Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics

International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics (IJSTL)

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International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics (38 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • A Principal-agent Model for Hazmat Transportation in China with Risk Perception and Regulatory Policy   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuanyuan Li, Yile Ba, C.T. Daniel Ng, Jun Wu, Wenyan Yuan, Jian Li 
    Abstract: This paper develops one basic and two improved principal-agent models to analyse the hazmat transportation (HT) under a regulatory policy in China. Compared to the basic principal-agent model, the improved models focus on two important elements of HT: harmful risk and government regulatory policy. Under the contract, the principal is the shipper and the agent is the carrier. First, we study the implications of harmful properties of hazmat transported by the agent on the principal’s contract. Second, we consider the regulatory policy with penalty from the government, which can drive the agent to meet the entry threshold of qualifications. Finally, an optimal contract is presented to promote the safety of HT. A good regulatory policy will reach a win-win solution both for the enterprises and the government. We conduct 12 numerical experiments for parameter analysis. The methodology and results provide a quantitative approach with significant insights for decision makers.
    Keywords: hazmat transportation; principal-agent model; risk; government policy; China.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2022.10042941
  • Dry Port Integrated Port Development with Microsimulation Method for Solving Port-City Conflict: A Case of Alsancak Port   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehmet Sinan Y?ld?r?m, ümit Gökku? 
    Abstract: In this research, we have developed a dry port integrated development scenario for a city port with a port-city conflict problem and evaluated the economic benefits of the integration compared with the 'port-only’ development. Discrete event simulation was used for developing intermodal port simulation models with (IPSM-2) and without dry port (IPSM-1). A port development cost model was developed for economic comparison of the scenarios considering the port storage area requirement and traffic predictions in 20-foot equivalent units (TEU). The model results indicated that for the year of 2019, IPSM-2 decreased the port storage area up to 87% and IPSM-2 ($101/TEU) was 47% more economical compared to the IPSM-1 ($191/TEU) considering the handling rate. The study concludes that dry port integration can yield sustainable and more economic port development and can be used for solving port-city conflict for land usage.
    Keywords: intermodal; dry port; port; simulation; city port.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2022.10044090
    by Elifcan Dursun, Sule Gungor 
    Abstract: Container reshuffle is one of the main problems that container terminals face for several reasons. One reason for container reshuffle is uncertain transaction type. Yard planner needs the information for the transaction type to allocate inbound containers without causing a reshuffle. The vessel agent submits the transaction type information on the discharge list. However, before the vessel’s arrival, circumstances
    Keywords: container reshuffle; container transaction type; CRISP-DM; multiple logistics regression; seaport; terminal operating system.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2022.10044799
  • A ship performance and genetic algorithm based decision support system for vessel speed optimization of ocean route   Order a copy of this article
    by Yanfei Zhang, Jipan Qiao 
    Abstract: The speed optimization of operating ships contributes to reducing fuel costs and the emission of Green House Gas (GHG). Therefore, it is a managerial problem to determine an optimal speed that helps minimize fuel consumption while considering various navigation restrictions that conform to navigation habits. Though most literary works study empirical formulas or historical navigation data to estimate fuel consumption under different weather conditions, these methods are subject to various limitations due to the unique performance of different vessels. Based on the still water model test data, this paper proposes a performance-based decision support system (DSS) for speed optimization, which considers the impact of weather conditions and the specific fuel oil consumption (SFOC) rate value of the main engine on fuel consumption. The speed optimization DSS applies a genetic algorithm (GA) to minimize fuel consumption and satisfy practical purposes. The ship-shore data exchange-based DSS can promptly provide an operating vessel with speed optimization suggestions. The effectiveness of the speed optimization DSS is validated through the implications on the operational ship, and its accuracy is tested by comparing the collected data on two target voyages.
    Keywords: Speed optimization; Genetic algorithm; Sustainable maritime logistics; Ship performance; Shipping management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10051566
    by Karina Lang, Victor Cantillo, Héctor A. López-Ospina, Iván Serrano 
    Abstract: This article proposes a stochastic model for assessing the location of facilities for logistics terminals, modelled as freight transfer hubs to optimise the physical distribution of foreign trade products from the production centres to seaports and vice versa. The objective function minimises social costs, including private logistics costs (fares, travel times, transhipment) and external costs. In addition, the proposed approach uses a multinomial logit model as a demand function to incorporate consumer stochastic behaviour when choosing a route and location. The model was applied to the multimodal Colombian freight network. Results show that the social costs of logistics networks are reduced by including terminals that encourage intermodality. Network structure and economies of scale affect terminals selection.
