International Journal of Sustainable Society (15 papers in press)
Land Use/Cover Change and Urban Sustainability in a Medium-sized City
by Kayode Samuel, Remilekun Atobatele
Abstract: This study examined the trend in urban growth and vegetation loss and the implication of this on the sustainability of medium-size cities, using Osogbo, south-west Nigeria as a case. Using multi-temporal LandsatTM images that span 30 years (1986 to 2016), the study employed supervised classification to categorize the land cover into the built-up area, vegetation and water bodies. Findings revealed that the city grew axially along major transportation corridors in the early stage but experienced in-filling, densification and radial outward growth subsequently. The built-up areas increased at annual rate of 14.6%, more than the population growth rate of 2.6% while vegetation cover and water bodies recorded an annual change of -2.5% and -3.5% respectively. Rapid city growth and the resultant land use/cover conversion contribute to the depletion of wetlands and vegetation, thereby constituting a threat to sustainable urban development. Controlled urbanization is suggested as a panacea to the unsustainable urban expansion which threatens the citys ecological equilibrium.
Keywords: Urbanization; Medium-size City; Sustainable Growth; Vegetation; Land use/cover change.
Corporate Social Responsibility and Purchase Intentions: Perceptions and Expectations of Young Consumers in Ghana
by Emmanuel Neequaye, George Amoako, Mayqueen Attatsitsey
Abstract: Despite the growing practice of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) within the telecommunications industry of Ghana, it has received limited research attention. Thus, the primary purpose of this study is to examine perceptions and expectations of consumers regarding Airtel Ghana CSR initiatives, consider their impact on purchase intentions and identify any gap between consumers perceptions and their expectations of Airtel Ghana CSR initiatives.
A cross-sectional survey was adopted for this study and the study is quantitative in nature. The results suggest philanthropic and legal CSR were the current main drivers of Airtel Ghana consumers purchase intentions. However, based on their expectations, Airtel Ghana consumers wished their purchase intentions were driven by economic and ethical CSR practices instead. The researchers discuss managerial and theoretical implications of the research results. Future research will adopt the three part model of CSR and findings compared to get a view of CSR from different perspectives.
Keywords: CSR; Purchase Intentions; Expectations; Perceptions; Ghana.
Assessing flow benefits of protected areas of central India: A case study from Maharashtra state of India
by Adrija Roy, Vicky Yadav, PRADEEP CHAUDHRY
Abstract: It is a common realization that protected areas (PAs) are playing a valuable role in maintaining biological diversity as well as providing immense economic benefits arising out of tourism and other direct uses. They are the cornerstone of most conservation strategies. They protect biodiversity, safe-guard ecosystem health, and provide an array of ecosystem services, such as fresh drinking water, places for recreation and relaxation, storehouses of genetic material, pollination, gas regulation, biological control and providing habitat and refugia for wildlife. In the present article, we have given an account of flow benefits, including employment opportunities to locals and other intangible or non-market benefits, emanating from five protected areas (national parks/tiger reserves and a sanctuary) of Maharashtra state from central India. These benefits have been analysed with the help of collected primary data and available secondary information. We understand that improved governance and appropriate investment in these areas would ultimately lead to maintaining ecological security, food security and finally sustainable development of society in long term basis.
Keywords: National parks; Tiger reserves; stock and flow benefits; ecosystem services.
Solar Energy Expansion and the lesson from India and China
by Suppawit Kaewkhunok
Abstract: This study focuses on analysing the relations between the solar energy and the development in India and China. The paper concentrate on the role of policy and organisational structure to contribute and push the solar energy into practice. The analysis of those factors is a key main of the study to understand the linkage of the solar energy and the development. In this regard, the study and analysis of Solar Energy Expansion in India and China are based on the primary data such as the government documentary. Secondary sources such as the information from the international organisation, book, journal, etc have also been used. The relation between the solar energy and the development in India and China can be understood in terms of Energy security and the accessibility to electricity. In fact, the policy implementation of both countries reflects the different result in the action. China has made significant progress in the use of solar energy for national development through employment and increased access to electricity. The different outcomes of both countries are due to the goal and R&D investment, policy, and organisational structure factors driving solar energy development.
