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International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics

International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics (IJSTL)

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International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics (40 papers in press)

Regular Issues

    by Karina Lang, Victor Cantillo, Héctor A. López-Ospina, Iván Serrano 
    Abstract: This article proposes a stochastic model for assessing the location of facilities for logistics terminals, modelled as freight transfer hubs to optimise the physical distribution of foreign trade products from the production centres to seaports and vice versa. The objective function minimises social costs, including private logistics costs (fares, travel times, transhipment) and external costs. In addition, the proposed approach uses a multinomial logit model as a demand function to incorporate consumer stochastic behaviour when choosing a route and location. The model was applied to the multimodal Colombian freight network. Results show that the social costs of logistics networks are reduced by including terminals that encourage intermodality. Network structure and economies of scale affect terminals selection.
    Keywords: facility location; logistics terminals; intermodality; intermodal hub location problem.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2022.10046953
  • Switching Costs and Geographic Price Discrimination in the Ship Management Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Antonis Michis 
    Abstract: The ship management industry operates on a global scale and is often associated with business practices such as repeated short-term contracts, long-term customer relationships, and international variation in pricing agreements. Using a unique dataset and a semi-parametric hedonic model specification, we investigated the determinants of ship management fees with particular emphasis on the identification of price mark-ups associated with switching costs. Our results suggest: 1) the existence of a
    Keywords: switching costs; geographic price discrimination; ship management; fixed effects.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10048809
  • Crude oil prices, container freight rates and dry bulk freight rates: Are there short-term and long-term effects on seaborne exports from Taiwan   Order a copy of this article
    by Hsing-Chung Chu 
    Abstract: This paper used the GARCH model and the VAR model to examine the volatility effect and lagged effect of three explanatory variables (crude oil prices and two indicators of freight rates, namely, the China Containerised Freight Index and the Baltic Dry Index) on seaborne exports from Taiwan. Monthly time series data were collected from January 2007 to March 2021. The results indicated no long-term relationship between seaborne exports and the three variables or their volatility. However, in the short term, oil price volatility in the previous month had a negative effect on the current seaborne exports; nevertheless, oil prices for two consecutive periods 1 month ahead and 2 months ahead had a positive effect on seaborne exports. The evidence also indicated that seaborne exports showed a stronger causal effect on the CCFI than did the CCFI on exports. Another important finding was the positive effect of the BDI on seaborne exports being 1 month ahead of the CCFI.
    Keywords: ocean freight; export; crude oil prices; freight rates; container; dry bulk; Taiwan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10048810
  • Service quality, relationship quality, e-service quality, and customer loyalty in the container shipping service context: A moderated mediation model   Order a copy of this article
    by Chun-Hsiung Liao, Chin-Shan Lu, Ying-Hsin Yu 
    Abstract: This study examines the determinants of customer loyalty in container shipping from a freight forwarding company’s perspective. We hypothesise that container carriers’ service quality, relationship quality, and e-services will have a positive influence on customer loyalty of international freight forwarders. Data are collected from 233 freight forwarding companies in Taiwan. We found that service quality, relationship quality and e-services positively affect customer loyalty, whereas relationship quality has a mediating effect on the relationship between service quality and customer loyalty. Specifically, a moderated mediation model is tested and indicates that the indirect effect of service quality on customer loyalty through relationship quality is significant and stronger when freight forwarders experienced high levels of e-services. Theoretical and managerial implications from the research findings are discussed along with limitations and future research.
    Keywords: container shipping; service quality; relationship quality; customer loyalty; e-service; electronic service; freight forwarder.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10049060
  • Construction of Korean Shipping Industry Risk Sentiment Index Using News Articles   Order a copy of this article
    by Sunghwa Park, Hyunsok Kim, Janghan Kwon, Taeil Kim 
    Abstract: We develop the Shipping Industry Risk Sentiment Index (SRSI) to measure risk sentiment in Korea’s shipping industry. The index is based on the frequency of news articles in Korean newspapers that contain terms related to the six C’s of credit suggested by Grammenos (2013). The dynamics of the index show that it spikes near tight periods of elevated risk sentiment including global financial crisis and the court receivership of Korea’s major shipping companies. We investigate predictive power of the index by using an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model and impulse response functions from local projections. Empirical evidence shows that SRSI reflects risk sentiment in shipping industry and contains useful information to understand market situations.