    Keywords: facility location; logistics terminals; intermodality; intermodal hub location problem.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2022.10046953
  • Asymmetric Price Adjustments in the Shanghai Containerized Freight Index (SCFI): Evidence from a Non-Linear Autoregressive Distributed Lag (NARDL) Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Byungchul Yu, Sung-Ho Shin, Young-Jin Ro 
    Abstract: In this study, we empirically investigate price adjustments in the Shanghai Containerized Freight Index (SCFI) using the nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) model. Using monthly data from January 2014 to February 2020, this study constructed a price equation for the SCFI with bunker price and container fleet as a supply shock and container volume as a demand shock and estimated the model by applying the NARDL model. Our empirical results can be summarised as follows: first, there is strong evidence of long-run asymmetry of the freight rate to supply and demand shocks. Second, the SCFI responds more sensitively to a positive supply shock of bunker price and a negative shock of container fleet than to other cases. Lastly, supply shock of container fleet is the most crucial factor in determining the freight price in the long run. Our results suggest that the asymmetric adjustment of maritime freight should be considered when analysing the container shipping market.
    Keywords: Shanghai Containerized Freight Index; SCFI; nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag model; NARDL; container shipping; bunker price; container throughput; container fleet.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2022.10046955
  • Empirical research on performance effects of supply chain resilience: Systematic literature review, citation network analysis and future research directions   Order a copy of this article
    by Chunsheng Li, Christina W.Y. Wong, Chee Yew Wong, Sakun Boon-itt, Xin Miao 
    Abstract: Although firms are aware of the importance of implementing various strategies of supply chain resilience (SCRES) to mitigate and manage supply chain risks and disruptions, there are limited insights into the interrelationships among the strategies in affecting business performance. This study objectively reviews 135 articles related to the performance effects of SCRES through conducting a systematic literature review (SLR) and citation network analysis (CNA). Based on the results of the CNA, we identify citation network clusters of the articles with three main strategies of SCRES, namely, supply chain (SC) agility, SC risk management, and SC reengineering. A structured framework is developed to map the performance impact of SCRES strategies and the interrelationships between the two. Observing the common grounds and mutual citations among clusters, we propose research directions of the performance impact of SCRES based on the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory for advancing research on SCRES.
    Keywords: supply chain resilience; SCRES; firm performance; systematic literature review; SLR; citation network analysis; CNA; resilient supply chain; complex adaptive system; CAS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2022.10047380
  • Resilient supply chain emergency management strategy of cruise ship supply based on node fails under disruptions   Order a copy of this article
    by Liling Huang, Yong Tan, Xu Guan 
    Abstract: Reliable supply chain network is crucial for sustainable cruise supply chains. To cope with increasing disruptions caused by human errors and natural disasters, or epidemiological risks, such as norovirus, storm, iceberg, and so on, resilient supply chain network should be considered as an integrated perspective into the cruise ship supply system planning process. This paper studies the emergency replacement strategy after the interruption of nodes from an elastic perspective. A mixed integer programming model of emergency scheduling strategy is established to meet the needs of cruise ships and maintain the normal operation of the cruise supply chain. Then, CPLEX software is used to solve the model with the lowest total cost under the elastic constraints. Finally, a numerical simulation is given to show the proposed method is effective and practical. Quantitative analysis can assist cruise managers in decision making regarding disrupt supply chain network and making a trade-off between desired resilience and constraints.
    Keywords: cruise ship supply; resilient supply chain; emergency management; integer liner programming.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10047999
  • Optimizing Uncertain Bottleneck-Cost Integer Transportation Problems with Beta Distributed Shipping Times   Order a copy of this article
    by A. Akilbasha, G. Natarajan 
    Abstract: A novel method namely; the reductive most-least method is developed to optimise the bottleneck integer transportation problem which is different from the existing methods. It is a fairly simple approach method too. An uncertain BIT problem in which shipping times follow beta distribution is studied. The time for completion of the expected transportation for the uncertain BIT problem is determined, and statistical analysis on the transportation completion time of the considering problem is carried out. Further, an uncertain bottleneck-cost integer transportation problem with beta distributed shipping times is presented, and a new method namely, the cost-reductive most-least method is proposed to determine efficient solutions for the expected uncertain BCIT problem having beta distributed shipping times and the transportation completion time of the uncertain BCIT problem with statistical analysis.