Keywords: Development; China; India; Organisation; Solar Energy Policy.
The Endangerment of Mendriqs Traditional Knowledge in Malaysia
by Amir Zal W. A.
Abstract: Traditional knowledge is becoming important to the Orang Asli for survival because they live near the forest and are confronted with changes. However, in changing times, the ownership of traditional knowledge has not been getting any attention from the Orang Asli. Moreover, their ownership of such knowledge is given impetus by the insistence on monetary value. Based on these concerns, this article proposes to explore the ownership of traditional knowledge and its endangerment among the Mendriq. The data on Orang Asli was collected from the Mendriq tribe in Kuala Lah, Gua Musang, Kelantan, Malaysia through focus group discussions (FGD) and in-depth interview methods. The study found five states of traditional knowledge ownership among participants. First, knowing the name and the nourishment; second, knowing the name and confusing the function; third, knowing the nourishment but not the name; fourth, knowing the name and not the physical form; and fifth, not knowing the name or the function. Those states happen as a result of three factors, namely, individual, community and traditional knowledge per se. However, this study found that monetary value is a prominent push factor for traditional knowledge ownership. This reality has had positive and negative effects on traditional knowledge. To counter that, capacity-building activities for traditional knowledge should be promoted.
Keywords: Orang Asli; Mendriq tribe; traditional knowledge; traditional medicine; endangerment; monetary value.
A Meta-analysis of Gender Differences in Volunteers Motivations: Sport vs. non-sport events
by Sanghyun Park, Doyeon Won, David Shonk
Abstract: The current study meta-analytically examined empirical studies to assess the gender differences in volunteer motivation, using the Volunteer Function Inventory (VFI), and investigated the moderating effect of volunteering context (sport vs. non-sport event) on the relationship between volunteer gender and motivation. A total of 19 studies, published from 2007 to 2017, met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed by two readers. Cohens Kappa was calculated for the reliability between the two coders and all meta-analyses were conducted using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) program. Results from a meta-analysis suggested that women scored higher than men on three of the six subscales of the VFI instrument, particularly social, understanding and value-related motivation. Moderator analyses indicated that type of volunteering context is a meaningful moderator of the relationship between gender and motivation. The results also suggested the volunteering context influenced the magnitude and direction of gender differences in all motivational dimensions, except social motivation.
Keywords: volunteer management; volunteer function inventory; meta-analysis; volunteer motivation; sport events.
Enhancing Residential Energy Efficiency Enhancement: Through the Use of System Dynamics
by Maryam Ebrahimi
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to attain a better understanding of factors affecting residential energy efficiency and propose macro policies to reduce energy consumption in the residential sector. Regarding the purpose of the study, it was performed using system dynamics methodology on a family of medium social class. Residential energy efficiency was considered as a system based on five sub-models based on energy, economic, social, home appliance, and house efficiencies. Once finished with determining a causal loop diagram, dynamic models, and significant trends and validating and simulating the system, macro policies were presented both separately and together as a combined policy for system improvement. Policies included GDP improvement, the rise of energy prices, and enhancement of promotion programs. Further reviewed in the present study were relevant policies set forth by the International Energy Agency and four countries: USA, Germany, China, and Saudi Arabia. According to the results and reviews, improvement policies are coming to an end.
Keywords: Public Policy; Energy Consumption; Attitude; Income; Household.
