International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage (17 papers in press)
An optimised framework for implementation of hybrid lean and agile manufacturing systems in rolling industry for India
by Rahul Sindhwani, Punj Lata Singh, Vipin Kaushik, Sumit Sharma, Rajender Kumar
Abstract: The rolling manufacturing companies play an important role in manufacturing of sheet metals and applications of lean and agile manufacturing industry in an integrated form consequence to yield better performance and results. The common factors of a lean and agile manufacturing system were analysed by weighted interpretive structural modelling (W-ISM) approach. In order to elevate the ISM approach helped to demonstrate an implementation of lean and agile manufacturing in rolling industry and the competitiveness index (CI) is utilised to recognise the various key factors. The analysis of CI value will help the managers from rolling industry in implementing the lean-agile manufacturing systems.
Keywords: lean manufacturing; agile manufacturing; rolling industry; weighted interpretive structural modelling; W-ISM; MICMAC analysis; India.
Green Lean Six Sigma critical barriers: exploration and investigation for improved sustainable performance
by Vishwas Yadav, Pardeep Gahlot, Mahender Singh Kaswan, Rajeev Rathi
Abstract: Sustainability adoption in manufacturing methods has become the most vital aspect for industrial organisations to sustain in the business run. Green Lean Six Sigma (GLS) is a novel strategy that not only improves green performance but also leads to improve the financial stability of the industries. The present study deals with the identification and analysis of the GLS performance improvement barriers and further prioritises the same using an advanced decision-making approach: best worst method (BWM). Sixteen barriers of GLS have been identified from the literature and further grouped into six critical barriers using principal component analysis (PCA) based on the experts opinions from industrial personnel. It has found that management and financial constraints with BWM weighted scores 0.4573 and 0.2164, respectively are the most critical barriers. The present study outcome will enhance the knowledge base of researchers and facilitates practitioners to implement GLS through comprehensive understanding and removal of adoption barriers.
Keywords: sustainability; best worst method; BWM; barriers; Lean Six Sigma; LSS; Green Lean Six Sigma; GLS.
Implementation of Six Sigma strategy for process improvement in wiper motor manufacturing industry
by Santosh B. Rane, Prathamesh R. Potdar, Mittal Mewada
Abstract: The small and medium scale manufacturing industries in India faced many problems in real life due to financial constraints, business uncertainty, and demand fluctuations, which cannot be solved by adopting standard solutions only. Therefore, it is necessary to quickly and efficiently meet customers changing demands by adopting business excellence practices. This study discussed the Six Sigma approach using define-measure-analyse-improve-control (DMAIC) methodology and developed tailor-made solutions (improvement measures) based on lateral thinking to solve the issues related to the manufacturing of the vehicles electric P20 wiper motor. The suggested improvement measures have finally achieved a 38% reduction in the rejection rate and total cost saving per annum Rs. 1,249,920. This study concludes that the DMAIC methodology is a compelling set of tools to give the dramatic business results methodically and the car manufacturing company appreciated this Six Sigma initiative at the vendors company in the production of wiper motors.
Keywords: Six Sigma; define-measure-analyse-improve-control; DMAIC; shaft concentricity; bearing fitment procedure; noise of wiper motor; assembly lines of electric motors; cause and effect matrix; process capability sixpack.
Enhancing capability of PVC pipe extrusion process through Six Sigmas strategic approach
by Bikram Jit Singh, Sachin Mahendru
Abstract: Manufacturing firms are always interested in product quality that can be significantly improved by reducing the process variability. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries generally overlooked the process variation. Once the variation in the process starts it ultimately leads to uncontrolled deviated process. Process variability is easily seen by calculating capability index (Cpk) values. Further based on Cpk values Sigma level of process can be calculated. Six Sigma provides a comprehensive strategy to define, measure, analyse, improve and control the performance of given industry based on critical to process parameters. The present work tends to emphasises more on last three DMAIC phases to enhance process capability indices of given PVC pipe extrusion process. It represents a successful study which will ultimately motivate the practitioners and quality engineers to inculcate Six Sigma in their respective forming manufacturing processes for reaping the associated financial and non-financial benefits.
Keywords: Six Sigma; DMAIC; process variability; process improvement; process capability indices; critical to quality factors; CTQs; Taguchi’s method; extrusion.