    Keywords: Bottleneck transportation problem; Reductive most least method; Minimum transportation completion time; Beta distributed shipping times; Cost-reductive most least method; Statistical analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10048001
  • Switching Costs and Geographic Price Discrimination in the Ship Management Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Antonis Michis 
    Abstract: The ship management industry operates on a global scale and is often associated with business practices such as repeated short-term contracts, long-term customer relationships, and international variation in pricing agreements. Using a unique dataset and a semi-parametric hedonic model specification, we investigated the determinants of ship management fees with particular emphasis on the identification of price mark-ups associated with switching costs. Our results suggest: 1) the existence of a
    Keywords: switching costs; geographic price discrimination; ship management; fixed effects.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10048809
  • Crude oil prices, container freight rates and dry bulk freight rates: Are there short-term and long-term effects on seaborne exports from Taiwan   Order a copy of this article
    by Hsing-Chung Chu 
    Abstract: This paper used the GARCH model and the VAR model to examine the volatility effect and lagged effect of three explanatory variables (crude oil prices and two indicators of freight rates, namely, the China Containerised Freight Index and the Baltic Dry Index) on seaborne exports from Taiwan. Monthly time series data were collected from January 2007 to March 2021. The results indicated no long-term relationship between seaborne exports and the three variables or their volatility. However, in the short term, oil price volatility in the previous month had a negative effect on the current seaborne exports; nevertheless, oil prices for two consecutive periods 1 month ahead and 2 months ahead had a positive effect on seaborne exports. The evidence also indicated that seaborne exports showed a stronger causal effect on the CCFI than did the CCFI on exports. Another important finding was the positive effect of the BDI on seaborne exports being 1 month ahead of the CCFI.
    Keywords: ocean freight; export; crude oil prices; freight rates; container; dry bulk; Taiwan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10048810
  • Service quality, relationship quality, e-service quality, and customer loyalty in the container shipping service context: A moderated mediation model   Order a copy of this article
    by Chun-Hsiung Liao, Chin-Shan Lu, Ying-Hsin Yu 
    Abstract: This study examines the determinants of customer loyalty in container shipping from a freight forwarding company’s perspective. We hypothesise that container carriers’ service quality, relationship quality, and e-services will have a positive influence on customer loyalty of international freight forwarders. Data are collected from 233 freight forwarding companies in Taiwan. We found that service quality, relationship quality and e-services positively affect customer loyalty, whereas relationship quality has a mediating effect on the relationship between service quality and customer loyalty. Specifically, a moderated mediation model is tested and indicates that the indirect effect of service quality on customer loyalty through relationship quality is significant and stronger when freight forwarders experienced high levels of e-services. Theoretical and managerial implications from the research findings are discussed along with limitations and future research.
    Keywords: container shipping; service quality; relationship quality; customer loyalty; e-service; electronic service; freight forwarder.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10049060
  • Construction of Korean Shipping Industry Risk Sentiment Index Using News Articles   Order a copy of this article
    by Sunghwa Park, Hyunsok Kim, Janghan Kwon, Taeil Kim 
    Abstract: We develop the Shipping Industry Risk Sentiment Index (SRSI) to measure risk sentiment in Korea’s shipping industry. The index is based on the frequency of news articles in Korean newspapers that contain terms related to the six C’s of credit suggested by Grammenos (2013). The dynamics of the index show that it spikes near tight periods of elevated risk sentiment including global financial crisis and the court receivership of Korea’s major shipping companies. We investigate predictive power of the index by using an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model and impulse response functions from local projections. Empirical evidence shows that SRSI reflects risk sentiment in shipping industry and contains useful information to understand market situations.
    Keywords: SRSI; news big data analysis; shipping market sentiment; local projections; ARDL.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10050213
  • Optimization of berth and quay crane joint scheduling considering efficiency and energy consumption   Order a copy of this article
    by Dusu Wen, Xumao Li, Xiaoyun Ren, Mingjun Ji, Qiuxi Long 
    Abstract: In order to reduce the energy consumption of ships and quay crane in the port area, the joint scheduling problem of berth and quay crane is studied on the premise that ship arrival information and terminal status information are known. Considering the needs of the shipping company and the interests of the port owner, a multi-objective mixed integer programming model is established to maximise the operational efficiency of ships in the port and minimise the total cost of the terminal, and a local search strategy is designed to solve the quay crane scheduling problem between adjacent ships. At the same time, combining topological structure and iterative coefficient mechanism, an improved particle swarm optimisation algorithm is designed to solve the model, and the Pareto non-inferior solution set is obtained. Finally, the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm are verified by comparison of algorithms with different scales and analysis of multi-scenario results.
    Keywords: container terminal; joint scheduling; multi-objective optimisation; particle swarm algorithm; PSO; energy consumption.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10050214
  • Social Welfare Optimization in a Hotelling Model with Two Double-sided Queues   Order a copy of this article
    by Ying Shi, Zhaotong Lian, Xin Li, Long Qingqi 
    Abstract: We study the problem of the optimal number of taxis in a Hotelling queue model, with two taxi stations: one at each end of a linear market. Each station is modelled as a double-sided queue and an equilibrium location divides taxi drivers into two parts to join either station. We find that customer utility increases with the number of customers, but decreases with the buffers of stations, the unit transportation cost and unit waiting cost of taxi drivers. The profit of each taxi driver increases with the number of customers but decreases with the unit transportation cost. Interestingly, the profit of each taxi driver increases and then decreases with the unit waiting cost and the buffers of the stations.