    Keywords: SRSI; news big data analysis; shipping market sentiment; local projections; ARDL.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10050213
  • Optimization of berth and quay crane joint scheduling considering efficiency and energy consumption   Order a copy of this article
    by Dusu Wen, Xumao Li, Xiaoyun Ren, Mingjun Ji, Qiuxi Long 
    Abstract: In order to reduce the energy consumption of ships and quay crane in the port area, the joint scheduling problem of berth and quay crane is studied on the premise that ship arrival information and terminal status information are known. Considering the needs of the shipping company and the interests of the port owner, a multi-objective mixed integer programming model is established to maximise the operational efficiency of ships in the port and minimise the total cost of the terminal, and a local search strategy is designed to solve the quay crane scheduling problem between adjacent ships. At the same time, combining topological structure and iterative coefficient mechanism, an improved particle swarm optimisation algorithm is designed to solve the model, and the Pareto non-inferior solution set is obtained. Finally, the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm are verified by comparison of algorithms with different scales and analysis of multi-scenario results.
    Keywords: container terminal; joint scheduling; multi-objective optimisation; particle swarm algorithm; PSO; energy consumption.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10050214
  • Social Welfare Optimization in a Hotelling Model with Two Double-sided Queues   Order a copy of this article
    by Ying Shi, Zhaotong Lian, Xin Li, Long Qingqi 
    Abstract: We study the problem of the optimal number of taxis in a Hotelling queue model, with two taxi stations: one at each end of a linear market. Each station is modelled as a double-sided queue and an equilibrium location divides taxi drivers into two parts to join either station. We find that customer utility increases with the number of customers, but decreases with the buffers of stations, the unit transportation cost and unit waiting cost of taxi drivers. The profit of each taxi driver increases with the number of customers but decreases with the unit transportation cost. Interestingly, the profit of each taxi driver increases and then decreases with the unit waiting cost and the buffers of the stations.
    Keywords: taxi; passenger; double-sided queue; welfare-maximisation; Hotelling queue model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10050983
  • Critical success factors of strategic alliance in the shipping industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Hui Ting Lu, Kum Fai Yuen, Kim Hock Tan, Guanqiu Qi 
    Abstract: Attributing to multiple environmental, organisational and cultural factors, shipping alliances (SAs) are complex and challenging to manage. This study aims to identify and categorise the critical success factors (CSFs) in SAs using a theory-driven approach. Moreover, it looks to examine their effects on two vital outcomes in SAs, including opportunistic behaviour (OB) and constructive coordination (CC). The CSFs were categorised into phases: 1) alliance rationale and conditions; 2) partner search and selection; 3) partnership design; 4) partnership implementation; 5) partnership outcome evaluation. A survey questionnaire was then drafted and administered to 180 executives from all shipping lines involved in major SAs (i.e., 2M, Ocean Alliance and The Alliance). Thereafter, the data were analysed using exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The findings validated the categorisation of the 20 CSFs. Furthermore, it was found that the CSFs have direct and indirect effects on CC via OB.
    Keywords: shipping alliances; success factors; theoretical perspectives; structural equation model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10050984
  • Fuzzy Goal Programming Approach for Solving Stochastic Transportation Problem with Additional Budgetary Constraints   Order a copy of this article
    by A. Akilbasha, Hamiden Abd El- Wahed Khalifa, Juman Zeinul Abdeen, Ibrahim Mekawy 
    Abstract: This paper attempts to study a transportation problem with costs represented by octagonal fuzzy numbers (Oct-FN) and demands randomly distributed. Here, we use the normal distribution. A fuzzy goal programming (FGP) approach is applied for obtaining the optimal compromise solution. The advantage of FGP for the decision maker is easy to explain and implement in real-life transportation. The stability set of the first kind corresponding to the optimal solution is determined. A numerical example is given to highlight the solution approach. Furthermore, the proposed method is extended to fuzzy transportation problems (FTP). This will help the forthcoming researchers to enlarge this problem into the other problems with parameters like fuzzy interval integers, rough interval integers, and so on.
    Keywords: stochastic transportation problem; octagonal fuzzy numbers; Oct-FN; normal distribution; ranking method; fuzzy goal programming; FGP.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10050985
  • Optimization of Evacuation and Emergency Materials Distribution under Natural Disaster   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuxin Huang, Yanwei Chen, Chuan Pang, Huajun Tang 
    Abstract: In recent years, frequent outbreaks of natural disasters cause large losses to the development of society and economics and threaten the safety of people’s lives and property. When the emergencies occur in a region with a high population density, people in the affected areas need both evacuation and a large amount of emergency materials. In this case, it is extremely necessary to respond quickly and arrange rescue work. This study constructed nonlinear integer programming models for personnel evacuation and materials distribution under natural disasters, aiming to determine the optimal solutions of evacuation and delivery. Finally, it tests the feasibility of the model and investigates the sensitivity of the optimal objectives on rescue conditions based on a case study. This research will provide some support for decision makers to design reasonable and effective rescue plans about personnel refuge arrangement and emergent materials distribution.
