared mental models; survey; team creativity; team interaction; task processing.

  • Application and Validation of a Disruptive Potential Methodology for Digital Two-Sided PlatformsThe Case of Marketplace Lending in Germany   Order a copy of this article
    by Sabine Pur, Stefan Huesig, Christoph Schmidhammer 
    Abstract: In this paper, we apply and validate a state of the art ex-ante approach to analyze potentially disruptive innovations. Our approach enables quantifying the disruptive potential of digital two-sided platforms as a measure in general, separately for each market side, and for different market players. This approach also pays attention to possible firm heterogeneity on each market side. We illustrate our approach by applying it to and evaluating the case of marketplace lending in Germany in 2015 and 2019. Following the first application of the framework in 2015, the market has developed to such an extent that the ex-ante analysis can be evaluated with ex-post figures and facts from 2019. The results indicate that the proposed framework supports predictions of the disruptive potential in the context of digital two-sided platforms surprisingly accurately, so that we encourage further validations in other areas of ex-ante innovation research.
    Keywords: disruptive innovation; disruptive potential; ex-ante method; ex-ante approach; forecasting; method validation; case studies; online lending; peer-to-peer lending; p2p lending; marketplace lending; two-sided markets; multi-sided markets; business model; business model innovation.

  • The impact of playful interventions for idea generation processes: A Case study of an automotive producer   Order a copy of this article
    by Jonas Worede Tarekegne, Klaus-Peter Schulz 
    Abstract: In this article we consider intervention methods for idea generation workshops in the automotive industry. The growing complexity of innovation, particularly through combining products and services in a sustainable way, require methodical approaches that facilitate creativity and integrate multiple perspectives. Hands-on modelling, playfulness, and bodily experience are principles that are gaining growing interest beyond artists and designers. However, in the rather traditional innovation environment of the automotive industry the question arises, what intervention methods based on these principles can contribute to innovation? We therefore applied three different methods: drama intervention, tool-kit-based modelling, and gaming, independent of each other in idea generation workshops of an automobile producer. We assessed the quantity and quality of ideas developed with each method, and also the workshop experience of participants in an exploratory study. It turned out that there is no significant difference between the methods, however in comparison to traditional workshops, the output number and quality is higher. Furthermore, participants capitalized from the workshop experience and considered it as inspiration for their daily collaboration.
    Keywords: idea generation workshop; playful intervention; gaming; toolkit-based modelling; drama intervention; automotive industry.

  • Sharing offline and for idealistic purposes in Germany   Order a copy of this article
    by Anja Herrmann-Fankhaenel, Erne Schell 
    Abstract: The aim of this research is to investigate the German sharing economy in its offline and online dimensions and the nature of its commercial and idealistic intentions. Using quantitative research, 505 cases were empirically gathered and analysed against the theoretical background of inherent features. In particular, the study investigates technology involvement within the sharing economy and how it varies between the online, offline, and hybrid interactions of users and the indicators of idealistic intentions, such as financial interactions and profit orientation. With the aid of eleven theory-driven variables, data is descriptively illustrated and subsequently evaluated within the scope of a two-step cluster analysis. The German sharing economy demonstrates a seven-cluster solution, with a majority of offline-organized cases. Evidently, idealistic sharing models exist, especially within the offline dimension, yet online and hybrid models also reveal idealistic characteristics, which stand contrary to theoretical assumptions.
    Keywords: Sharing Economy; Offline Sharing Economy; Idealistic and Commercial Sharing Models; Hybrid Sharing; Germany.

  • Organising for AI-powered Innovation Through Design: The Case of Hitachi Vantara   Order a copy of this article
    by Denis Dennehy, Bill Schmarzo, Mouwafac Sidaoui 
    Abstract: How Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies can foster innovation is challenging as data scientists must learn to bridge analytical mastery and intuitive decision-making. In recent years, design thinking, a human-centred, problem-solving approach has been used by researchers to address complex social problems. However, a rigorous study of the application of design thinking in the context of digital innovation is absent from current discourse. This study, based on a revelatory case study, explores how design thinking can foster the development of AI-powered innovations, by bridging the divide between human-centric and machine-centric activities. The study extends the concept of design thinking within digital innovation and provides a new lens to consider studies of organisations engaged in AI-powered innovations. By extending the generalisability of design thinking, we provide novel insights about the challenges, benefits, and lessons learned when data scientists adopt design thinking to bridge and balance their analytical and intuitive thinking.
    Keywords: artificial intelligence; AI; data science; data scientist; design thinking; innovation; business value; case study.