    Keywords: taxi; passenger; double-sided queue; welfare-maximisation; Hotelling queue model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10050983
  • Critical success factors of strategic alliance in the shipping industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Hui Ting Lu, Kum Fai Yuen, Kim Hock Tan, Guanqiu Qi 
    Abstract: Attributing to multiple environmental, organisational and cultural factors, shipping alliances (SAs) are complex and challenging to manage. This study aims to identify and categorise the critical success factors (CSFs) in SAs using a theory-driven approach. Moreover, it looks to examine their effects on two vital outcomes in SAs, including opportunistic behaviour (OB) and constructive coordination (CC). The CSFs were categorised into phases: 1) alliance rationale and conditions; 2) partner search and selection; 3) partnership design; 4) partnership implementation; 5) partnership outcome evaluation. A survey questionnaire was then drafted and administered to 180 executives from all shipping lines involved in major SAs (i.e., 2M, Ocean Alliance and The Alliance). Thereafter, the data were analysed using exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The findings validated the categorisation of the 20 CSFs. Furthermore, it was found that the CSFs have direct and indirect effects on CC via OB.
    Keywords: shipping alliances; success factors; theoretical perspectives; structural equation model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10050984
  • Fuzzy Goal Programming Approach for Solving Stochastic Transportation Problem with Additional Budgetary Constraints   Order a copy of this article
    by A. Akilbasha, Hamiden Abd El- Wahed Khalifa, Juman Zeinul Abdeen, Ibrahim Mekawy 
    Abstract: This paper attempts to study a transportation problem with costs represented by octagonal fuzzy numbers (Oct-FN) and demands randomly distributed. Here, we use the normal distribution. A fuzzy goal programming (FGP) approach is applied for obtaining the optimal compromise solution. The advantage of FGP for the decision maker is easy to explain and implement in real-life transportation. The stability set of the first kind corresponding to the optimal solution is determined. A numerical example is given to highlight the solution approach. Furthermore, the proposed method is extended to fuzzy transportation problems (FTP). This will help the forthcoming researchers to enlarge this problem into the other problems with parameters like fuzzy interval integers, rough interval integers, and so on.
    Keywords: stochastic transportation problem; octagonal fuzzy numbers; Oct-FN; normal distribution; ranking method; fuzzy goal programming; FGP.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10050985
  • Service Anomaly Detection in Dry Bulk Terminals. A machine learning approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Iñigo L. Ansorena 
    Abstract: Bulk terminals are complex environments due to a number of variables that affect terminal performance. Although the analysis of big datasets is destined to become an important component of terminal management, previous research has not addressed this issue yet. This paper aims to shed new light on the operation of dry bulk terminals through a two-stage method based on unsupervised machine learning techniques. The first step gives an overview of the terminal’s performance, revealing the strongest associations between the variables, while the second calculates an anomaly score for each vessel through an optimised implementation of the Isolation Forest. As a result, we detect anomalous services which could be directly attributable to the terminal operator. This method can be used to increase transparency in service and assist the terminal operator and ship agents in future contracts.
    Keywords: bulk cargo terminals; terminal performance; machine learning; association discovery; anomaly detection; anomalous service; inefficient service; association rules.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10051280
  • Optimization of Evacuation and Emergency Materials Distribution under Natural Disaster   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuxin Huang, Yanwei Chen, Chuan Pang, Huajun Tang 
    Abstract: In recent years, frequent outbreaks of natural disasters cause large losses to the development of society and economics and threaten the safety of people’s lives and property. When the emergencies occur in a region with a high population density, people in the affected areas need both evacuation and a large amount of emergency materials. In this case, it is extremely necessary to respond quickly and arrange rescue work. This study constructed nonlinear integer programming models for personnel evacuation and materials distribution under natural disasters, aiming to determine the optimal solutions of evacuation and delivery. Finally, it tests the feasibility of the model and investigates the sensitivity of the optimal objectives on rescue conditions based on a case study. This research will provide some support for decision makers to design reasonable and effective rescue plans about personnel refuge arrangement and emergent materials distribution.
