International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering
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International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering (5 papers in press)
Improving the Abrasion Resistance of AISI 304L Metallic Biomaterial by Microwave Boriding by Dilek Arslan, Recep Onur Uzun Abstract: Metallic materials are used as biomaterials thanks to their high mechanical properties. However, their low resistance to corrosion and abrasion reduces the biocompatibility of metallic biomaterials. In this study, the abrasion resistance of AISI 304L stainless steel material, which is a widely used metallic biomaterial, was improved by pack-boriding with microwave hybrid heating. For this purpose, AISI 304L SS material was pack-borided by using EKABOR II boriding powder for 2, 4 and 6 hours in a microwave oven with a power of 2.9 kW and a frequency of 2.45 GHz at temperatures of 850, 900 and 950 Keywords: microwave hybrid heating; pack-boriding; metallic biomaterial; abrasion resistance. DOI: 10.1504/IJSURFSE.2021.10040531
Influence of silica surface modification on poly(butyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate)/silica emulsion stability by Zrinka Buhin Sturlic, Mirela Leskovac, Sanja Lucic Blagojevic Abstract: The application of emulsion polymerization for nanocomposite material synthesis is still a problem since it is difficult to achieve emulsion stability and desirable morphology. In this work, the in situ emulsion polymerization procedure was optimized in order to prepare stable polyacrylate (PA) systems with 15 wt % of modified silica. The surface of the silica was modified with nonionic emulsifier (NE), cationic initiator 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AIBA) and 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS). The adsorption conditions, the influence of monomer mode addition, the rate of pre-emulsion addition, monomer/water ratio, the pH and the amount of anionic emulsifier (SDS) on polyacrylate/silica emulsion stability were investigate. The results showed that the most significant influence on emulsion stability have the amount of anionic emulsifier and silica surface modification. This work contains practical knowledge regarding adsorption of nonionic emulsifier, emulsion stability, filler surface modification and in situ emulsion polymerization with high amount of modified silica (15 wt %) and monomer/water ratio 70/100. Keywords: emulsion polymerization; polyacrylate; nanosilica; surface modification.
EFFECT OF WC BASED COATINGS ON THE WEAR OF CK45 SHEET METAL FORMING DIES by MERT ONAN, OGUZMERT SAHIN, ENSAR YILDIRIM, SUKRU TALAS Abstract: DIN 1.2379 tool steel has a wide range of applications in die manufacturing industry owing to its high wear resistance. However, CK45 steel is cheaper but extensive wear occurs on CK45 die and sheet metal surfaces, which were attempted to be solved using a hard phase coating. An insert on a die was designed and manufactured for the area where the wear is expected the most. ESD (electro-spark deposition) coating layer was formed with two separate layers of WC (Tungsten carbide) and WC+SS (Tungsten carbide and stainless steel) on die surfaces using optimum parameters to obtain wear resistant surfaces as a means of controlling the friction between sheet metal-die surfaces. After 500 pressings, insert surfaces were characterised by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that defects on sheet metals were reduced following the application of hard phase ESD coating. The microhardness values of ESD coatings were higher than that of CK45 base metal and similar to hardened DIN 1.2379 steel. Keywords: CK 45 steel; electro spark deposition; electro-spark deposition; ESD; WC; wear; sheet metal die. DOI: 10.1504/IJSURFSE.2021.10040548
Saltwater wettability on polymer surfaces and determination of surface tension by Reinosuke Kusano, Gideon Boulton, Yukihiro Kusano Abstract: Static contact angle measurement was performed using saltwater for unsaturated polyester plates and high-density polyethylene sheets. The dependency of the saltwater concentration on wettability and an estimation of surface tension for the saltwater are presented. It is indicated that as the salt concentration increases, the contact angles on polyester tend to increase, while polyethylene generally shows poor wetting of the saltwater. The results are further discussed by deducing the polar and dispersive components of surface tension of the saltwater at different concentrations. The polar component tends to increase as the salt concentration increases, while the dispersive component scatters. The different performance of the wettability at different salt concentrations can be attributed to the difference of the polar components of surface tension of these polymers. This technique can be also used for deducing the polar and dispersive components of surface tension of general liquids in a simple manner. Keywords: surface tension; wettability; contact angle; saltwater; polymer surfaces; polyester; polyethylene; polar component; dispersive component; test liquid. DOI: 10.1504/IJSURFSE.2021.10040928
An Electrochemical Approach to Evaluating Surface Coatings by Hülya DEMIRÖREN, Soner Buytoz Abstract: In order to understand the influence of metal carbides and niobium carbides on electrochemical behaviour of Fe based composite powder and added FeNb powder coatings. Above mentioned composite layer was prepared on medium carbon steel surface by using GTAW coating technique. The morphology of surface of the coatings were analysed by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Then the samples were exposed sea water. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) method with triple electrode system was used in order to obtain Bode and Nyquist diagrams. Ag/AgCl electrode is reference electrode, platin plate is counter electode in this system. As a result, adding NbC has harmful effect on the electrochemical behaviour of FeCrC coating powder. Keywords: Fe-based composite; Cr7C3 carbide; NbC carbide; EIS; Nyquist Plot. DOI: 10.1504/IJSURFSE.2021.10042062