  • How can makerspace contribute to training for complex technological innovation? the case of aviation-based training for surgery robotics.   Order a copy of this article
    by Adam Seymour, Klaus-Peter Schulz 
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to explore the learning environment for robotic simulation and the potential of makerspace to contribute to professional practice and ongoing professional development for students and educators. Empirically, we base our suggestions on experience of simulation-based training implemented in the Stan Institute of robotic surgery training in the city of Nancy, France. Based on the results obtained from this study, the makerspace approach was identified as a promising solution for students and trainers to overcome challenges in relation to skill acquisition and assessment of student competencies in a multimodal technological environment.
    Keywords: robotic surgery; simulation; makerspace; training; innovation; technology; aviation; professional development.

Special Issue on: Managing Digitalisation How Entrepreneurship is Involved

  • Digitalization in transport and logistics: a roadmap for entrepreneurship in Russia   Order a copy of this article
    by Elena G. Popkova, Bruno S. Sergi, Mojtaba Rezaei, Alberto Ferraris 
    Abstract: The transport and logistics system has always been an attractive sector for investments and entrepreneurship. Its importance becomes increasingly stressed by the advance in technology and the advent of digitalization. Consequently, the digital economy opens new possibilities for optimizing the transport and logistics section of national economies. Thus, this paper proposed and developed a conceptual model of digitalization of transport and logistics in Russia, a developing country where this sector may represent many entrepreneurship potentialities. The suggested model is based on new technologies related to Industry 4.0 as blockchain, big data, the Internet of Things, virtual reality, and artificial intelligence. Accordingly, this paper pointed out the key factors of digitalization of the industry: a) accessibility of financing, b) availability of digital technologies of Industry 4.0, c) public support for digitalization of transport and logistics and consumer preferences. Interestingly, the paper offers an intriguing economic approach to understand players' behaviors potential strategies based on the Prisoners dilemma. This provides some useful recommendations to public policymakers, investors, and entrepreneurs to govern the digitalization of transport and logistics in Russia.
    Keywords: Digitalization; Transport; Logistics; Digitalization of Transport and Logistics Services; Entrepreneurship; Russia.

  • Exploring entrepreneurial genetic code of Smart Cities.   Order a copy of this article
    by Fernando Crecente, Maria Sarabia, Francisco Carrillo, María Teresa Del Val 
    Abstract: Smart Cities are key players of Digital Economy and their essence is to transformation living, housing and consuming in a sustainable way. The aim of this paper is to explore the entrepreneurial genetic code of smart cities. Using a sample of 48 Spanish cities obtained from databases such as National Statistics Institute (NSI) and Iberian Balance Analysis System between 2015-2019. Some demographic, economic and social variables are used for identifying smart universe understood as smart entrepreneurship and city. Logit modelling has been used to identify the significant variables to explain Smart Cities. Some of these variables are ICT entrepreneurship, university level and median age of citizens represent the core genetic code of Smart Cities. This paper concludes that Smart Entrepreneurship has a unique entrepreneurial genetic code which can create differences between Smart Cities. Entrepreneurship and City are the power couple to develop better smart ecosystems.
    Keywords: Smart City; Entrepreneurship.