    Keywords: emergency rescue; evacuation; emergency materials distribution; disaster; nonlinear integer programming; delivery time.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10051495
  • Blockchain technology adoption in supply chain management: An investigation from UTAUT and information system success model   Order a copy of this article
    by Khuram Shahzad, Qingyu Zhang, Muhammad Kaleem Khan 
    Abstract: This study identifies the critical elements that play a substantial role in adopting blockchain technology (BT) in supply chain management (SCM). The blockchain is a system that provides a new and innovative way of documenting information through the internet, ensuring the data is encrypted and the transaction is secure. The adoption of the blockchain system, like software, can be explained by merging two widely accepted models (i.e., ISSM-information system success model and UTAUT) as the theoretical basis. The required data were obtained through a questionnaire from supply chain practitioners in China (Beijing) to accomplish the study objectives. The empirical findings determine that total quality, social influence, and performance expectancy positively impact user satisfaction. Furthermore, total quality, social influence, facilitating condition, performance expectancy, and user satisfaction positively influence the behavioural intention to use BT in SCM. Finally, user satisfaction and behavioural intention have a substantial positive impact on SCM’s performance, with 32% of variance explained. The results of this study are discussed evidently, and accordingly, practical guidelines are offered to policymakers along with the limitation and future work.
    Keywords: supply chain management; SCM; blockchain technology; total quality; UTAUT; performance impact.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10051575
  • A Modification of Double Frontier Ideal Point Method for Malmquist Productivity Index in the Investigation of Eco-Innovation in Transportation Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Reza Fallahnejad, Peter F. Wanke, Mohammad Reza Mozaffari, Yong Tan 
    Abstract: The Malmquist productivity index (MPI) is a well-known and widely used tool for evaluating performance over time in a variety of fields, including the transportation industry. There are flaws in the modelling and techniques that lead to inaccurate results and analyses. Although common weights (CW) based on the ideal point are used to achieve efficiencies relative to the best and worst frontiers, fractions of the MPI formula are computed inconsistently, i.e., the efficiency scores in the numerator and denominator of MPI fractions are calculated using different bases, and thus, the fractions do not accurately represent the amount of change. In this paper, we intend to present an innovative model to address the issues. Then, using the proposed model, we analyse Iran’s freight transportation industry performance from 2014 to 2017. We observe that our method generates MPI with smaller variations among the decision-making units (DMUs), we further notice that although the results derived from our proposed method and the ones from Mavi et al. (2019a) are similar to a certain extent, there are significance differences in the results reported by these two methods in some cases.
    Keywords: data envelopment analysis; DEA; Malmquist productivity index; MPI; common weights; CW; ideal point; transportation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10051702
  • Stochastic two-echelon vehicle routing problem with time windows: city logistics case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Angie Ramirez-Villamil, Jairo R. Montoya-Torres, Anicia Jaegler, Yosimar DIAZ 
    Abstract: The two-echelon capacitated vehicle routing problem (2E-CVRP) is a popular modelling approach used for solving urban logistics problems. Its aim is to handle freight distribution starting at a depot that supplies satellites or consolidation centres, and then to customers. Inspired by a case study, this work studies a 2E-CVRP variant with heterogeneous fleet of vehicles between echelons and limited loading capacity and time windows. The objective is the minimisation of the travel time. To deal with the computational complexity of the problem, a decomposition algorithm based on mixed integer linear programming (MILP) to solve the deterministic version is proposed. Also, a simheuristic is designed to solve its stochastic version. Experiments are carried out using real data of a case study in the city of Bogota, Colombia. Results show the impact of different freight delivery scenarios, providing insights for efficient decision-making.
    Keywords: two-echelon vehicle routing; simheuristic; urban logistic; case study.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10051978
  • An Optimal Study on Logistics Network of Cross-Border Railway in Inland Areas Considering Time Cost and Benefit of Scale of Railway Transportation   Order a copy of this article
    by Hairui Wei, Anlin Li 
    Abstract: In recent years, the rapid development of China Railway Express (CR Express) has provided new options for cross-border logistics in inland China. At the same time, it also accompanied the problem of immature and unsystematic networks. Considering the time cost and scale benefit of railway, this paper proposed an inland cross-border logistics network integration framework in China based on CR Express by a hybrid method including the set covering model, complex network theory, and the integer programming model. Then, 205 inland cities in 18 inland provinces as inland hinterlands and 67 candidate hub cities with CR Express as a case is studied to form the systematic network framework. Chongqing, Chengdu, Wuhan, Zhengzhou, Xi’an, Harbin and Urumqi are selected as first-level hub cities in the network. And, it is also found that compared with the sea-railway combined network, the cross-border railway transportation mode has more advantages on high-value of time and the benefit of scale when the cargo volume rising, and based on these findings, some management insights are put forwarded.