    Keywords: emergency rescue; evacuation; emergency materials distribution; disaster; nonlinear integer programming; delivery time.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10051495
  • Blockchain technology adoption in supply chain management: An investigation from UTAUT and information system success model   Order a copy of this article
    by Khuram Shahzad, Qingyu Zhang, Muhammad Kaleem Khan 
    Abstract: This study identifies the critical elements that play a substantial role in adopting blockchain technology (BT) in supply chain management (SCM). The blockchain is a system that provides a new and innovative way of documenting information through the internet, ensuring the data is encrypted and the transaction is secure. The adoption of the blockchain system, like software, can be explained by merging two widely accepted models (i.e., ISSM-information system success model and UTAUT) as the theoretical basis. The required data were obtained through a questionnaire from supply chain practitioners in China (Beijing) to accomplish the study objectives. The empirical findings determine that total quality, social influence, and performance expectancy positively impact user satisfaction. Furthermore, total quality, social influence, facilitating condition, performance expectancy, and user satisfaction positively influence the behavioural intention to use BT in SCM. Finally, user satisfaction and behavioural intention have a substantial positive impact on SCM’s performance, with 32% of variance explained. The results of this study are discussed evidently, and accordingly, practical guidelines are offered to policymakers along with the limitation and future work.
    Keywords: supply chain management; SCM; blockchain technology; total quality; UTAUT; performance impact.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10051575
  • A Modification of Double Frontier Ideal Point Method for Malmquist Productivity Index in the Investigation of Eco-Innovation in Transportation Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Reza Fallahnejad, Peter F. Wanke, Mohammad Reza Mozaffari, Yong Tan 
    Abstract: The Malmquist productivity index (MPI) is a well-known and widely used tool for evaluating performance over time in a variety of fields, including the transportation industry. There are flaws in the modelling and techniques that lead to inaccurate results and analyses. Although common weights (CW) based on the ideal point are used to achieve efficiencies relative to the best and worst frontiers, fractions of the MPI formula are computed inconsistently, i.e., the efficiency scores in the numerator and denominator of MPI fractions are calculated using different bases, and thus, the fractions do not accurately represent the amount of change. In this paper, we intend to present an innovative model to address the issues. Then, using the proposed model, we analyse Iran’s freight transportation industry performance from 2014 to 2017. We observe that our method generates MPI with smaller variations among the decision-making units (DMUs), we further notice that although the results derived from our proposed method and the ones from Mavi et al. (2019a) are similar to a certain extent, there are significance differences in the results reported by these two methods in some cases.
    Keywords: data envelopment analysis; DEA; Malmquist productivity index; MPI; common weights; CW; ideal point; transportation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10051702
  • Stochastic two-echelon vehicle routing problem with time windows: city logistics case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Angie Ramirez-Villamil, Jairo R. Montoya-Torres, Anicia Jaegler, Yosimar DIAZ 
    Abstract: The two-echelon capacitated vehicle routing problem (2E-CVRP) is a popular modelling approach used for solving urban logistics problems. Its aim is to handle freight distribution starting at a depot that supplies satellites or consolidation centres, and then to customers. Inspired by a case study, this work studies a 2E-CVRP variant with heterogeneous fleet of vehicles between echelons and limited loading capacity and time windows. The objective is the minimisation of the travel time. To deal with the computational complexity of the problem, a decomposition algorithm based on mixed integer linear programming (MILP) to solve the deterministic version is proposed. Also, a simheuristic is designed to solve its stochastic version. Experiments are carried out using real data of a case study in the city of Bogota, Colombia. Results show the impact of different freight delivery scenarios, providing insights for efficient decision-making.
    Keywords: two-echelon vehicle routing; simheuristic; urban logistic; case study.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10051978
  • An Optimal Study on Logistics Network of Cross-Border Railway in Inland Areas Considering Time Cost and Benefit of Scale of Railway Transportation   Order a copy of this article
    by Hairui Wei, Anlin Li 
    Abstract: In recent years, the rapid development of China Railway Express (CR Express) has provided new options for cross-border logistics in inland China. At the same time, it also accompanied the problem of immature and unsystematic networks. Considering the time cost and scale benefit of railway, this paper proposed an inland cross-border logistics network integration framework in China based on CR Express by a hybrid method including the set covering model, complex network theory, and the integer programming model. Then, 205 inland cities in 18 inland provinces as inland hinterlands and 67 candidate hub cities with CR Express as a case is studied to form the systematic network framework. Chongqing, Chengdu, Wuhan, Zhengzhou, Xi’an, Harbin and Urumqi are selected as first-level hub cities in the network. And, it is also found that compared with the sea-railway combined network, the cross-border railway transportation mode has more advantages on high-value of time and the benefit of scale when the cargo volume rising, and based on these findings, some management insights are put forwarded.
