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International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering

International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering (IJSurfSE)

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International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering (9 papers in press)

Regular Issues

    by R. Nithyaprakash, Shankar Subramaniam, R. Naveenkumar, G. Abbas, S. Sathish, P.J. Nithileshwar, V. Vishwa, Chander Prakash, Alokesh Pramanik, A.K. Basak, Mohammad Uddin 
    Abstract: The ceramic materials prove to be better alternative to metallic and polyethylene implants. The AZ31 alloy exhibits better biocompatible properties compared with existing metallic implants. The present study investigated the friction and wear rate properties of silicon nitride (Si3N4), Alumina (Al2O3), zirconia (ZrO2) and zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) against AZ31 for 2 km under bio-lubricants using ball-on-disc (B-o-D) tribometer. The bio-lubricants considered for the current study include Ringer’s solution, distilled water, saline solution and phosphate buffer saline (PBS). The B-o-D load of 20 N which equals the gait load of normal walking is taken into consideration for current study. Amongst the ceramic materials considered, ZTA and Si3N4 ceramic biomaterials showed better tribological behaviour for PBS bio-lubricant and comparatively maximum wear rate was observed for alumina-AZ31 combination for all bio-lubricants. Amongst the bio-lubricants, distilled water and saline solution exhibited poor tribological phenomenon compared with PBS bio-lubricant. The silicon nitride and ZTA showed better tribological behaviour for PBS bio-lubricant thus proving as potential materials for joint replacement in combination with AZ31.
    Keywords: biomaterials; wear rate; MgAZ31; tribology; bio-lubricants; zirconia toughened alumina; ZTA; phosphate buffer saline; PBS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSURFSE.2023.10056884
  • Effect of Cerium Oxide Addition on Microstructure, Microhardness and Wear Rate of the Composite Coating Fabricated on Titanium Alloy   Order a copy of this article
    by Monty Kumar, Anubhav Kumar Sharma, Kailash Jha, Amitava Mandal 
    Abstract: In this study, a defect free hard and wear resistant coating has been fabricated using pre-placed powder TIG cladding method on Ti-6Al-4V substrate. The impact of different percentage of cerium oxide on surface mechanical and tribological behaviour of the coating has been investigated. FESEM images showed surface irregularities and micro-voids in the coating that does not have cerium oxide. Short and long needle type microstructure was observed for the sample not containing cerium oxide while cage like pattern is observed for the rest samples. The equiaxial and short dendrites are grown between the cage like pattern which enhances the mechanical and tribological properties of the fabricated coating. Nickel titanium, tungsten carbide, titanium dioxide, aluminium nickel titanium, and aluminium cerium nitride are the phases formed within the coating. Microhardness of the coating ranging from 700 to 900 HV0.5 whereas coefficient of friction reduced to 0.15 which is much better than Ti-6Al-4V substrate.
    Keywords: TIG cladding; rare earth oxide; microstructure; hardness; wear rate; coefficient of friction; COF; X-ray diffraction; XRD; hard coating.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSURFSE.2023.10056885
  • Study on the friction noise behavior of coating textured surface based on STFT time-frequency analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Shucai Yang, Zekun Song, Xin Tong, Pei Han 
    Abstract: The friction noise existing in the machining system will affect the stability and accuracy of the system, and the coating and micro-texture technology provides a solution to this problem. In this paper, orthogonal experiments are designed based on coating and micro-texture parameters, and a pin-disk friction and wear experimental platform is built. STFT is used to analyse the time-frequency of friction noise signals. The results show that the coating micro-texture can suppress the high frequency part of the noise. The process of coating micro-texture can be divided into three stages: initial running-in stage; the validity period of coating micro-texture; coating micro-texture failure period. Taking the minimum decibel value of noise as the evaluation index, it is found that laser scanning speed, scanning times and p ? d (interaction between laser power and micro-texture diameter) are the main factors affecting friction noise, and the micro-texture parameters of the coating are optimised: coating thickness 3 ?m, laser power 35 W, laser scanning speed 1,700 mm/s, laser scanning times 6, micro-texture diameter 60 ?m, micro-texture spacing 130 ?m. It provides a theoretical and data basis for improving the interfacial friction performance.
    Keywords: friction noise signal; AlSiTiN coating; micro-texture; time-frequency analysis; parameter optimisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSURFSE.2023.10058105
  • Bio-dielectric based eco-friendly electrical discharge machining of Ti6Al4V: assessment of the machined-surface morphology and micro-hardness   Order a copy of this article
    by SHIRSENDU DAS, Swarup Paul, Biswanath Doloi 
    Abstract: This article aims to assess the impacts of the vegetable oil-based bio-dielectric (BD) mediums on the morphological features, recast layer, and micro-hardness of the processed surface. The analysis apparently disclosed the presence of fine cracks, surface inconsistencies, and migration of some flecks from the tool and dielectrics. Furthermore, some flurry holes are also detected on the surface, which are developed due to the clemency of trapped gases during the re-solidification process. The rapid periodic-discharge cycles of EDM cause abrupt discrepancies of temperatures and provokes residual stresses on the zones which are already thermally influenced. It is observed that the cracks are comparatively shallow in the case of kerosene but much wider for bio dielectrics. The recast layer is 27