Analysis of interactions among lean barriers in new product development
by Santosh B. Rane, Sachit G. Nalaskar
Abstract: In a competitive business environment, industries are more focusing on NPD to survive in the market and adopting new tools and techniques for optimising resources. Exhaustive literature survey (LS) shows lack of usage of lean practices for NPD. In this research, total 30 lean barriers involved in NPD have been identified based on LS, out of which 12 barriers have been shortlisted based on experts input. This research has identified linkage barriers (lack of top management commitment, employee resistance, lack of skills and training, lack of awareness of environmental norms, unsuitable market share by product) and independent barriers [lack of Government policy/support for lean product development (LPD), concern about the impact of change on regulatory compliance, cultural difference of team members] based on interpretive structural modelling (ISM) analysis. This paper concludes that the success of lean implementation depends on managements determination, workers attitude, and organisational culture. Total 12 strategies have been developed to deal with the critical lean barriers involved in NPD, which can ensure the success of NPD.
Keywords: new product development; NPD; lean; lean barriers; interpretive structural modelling; ISM; MICMAC analysis; lean NPD.
Reducing cost of poor quality and improving process output by adopting Six Sigma DMAIC tool: a case study
by Priyank Srivastava, Melfi Alrasheedi, Prabhakar Kaushik, Shubham Sharma
Abstract: This study emphasises on the real time application of Six-Sigma DMAIC (define-measure-analyse-improve-control) methodology in a manufacturing organisation to reduce the COPQ (cost of poor quality) thereby improving process output. The suspected sources of variation (SSVs) for housing pool, were listed by conducting a survey and brainstorming session, followed by measuring and analysing the data using Gage R&R (repeatability and reproducibility), paired comparison and multi-vary analysis. Its application to the process led to a shift in sigma level from 3.09 to 4.62 reducing the COPQ by Rs.1, 86,000 for 2 months. This paper can be used as reference by the practitioners and researchers for quality improvement projects and the study could be a paradigm initiative towards high quality products and services at low cost for every manufacturing industry. This study re discovers and strengthens the already known revolutionary impacts of Six-Sigma DMAIC on productivity improvement and its simplistic application in manufacturing industry.
Keywords: Six Sigma; DMAIC; cost of poor quality; COPQ; gage R&R; suspected sources of variations; SSVs.
Implementing lean through value stream mapping for productivity improvement: a case study of link frame mechanical press manufacturing industry
by Kashmir Singh Ghatorha, Rohit Sharma, Gurraj Singh, Parveen Sharma
Abstract: The increasing competition in the market has forced the manufacturing industry to improve its productivity on a continuous basis. The most practical way of productivity improvement is to review and redesign the existing work processes for identifying and eliminating hidden waste. The in-depth study of the existing work processes is required for the identification of hidden waste in the form of non-value adding activities and it can be done effectively through value stream mapping (VSM). The purpose of the study is to improve the productivity of a link frame mechanical press manufacturing industry to withstand the challenges posed by the competitive market. VSM is applied to review the existing work processes and to identify the critical areas which are examined through the lens of seven lean wastes to find the non-value adding activities. The identified waste is removed through kaizen which has saved 2.5 hours of machining time.
Keywords: lean manufacturing; value stream mapping; VSM; cycle time reduction; productivity improvement.
Integration between Lean, Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 technologies
by Pramod Kumar, Jagdish Bhadu, Dharmendra Singh, Jaiprakash Bhamu
Abstract: In the present decade, the manufacturing scenario is changing from the mass production to customised production with the advent of Industry 4.0 (I4.0). It has been also observed from the recent literature that there is a significant paradigm shift in the manufacturing system towards smart manufacturing or Industry 4.0. This has happened due to the adoption of advanced information/digital system along with latest technologies in the organisations. Lean and Six Sigma are the productivity and quality improvement methodologies for elimination of wastes and process variations respectively. In this paper, attempt has been made to explore the interrelation between Lean, Six Sigma and Industry 4.0. It highlights the synergies among the concepts and technologies between these three domains with their interdependencies. Industry 4.0 creates a right platform to bring ample manufacturing capabilities to the next top level. It is clear that Lean and Six Sigma are basically data driven technologies and the new industrial paradigm can provide right amount of informative data to strengthen these quality improvements approaches. Proper implications of Industry 4.0 technologies can boost the effectiveness of these two quality improvement techniques. The interdependencies of Lean Six Sigma, artificial intelligence and big data are also elaborated.
Keywords: smart manufacturing; Six Sigma; Lean; Industry 4.0; digitalisation; big data; artificial intelligence.