    Keywords: China Railway Express; CR Express; cross-border railway network; complex network; integer programming model; scale benefit of railway.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10052083
  • The Load-dependent Electric Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhiguo Wu, Jiepeng Wang, Chen Chen, Yunhui Liu 
    Abstract: In recent years, many firms use electric vehicles to distribute goods. For electric vehicles, energy consumption depends on the joint effect of load and distance. In this paper, we study the electric vehicle routing problem considering the load factor, in which energy consumption is influenced by the load. We model this problem as a mixed integer linear programming and propose an adaptive large neighborhood search to address the problem. We adopt tailored operators based on the structure of the problem. We conduct numerical experiments to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Results of numerical experiments show that (i) a solution without considering the load factor may be infeasible when considering the load factor, and (ii) a solution with the shortest distance is not necessary the energy-efficient one. Moreover, we solve a practical example based on and discuss the impacts of the load factor on route policy.
    Keywords: Electric vehicles; Load-dependent; Time windows; Adaptive large neighbor search; Heuristic algorithm.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10052195
  • Large Scale Simulation Of A Real-Time Collaborative System For Container Trucks In The Port Of Antwerp   Order a copy of this article
    by Kenneth Stoop, Mario Pickavet, Didier Colle, Pieter Audenaert 
    Abstract: In this work, a primary proof of concept of a real-time shared planning system (SPS) for container trucks covering drayage operations in seaports is presented. The aim of such an SPS is to provide a flexible system which allows horizontal collaboration between road carriers with the aim on improving the overall efficiency of the logistic chain. Its impact on the drayage in the port is studied in the context of a large-scale simulation, based on the Port of Antwerp, which models the relevant operations in the logistic chain that handles container transport over roads. In this simulation, interactions on the traffic network will be explicitly simulated by a mesoscopic traffic model. The results show a clear positive impact for carriers joining the collaborative system as compared to the case of individual planning; the time spent in traffic is on average reduced by 13%, meaning less congestion on the road and a potential increase in capacity.
    Keywords: container transport; Port of Antwerp; shared planning; horizontal collaboration; truck routing; dynamic scheduling; large scale simulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10052505
  • Vehicle Routing Problem with Drones as an Aid for Epidemic Relief   Order a copy of this article
    by Shih-Hao Lu, Marco Fabio Benaglia, Anh-Tu Nguyen, Edgar Rojas Rivera, Jen-Wei Cheng 
    Abstract: In response to epidemics, especially if vaccines and cures are not readily available, governments issue lockdowns and impose social distancing. Under such circumstances, to avoid potentially dangerous person-to-person contacts, drones can replace people in performing functions like delivering supplies, collecting swabs, measuring human body temperatures, etc. This paper introduces a new type of vehicle routing problem with multiple drones for epidemic relief (VRP-mD_ER), defined by a MILP mathematical model solved to near-optimality through the combined application of the
    Keywords: vehicle routing problem with drones; VRP-D; pandemic; genetic algorithm; GRASP; epidemic relief; last mile delivery; humanitarian aid; single-linkage.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10052859
    by Ozan Ate? 
    Abstract: Lean logistics is the logistics dimension of lean philosophy. The purpose of lean logistics is to deliver the right material to the right place in the right quantity and with the right presentation efficiently. Axiomatic design is a tool that establishes a scientific basis for design activities. The first axiom of design is the independence axiom, which aims to maintain independence of functional requirements, the second axiom is the information axiom, which aims to minimise information content. As a methodology, the fuzzy information axiom and the weighted fuzzy information axiom were used in the evaluation of transport methods in terms of criteria. In the use of fuzzy information axiom and weighted fuzzy information axiom approaches, numerical, verbal and fuzzy expressions were used in the design interval data determined by logistics experts. In this study, six transportation methods were evaluated in terms of seven criteria for a real case and the most suitable transportation method was selected.
    Keywords: axiomatic design; lean logistics; in-bound logistics; fuzzy logic; information axiom.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10052946
  • The early impact of the Russia-Ukraine war on seaborne trade and transportation in the Black Sea   Order a copy of this article
    by Sercan EROL 
    Abstract: The current study seeks to determine the impact of the Russia-Ukraine war on the maritime trade and logistics corridors of the Black Sea and, thus, to evaluate the possible alternative modes of transport and trade routes. In line with this purpose, during-war ship data and T
    Keywords: Russian Ukrainian war; seaborn trade; maritime transportation; Black Sea; blue growth; Russia; Ukraine.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10053114
  • The Efficiency Analysis of Main Coastal Ports in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Tingsong Wang, Yaru Chen, Liyang Xiao 
    Abstract: This paper aims to evaluate the operational efficiency of 12 coastal ports in China from 2017 to 2020 and analyse the impact of internal and external environmental factors on port efficiency. The first stage uses the traditional data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure the static efficiency of the port, the second stage uses the Malmquist productivity index (MPI) to analyse the intertemporal dynamic change trend of the port efficiency, and the third stage uses the Tobit regression to estimate and quantify the factors affecting the static efficiency. We find that the operational efficiency of the 12 coastal ports is generally at a high level, but it is still limited by management method, technological level and input-output structure. It is also found that production berth quantity, staff quantity, import and export volume, and per capita GDP in the hinterland have a significant impact on efficiency, and the COVID-19 pandemic has also resulted in a negative impact on the port industry.
