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International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics

International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics (IJSTL)

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International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics (36 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  •   Free full-text access Open AccessVulnerability Analysis of Maritime Silk Road Shipping Network under Port Emergencies
    ( Free Full-text Access ) CC-BY-NC-ND
    by Yanbin Yang, Ling Sun 
    Abstract: The shipping network faces natural or man-made port emergencies, and the failure of port affects the network connectivity and efficiency. In view of this, we first construct Maritime Silk Road shipping network and analyse its characteristics. Then we select four indexes to measure its vulnerability. Random and deliberate attacks are simulated and the order of deliberate attacks is based on the importance obtained by PageRank algorithm. The importance also divides ports into four categories. Finally, the vulnerability is further analysed under the substitution effect of adjacent ports. The results demonstrate that the Maritime Silk Road shipping network is relatively weak under deliberate attack. When both core and regional hub ports are attacked, the network still has a certain local connectivity. Furthermore, when considering the substitution effect of adjacent ports, the failure of Singapore, Colombo, Jeddah, Shenzhen, Jebel Ali, Piraeus and Busan still has a high impact on the network vulnerability.
    Keywords: emergency; Maritime Silk Road; shipping network; vulnerability; substitution.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10053476
  • Vehicle Routing Problem with Drones as an Aid for Epidemic Relief   Order a copy of this article
    by Shih-Hao Lu, Marco Fabio Benaglia, Anh-Tu Nguyen, Edgar Rojas Rivera, Jen-Wei Cheng 
    Abstract: In response to epidemics, especially if vaccines and cures are not readily available, governments issue lockdowns and impose social distancing. Under such circumstances, to avoid potentially dangerous person-to-person contacts, drones can replace people in performing functions like delivering supplies, collecting swabs, measuring human body temperatures, etc. This paper introduces a new type of vehicle routing problem with multiple drones for epidemic relief (VRP-mD_ER), defined by a MILP mathematical model solved to near-optimality through the combined application of the
    Keywords: vehicle routing problem with drones; VRP-D; pandemic; genetic algorithm; GRASP; epidemic relief; last mile delivery; humanitarian aid; single-linkage.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10052859
  • The early impact of the Russia-Ukraine war on seaborne trade and transportation in the Black Sea   Order a copy of this article
    by Sercan EROL 
    Abstract: The current study seeks to determine the impact of the Russia-Ukraine war on the maritime trade and logistics corridors of the Black Sea and, thus, to evaluate the possible alternative modes of transport and trade routes. In line with this purpose, during-war ship data and T
    Keywords: Russian Ukrainian war; seaborn trade; maritime transportation; Black Sea; blue growth; Russia; Ukraine.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10053114
  • The Efficiency Analysis of Main Coastal Ports in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Tingsong Wang, Yaru Chen, Liyang Xiao 
    Abstract: This paper aims to evaluate the operational efficiency of 12 coastal ports in China from 2017 to 2020 and analyse the impact of internal and external environmental factors on port efficiency. The first stage uses the traditional data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure the static efficiency of the port, the second stage uses the Malmquist productivity index (MPI) to analyse the intertemporal dynamic change trend of the port efficiency, and the third stage uses the Tobit regression to estimate and quantify the factors affecting the static efficiency. We find that the operational efficiency of the 12 coastal ports is generally at a high level, but it is still limited by management method, technological level and input-output structure. It is also found that production berth quantity, staff quantity, import and export volume, and per capita GDP in the hinterland have a significant impact on efficiency, and the COVID-19 pandemic has also resulted in a negative impact on the port industry.
    Keywords: port efficiency; data envelopment analysis; DEA; Malmquist index; Tobit regression; China.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10053257
  • The Dynamic Efficiency Evaluation of Major Liner Shipping Companies: The Long-Term Impact of Strategical Investment   Order a copy of this article
    by Renjun Liu, Xiaofan Wu 
    Abstract: Should liner shipping companies be strategical investors or conservative investors? This study answered the question with a dynamic efficiency evaluation of major liner shipping companies from 2009 to 2020. We used the carry-over inputs to show the impact of strategical investment in a Dynamic DEA model. Through the Dynamic DEA results, we found that strategical investment in appropriate time can diminish the impact of price mechanism in the shipping cycle. The dynamic DEA model also showed that scales and alliance membership would not affect shipping companies’ efficiency scores. The result suggests liner shipping companies and industry should always have a long-term perspective rather than focus on short-term profit when making strategical investment.