  • Gendered linguistic structures and the innovation performance of new ventures in emerging countries: The moderating effects of digitalization and the entrepreneurial ecosystem   Order a copy of this article
    by Xuemei Xie, Yonghui Wu, F. Javier Sendra García 
    Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between gendered linguistic structures and new ventures innovation performance in emerging countries, as well as the gender gap in this relationship. Using a sample of 29,637 observations from 30 emerging countries in the period 20072016, this study shows that in countries where the dominant languages structure incorporates high-level gendered linguistic structures, there is a greater negative effect on innovation performance than is the case for countries with low-level gendered linguistic structures, and also that this negative effect is stronger for female entrepreneurs than it is for male entrepreneurs. These findings reveal that gendered linguistic structures reinforce gender stereotypes and discourage females performance in innovation endeavors. We further find this negative relationship is moderated by both digitalization (i.e., the levels of national digitization and digital infrastructure) and the entrepreneurial ecosystem, such that in countries with high degrees of national digitization, digital infrastructure, and entrepreneurial ecosystems, the negative effect of gendered linguistic structures on new ventures innovation performance is alleviated.
    Keywords: gendered linguistic structures; innovation performance; national digitization level; digital infrastructure; entrepreneurial ecosystem.

  • How Women Entrepreneurs Manage the Digitalization of their Business: Initiating a Dialogue between the Entrepreneurship as Practice Approach and the Theory of Bricolage   Order a copy of this article
    by Séverine Le Loarne - Lemaire, Gael Bertrand, Adnane Maalaoui, Sascha Kraus, Paul Jones 
    Abstract: This research seeks to explain how women make their businesses digital through the prism of bricolage and practice. Based on the fact that women often create small ventures in service activities without much digital content and find it hard to make the business model of their venture evolve to make their business grow, we argue that this population of entrepreneurs feels threatened by the pressure to add digital technologies to existing business models. In an attempt to understand how women entrepreneurs manage to make their ventures digital, the analysis of three extreme cases from the mentoring industry through two theoretical prismsbricolage and entrepreneurship as a practice (EAP)reveals that women who bricole while making their business digital are mostly those who are not embedded in masculine norms of entrepreneurship. Firstly, we note signs of bricolage cognition during the digitalization. Secondly, data allow us to raise the hypothesis according to which bricolage cognition might be gendered. Thirdly, we note that the choice of a familial or conventional bricolage as expressed in the three cases is mostly led by practices of networking and by the social beliefs women have inherited from their past experiences or from exchanges with their peers. The article also provides a first dialogue between the emerging literature on EAP and the already widely diffused theory of bricolage.
    Keywords: gender; digitalization; entrepreneurship as practice; EAP; bricolage.

Special Issue on: Green Innovation and International Business in Emerging Economies

  • Research on the Business Model of Sharing Economy Unicorn Enterprises in Emerging Economies--Based on fsQCA Method   Order a copy of this article
    by Zheng Dong, Tao Meng, Yuqiao Guan, Feifei Zhao 
    Abstract: With the continuous deepening of the development of the sharing economy, the way of resource allocation of companies, innovative and entrepreneurial activities, consumers consumption habits and social behaviors are undergoing a profound change. The academic and business circles have a strong interest in how the sharing economy has exerted such a huge effect. In practice, a number of unicorn companies in sharing economy have emerged explosively in China and have quickly become leaders in related industries. Why did these companies have explosive growth? What are the characteristics of the business model behind them? What are the differences in the driving logic of sharing economy companies with different business models? This research uses the method of qualitative comparative analysis (FSQCA) to analyze the business models of 26 unicorn companies of sharing economy in China, and have obtained four typical business model configurations of sharing economy unicorn companies, i.e. the platform transaction type, technology-mission promotion type, capital promotion type and interpersonal interaction type, respectively, and their characteristics and underlying driving logic are illustrated.
    Keywords: sharing economy; unicorn; business model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2021.10040251

