International Journal of Spatial, Temporal and Multimedia Information Systems
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International Journal of Spatial, Temporal and Multimedia Information Systems (1 paper in press)
Rainfall and Rainy days trend and ENSO Phenomena in Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan by Vasker Sharma, Kirtan Adhikari Abstract: The study explores the seasonal rainfall and rainy days trend in the Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan. Mann-Kendall and Sens slope test was applied to detect the trend and magnitude of the trend for both the rainfall and rainy days. The result showed that in the localised regions, both the rainfall and rainy days trend was significantly declining, however, the trend in most of the station is hardly conspicuous which may be attributed to the influence of the orographic phenomena. From the El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-rainfall assessment, it was observed that rainfall in the southern foothills correlates negatively with the ENSO phenomena indicating intense rainfall during the cooling phase of the Pacific Ocean. However, such an ENSO effect is not observed in the majority of the meteorological station which may be attributed to the location of the station in the mountainous region where the topography affects the rainfall variation. Keywords: rainfall; rainy days; MK trend test; Sens slope; El-Nino southern oscillation; ENSO; ONI index; Bhutan. DOI: 10.1504/IJSTMIS.2020.10035484