    Keywords: Efficiency evaluation; Strategical investment; Super-efficiency DEA; Dynamic DEA; Liner shipping companies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10054202
    by Joseph Mpuon, Felix John Eze, Benedict Ejikeme Odigbo, Joseph Anyadighibe, Eyo Itam Eyo, Oliver Enoch Rebecca, Samuel Etim Ndem 
    Abstract: This research work investigates how collaborative and cooperative strategic partnerships in container shipping correlate with transportation enterprises’ logistical performance. Strategic collaborative and cooperative alliances have been argued empirically and theoretically that they reduce the scenario in which the industry’s stronger members negotiate all advantages plus some weaker members’ partnership earnings, encouraging veracity, commitment, flexibility, trust, honesty, integrity, confidence, and weakening the partnership’s ultimate breakup. Yet, there appears to be no empirical research on collaborative and cooperative strategic alliances in the logistics performance of container shipping and transport firms, particularly in terms of strategic collaborative and cooperative alliances that improve firms’ effectiveness and efficiency. Based on this limitation, the researchers sought to bridge the knowledge gap in this study. In the course of the study, 505 questionnaire copies were given to registered management employees of 101 container shipping and transport enterprises in Nigeria. 434 was completed and found useful for inclusion.
    Keywords: collaborative and cooperative alliances; container shipping; logistics performance; resource-based view theory; resource dependency theory; strategic alliance; transportation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10055221
    by Nebojsa Vasic, Milorad Kilibarda, Milan Andrejic 
    Abstract: This paper deals with the evaluation analysis of diverse distribution channels for products purchased in the e-commerce procedure using the hybrid MCDM method. The aim of the paper is to provide support in deciding which distribution channel in e-commerce is the most suitable from the aspect of e-customers, e-retailers and logistics providers. The hierarchical decomposition of the problem included five criteria (dimensions of logistics services) and six alternatives (e-commerce distribution channels). The weights of the criteria were obtained using the FAHP method, while the MOOSRA method was used to rank the distribution channels. According to the survey conducted at the Serbian market, the most convenient distribution channel from the aspect of e-customers is
    Keywords: multi-criteria decision making; MCDM; fuzzy analytic hierarchy process; FAHP; multi-objective optimisation on the basis of simple ratio analysis; MOOSRA; e-commerce; logistics service.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10055394
  • An evidential reasoning-based approach for risk assessment of intermodal transport of smart containers   Order a copy of this article
    by Lijuan Yang, Zhengguo Wang, Wenfeng Li, Chengpeng Wan, Zhifa Tao 
    Abstract: In recent years, the rapid development of smart container provides support for international cargo transportation and global trade, and frequent container transportation accidents have aroused widespread attention from all parties. Based on the risk propagation theory, risk matrix and evidential reasoning, this research proposes a risk assessment model for intermodal transport of smart containers. In which, the risk propagation theory is used to investigate the evolution of risk factors related to smart containers intermodal transport, the risk matrix method is used to determine the weight of each risk factor, and the evidential reasoning theory is applied to aggregate the risk assessment results of the entire transportation network. The study shows that the proposed method can be used to effectively identify the key risk factors and different risk factors dominate in different transport processes. By exploring the risk propagation process of smart container-related risk factors, it is found that the confidence of different risk levels will show different changes with the progress of transportation routes.
    Keywords: intermodal transport; smart container; evidential reasoning; risk propagation; risk assessment; internet of things; IoT.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10055726
  • Supply Chain Integration of Liner Shipping Companies towards Hinterland: An Accelerator Effect of Covid-19   Order a copy of this article
    by Umur Bucak, Gülden Oral 
    Abstract: COVID-19 had certain economic, social, and environmental impacts on maritime transport. Although it is widely thought that these effects accelerated digitalisation, but also supply chain integration has shown an increase during this period. In this study, the factors that motivated liner shipping companies for the supply chain integration during the pandemic period were investigated in the context of property rights theory. It was tried to reveal which factors impact on which ones. The cause-effect interaction between these factors was demonstrated by the fuzzy DEMATEL method. As a result of this study,
    Keywords: COVID-19; supply chain integration; property rights theory; fuzzy DEMATEL; container transport.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10055928
  • Container Throughput Forecasting Using Non-Additive Forecast Combination   Order a copy of this article
    by Geng Wu, Yi-Chung Hu, Peng Jiang 
    Abstract: Containerisation is regarded as an important driving force of globalisation and international trade and has prompted the development of global ports. Accurately forecasting container throughput is crucial to maritime port planning and management. Previous studies have shown that combination forecasting not only has a higher predictive accuracy than that of a single model, but can also reduce the risk of failure during model selection. In this study, we propose a model of non-additive combination forecasting by using the fuzzy integral, to reflect the correlation between forecasting models. We used the quarterly container throughput of eight ports in China to test the proposed model. The empirical results were promising and indicate that the proposed model can outperform prevalent models of combination forecasting. This paper contributes to decision makers better understand expected demand for logistics of ports and adequately run for the long-term development planning and day-to-day operations.