    Keywords: China Railway Express; CR Express; cross-border railway network; complex network; integer programming model; scale benefit of railway.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10052083
  • Vehicle Routing Problem with Drones as an Aid for Epidemic Relief   Order a copy of this article
    by Shih-Hao Lu, Marco Fabio Benaglia, Anh-Tu Nguyen, Edgar Rojas Rivera, Jen-Wei Cheng 
    Abstract: In response to epidemics, especially if vaccines and cures are not readily available, governments issue lockdowns and impose social distancing. Under such circumstances, to avoid potentially dangerous person-to-person contacts, drones can replace people in performing functions like delivering supplies, collecting swabs, measuring human body temperatures, etc. This paper introduces a new type of vehicle routing problem with multiple drones for epidemic relief (VRP-mD_ER), defined by a MILP mathematical model solved to near-optimality through the combined application of the
    Keywords: vehicle routing problem with drones; VRP-D; pandemic; genetic algorithm; GRASP; epidemic relief; last mile delivery; humanitarian aid; single-linkage.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10052859
  • The early impact of the Russia-Ukraine war on seaborne trade and transportation in the Black Sea   Order a copy of this article
    by Sercan EROL 
    Abstract: The current study seeks to determine the impact of the Russia-Ukraine war on the maritime trade and logistics corridors of the Black Sea and, thus, to evaluate the possible alternative modes of transport and trade routes. In line with this purpose, during-war ship data and T
    Keywords: Russian Ukrainian war; seaborn trade; maritime transportation; Black Sea; blue growth; Russia; Ukraine.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10053114
  • The Efficiency Analysis of Main Coastal Ports in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Tingsong Wang, Yaru Chen, Liyang Xiao 
    Abstract: This paper aims to evaluate the operational efficiency of 12 coastal ports in China from 2017 to 2020 and analyse the impact of internal and external environmental factors on port efficiency. The first stage uses the traditional data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure the static efficiency of the port, the second stage uses the Malmquist productivity index (MPI) to analyse the intertemporal dynamic change trend of the port efficiency, and the third stage uses the Tobit regression to estimate and quantify the factors affecting the static efficiency. We find that the operational efficiency of the 12 coastal ports is generally at a high level, but it is still limited by management method, technological level and input-output structure. It is also found that production berth quantity, staff quantity, import and export volume, and per capita GDP in the hinterland have a significant impact on efficiency, and the COVID-19 pandemic has also resulted in a negative impact on the port industry.
    Keywords: port efficiency; data envelopment analysis; DEA; Malmquist index; Tobit regression; China.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10053257
  • Vulnerability Analysis of Maritime Silk Road Shipping Network under Port Emergencies   Order a copy of this article
    by Yanbin Yang, Ling Sun 
    Abstract: The shipping network faces natural or man-made port emergencies, and the failure of port affects the network connectivity and efficiency. In view of this, we first construct Maritime Silk Road shipping network and analyse its characteristics. Then we select four indexes to measure its vulnerability. Random and deliberate attacks are simulated and the order of deliberate attacks is based on the importance obtained by PageRank algorithm. The importance also divides ports into four categories. Finally, the vulnerability is further analysed under the substitution effect of adjacent ports. The results demonstrate that the Maritime Silk Road shipping network is relatively weak under deliberate attack. When both core and regional hub ports are attacked, the network still has a certain local connectivity. Furthermore, when considering the substitution effect of adjacent ports, the failure of Singapore, Colombo, Jeddah, Shenzhen, Jebel Ali, Piraeus and Busan still has a high impact on the network vulnerability.
    Keywords: emergency; Maritime Silk Road; shipping network; vulnerability; substitution.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10053476
  • The Dynamic Efficiency Evaluation of Major Liner Shipping Companies: The Long-Term Impact of Strategical Investment   Order a copy of this article
    by Renjun Liu, Xiaofan Wu 
    Abstract: Should liner shipping companies be strategical investors or conservative investors? This study answered the question with a dynamic efficiency evaluation of major liner shipping companies from 2009 to 2020. We used the carry-over inputs to show the impact of strategical investment in a Dynamic DEA model. Through the Dynamic DEA results, we found that strategical investment in appropriate time can diminish the impact of price mechanism in the shipping cycle. The dynamic DEA model also showed that scales and alliance membership would not affect shipping companies’ efficiency scores. The result suggests liner shipping companies and industry should always have a long-term perspective rather than focus on short-term profit when making strategical investment.