    Keywords: port efficiency; data envelopment analysis; DEA; Malmquist index; Tobit regression; China.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10053257
  • Vulnerability Analysis of Maritime Silk Road Shipping Network under Port Emergencies   Order a copy of this article
    by Yanbin Yang, Ling Sun 
    Abstract: The shipping network faces natural or man-made port emergencies, and the failure of port affects the network connectivity and efficiency. In view of this, we first construct Maritime Silk Road shipping network and analyse its characteristics. Then we select four indexes to measure its vulnerability. Random and deliberate attacks are simulated and the order of deliberate attacks is based on the importance obtained by PageRank algorithm. The importance also divides ports into four categories. Finally, the vulnerability is further analysed under the substitution effect of adjacent ports. The results demonstrate that the Maritime Silk Road shipping network is relatively weak under deliberate attack. When both core and regional hub ports are attacked, the network still has a certain local connectivity. Furthermore, when considering the substitution effect of adjacent ports, the failure of Singapore, Colombo, Jeddah, Shenzhen, Jebel Ali, Piraeus and Busan still has a high impact on the network vulnerability.
    Keywords: emergency; Maritime Silk Road; shipping network; vulnerability; substitution.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10053476
  • The Dynamic Efficiency Evaluation of Major Liner Shipping Companies: The Long-Term Impact of Strategical Investment   Order a copy of this article
    by Renjun Liu, Xiaofan Wu 
    Abstract: Should liner shipping companies be strategical investors or conservative investors? This study answered the question with a dynamic efficiency evaluation of major liner shipping companies from 2009 to 2020. We used the carry-over inputs to show the impact of strategical investment in a Dynamic DEA model. Through the Dynamic DEA results, we found that strategical investment in appropriate time can diminish the impact of price mechanism in the shipping cycle. The dynamic DEA model also showed that scales and alliance membership would not affect shipping companies’ efficiency scores. The result suggests liner shipping companies and industry should always have a long-term perspective rather than focus on short-term profit when making strategical investment.
    Keywords: Efficiency evaluation; Strategical investment; Super-efficiency DEA; Dynamic DEA; Liner shipping companies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10054202
  • Spatiotemporal Evolution and Mechanisms of Port Local Hinterland: A Case Study of Yangtze River Delta, China   Order a copy of this article
    by Dan He, Qian Ba, Yizhi Kang 
    Abstract: With containerisation and multimodal transport development, port regionalisation links seaport systems to inland ports closely. This study applies the field model to identify the local hinterland of the main ports in the Yangtze River Delta in 2001, 2008, and 2016. The research findings indicate that the expanding local hinterlands of Ningbo Port come from the declining local hinterlands of Shanghai Port. However, Shanghai Port maintains the top port mass in the Yangtze River Delta. Through the lens of the regionalisation strategy, we find that Shanghai Port makes full use of the market-orientated tools and the central government’s support to remain the stable source of containers and capture more distant hinterland along the Yangtze River. Ningbo Port is more inclined to integrate port resources in Zhejiang jurisdiction through the administrative power of the government, ultimately leading to the formation of a port hinterland covering the whole Zhejiang jurisdiction.
    Keywords: field model; local hinterland; market-orientated strategy; administration-based strategy; Yangtze River Delta; YRD; port regionalisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10054264
    by Joseph Mpuon, Felix John Eze, Benedict Ejikeme Odigbo, Joseph Anyadighibe, Eyo Itam Eyo, Oliver Enoch Rebecca, Samuel Etim Ndem 
    Abstract: This research work investigates how collaborative and cooperative strategic partnerships in container shipping correlate with transportation enterprises’ logistical performance. Strategic collaborative and cooperative alliances have been argued empirically and theoretically that they reduce the scenario in which the industry’s stronger members negotiate all advantages plus some weaker members’ partnership earnings, encouraging veracity, commitment, flexibility, trust, honesty, integrity, confidence, and weakening the partnership’s ultimate breakup. Yet, there appears to be no empirical research on collaborative and cooperative strategic alliances in the logistics performance of container shipping and transport firms, particularly in terms of strategic collaborative and cooperative alliances that improve firms’ effectiveness and efficiency. Based on this limitation, the researchers sought to bridge the knowledge gap in this study. In the course of the study, 505 questionnaire copies were given to registered management employees of 101 container shipping and transport enterprises in Nigeria. 434 was completed and found useful for inclusion.