    Keywords: container throughput; fuzzy integral; port management; forecast combination.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10056327
  • Identifying the partition of port clusters and hierarchical structure for port networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Xin He, Jianfeng Zheng, Tingyu Yu, Qian Wang 
    Abstract: With the deepening of port integration, the development of port clusters has become an important trend. How to determine a reasonable partition of port clusters for a number of ports (i.e., a port network) is an important research topic, which has not been addressed yet. This paper utilises the k-means algorithm and the elbow method to address port cluster partition. By using a number of statistical indicators including degree centrality, strength centrality, closeness centrality, betweenness centrality, and clustering coefficient, a hierarchical clustering method is used to further determine the hierarchical structure of port clusters. Considering ports in Asia, we construct two port networks generated by using a waterway-based physical network and a ship route-based service network, respectively. Numerical experiments show that, we can obtain properties of regionalisation and hierarchy for our obtained port clusters. Our results can provide the basis for the cooperative development among ports, the partition of port clusters, as well as understanding the hierarchical structure of port clusters.
    Keywords: port cluster partition; port cooperation; regionalisation; hierarchy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10056883
  • How Port Calls and Port Congestion Affect Capesize Shipping Prices amid COVID-19 Shocks? An Estimation based on AIS data   Order a copy of this article
    by Shun Chen, Xingjian Wang, Xiangyan Meng, Jinhong Mi 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the global economy, particularly in the cargo carrier sector. Port congestion and port calls are used in our study as proxies to measure changes in seaborne supply and demand and they are estimated using detailed navigational information from the cargo vessel’s automatic identification system (AIS) data. The dynamic effects of port congestion and port calls affected by the pandemic on the Capesize shipping market are quantified using the panel regression and threshold regression models from November 2017 to March 2022. According to the empirical findings, both port congestion and port calls have dynamic effects on the freight rates of iron ore trades due to changes in the supply and demand balance of maritime transport affected by the pandemic shock. From the perspective of maritime big data, our research illuminates how the Capesize shipping market responded to external epidemic shocks and the pass-through channels through which it is impacted; consequently, it should be of utmost importance for market stakeholders to anticipate and recover from disruptions during crisis periods.
    Keywords: COVID-19; Capesize shipping; automatic identification system; AIS; iron ore trades.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10057059
  • Cost-effectiveness optimization for a location-routing problem in humanitarian logistics   Order a copy of this article
    by Xihui Wang, Tongxin Liu, Yu Fan, Liang Liang 
    Abstract: The alleviation of human suffering and cost savings are two widely considered issues that need to be balanced by relief organisations in responding to a disaster. Due to the complexity of disasters, a 'one-fits-for-all' approach for achieving this balance does not exist. Recently, sometimes in China, the local authorities emphasise cost-effectiveness maximisation, i.e., the effectiveness that a unit of cost can produce. Motivated by this current practice situation, we aim to build an appropriate cost-effectiveness objective and assess its strength and efficacy. We consider here a location-routing problem and build a mathematical programming model, based on which we make a comparison between cost-effectiveness maximisation and social cost minimisation through a numerical experiment and a larger scale case study. The results show that cost-effectiveness provides a more balanced delivery strategy, which substantially decreases the logistics costs at a minimal sacrifice to the operations human benefits.