Special Issue on: Deep Learning for Organisational Knowledge Retention

  • 25-year cycle evolution theory: relationship between German economic development mode and human resource management innovation after World War II   Order a copy of this article
    by Xinqi Lin, Jiawei Shi 
    Abstract: After the Second World War, Germany created the economic miracle by improve its economic development model, triggered many rounds of climax of management innovation. In 2011, some scholars proposed the 25-year cycle evolution theory. This paper review and analyses the German transformation of economic development mode and the history of the human resources management innovation in the last century. Then the study finds out the periodic features in the Germany case and deduces the 25-year cycle evolution theory and its role of the transmission mechanism. Finally, to represent the level of human resources management innovation, the study process the data of IMD World Talent Report conducted by International Institute for Management Development, and generated the human resources management innovation index. Moreover, to represent its economic development level, the study generates the GDP growth rate conversion index from the German historical GDP data. Meanwhile, the applied statistical test analysed the volatility characteristics and causation relationship between economic development and human resources management innovation. The empirical analysis also predicts the development trend in the future and verifies the rationality of the 25-year cycle evolution theory, and provides a solid mathematical foundation for further enriching the theory and its hypothesis.
    Keywords: 25-year cycle evolution theory; economic cycle; economic development mode; human resource management innovation; causality test.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2021.10041977
  • Acquiring and processing movement information from various sources using intelligent AI cognitive model for sports activities   Order a copy of this article
    by Yingqing Guo, Xin Wang 
    Abstract: The overarching purpose of this research is to demonstrate the value of artificial intelligence (AI) strategies in sports for utilising weight lifting policies. In specific, the work centred on the use of pattern recognition techniques to test training system exercises conducted for weight lifting policies. To quantify critical displacement and strength, the determinants during workouts has the data acquisitions that have been carried out using optimised force sensors linked with different weight machines. Consequently, certain essential properties such as time intervals or travel rates may be deduced based on the data collected using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. These parameters have been used to create smart methods that adapt traditional machine learning principles for automatic evaluation of the exercise technique and provide adequate feedback. The obtained modelling results showed good performance and forecast results, which indicated the feasibility and the capacity of AI techniques when automatically measuring performance on weight training equipment has been analysed.
    Keywords: artificial intelligent; machine learning; cognitive; sports.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2021.10041667
  • An empirical analysis of the OFDI influence on financing constraints based on listed companies in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiao-Dong Wang, Lei Tu, Jing-Lu Li, Yue-Gang Song 
    Abstract: In China, where financing constraints are commonly seen in many companies, but at the same time, OFDI companies are experiencing increasing cash flows, the question that whether OFDI will influence a company's financing constraints draws researchers' attention. This paper-based on empirical analysis finds that: 1) OFDI mediates Chinese companies' financing constraints by lowering their outside financing cost, optimising the channels and the quality of their external financing, and enhancing the supplementing ability of outside funding to companies' cash flows; 2) compared with state-owned companies, OFDI's financing constraint mediating effect is more substantial in private-owned companies; for targeted countries' income levels. OFDI in developed countries has a more significant mediating effect; compared with other motivations, OFDI, which is market-oriented, has the most substantial mediating effect. And this result is mainly achieved through OFDI's 'contact effect', which draws closer the topographical coldness between the host OFDI country and the OFDI investor, mediates information asymmetry, and lowers outside investors' risk premium. The analysis in this paper extends research on OFDI's economic consequences in emerging economies and offers instructions for the government to guide the investment behaviour of listed companies.
    Keywords: financing; constraints; outward foreign direct investment; OFDI; contact effect; China.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2021.10041978
  • Analysis of internet finance development trend of Chinese e-commerce enterprises based on P2P business platform model   Order a copy of this article
    by Shuang Zhao 
    Abstract: With the fast growth of e-commerce in China, internet finance is becoming a new financing force and a sharp tool to solve the funding problems of unimportant and micro-enterprises. It is proposed a P2P business platform model that provide a convenient and efficient online lending platform for borrowers who are in dire need of loans and investors who lack financial channels. It works differently in two different stage, stage 1 is dedicated to borrower that help him in lending money, while stage 2 is for lender to take care of payment of loan on time from borrower. Meanwhile, this paper designs an innovative model combining the static credit information system of P2P platform and the dynamic monitoring of third-party payment platform based on the current credit rating system. Performance efficiency of each stage is demonstrated in vial result analysis of market transaction, internet finance, risk management, etc.
    Keywords: peer to peer business platform; P2P; Chinese e-commerce enterprises; electric commerce; internet finance; market expansion; risk management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2021.10041979
  • Social-cultural perspective of fine arts policies using AI model   Order a copy of this article
    by Bin Song 
    Abstract: In the recent past, the rise of hundreds of 'AI artists' and their interest in artificial intelligence algorithms and policies produce realistic arts in social-cultural perspectives. They create incredible pictures, sophisticated techniques, transcendent music, and even believable film scripts. This research is to establish an AI-based improved support vector machine algorithm (ISVMA) for developing and evaluating significant variations of design in art history to a close analysis of the past, the complexities, and the modelling methods of human artistic creation. Furthermore, the foster collaboration between the imagination of machines and art, which is commonly described as parallel but not in competition with human artists and with their emotional and social intentions. Instead, the relationship between the innovation of humans and computers, the way to optimise the artistic abilities of all parties, has been discussed in this research.
    Keywords: artificial intelligence; fine arts; policies; social perspectives.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2020.10039328
  • Study of employee behaviour based on artificial intelligence linguistic and speech analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Weixuan Hu, Shukuan Zhao 
    Abstract: Recently, the difference between the vision and experience of human resource management has been validated using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. Further, computational strategies helps to analyses the employees linguistic and speech analysis (AILSA) in an effective manner. This research recognises four difficulties in human resource (HR) usage of data science practices: 1) HR concept complexity; 2) limited data collection limitations; 3) justice and legal limitations linked ethics issues; 4) management feedback from workers by evidence-based algorithms. Furthermore, to analyses the real solutions for these problems, AI-assisted concepts of superposition-causal reasoning, randomisation and the formalisation of procedures - could be economically validated and socially appropriate to use managerial data analysis which have been designed and developed.
    Keywords: employee behaviour; artificial intelligence; linguistic; speech analysis; managerial data analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2021.10041981
  • The role of AI assisted socio-cultural frameworks in academic change and higher education growth   Order a copy of this article
    by Ying Pan, Pingyu Yang 
    Abstract: The 'growth' of academics in higher education is focused on quality improvements in teaching. However, the analysis has shown that the sense of academics significantly affects their practices that have been unaddressed due to inconsistent contextual conditions. This paper proposes a framework to study teachers' workplaces on the subjective factors that improve educational enhancement, supported by artificial intelligence (AI). Here, the administrative documents are analysed in the theory of history and culture framework, and it provides a technique for both traditional data analysis and modelling estimation of individual output in the feed-forward neural networks. A traditional statistical procedure is used to evaluate the variables that influence the success of students. Several differences in the teacher's socio-cultural context are identified based on the performance of the feed-forward neural network model, and it is measured by error rate reduction of 0.33, uncertainty matrix, the performance level of students. The feed-forward network model is the platform, and it is useful for predicting future academic achievement of students. Departmental teaching cultures and behavioural practices have affected both positive and negative behaviour in higher education teaching, which has been firmly addressed in this paper.
    Keywords: artificial intelligence; socio-cultural context; higher education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2021.10041980