Evaluating the Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Expenditure on Profitability of Energy Sector Firms in India
by Akanksha Shukla, Geetika Goel, Nimesh Shukla
Abstract: The study examines the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility Expenditure (CSRE) on the financial performance of energy sector firms in India. The research is based on the cost-benefit approach to determine whether the expenditure made by the firms on CSR activities can accrue financial benefits to them or not. As a case study, the energy sector of India has been studied using the sample of thirty-eight firms listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) of India. The data related to the sample firms with reference to their expenditure on CSR and corresponding figures for financial performance is obtained from the annual reports of these firms besides the Prowess database for a period of six years spanning from 2010-11 to 2015-16. The data so obtained have been analyzed using hierarchal regression analysis. As an outcome of the analysis, it is found that the CSR expenditure and financial performance of the firms have a positive and significant relationship which implies that social responsibility taken up by energy firms yields them financial benefits. Hence, it is recommended that it is beneficial for firms to engage in CSR activities in order to sustain and grow. The major contribution of the study is a validated model of the relationship between CSR expenditure and financial performance of the firm. Further, the model bears special significance because it is applied to the energy sector in India, which is perceived to be a highly polluting sector. Although the firms under study include those engaged in renewable and non-conventional sources as well, but these are still in the nascent stage in India. The importance can be gauged by the fact that the comprehensive model justifies the positive relationship between the profitability of the firm and CSRE. The validated model provides a wide scope of application in other sectors and other country contexts as well. Hence, it can be taken as a definite contribution to the body of knowledge.
Keywords: CSR Expenditure; Profitability; Energy firms; Cost benefit; India.
Special Issue on: ICTH2017-Barcelona Health as the Determining Factor to Sustainable Mobility
Improving walkability in Catalonia through a participatory and empowerment model.
by Albert Junca, Judit Bort-Roig, Joan Carles Martori, Anna Puig-Ribera
Abstract: Background: Promoting walking and walkable communities is a priority to reduce the burden of physical inactivity-related ill health. Study Objective: A Participation-Action Project and empowerment model composed by three phases- was used to design and evaluate the impact of tailored strategies to improve paths walkability in three Catalan middle-size towns. Methods: In phases I and II focus groups with stakeholders and citizens identified local needs and weaknesses towards promoting walkability and explored perceptions on how to improve it. In phase III, strategies addressing local walkability were developed, implemented and evaluated. Results: Based on findings from focus groups, low-cost physical and communicative initiatives were implemented: clearing the paths; improving cleaning, the width and greenery of the paths; and doing communication campaigns through signaling the paths. A significant increase in path users (+5.95%) was observed after implementation. Conclusion: This is a valuable model for creating walkable communities tailored to specific contextual and cultural needs.
Keywords: participatory model; social environment; built environment; active living community; paths; walkability.
Associations Between Perceptions of Road Safety and Active Travel for School Children and Their Parents - a Health Needs Assessment
by Louise Lester, Rob Howard
Active school travel has physical, mental, social and economic benefits. However, uptake is low in the UK. The aim was to understand how road safety perceptions influence school travel choices.
An epidemiological review was conducted alongside a literature review to understand evidence for effective interventions to increase active travel. A survey and qualitative focus groups gathered stakeholder views.
Of 1,646 survey responses (49 schools), 47% reported actively travelling to school during winter, and 58% in summer. Pupils believed greater numbers of serious accidents occur from active school travel than police reports, particularly overestimating cycling accidents. Focus groups with 13 teachers, 48 students and 21 parents identified active travel barriers including distance, weather, attitudes, car speed, congestion, safety, and time.
Active school travel promotion should include safety perception messages. Planners and developers should consider active travel infrastructure, address structural barriers, and introduce traffic calming zones near school.
Keywords: Public health; transport; travel; active travel; physical activity; road safety; school; risk; adolescent; injury.
How to improve the interaction between cyclists and truck drivers
by Birgitta Thorslund, Katja Kircher
Abstract: The aim of this focus group study was to increase the understanding of user needs of truck drivers and cyclists with respect to future warning systems designed to decrease incidents and accidents between these groups.rnTo evaluate and describe the attitudes and behavior of bicyclists and truck drivers in urban areas, as well as their suggestions about future warning systems for these road user groups, two focus groups were carried out at VTI in Link
Keywords: Interaction; cyclist; truck driver; traffic safety; focus group; warning system; detection.