    Keywords: EDM; bio-dielectric; BD; cracks; recast layer; surface-defects; textural defects; micro-hardness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSURFSE.2023.10058106
  • Analysis of the rolling interface stiffness and friction characteristics of multi-scale rolling mill based on contact probability approximation   Order a copy of this article
    by Huajie Wu, Qiaoyi Wang, Laihua Tao, Jiang Xin 
    Abstract: Based on the theories of rolling, hydrodynamics, and friction lubrication, a multi-scale stiffness and friction model applicable for the rolling interface of the rolling mill was established. The interface mode uses a probabilistic approximation method to transform the uncertain interface of rolling solid-liquid contact into a probabilistically determined contact interface, and then systematically demonstrates the variation of rolling interface stiffness, shear friction, and stress with rolling speed and reduction rate. The calculation process of stiffness between different lubrication states of the rolling interface was also proposed. The feasibility of the multi-scale rolling interface model is verified by comparing it with the experimental data in the related literature.
    Keywords: rolling interface; multi-scale; probability approximation; friction lubrication; stiffness; friction characteristics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSURFSE.2023.10058364
  • Effect of impingement angle and impact velocity on slurry erosive wear behaviour of particulate reinforced aluminium composites   Order a copy of this article
    by ANNAMALAI S, Anand Ronald Bennet, Ebenezer D 
    Abstract: The influence of impact velocity (10, 20, and 30 m/s) and impact angle (45
    Keywords: slurry erosion; metal matrix composite; erosion wear; erodent; impingement angle.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSURFSE.2023.10058586
  • Ultraprecision error compensation turning for high-gradient aspheric surface based on B-axis platform.   Order a copy of this article
    by Zanwu Tan, Yufang Wang, Konglian Xu 
    Abstract: High-gradient aspheric elements need to meet the requirements of both high-gradient aspheric characteristics and a streamlined shape in aerodynamics. The shape characteristics of high-gradient aspheric surfaces bring great challenges to machining. Aiming at hard machinability of single-point diamond turning high-gradient optical opponents, an ultraprecision XZB axes single-point diamond turning technique was presented based on rotation B-axis platform. Through analysing the traditional XZ axes turning method, the new XZB axes turning process was proposed to fabricate a high-gradient aspheric surface. The influences of setting errors and cutting edge of arc lathe tool in Y-direction and X-direction on profile accuracy were analysed for correcting the new tool position. The compensation turning method of axisymmetric surface was presented. An error compensation turning experiment of copper was proposed and carried out to obtain a high-gradient aspheric surface. After three time cycles, the profile accuracy was improved from PV 590 nm to PV 103 nm.
    Keywords: ultraprecision turning; rotation B-axis; error compensation; high-gradient aspheric.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSURFSE.2023.10058587
  • Effect of ceramic particles on the mechanical and tribological properties of short carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites   Order a copy of this article
    by Santhana Krishnan R, Johnny Varghese A, Kamaraj M 
    Abstract: In this investigation, an effort has been made to develop the short carbon fibre stiffened epoxy composites (CFSEC) mixed with multi-walled carbon nano-tubes (MWCNT) and silicon carbide particles (SiCp) using a compression moulding process. The content of MWCNT varied as 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%, and SiCp content was maintained at 10% by weight of the composite. The impact of the ceramic particles on mechanical characteristics such as hardness, tensile, flexural, and wear behaviour of CFSEC was investigated. For all the mechanical characteristics, the rise in the proportion of MWCNT in the composite has shown a significant improvement. The specific wear rate (SWR) and coefficient of friction (COF) of the composite were studied using the pin-on-disc tester. The wear parameters yielding the lowest SWR and COF were identified from the wear testing process parameters. The fractography analysis of tensile specimens was carried out using a scanning electron microscope (SEM).
    Keywords: epoxy; carbon fibre; multi-walled carbon nano-tubes; silicon carbide; compression moulding; tribology.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSURFSE.2023.10058588
  • Nanofiber composite PCL/HA coating by spray method on metallic implant materials for medical applications: A Study on the Different spraying distances and pressures   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmad Kafrawi Nasution, Ferril Andrean, Rendy Gunawan, Rahmadini Syafri, Novia Gesrian Tuti, Syafiqah Saidin, Muhammad Hanif Ramlee 
    Abstract: Surface modifications and implant coatings are implemented to control the contact between an implant material and a corrosive medium which can delay the onset of damage and improve the implant performance, such as osseointegration acceleration. There are several limitations associated with surface modification, including low porosity, slow fibre production rate, high production cost, and complexity in the production process. Therefore, this study concentrated on modifying the surface of metal implant materials using a spray method to overcome those limitations and to obtain the porous nanofibre morphology with high coating adhesion property. A spray method was used to form a nanofibre polycaprolactone (PCL)/hydroxyapatite (HA) composite coating. The composite solution was sprayed onto the substrate surface with variations in air pressure of 350 and 450 kPa, with a distance between the nozzle and the substrate from 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, to 35 cm.
    Keywords: spray coating; nanofibre; polycaprolactone; PCL; hydroxyapatite; bone integration.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSURFSE.2023.10060123