Special Issue on: Supply Chain Innovation Management in the Uncertain Era

  • Pricing and Quality Decisions in Platform-Based Retailing with Targeted Promotion   Order a copy of this article
    by Chenchen Yang, Junsong Bian, Yuqiao Zhang 
    Abstract: This paper considers a platform-based supply chain consisting of a firm launching a new product with a targeted promotion strategy based on innovation on a retailing platform. We examine the firm's optimal decisions on pricing, product quality design and promotional effort to deal with market uncertainty. First, with exogenous quality, we show that market size has a positive impact on the optimal effort level, which is contrary to the intuition that the optimal effort level decreases with the existing market size due to concave increasing costs. This is because the firm will increase the corresponding price if the market size increases, which makes the marginal income higher than the marginal cost. Therefore, the firm has an incentive to invest more effort in promotion. Furthermore, we study the scenario with endogenous quality but exogenous price and find that the optimal effort level will decrease with market size if the market size is sufficiently large. The reason is that retaining a marginal customer by improving quality is more economical than raising the promotion effort level in this case. Finally, with endogenous effort, price, and quality decisions, our result indicates that the firm exerts more efforts in such a platform-based targeted promotion than in the former scenarios when facing strict industry standards.
    Keywords: product innovation; market uncertainty; targeted promotion; quality design; pricing; new product launching.