    Keywords: collaborative and cooperative alliances; container shipping; logistics performance; resource-based view theory; resource dependency theory; strategic alliance; transportation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10055221
    by Nebojsa Vasic, Milorad Kilibarda, Milan Andrejic 
    Abstract: This paper deals with the evaluation analysis of diverse distribution channels for products purchased in the e-commerce procedure using the hybrid MCDM method. The aim of the paper is to provide support in deciding which distribution channel in e-commerce is the most suitable from the aspect of e-customers, e-retailers and logistics providers. The hierarchical decomposition of the problem included five criteria (dimensions of logistics services) and six alternatives (e-commerce distribution channels). The weights of the criteria were obtained using the FAHP method, while the MOOSRA method was used to rank the distribution channels. According to the survey conducted at the Serbian market, the most convenient distribution channel from the aspect of e-customers is
    Keywords: multi-criteria decision making; MCDM; fuzzy analytic hierarchy process; FAHP; multi-objective optimisation on the basis of simple ratio analysis; MOOSRA; e-commerce; logistics service.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10055394
  • An evidential reasoning-based approach for risk assessment of intermodal transport of smart containers   Order a copy of this article
    by Lijuan Yang, Zhengguo Wang, Wenfeng Li, Chengpeng Wan, Zhifa Tao 
    Abstract: In recent years, the rapid development of smart container provides support for international cargo transportation and global trade, and frequent container transportation accidents have aroused widespread attention from all parties. Based on the risk propagation theory, risk matrix and evidential reasoning, this research proposes a risk assessment model for intermodal transport of smart containers. In which, the risk propagation theory is used to investigate the evolution of risk factors related to smart containers intermodal transport, the risk matrix method is used to determine the weight of each risk factor, and the evidential reasoning theory is applied to aggregate the risk assessment results of the entire transportation network. The study shows that the proposed method can be used to effectively identify the key risk factors and different risk factors dominate in different transport processes. By exploring the risk propagation process of smart container-related risk factors, it is found that the confidence of different risk levels will show different changes with the progress of transportation routes.
    Keywords: intermodal transport; smart container; evidential reasoning; risk propagation; risk assessment; internet of things; IoT.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10055726
  • Expected Utilities of Liner Shipping Market Trends: How Companies Can Benefit from?   Order a copy of this article
    by Umur Bucak 
    Abstract: Recently, liner shipping companies were one of the most profitable companies. To sustain this profitability, companies should right strategies. This study aims to define and analyse liner shipping market trends, its expected utilities, and the competitive advantage strategies of companies. In this study, the most adequate strategy that meets the requirements of these trends was obtained by fuzzy AHP-TOPSIS hybrid method. Such market trends as
    Keywords: liner shipping market trends; competitive advantage theory; fuzzy AHP-TOPSIS hybrid method; expected utility theory; container transport.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10055927
  • Supply Chain Integration of Liner Shipping Companies towards Hinterland: An Accelerator Effect of Covid-19   Order a copy of this article
    by Umur Bucak, Gülden Oral 
    Abstract: COVID-19 had certain economic, social, and environmental impacts on maritime transport. Although it is widely thought that these effects accelerated digitalisation, but also supply chain integration has shown an increase during this period. In this study, the factors that motivated liner shipping companies for the supply chain integration during the pandemic period were investigated in the context of property rights theory. It was tried to reveal which factors impact on which ones. The cause-effect interaction between these factors was demonstrated by the fuzzy DEMATEL method. As a result of this study,
    Keywords: COVID-19; supply chain integration; property rights theory; fuzzy DEMATEL; container transport.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10055928
  • Container Throughput Forecasting Using Non-Additive Forecast Combination   Order a copy of this article
    by Geng Wu, Yi-Chung Hu, Peng Jiang 
    Abstract: Containerisation is regarded as an important driving force of globalisation and international trade and has prompted the development of global ports. Accurately forecasting container throughput is crucial to maritime port planning and management. Previous studies have shown that combination forecasting not only has a higher predictive accuracy than that of a single model, but can also reduce the risk of failure during model selection. In this study, we propose a model of non-additive combination forecasting by using the fuzzy integral, to reflect the correlation between forecasting models. We used the quarterly container throughput of eight ports in China to test the proposed model. The empirical results were promising and indicate that the proposed model can outperform prevalent models of combination forecasting. This paper contributes to decision makers better understand expected demand for logistics of ports and adequately run for the long-term development planning and day-to-day operations.
    Keywords: container throughput; fuzzy integral; port management; forecast combination.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2023.10056327