International Journal of Sustainable Society (9 papers in press)
The relationship between the concepts of sharing economy and smart cities: The case of shared mobility and smart transport
by Aleksandra Kozlak
Abstract: The sharing economy and smart city concepts have been growing in importance in the research activities worldwide. The main purpose of the article is to explore the interactions and complementarity of these models. This conceptual paper discusses how the sharing economy concept can support progress in achieving the smart city idea. Special attention is paid to the role of shared mobility (i.e., ridesourcing, ridesharing, carsharing, bike-sharing) in developing smart transport. Shared mobility has the potential to improve the use of assets and contributes to a reduction in the number of passenger cars in congested cities. The methodology of the research includes a literature review and a deductive research method. The research has shown that both these concepts are important for the future of cities to make them more sustainable and provide a high quality of life for residents and visitors. The results of this study can be useful for policy makers, especially at local and regional levels.
Keywords: sharing economy; smart city; sustainable city; smart transport; smart mobility; shared mobility; sustainable mobility; urban transport; ridesourcing; ridesharing; carsharing; bike-sharing.
THE ROLE OF LOCAL BALINESE CULTURE AMONGST SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITIES IN PRESERVATION EFFORTS OF AYUNG RIVER
by YENI ROSILAWATI, Krisna Mulawarman, Nur Sofyan, Enny Mulyantari
Abstract: The phrase local culture, refers accumulated experiences of a community which is then passed on from generation. Local culture exists in all societies, communities and individuals. This paper is conducted specifically in identify the role of local wisdom as part of local beliefs, as a crucial aspect of local culture in the efforts to conserve and preserve the Ayung River which is the longest river on the Island of Bali. The Tri Hita Karana (THK) philosophy firmly held by the Balinese Community. It derives from Hindu communities. The THK philosophy refers to the three sources of life. In Sanskrit, tri means "three", hita means "prosperity" and karana means "cause". In short, this concept teaches that God are one, inseparable entity. The worsening condition of the Ayung River watershed is a major prevailing indication that the water supply in Bali is at a critical level. Statistics have shown that the decreasing flow rate of the river along the watershed in Bali has reached the 60% mark and this proves that a potential water crisis might occur. By adopting a qualitative approach vis a vis case study method, this research uses in-depth interviews with the local community leaders and community members residing along the Ayung River bank. It has been found that the THK philosophy serves as a guideline for the locals and concerned stakeholders to engange together in the efforts to preserve Ayung river. Besides, the result also indicates that without local culture, community engagement will be difficult to achieve. Local culture facilitate local communities to build mutual trust, to network and to support local empowerment. In other words, is is essential for the community to solve their problems and ensuring communities to continuously be sustained.
Keywords: Keywords: Local Culture; Tri Hita Karana; Sustainable Communities.
Towards Sustainable Consumption through Voluntary Simplicity: A Value Mapping Orientation
by RAJAT SUBHRA CHATTERJEE
Abstract: As an integral component of achieving sustainable consumption across societies at large, sustainable consumption behaviour has been found to play an important role. Values are an integral component of any behaviour, however, in this respect, not much exploration has been undertaken in the context of sustainable consumption behaviour. Voluntary Simplicity is a value-based lifestyle orientation, which emphasizes on consumption reduction as a core principle. In the context of value mechanisms, several studies have demonstrated similar attribution characteristics for both the above constructs. However, a comprehensive review of the shared commonality across these two constructs and their intrinsic value to behavioral links has not been undertaken. This study addresses this gap by conducting a value to behaviour mapping exercise of Voluntary Simplicity values towards Sustainable Consumption Behaviour. The results confirm their relative attribution towards certain traits considered inherent to both the constructs. The review further pinpoints the exact attribution characteristic for each of the VS value dimensions towards this behaviour. This study also contributes to consumption literature by adding a new perspective towards addressing the individual and societal value mechanisms required to adopt sustainable consumption behaviour.
Keywords: sustainable consumption behaviour; voluntary simplicity; values; behaviour; material simplicity; frugality.
Natural Selection and Bounded Rationality: The Implications for Rational Egoism
by Jeffrey Overall
Abstract: Natural selection theorists suggest that the characteristics that result in the greatest advantage to an organism are retained whilst those that do not, are naturally rejected, overtime. It is argued that organisms are naturally egoistic and programmed to behave in ways that advance their long-term interests. A large body of literature (e.g., Simon, 1955) suggests that individuals have bounded rationality whereby it is argued that they are incapable of behaving perfectly egoistically. They can, at times, behave irrationally. However, individuals have volition they can choose whether to behave rationally or otherwise. It is further suggested that when people apply various rational egoistic virtues, they are not only more likely to behave rationally, they are also more successful (Woiceshyn, 2009). Given that rational egoistic behaviors tend to lead to economic success, using natural selection theory, rational egoistic behaviors should become the norm in society, overtime.
Keywords: Altruism; bounded rationality; Darwin; Dawkins; ethics; gene theory; irrationality; natural selection; rational egoism; sustainability.