    Keywords: Efficiency evaluation; Strategical investment; Super-efficiency DEA; Dynamic DEA; Liner shipping companies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10054202
    by Joseph Mpuon, Felix John Eze, Benedict Ejikeme Odigbo, Joseph Anyadighibe, Eyo Itam Eyo, Oliver Enoch Rebecca, Samuel Etim Ndem 
    Abstract: This research work investigates how collaborative and cooperative strategic partnerships in container shipping correlate with transportation enterprises’ logistical performance. Strategic collaborative and cooperative alliances have been argued empirically and theoretically that they reduce the scenario in which the industry’s stronger members negotiate all advantages plus some weaker members’ partnership earnings, encouraging veracity, commitment, flexibility, trust, honesty, integrity, confidence, and weakening the partnership’s ultimate breakup. Yet, there appears to be no empirical research on collaborative and cooperative strategic alliances in the logistics performance of container shipping and transport firms, particularly in terms of strategic collaborative and cooperative alliances that improve firms’ effectiveness and efficiency. Based on this limitation, the researchers sought to bridge the knowledge gap in this study. In the course of the study, 505 questionnaire copies were given to registered management employees of 101 container shipping and transport enterprises in Nigeria. 434 was completed and found useful for inclusion.
    Keywords: collaborative and cooperative alliances; container shipping; logistics performance; resource-based view theory; resource dependency theory; strategic alliance; transportation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10055221
    by Nebojsa Vasic, Milorad Kilibarda, Milan Andrejic 
    Abstract: This paper deals with the evaluation analysis of diverse distribution channels for products purchased in the e-commerce procedure using the hybrid MCDM method. The aim of the paper is to provide support in deciding which distribution channel in e-commerce is the most suitable from the aspect of e-customers, e-retailers and logistics providers. The hierarchical decomposition of the problem included five criteria (dimensions of logistics services) and six alternatives (e-commerce distribution channels). The weights of the criteria were obtained using the FAHP method, while the MOOSRA method was used to rank the distribution channels. According to the survey conducted at the Serbian market, the most convenient distribution channel from the aspect of e-customers is
    Keywords: multi-criteria decision making; MCDM; fuzzy analytic hierarchy process; FAHP; multi-objective optimisation on the basis of simple ratio analysis; MOOSRA; e-commerce; logistics service.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10055394
  • An evidential reasoning-based approach for risk assessment of intermodal transport of smart containers   Order a copy of this article
    by Lijuan Yang, Zhengguo Wang, Wenfeng Li, Chengpeng Wan, Zhifa Tao 
    Abstract: In recent years, the rapid development of smart container provides support for international cargo transportation and global trade, and frequent container transportation accidents have aroused widespread attention from all parties. Based on the risk propagation theory, risk matrix and evidential reasoning, this research proposes a risk assessment model for intermodal transport of smart containers. In which, the risk propagation theory is used to investigate the evolution of risk factors related to smart containers intermodal transport, the risk matrix method is used to determine the weight of each risk factor, and the evidential reasoning theory is applied to aggregate the risk assessment results of the entire transportation network. The study shows that the proposed method can be used to effectively identify the key risk factors and different risk factors dominate in different transport processes. By exploring the risk propagation process of smart container-related risk factors, it is found that the confidence of different risk levels will show different changes with the progress of transportation routes.
    Keywords: intermodal transport; smart container; evidential reasoning; risk propagation; risk assessment; internet of things; IoT.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10055726
  • Expected Utilities of Liner Shipping Market Trends: How Companies Can Benefit from?   Order a copy of this article
    by Umur Bucak 
    Abstract: Recently, liner shipping companies were one of the most profitable companies. To sustain this profitability, companies should right strategies. This study aims to define and analyse liner shipping market trends, its expected utilities, and the competitive advantage strategies of companies. In this study, the most adequate strategy that meets the requirements of these trends was obtained by fuzzy AHP-TOPSIS hybrid method. Such market trends as
    Keywords: liner shipping market trends; competitive advantage theory; fuzzy AHP-TOPSIS hybrid method; expected utility theory; container transport.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10055927
  • Supply Chain Integration of Liner Shipping Companies towards Hinterland: An Accelerator Effect of Covid-19   Order a copy of this article
    by Umur Bucak, Gülden Oral 
    Abstract: COVID-19 had certain economic, social, and environmental impacts on maritime transport. Although it is widely thought that these effects accelerated digitalisation, but also supply chain integration has shown an increase during this period. In this study, the factors that motivated liner shipping companies for the supply chain integration during the pandemic period were investigated in the context of property rights theory. It was tried to reveal which factors impact on which ones. The cause-effect interaction between these factors was demonstrated by the fuzzy DEMATEL method. As a result of this study,
    Keywords: COVID-19; supply chain integration; property rights theory; fuzzy DEMATEL; container transport.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10055928
  • Container Throughput Forecasting Using Non-Additive Forecast Combination   Order a copy of this article
    by Geng Wu, Yi-Chung Hu, Peng Jiang 
    Abstract: Containerisation is regarded as an important driving force of globalisation and international trade and has prompted the development of global ports. Accurately forecasting container throughput is crucial to maritime port planning and management. Previous studies have shown that combination forecasting not only has a higher predictive accuracy than that of a single model, but can also reduce the risk of failure during model selection. In this study, we propose a model of non-additive combination forecasting by using the fuzzy integral, to reflect the correlation between forecasting models. We used the quarterly container throughput of eight ports in China to test the proposed model. The empirical results were promising and indicate that the proposed model can outperform prevalent models of combination forecasting. This paper contributes to decision makers better understand expected demand for logistics of ports and adequately run for the long-term development planning and day-to-day operations.