    Keywords: humanitarian logistics; location-routing; cost-effectiveness; social costs; fractional programming; deprivation cost.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10057637
  • Disruption risks to global container shipping network in the presence of COVID-19 pandemic: A static structure and dynamic propagation perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiongping Yue, Xiaochun Chen, Shuai Liu, Huanyu Ren 
    Abstract: This study examines the disruption risks of the global container shipping network from a static structure and dynamic propagation perspective. First, the topological structure of the global container shipping network is investigated by constructing a weighted and directed network. Second, the hidden risks are uncovered by the proposed disruption risk propagation model in the global container shipping network. The results indicate that the global container shipping network is characterised by
    Keywords: shipping network; disruption risk; complex network; COVID-19.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10057638
  • Early Warning Threshold Analysis of Maritime Accidents Based on Image Segmentation Technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuan Ji, Jing Lu, Meizhi Jiang, Wan Su 
    Abstract: Maritime channels are transportation carriers for national and regional trade. Accurately identifying the threshold for early warning systems for maritime emergencies can improve the accuracy of risk warnings and reduce the occurrence and harm resulting from maritime accidents, and thus improve the safety and security of maritime channels. Here, image segmentation technology is used to establish an early warning threshold selection model, and evaluation indicators such as the Youden index and five-fold cross-validation are used to verify the accuracy of the model. Empirical analysis based on past maritime accidents shows that the proposed model can accurately assess the risk of maritime accidents. The maximum entropy method has the highest warning accuracy, and the p-tile parameter method has the highest non-warning accuracy, which is used to minimise the false-alarm rate. The research results have important reference significance for identification of risk early warning thresholds and the construction of risk warning systems.
    Keywords: early warning threshold; threshold selection model; Bayesian network; maritime accidents.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10057994
  • Social Media Presence and Organizational Attractiveness of Ship Owner & Management Companies   Order a copy of this article
    by Taha Talip Türkistanl?, Co?kan Sevgili 
    Abstract: Social media platforms are the most effective tools used to transfer information. Companies can actively promote organisational attractiveness and recruitment efforts by using these platforms. In this context, this study analyses the familiarity and attractiveness of shipping companies from the perspective of maritime students. The social media pages of 27 shipping companies across all platforms were examined and 578 maritime students were surveyed. Social media usage habits of maritime students and shipping companies were discussed. Findings showed that larger fleets correlated with a greater presence on social media. Companies mostly utilised Facebook, LinkedIn, and Instagram to promote different activities. Students were able to gain familiarity with shipping companies through these platforms but findings on increasing organisational attractiveness were limited. The use of social media in the maritime industry is still very limited. The most significant factors for high social media presence were found to be follower size and frequent posting. Other key points to increase social media activities to promote recruitment in the maritime industry are discussed.
    Keywords: social media; organisational attractiveness; shipping companies; online recruitment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10057995
  • Analysis of the Global Shipping Finance Industry in 2006 and 2019: A Spatial Distribution Perspective and its Factors   Order a copy of this article
    by Liehui Wang, Yang Xiang, Nanyi Zhang, Yui-yip Joseph Lau, Maneerat Kanrak, Xavier Ling 
    Abstract: This study analysed the spatial characteristics and hierarchical structure of the shipping finance industry at national city scales and the global network status of cities using the chain network model. Analysis was conducted using data collected from Lloyd’s Maritime Directory of Maritime Enterprises in 2006 and 2019. The results show that even with the global shipping finance industry showing rapid growth, the UK and the USA are still the main hubs. The network distribution is stable, and companies are more inclined toward a group-style production and operation model. London is the main hub of the shipping finance industry. Singapore, Hong Kong, and Tokyo have coined the
    Keywords: shipping finance industry; spatial distribution; influencing factors; network analysis; interlocking network; chain network model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10057997
  • Using the Route Planning for Supplying Spare Parts to Reduce Distribution Costs: A Case Study in a Roadside Assistance Company   Order a copy of this article
    by Abolfazl Shafaei, Mohammad Reza Akbari Jokar, Majid Rafiee, Ahmad Hemmati 
    Abstract: In this study, a distribution model has been proposed to optimise the transportation, inventory, and shortage costs for the delivery of spare parts to roadside assistance cars. The model is based on the travelling salesman problem (TSP), where we have added a function to optimise distribution days. The model has been used in a real case for a roadside assistance company with 36 roadside assistance cars. In the company’s current plan, each car visits the company’s warehouse every five days to pick up spare parts. Using a delivery truck is proposed to deliver spare parts to the roadside assistance cars. Based on this proposal, a model was developed to reduce distribution costs by choosing the optimal delivery route and distribution days. The proposed plan has reduced the distribution cost by more than 50% compared with the current distribution plan used by the company.