Special Issue on: Technological Innovation and Management in the Era of Industry 4.0

  • Analysis of the quality improvement path of supply chain management under the background of industry 4.0   Order a copy of this article
    by Qiang Wang, Jingwei Shang 
    Abstract: In view of the influence of the quality of supply chain management in the process of enterprise development, reducing the market competitiveness and customer satisfaction, this paper puts forward the path of improving the quality of supply chain management under the background of industry 4.0. Through the analysis of the coordination structure dimension of supply chain management quality strategy level and the coordination structure dimension of executive level, it is determined that there are some problems in the process of supply chain management quality improvement, such as the failure of the incoming inspection department to inspect as required, the lack of supplier control ability, and the imperfection of supplier quality management process and mechanism, Strengthen the quality control of suppliers in key links, explore the quality improvement path of supply chain management, so as to improve the market competitiveness and customer satisfaction.
    Keywords: Background of industry 4.0 ; supply chain management; quality improvement; path analysis;rn.

  • Innovation and application of enterprises supply chain management mode under the background of industry 4.0   Order a copy of this article
    by Wangshu Su, Hui Chen 
    Abstract: Under the background of industry 4.0, aiming at the problems of low management performance and poor profitability of traditional enterprises supply chain management mode, this paper discusses the innovation and application of enterprises supply chain management mode under the background of industry 4.0. Firstly, the evolution and development characteristics of industry 4.0 background are analyzed, and the operation structure and management content of enterprises supply chain are determined. Secondly, the data of supply chain management is collected to determine the problems of supply chain management mode. Thirdly, the idea of establishing electronic supply chain management is put forward, introducing advanced management technology and establishing long-term supplier partnership. Finally, this management model is applied to the actual management work, and it is found that the comprehensive indicator of enterprise management performance is improved by about 0.25, this management model has good application effect.
    Keywords: Industry 4.0; enterprise’s supply chain; supply chain management; management mode innovation; management mode application;.

  • The interface between marketing and R&D based on process management   Order a copy of this article
    by Qiaoying Ding 
    Abstract: Traditional product research and development work has some problems, such as information asymmetry between departments and poor connection with marketing work, which affects the progress of product marketing work. From the perspective of process management, this paper studies the interface between marketing and R&D. Based on the analysis of the disadvantages of the traditional product research and development and marketing process, the interface conditions of product research and development and marketing are integrated, the corresponding interface mechanism is established, and the department process structure is innovated on the basis of making the two achieve effective collaborative management. Through empirical analysis, it can be seen that enterprises can build a process collaborative management scheme based on customer needs and forward the customer demand information to the R&D department through the information docking platform, so as to enhance the market competitiveness of products through the effective interface between marketing and R&D.
    Keywords: Process management; Collaborative management; Marketing; Product research and development.

  • Analysis on the Production Technology Innovation and Management Path of Industrial Enterprises under the Trend of Industry 4.0   Order a copy of this article
    by Qing Zhang, Abdul Rashid Abdullah, Choo Wei Chong, Mass Hareeza Ali 
    Abstract: In order to improve the development of production technology of industrial enterprises, this paper puts forward the analysis method of production technology innovation and management path of industrial enterprises. Based on the characteristics of production technology innovation of industrial enterprises, this paper analyzes the existing problems of production technology innovation of industrial enterprises, constructs the evaluation model of production technology innovation ability of industrial enterprises according to the analysis results, and puts forward the corresponding production technology management path of industrial enterprises under the trend of industry 4.0. The case study shows that this method can effectively reduce production costs, and the efficiency of internal management is always higher than 90%.
    Keywords: Industry 4.0 trend; Industrial Enterprises; Production technology innovation; Management path.