    Keywords: container throughput; fuzzy integral; port management; forecast combination.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10056327
  • Identifying the partition of port clusters and hierarchical structure for port networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Xin He, Jianfeng Zheng, Tingyu Yu, Qian Wang 
    Abstract: With the deepening of port integration, the development of port clusters has become an important trend. How to determine a reasonable partition of port clusters for a number of ports (i.e., a port network) is an important research topic, which has not been addressed yet. This paper utilises the k-means algorithm and the elbow method to address port cluster partition. By using a number of statistical indicators including degree centrality, strength centrality, closeness centrality, betweenness centrality, and clustering coefficient, a hierarchical clustering method is used to further determine the hierarchical structure of port clusters. Considering ports in Asia, we construct two port networks generated by using a waterway-based physical network and a ship route-based service network, respectively. Numerical experiments show that, we can obtain properties of regionalisation and hierarchy for our obtained port clusters. Our results can provide the basis for the cooperative development among ports, the partition of port clusters, as well as understanding the hierarchical structure of port clusters.
    Keywords: port cluster partition; port cooperation; regionalisation; hierarchy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10056883
  • How Port Calls and Port Congestion Affect Capesize Shipping Prices amid COVID-19 Shocks? An Estimation based on AIS data   Order a copy of this article
    by Shun Chen, Xingjian Wang, Xiangyan Meng, Jinhong Mi 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the global economy, particularly in the cargo carrier sector. Port congestion and port calls are used in our study as proxies to measure changes in seaborne supply and demand and they are estimated using detailed navigational information from the cargo vessel’s automatic identification system (AIS) data. The dynamic effects of port congestion and port calls affected by the pandemic on the Capesize shipping market are quantified using the panel regression and threshold regression models from November 2017 to March 2022. According to the empirical findings, both port congestion and port calls have dynamic effects on the freight rates of iron ore trades due to changes in the supply and demand balance of maritime transport affected by the pandemic shock. From the perspective of maritime big data, our research illuminates how the Capesize shipping market responded to external epidemic shocks and the pass-through channels through which it is impacted; consequently, it should be of utmost importance for market stakeholders to anticipate and recover from disruptions during crisis periods.
    Keywords: COVID-19; Capesize shipping; automatic identification system; AIS; iron ore trades.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10057059
  • Cost-effectiveness optimization for a location-routing problem in humanitarian logistics   Order a copy of this article
    by Xihui Wang, Tongxin Liu, Yu Fan, Liang Liang 
    Abstract: The alleviation of human suffering and cost savings are two widely considered issues that need to be balanced by relief organisations in responding to a disaster. Due to the complexity of disasters, a
    Keywords: humanitarian logistics; location-routing; cost-effectiveness; social costs; fractional programming; deprivation cost.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10057637
  • Disruption risks to global container shipping network in the presence of COVID-19 pandemic: A static structure and dynamic propagation perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiongping Yue, Xiaochun Chen, Shuai Liu, Huanyu Ren 
    Abstract: This study examines the disruption risks of the global container shipping network from a static structure and dynamic propagation perspective. First, the topological structure of the global container shipping network is investigated by constructing a weighted and directed network. Second, the hidden risks are uncovered by the proposed disruption risk propagation model in the global container shipping network. The results indicate that the global container shipping network is characterised by
    Keywords: shipping network; disruption risk; complex network; COVID-19.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10057638
  • Early Warning Threshold Analysis of Maritime Accidents Based on Image Segmentation Technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuan Ji, Jing Lu, Meizhi Jiang, Wan Su 
    Abstract: Maritime channels are transportation carriers for national and regional trade. Accurately identifying the threshold for early warning systems for maritime emergencies can improve the accuracy of risk warnings and reduce the occurrence and harm resulting from maritime accidents, and thus improve the safety and security of maritime channels. Here, image segmentation technology is used to establish an early warning threshold selection model, and evaluation indicators such as the Youden index and five-fold cross-validation are used to verify the accuracy of the model. Empirical analysis based on past maritime accidents shows that the proposed model can accurately assess the risk of maritime accidents. The maximum entropy method has the highest warning accuracy, and the p-tile parameter method has the highest non-warning accuracy, which is used to minimise the false-alarm rate. The research results have important reference significance for identification of risk early warning thresholds and the construction of risk warning systems.