    Keywords: distribution spare parts; route planning; travelling salesman problem; TSP; inventory routing problem; IRP; roadside assistance; distribution cost.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10058107
  • The determinants of economic efficiency and market power of the Spanish port system.   Order a copy of this article
    by Jose Cano-Leiva, Pedro Cantos-Sánchez, Jose J. Sempere-Monerris 
    Abstract: This paper estimates the economic efficiency of Spanish ports for the period 2002
    Keywords: economic efficiency; market power; stochastic frontier approach; port terminals.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10058894
  • Analyzing Barriers to the Adoption of Electric Freight Vehicles in China: Perspectives from Industry Stakeholders   Order a copy of this article
    by Yongling Gao, Liu Yang, Yan Liu 
    Abstract: The use of electric freight vehicles (EFVs) in fleets can provide a promising solution for reducing pipeline emissions. Due to a number of barriers, the development of EFVs in China is far below its potential. Therefore, this paper identifies 14 common obstacles to EFV adoption from the perspectives of industry stakeholders, including EFV manufacturers, fleet operators, and charging infrastructure operators. Then, we propose an iterative process of the fuzzy decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) technique to shortlist barriers and investigate their importance and cause-effect relationships. The results show that demand uncertainty (DU), inadequate cost advantages (CA), limited carrying capacities (CC), and the lack of suitable application scenarios (SAS) are critical barriers. The most significant causal barriers include the lack of mature battery technology (BT), lack of suitable places for charging facilities (PI), insufficient traffic incentives (TI), and long charging times (CT). Policy measures to mitigate these barriers are also discussed.
    Keywords: electric vehicles; EVs; city logistics; barrier; DEMATEL; policy; China.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10058895
  • Comprehensive Quantitative Model for the Impact of Changes of the Duration of Water Periods on Shipping Logistics Cost in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River   Order a copy of this article
    by Ting Liu, Xi Chen, Quan Wen 
    Abstract: In recent years, the extreme weather conditions such as rainstorm and drought have resulted in extreme water level in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and changes of the duration of water periods, and affected impact on transport efficiency, safety, and economy of the Yangtze River shipping. This paper established a comprehensive quantitative model for the impact of changes of the duration of water periods on shipping logistics cost in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. The research results show that changes of the duration of water periods have different effects to shipping logistics cost per freight ton of different ship types. The longer the duration of flood period or dry period is, the greater the impact on shipping logistics cost per freight ton; the influence of the extension of the dry period on shipping logistics cost per freight ton is much greater than that of flood period.
    Keywords: changes of the duration of water periods; flood period; dry period; shipping logistics cost; comprehensive quantitative model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10059838
  • Transhipment: when movement matters in port efficiency   Order a copy of this article
    by Fernando Gonzalez-Laxe, Xose Luis Fernandez, Pablo Coto-Millán 
    Abstract: : Container ports are leading actors in globalisation. They serve massed (increasingly larger ships) and planetary (organised in networks) logistics processes. There is evidence of a high relationship between containerised cargo and ports’ performance. However, there is also a lack of literature regarding its sources. This paper uses frontier analysis techniques to investigate whether the type of activity (import/export, transhipment or cabotage) is crucial in explaining port efficiency. To this end, a two-stage procedure is proposed. In the first stage, the efficiency of ten Spanish ports specialised in container traffic is estimated by DEA techniques. In the second, the different types of container traffic activities are evaluated. Results suggested that port efficiency is: 1) highly related to the typology of containerisation activity; 2) through a non-linear form (inverted U-shape). Thus, ports that combine both transhipment and import-export activities outperform those specialised in one of these activities.
    Keywords: efficiency; container ports; transhipment; import-export.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10059839
  • Dynamic berth allocation problem for a novel hybrid berth system in container terminal   Order a copy of this article
    by Bo Lu, Shuai Hao, Meng Zhao, Huipo Wang 
    Abstract: This paper considers a novel hybrid berth system (NHBS) that contains both the continuous and discrete berth areas. To balance the high berth utilisation and efficient cargo handling, the dynamic berth allocation problem for the NHBS is proposed that simultaneously determines the selection of berth areas, the specified berth allocation and scheduling under dynamically arriving berth demand. To capture all these operation determinations by an integrated mathematical modelling framework, a mixed integer linear programming model is rigorously formulated aiming to minimise the system service time. We develop a customised solution approach based on genetic algorithm that can efficiently solve this model to high quality solutions. A series of numerical experiments are performed based on real-world cases with managerial insights into the effect of the key parameters on the daily operations and system design.