Special Issue on: ERPBSS 2018 Sustainable Development and International Business
Mixed Migration Flows into Europe: Discharging State Anti-Trafficking Obligations Through the Proper Identification of Trafficking Victims
by Tenia Kyriazi, Daphne Demetriou
Abstract: The mixed migration flows continuously moving towards Europe test the social stability and sustainability of European states, thus rendering imperative the adoption and implementation of revised measures and action plans to protect effectively the individuals involved and comprehensively address any criminality relating to this movement. Most of these displaced persons are bearers of rights, triggering State obligations, with some belonging to the category of human trafficking victims, and as such entitled to a special protection regime. Part I explores the challenges European States face in fulfilling the core anti-trafficking obligations, within the specific context of the current mixed migration flow, arguing that identification is the cornerstone for the successful discharge of all these obligations, as well as the most challenging task in the current migrant crisis context. Part II then endeavours to establish some clearer parameters for the identification of trafficking victims, who qualify as such at the outset, as well as to delineate some indicators of vulnerable individuals, who can potentially become trafficking victims after arrival.
Keywords: human trafficking; mixed migration; anti-trafficking obligations; Mediterranean routes; migrant crisis; victim identification.rn.
Womens entrepreneurial narrative: making sense of the partners role.
by Sophia Belghiti-Mahut
Abstract: The present research explores the role the partner plays in womens motivation for entrepreneurship and how spousal support influences the female entrepreneurship process. A qualitative study, using life-story methodology, was conducted with 29 French women entrepreneurs. It was found that women perceived the partners support as explicit, implicit, or absent. Women who perceive significant and visible support from their partners are clearly grateful to their partners, without whom their entrepreneurial journey might not have commenced. A majority of respondents perceived the tacit approval of the partner and sometimes his income as implicit support. Finally, a certain proportion of female entrepreneurs experienced no support, which they considered mostly as a hindrance or a challenge.
Keywords: Female entrepreneurs; Partners; Support; Entrepreneurship; Life story; Typology.
Special Issue on: SGBED 2018 Achieving Sustainability in the Digital Business Environment
Multi Ethnicity Residents Perception towards a Country Evidences from United Arab Emirates
by Sakkthivel Annamalai Manickam, Shanumghan Jogee
Abstract: The study focused on identifying and testing the variables that impact residents perception towards a country i.e. UAE. The study was conducted among the residents who belong to multi-ethnic groups such as America, Europe, Africa, Middle East, South Asia including UAE nationals about the selected variables that influence their perception about UAE as a place of destination at present, and becoming a place of excellence in 2030. 213 respondents from different ethnic groups were interviewed and the results revealed (i) entertainment, tourism, shopping, safety and security, event management, medical tourism etc. elicit a positive perception among residents about present status of UAE (ii) entertainment, tourism, safety and security, investment, business, event management etc. elicit a positive perception among residents about UAE becoming a place of excellence in the year 2030. The implications of the results were discussed.
Keywords: residents; perception; multi ethnic groups; emerging economies; construct analysis modeling.
Cultural Intelligence for Business Sustainability: A Fixed Effect Meta-analysis for a Decade of Empirical Findings
by Khalid Akhal
Abstract: Among the most important determinants of business sustainability for multinational national corporations (MNCs) is the cultural adaptability. To achieve that, the firm needs managers with a high level of cultural quotient (CQ). No wonder, such capability has become an essential antecedent of international business success. However, despite its inception in 2003, the subsequent research has been suffering from varying degrees of discrepancy in empirical results, conceptualizations, and measurements. This study starts with an integrative literature review of CQ conceptualizations and measurements. Later, it conducts a fixed effect meta-analysis for a decade of empirical findings. In doing so, the study aims at providing the most accurate account on CQs dimensional effects on the most tested behavioural outcomes in international business while suggesting a more logical conceptualization and future directions for a better measurement tool.
Keywords: Business Sustainability; Cultural Intelligence; Meta-Analysis; Cross-cultural Adjustment; Work Performance; Leadership Outcomes.