    Keywords: early warning threshold; threshold selection model; Bayesian network; maritime accidents.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10057994
  • Social Media Presence and Organizational Attractiveness of Ship Owner & Management Companies   Order a copy of this article
    by Taha Talip Türkistanl?, Co?kan Sevgili 
    Abstract: Social media platforms are the most effective tools used to transfer information. Companies can actively promote organisational attractiveness and recruitment efforts by using these platforms. In this context, this study analyses the familiarity and attractiveness of shipping companies from the perspective of maritime students. The social media pages of 27 shipping companies across all platforms were examined and 578 maritime students were surveyed. Social media usage habits of maritime students and shipping companies were discussed. Findings showed that larger fleets correlated with a greater presence on social media. Companies mostly utilised Facebook, LinkedIn, and Instagram to promote different activities. Students were able to gain familiarity with shipping companies through these platforms but findings on increasing organisational attractiveness were limited. The use of social media in the maritime industry is still very limited. The most significant factors for high social media presence were found to be follower size and frequent posting. Other key points to increase social media activities to promote recruitment in the maritime industry are discussed.
    Keywords: social media; organisational attractiveness; shipping companies; online recruitment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10057995
  • Analysis of the Global Shipping Finance Industry in 2006 and 2019: A Spatial Distribution Perspective and its Factors   Order a copy of this article
    by Liehui Wang, Yang Xiang, Nanyi Zhang, Yui-yip Joseph Lau, Maneerat Kanrak, Xavier Ling 
    Abstract: This study analysed the spatial characteristics and hierarchical structure of the shipping finance industry at national city scales and the global network status of cities using the chain network model. Analysis was conducted using data collected from Lloyd’s Maritime Directory of Maritime Enterprises in 2006 and 2019. The results show that even with the global shipping finance industry showing rapid growth, the UK and the USA are still the main hubs. The network distribution is stable, and companies are more inclined toward a group-style production and operation model. London is the main hub of the shipping finance industry. Singapore, Hong Kong, and Tokyo have coined the
    Keywords: shipping finance industry; spatial distribution; influencing factors; network analysis; interlocking network; chain network model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10057997
  • Using the Route Planning for Supplying Spare Parts to Reduce Distribution Costs: A Case Study in a Roadside Assistance Company   Order a copy of this article
    by Abolfazl Shafaei, Mohammad Reza Akbari Jokar, Majid Rafiee, Ahmad Hemmati 
    Abstract: In this study, a distribution model has been proposed to optimise the transportation, inventory, and shortage costs for the delivery of spare parts to roadside assistance cars. The model is based on the travelling salesman problem (TSP), where we have added a function to optimise distribution days. The model has been used in a real case for a roadside assistance company with 36 roadside assistance cars. In the company’s current plan, each car visits the company’s warehouse every five days to pick up spare parts. Using a delivery truck is proposed to deliver spare parts to the roadside assistance cars. Based on this proposal, a model was developed to reduce distribution costs by choosing the optimal delivery route and distribution days. The proposed plan has reduced the distribution cost by more than 50% compared with the current distribution plan used by the company.
    Keywords: distribution spare parts; route planning; travelling salesman problem; TSP; inventory routing problem; IRP; roadside assistance; distribution cost.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10058107
  • The determinants of economic efficiency and market power of the Spanish port system.   Order a copy of this article
    by Jose Cano-Leiva, Pedro Cantos-Sánchez, Jose J. Sempere-Monerris 
    Abstract: This paper estimates the economic efficiency of Spanish ports for the period 2002
    Keywords: economic efficiency; market power; stochastic frontier approach; port terminals.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10058894
  • Analyzing Barriers to the Adoption of Electric Freight Vehicles in China: Perspectives from Industry Stakeholders   Order a copy of this article
    by Yongling Gao, Liu Yang, Yan Liu 
    Abstract: The use of electric freight vehicles (EFVs) in fleets can provide a promising solution for reducing pipeline emissions. Due to a number of barriers, the development of EFVs in China is far below its potential. Therefore, this paper identifies 14 common obstacles to EFV adoption from the perspectives of industry stakeholders, including EFV manufacturers, fleet operators, and charging infrastructure operators. Then, we propose an iterative process of the fuzzy decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) technique to shortlist barriers and investigate their importance and cause-effect relationships. The results show that demand uncertainty (DU), inadequate cost advantages (CA), limited carrying capacities (CC), and the lack of suitable application scenarios (SAS) are critical barriers. The most significant causal barriers include the lack of mature battery technology (BT), lack of suitable places for charging facilities (PI), insufficient traffic incentives (TI), and long charging times (CT). Policy measures to mitigate these barriers are also discussed.