    Keywords: dynamic berth allocation problem; DBAP; hybrid berth system; container terminals; mixed integer linear programming; MILP; genetic algorithm.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10060124
  • A multiobjective robustness methodology for a closed cycle supply chain design considering volume discount and economic benefits by reducing CO2 emissions of transportation modes   Order a copy of this article
    by Nathalia Duque-Araujo, Luis Eduardo Muñoz-Pabón, John Wilmer Escobar 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a new methodology for designing a closed-loop chain based on multiple objectives and uncertainties in the parameters. First, a mixed-integer mathematical model for a closed supply chain is proposed considering volume discounts and economic benefits from CO2 emissions reduction. The robustness measurement is then performed using a method adapted from electrical systems called features, perturbation, impact, and analysis (FePIA). The proposed multi-objective methodology considers three objectives such as minimising the cost of the environmental impact associated with CO2 emissions (EC), maximising the net present value (NPV) of the supply chain investment, and minimising its financial risk (FR). The objectives are integrated using the weighted average sum methodology. The efficiency of the proposed methodology has been tested with real information from a multinational company operating in Colombia. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
    Keywords: closed supply chain; environmental impact; net present value; NPV; financial risk; weighted average sum; robustness; FePIA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10060754
  • Optimization of the port-hinterland intermodal container flow with inland hub capacity concern   Order a copy of this article
    by Yunfeng Gao 
    Abstract: An intermodal transport operator usually needs to plan the routes to transport containers of multiple shippers to seaports achieving the goals of efficiency, economy, and sustainability. A model is proposed to optimise the port-hinterland intermodal container flow to minimise the transportation time, the transportation cost, and the carbon emission. The proposed model synchronously optimises the subproblems of flow distribution, node selection, and mode selection. Besides other common constraints, the model is also capable to handle the constraints of maximum transportation time, the storage capacity of inland hubs, and the transport capacity of truck, train, and vessel modes. The model can generate several intermodal routes to split and transport containers of a shipper if the shipper’s container volume exceeds the inland hub’s storage capacity or exceeds the capacity of transporting mode. The case study validates the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm.
    Keywords: intermodal transportation network; inland hub; port-hinterland; flow distribution; node selection; mode selection.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10060755
  • Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on vessel traffic in Shanghai Port: A spatial-temporal analysis and implications for shipping and transport logistics   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhe Su 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 lockdown policy in Shanghai from March to May 2022 caused congestion of cargo and container ships at Shanghai Port, leading some vessels to divert to neighbouring ports. We conducted a spatial-temporal analysis using high-resolution satellite imagery to investigate this trend. Results showed a 52% decrease in import dwell volumes for large containers along the import queue to Shanghai marine terminals within ten days of the partial lockdown start. By 14 April, 672 ships were recorded dwelling in the awaiting berthing area, a 178% increase from the previous month. However, the situation gradually improved after a new maritime traffic policy was implemented on 5 April. By 26 April, traffic had returned to normal levels. Shipping delays at the world’s largest port can have safety implications for the coastline and disrupt the global supply chain. Monitoring and analysing vessel activities during such events are essential to ensure efficient and safe port operations.
    Keywords: ship detection; Sentinel-1 GRD radar image; maritime traffic interruption; COVID-19 lockdown policy; maritime environmental valuation; coastal management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2024.10061382
  • The design of a sustainable-resilient forward-reverse logistics network considering resource sharing and using an accelerated benders decomposition algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Hamid Saffari, Morteza Abbasi, Jafar Gheidar-Kheljani 
    Abstract: In recent years, supply chain cooperation has been considered to increase efficiency and reduce costs. In this study, the resource sharing approach is used to design a sustainable-resilient steel supply chain. Also, to cope with uncertainty, a robust optimisation method is applied, and the effects of disruption risk on sustainability indicators, such as damage to workers and job opportunities lost, are considered. A Benders decomposition algorithm with two acceleration mechanisms is customised so that results show algorithm efficiency for solving large-size instances. Also, the computational analysis shows the proposed strategies to cope with disruption can reduce total costs and increase network sustainability. Finally, managerial insights according to the results of the study are suggested. Hence, this study brings a novel research perspective for collaborative forward-reverse logistics network design.
    Keywords: Benders decomposition; resource sharing; logistics network design; uncertainty; sustainability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2024.10062137
    by Bayram Aslan, Bekir Sahin, Devran YAZIR 
    Abstract: The main contribution of this study is to analyse the causes of navigational accidents, regardless of the type of ship, and to investigate by using a hybrid fault tree analysis, full consistency method, and event tree analysis. We determine the accidents and their known causes between the years of 2014 and 2020 according to IMO GISIS data. Sensitivity analyses are conducted for the operational and unsafe action failures. For collisions, noncompliance with the COLREGs, insufficient lookout, storms, strong winds, and narrow manoeuvre areas causes are found to be the most critical causes. For grounding, heavy weather conditions, insufficient lookout, engine failure, strong winds, and loss of power are the top causes that the countermeasures should be taken. Inspections for the training centres, education of maritime English, more recruitment of seafarers to reduce the workload, and usage of information technology for weather incidents are recommendations for some of the managerial implications.