Veteran Workforce Development: How Veterans can Make a Positive Impact on Workforce Development in the Construction Industry
by P.L. Briggs, Salman Azhar, Malik Khalfan
Abstract: The U.S. construction industry faces significant workforce development challenges, mostly in terms of labor shortage. Addressing this challenge is important for meeting the present and future needs of the industry. Hiring veterans is a valuable way through which the construction industry may overcome the workforce development challenges it faces. In spite of the several initiatives introduced by construction firms alongside the government and other stakeholders to take advantage of veteran talent, little research has been conducted to understand the impact of hiring veterans as workforce in the construction industry. Based on in-depth interviews with five veterans and one individual, all from the construction industry, this study sought to understand the positive impact hiring veterans can have on workforce development in the construction industry as well as the challenges associated with hiring veterans. The six individuals included an executive at a private construction company, an owner of a construction company, an administrator at a higher learning institution offering training to veterans, and three veterans working in a construction company. According to the findings of the study, veterans possess unique skills and abilities that make them ideal for construction jobs: a strong work ethic, teamwork and leadership skills, organization and the ability to develop action plans, resilience and problem solving skills, and crosscultural competence. These skills can be valuable for the construction industry given the significant workforce shortage it is experiencing. Furthermore, an increasingly large number of veterans retire every year, presenting a large pool from which construction firms can draw valuable talent. Acknowledging the value of veteran talent, construction firms, learning institutions, government agencies, and other stakeholders have already introduced wide-ranging initiatives to increase veterans access to employment opportunities in the construction industry. Even so, considerable challenges abound: difficulties in adjusting to civilian life on the part of veterans, difficulties in locating veterans on the part of employers, skill mismatch, and concerns over veteran redeployment in the future. Suggestions for addressing these challenges as well as implications for construction firms, learning institutions, and policymakers are discussed.
Keywords: Veteran Workforce Development; Veteran Workforce Challenges; Veteran Workforce Impact; Construction Industry.
Investigating river destination image by using tri-component model: A case of Malacca River-The Venice of the East
by Mun Soon Lam, Ling Suan Choo, Yit Leng Oh, Khor Saw Chin
Abstract: Previous research on image attributes of river tourism destinations has focused on general image or cognitive attributes, subjective components of image formation, the affective and conative elements, have largely been ignored. We argue that cognitive image may not necessarily induce a positive affective attribute, and hence explored the possible significant relationships by using the tri-component model of destination image in the context of river tourism destinations. A self-administered survey was conducted in the vicinity of Malacca River (Sungai Melaka) and the results for a sample group of 203 international tourists revealed that three cognitive image dimensions, landscape, quay amenities and night attractions, significantly influenced affective and conative images respectively. The findings also determined that the tri-component model was a fit to the study and, thus, contributes to the river tourism destination literature
Keywords: river tourism destination; destination image; Malacca River; cognitive-affective-conative model.
Climate change impacts on staple root and tuber crops production: implications for smallholder farmers livelihoods in rural Ghana
by Kwadwo Owusu, Peter Bilson Obour, Richard Oppong, Sylvester Afram Boadi
Abstract: Climate change is projected to have disproportionate adverse impacts on smallholder agricultural production because such systems are highly rain-fed. However, there is less research on how the impacts of climate change on crop production may affect the economic livelihoods of smallholder farmers in developing countries. This study investigates evidence of climate change impacts on root and tuber crops (cassava and yam) production and its implications on the livelihood of smallholder farmers in the Jaman South District of Ghana. Primary data were collected from 200 smallholder farmers using multi-stage purposive sampling technique. Rainfall and temperature data for the district corroborated the farmers observation of climate change. In general, yield of cassava and yam were reported to have decreased over the past two to three decades mainly due to unpredictability in sowing times and prevalence of insect-pest attack linked to changes in climate. The yield reductions have impacted household nutrition and economic livelihoods of the farmers because the crops are important staple food, and primary income source for farmers in the study area. The limited capacity of farmers in adapting to erratic rainfall pattern is a major constraint to adaptation. Therefore, it is important to intensify climate change information dissemination to improve farmers awareness and farming practices. Findings of the study contribute to a better understanding of autonomous adaptation practices by farmers and also useful guideline for prioritising policies and programs for building climate change resilience among smallholder farmers in Ghana and other developing countries.
Keywords: Adaptation; climate change awareness; crop yield; Jaman South; Ghana.
A Coevolutionary Perspective on Decentralized Electrification: A Solar mini-grid project in India.
by Karnamadakala Rahul Sharma, Debajit Palit
Abstract: Decentralized mini-grids can support household electrification needs in remote rural communities in developing countries. Adopting a practice-oriented perspective to research, we describe our experience in implementing a decentralized solar mini-grid project in India over a period of three years. Focusing on processes, we demonstrate how technical design, organizational mandates and project contingencies co-evolve with business strategies, user practices, local institutions and ecosystems. Recognizing and facilitating coevolution between systems can have important causal impacts on project outcomes. In our case, the project deviates from the original blueprint towards a higher technical design value, service-based tariffs, and greater time and resource investment by the implementing agency. The coevolutionary perspective has been used previously as an analytical tool. We propose here that it can also serve as a practical how-to guide for micro-level projects by alerting implementers to the requirements of greater time, resources and community engagement.
Keywords: rural electrification; coevolution; electricity access; mini-grids; solar energy.
Design of trees planting pattern: Impacting on the road-air quality for pedestrian from CO2 dispersion emitted from transportation
by Nurul Aini, Zhenjiang Shen
Abstract: This research focuses on the design of trees planting patterns based on CO2 dispersion emitted from transportation in a real 3D environment. This study provides five scenarios based on some element design of trees planting pattern, which is the position of trees planting, avenue-tree layouts, and the spacing of the trees. This research simulates fluid flow, so Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to simulate the spread of CO2. The study area and emission data are according to the actual condition of the road in Surabaya City, Indonesia. The result displayed the CO2 dispersion at an altitude of 1.8 meters as an average of human height and proved that the design influences CO2 dispersion. Pattern B has a design that can disperse CO2 emission better than other patterns. Meanwhile, pattern A is not good enough in dispersing CO2 from transportation, so this design has largets areas in poor road-air quality.
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics; CO2 dispersion; design guideline; road air quality; trees planting pattern.