    Keywords: electric vehicles; EVs; city logistics; barrier; DEMATEL; policy; China.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10058895
  • Comprehensive Quantitative Model for the Impact of Changes of the Duration of Water Periods on Shipping Logistics Cost in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River   Order a copy of this article
    by Ting Liu, Xi Chen, Quan Wen 
    Abstract: In recent years, the extreme weather conditions such as rainstorm and drought have resulted in extreme water level in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and changes of the duration of water periods, and affected impact on transport efficiency, safety, and economy of the Yangtze River shipping. This paper established a comprehensive quantitative model for the impact of changes of the duration of water periods on shipping logistics cost in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. The research results show that changes of the duration of water periods have different effects to shipping logistics cost per freight ton of different ship types. The longer the duration of flood period or dry period is, the greater the impact on shipping logistics cost per freight ton; the influence of the extension of the dry period on shipping logistics cost per freight ton is much greater than that of flood period.
    Keywords: changes of the duration of water periods; flood period; dry period; shipping logistics cost; comprehensive quantitative model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10059838
  • Transhipment: when movement matters in port efficiency   Order a copy of this article
    by Fernando Gonzalez-Laxe, Xose Luis Fernandez, Pablo Coto-Millán 
    Abstract: : Container ports are leading actors in globalisation. They serve massed (increasingly larger ships) and planetary (organised in networks) logistics processes. There is evidence of a high relationship between containerised cargo and ports’ performance. However, there is also a lack of literature regarding its sources. This paper uses frontier analysis techniques to investigate whether the type of activity (import/export, transhipment or cabotage) is crucial in explaining port efficiency. To this end, a two-stage procedure is proposed. In the first stage, the efficiency of ten Spanish ports specialised in container traffic is estimated by DEA techniques. In the second, the different types of container traffic activities are evaluated. Results suggested that port efficiency is: 1) highly related to the typology of containerisation activity; 2) through a non-linear form (inverted U-shape). Thus, ports that combine both transhipment and import-export activities outperform those specialised in one of these activities.
    Keywords: efficiency; container ports; transhipment; import-export.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10059839
  • Dynamic berth allocation problem for a novel hybrid berth system in container terminal   Order a copy of this article
    by Bo Lu, Shuai Hao, Meng Zhao, Huipo Wang 
    Abstract: This paper considers a novel hybrid berth system (NHBS) that contains both the continuous and discrete berth areas. To balance the high berth utilisation and efficient cargo handling, the dynamic berth allocation problem for the NHBS is proposed that simultaneously determines the selection of berth areas, the specified berth allocation and scheduling under dynamically arriving berth demand. To capture all these operation determinations by an integrated mathematical modelling framework, a mixed integer linear programming model is rigorously formulated aiming to minimise the system service time. We develop a customised solution approach based on genetic algorithm that can efficiently solve this model to high quality solutions. A series of numerical experiments are performed based on real-world cases with managerial insights into the effect of the key parameters on the daily operations and system design.
    Keywords: dynamic berth allocation problem; DBAP; hybrid berth system; container terminals; mixed integer linear programming; MILP; genetic algorithm.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10060124
  • A multiobjective robustness methodology for a closed cycle supply chain design considering volume discount and economic benefits by reducing CO2 emissions of transportation modes   Order a copy of this article
    by Nathalia Duque-Araujo, Luis Eduardo Muñoz-Pabón, John Wilmer Escobar 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a new methodology for designing a closed-loop chain based on multiple objectives and uncertainties in the parameters. First, a mixed-integer mathematical model for a closed supply chain is proposed considering volume discounts and economic benefits from CO2 emissions reduction. The robustness measurement is then performed using a method adapted from electrical systems called features, perturbation, impact, and analysis (FePIA). The proposed multi-objective methodology considers three objectives such as minimising the cost of the environmental impact associated with CO2 emissions (EC), maximising the net present value (NPV) of the supply chain investment, and minimising its financial risk (FR). The objectives are integrated using the weighted average sum methodology. The efficiency of the proposed methodology has been tested with real information from a multinational company operating in Colombia. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
    Keywords: closed supply chain; environmental impact; net present value; NPV; financial risk; weighted average sum; robustness; FePIA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10060754
  • Optimization of the port-hinterland intermodal container flow with inland hub capacity concern   Order a copy of this article
    by Yunfeng Gao 
    Abstract: An intermodal transport operator usually needs to plan the routes to transport containers of multiple shippers to seaports achieving the goals of efficiency, economy, and sustainability. A model is proposed to optimise the port-hinterland intermodal container flow to minimise the transportation time, the transportation cost, and the carbon emission. The proposed model synchronously optimises the subproblems of flow distribution, node selection, and mode selection. Besides other common constraints, the model is also capable to handle the constraints of maximum transportation time, the storage capacity of inland hubs, and the transport capacity of truck, train, and vessel modes. The model can generate several intermodal routes to split and transport containers of a shipper if the shipper’s container volume exceeds the inland hub’s storage capacity or exceeds the capacity of transporting mode. The case study validates the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm.
    Keywords: intermodal transportation network; inland hub; port-hinterland; flow distribution; node selection; mode selection.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10060755