    Keywords: maritime accidents; collision; grounding; fault tree analysis; FTA; full consistency method; FUCOM; event tree analysis; ETA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2024.10062138
  • Analyses of Port Infrastructure Investment and Shore Power Subsidy Policies for Inland Container Transportation Network with CO2 Emission Reduction Targets   Order a copy of this article
    by Zongbao Wang, Ming Zhong, Xiaofeng Pan, Xiaofeng Ma 
    Abstract: This study optimises port infrastructure investment and shore-power subsidies considering the congestion at the bottlenecks and CO2 emission reduction targets in inland container transportation networks. Firstly, ship visa and container truck trajectory data are used to develop queuing models for container trucks and ships at ports or ship locks. Then, a bi-level programming model is developed to optimise the policies of port infrastructure investment and shore-power subsidies. The lower-level model simulates the shipper’s decision-making process using a multimodal multicommodity network equilibrium model, considering both generalised transportation cost and congestion effects. The upper-level model maximises the benefit-cost ratio of these policies, considering container flows and carbon emissions from the lower-level model. Finally, a real-world container transportation network is used as a case study to analyse the impacts of different CO2 emission reduction targets, shore power subsidies, and OD demand on the optimal policies for network design and subsidy plans.
    Keywords: inland container transportation network; bi-level programming; network design problem; shore power subsidies; multicommodity network equilibrium; CO2 emissions.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2024.10062557
  • Evaluating green efficiency of China's road freight transport: Combining Super-SBM-Undesirable and Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Li Zhang, Jiali YU 
    Abstract: Road transportation is the transportation industry’s primary source of carbon emissions. It is hard to effectively rank the multiple decision units for carbon emission reduction decisions. To tackle this problem, we construct a super-SBM-undesirable for multiple decision units, combined with fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis to explore high-efficiency development pathways. Experimental validation was conducted to determine the road freight efficiency in China from 2017 to 2019 and found that the regional differences are significant due to technological efficiency. Carbon dioxide emissions do have a detrimental influence on the efficiency of road freight transport.
    Keywords: efficiency evaluation; road freight transport; carbon dioxide; SBM-DEA; FS-QCA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2024.10063299
  • Constructing Maritime Incoterms Quotation Judgment Criteria in the Post-epidemic Era   Order a copy of this article
    by Ling Sun, Wenjing Zhang, César Ducruet, Zijiang Hu 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 has brought about drastic fluctuations in maritime trade quotations. This has prompted the focus of attention on how to rebuild a new mode of maritime quotations and stabilize the maritime transport market in the post-epidemic era. This paper takes CIF and FOB as examples to discuss the establishment of a quotation selection judgment criteria from the perspective of transportation. By using a Bayesian network model, a quantitative calculation of probability was conducted. The final construction of the CIF/FOB quotation selection judgment criteria will provide a replicable model and scheme. From the perspective of the development trend of the maritime industry in the post-epidemic era, it not only helps export traders make a more reasonable choice, but also provides a new means for market sustainability.
    Keywords: FOB; CIF; quotation selection judgment criteria; Equilibrium point; Maritime transport; Post-epidemic era; Sustainable development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2024.10063300
  • An Initial Design Validation Framework for Cooperative Risk Management in Seaports   Order a copy of this article
    by Ayman Nagi, Floris Goerlandt, Wolfgang Kersten 
    Abstract: Recent disruptions in supply chains, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, have highlighted the importance of cross-organisational risk management for avoiding or mitigating the impacts of operational risks such as supply bottlenecks and demand shocks. Earlier work has presented the CoRiMaS risk management model for seaports, in which stakeholder analysis, risk governance, strategic and tactical risk management, and knowledge management are the key aspects. Considering the lack of validation approaches for cooperative risk management in the general risk literature, and a fortiori in the maritime domain, this article proposes an initial validation framework to test the design of the CoRiMaS risk management model for seaports. Apart from introducing the conceptual basis and practical steps of this validation framework, it is applied to an illustrative case study to clarify its concepts, and to guide further testing and research. The presented case study includes specific scenarios that were discussed with stakeholders in Germany and Finland. The developed framework can be used and expanded to validate the design of similar cooperative risk management models. The results of the illustrative test case based on the initial design validation framework support the development of a theoretically founded cooperative risk management auditing process.
    Keywords: validation; framework; seaport; collaboration; cooperation; risk management; RM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2024.10063301
  • Evolutionary Game Analysis of Emission Reduction Strategies between Port and Shipping Enterprises and Shippers under Carbon Trading Mechanism   Order a copy of this article
    by Jing Liang, Lin Zhang, Yuying Dou 
    Abstract: Adopting a supply chain perspective, an evolutionary game model is constructed to investigate the carbon reduction game dynamics between port and shipping enterprises and shippers. Through numerical simulations, we explore the factors influencing carbon reduction decisions for both these enterprises and shippers. The results indicate that as carbon trading prices rise, port and shipping enterprises show an accelerated propensity towards emission reduction. Given the anticipated significant increase in carbon trading prices in the future, these enterprises might opt for emission reduction at the very onset of their decision-making process. For the entire supply chain, it is recommended that the government amplifies its subsidy intensity for shippers while maintaining the subsidy for port and shipping enterprises within a certain range. Additionally, a moderate reduction in the charges for carbon reduction services by port and shipping enterprises proves effective in promoting their emission reductions and enticing shippers to avail of these services.
    Keywords: emission reduction strategies; evolutionary game theory; carbon emissions trading mechanism.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2024.10063924
  • Carrier channel encroachment and forwarder order sequence: an equilibrium analysis of shipping service supply chain   Order a copy of this article
    by Lang Xu, Yuchen Wei, Jihong Chen, Yuqi Luo 
    Abstract: In the post-epidemic era, with the economic deterioration of global situation and the efficiency recovery of shipping market, the maritime industry is falling into the recession. Affected by this situation, the competition of maritime supply chain not only comes from the horizontal among forwarders to order sequence, but also includes the vertical brought by the carrier encroachment in freight forwarding business. Under this setting, we introduce the independent forwarder and subsidiary forwarder into the maritime supply chain to explore the interaction between carrier channel encroachment and forwarder order timing. From the outcome, we observe that the channel encroachment is not always a best choice if the encroached cost is high relatively or the subsidiary forwarder order capacity simultaneously. Further, the cooperation degree between the carrier and subsidiary forwarder also plays a key role in the choice of encroachment strategy, where the channel encroachment is adopted once the carrier excessively relies on the subsidiary forwarder.
    Keywords: Channel encroachment; Game theory; Order sequence; Shipping service supply chain.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2024.10063925
  • Freight Throughput Forecast of China Airport Based on Random Forest Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Hang He, Jie Wang, Jinghui Zhang 
    Abstract: In order to improve prediction accuracy and assist the air transport decision-making department in formulating a more reasonable transportation plan, this paper proposes the random forest algorithm (RFA) to handle high-dimensional variables and construct an airport freight throughput prediction model. Given that the airport’s freight throughput is influenced by a complex environment, 18 influencing factors were assessed using Pearson correlation analysis to measure the strength of the correlation between these factors and airport freight throughput. The prediction model’ s critical parameters were then determined using grid search and cross-validation, including the number of decision trees, depth of decision trees, and the number of feature variables. The model’s important variable scores were ranked, and optimal parameters were selected to establish the RFA regression prediction model. Finally, using Wuhan Airport as an example, the established RFA regression prediction model was used to verify the prediction results on the test set. The prediction effect was compared with the results of the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, multiple regression analysis, and the back-propagation (BP) neural network model. The results indicate that the RFA-based regression prediction model has higher prediction accuracy.
    Keywords: airport freight throughput; random forest algorithm; RFA; Pearson correlation coefficient analysis; prediction; China.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2024.10064069
  • Evolutionary Game Analysis for Dual-channel Booking Behavior of Shippers and Carriers   Order a copy of this article
    by Qingbin Wang, Gaoyu Pu, Jianfeng Zheng 
    Abstract: With the development of e-commerce technology, online booking has become a new booking choice. Under traditional channel, small and medium-sized shippers (SMSs)’ cargo is always being dumped due to carrier’s overselling, and online channel guarantee to lock the price and slots by prepaying deposits. Because SMSs and carriers lack scientific decision support, they usually fall into a vicious circle during high demand season. Therefore, an evolutionary game model is constructed to analyse shippers’ and carriers’ booking behaviour, identifying a win-win strategy during high demand season. In order to explore characteristics of booking behaviour, the ESS under four scenarios is discussed, then analysing the sensitivity of key parameters to the win-win strategy. The results show that the ESS is related to decision scenarios and evolutionary initial states, and booking behaviour is mainly influenced by freight fluctuation rate, dumping compensation, empty loading risk, deposit loss risk and financial operation cost.
    Keywords: dual-channel booking; e-commerce; electronic commerce; small and medium-sized shipper; SMS; overselling; evolutionary game.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2024.10064070