Deploying Lean Six Sigma framework in a healthcare organisation: a case experience
by Vikas Swarnakar, A.R. Singh, Anil Kr Tiwari
Abstract: Healthcare organisations have struggled with service quality problems to achieve operational excellence. Redundant waiting of patients is scathing to throughput and sustain organisations in a competitive environment. This study utilised a structured Lean Six Sigma DMAIC approach to reduce patient waiting time and improve service quality through systematic analysis of the problem of gynecology and obstetrics department of a multinational hospital. The structured implementation of the LSS framework was observed significant improvement in different aspects. The outcomes of the study revealed that 117% improvement in patient waiting time was observed for already appointed patients on weekdays whereas 68% in the case of arrived patients on Saturdays only. Further, 90% improvement was observed for walk-in patients who arrived on weekdays whereas 65% in the case of patients arrived on Saturdays only. The improvements were also calculated in terms of benefits, the average profit per year calculated as INR 36,939,600 that leading to an anticipated INR 292,981,025 by 2028. The findings of this study encourage researchers, practitioners, and decision-makers to employ the same method in other healthcare organisations to achieve the benefits.
Keywords: Lean Six Sigma; LSS; service quality; healthcare organisation; patient waiting time; bottom-line results.
Unearthing the determinants of total quality management on employees satisfaction of Delhi Metro Rail Corporation
by Yogendra Pal Bharadwaj, Akbar Ali Khan
Abstract: The basic purpose behind this exploration is to uncover the significant determinants of total quality management and their result on employees satisfaction which motivate them for the subjective procedure of conveyance of qualitative administrations in Delhi Metro Rail Corporation. In the idea of a broad purposive inspecting approach dependent on a five-point Likert scale, data was gathered from 880 representatives working in DMRC with the assistance of a self-questionnaire and utilising a structural equation modelling to approve the significance of the examination model. The discoveries of this investigation uncovered that process management and training and knowledge are the two significant indicators of employees performance and noteworthy determinant for employees satisfaction. It similarly highlighted that the higher the representatives exhibition approach among employees the lesser will be their satisfaction with the present metro administration quality structure and higher dependability on these practices will provoke extended incorporation of the institualised framework system.
Keywords: organisational performance; workforce management; leadership; employee performance; training; knowledge and process management.
Six Sigma-based RS, MDSS and MDSRS control charts
by Anna Zacharia, J. Ravichandran
Abstract: In this paper, well-defined Six Sigma-based repetitive sampling control charts (RSCCs) and multiple dependent state sampling control charts (MDSSCCs) are proposed. The Six Sigma-based multiple dependent state repetitive sampling control charts (MDSRSCCs) are also studied. The average run length (ARL) performance of the proposed charts are numerically evaluated and compared with the existing RSCCs, MDSSCCs and MDSRSCCs. Since the proposed charts are based on the Six Sigma methodology, these charts ensure the Six Sigma goal of 3.4 defects per million opportunities. It is observed that the proposed charts perform better than the existing ones by means of better average run lengths and also suggest minimum process disturbance for smaller shifts in the process mean. The charts are easier to apply by the quality practitioners. A numerical example is given to illustrate the better performance of the proposed control charts.
Keywords: average run length; multiple dependent state sampling; repetitive sampling; Six Sigma; zone control charts.
Improvement in performance measures by desirability coupled with lean six sigma tool on titanium matrix composite: a novel approach
by Soutrik Bose, Titas Nandi
Abstract: Machining titanium matrix composites (TMCs) by conventional methods is incredibly obscure for its enhanced strength and corrosion resistant properties, and vastly used in aerospace, automobile, and bio-medical applications. The main scope is to obtain an improvement in performance measures from multi-objective optimisation (MOO). Hence desirability (D) approach is coupled with lean six sigma (LSS) to obtain a novel algorithm
called desirable lean six sigma (DLSS). Three performance criteria like financial, operational and innovation performances are assigned by five decision makers based on importance and weightage. Improved productivity is obtained with enhanced material removal rate (MRR) and low surface roughness (SR), reducing wastes and ensuring finer product quality and customer satisfaction. An optimised solution is achieved when the combined
desirability is obtained at 0.716. All process parameters exhibited massive impact on performance measures. The outcomes are validated by confirmatory tests, and enhanced %improvement is achieved when compared with LSS.
Keywords: lean six sigma; LSS; response surface methodology; RSM; analysis of variance; ANOVA; WEDM; multi-objective optimisation; MOO.
Grey relational analysis of Green Lean Six Sigma critical success factors for improved organisational performance
by Rajeev Rathi, Anmar Vakharia, Mahender Singh Kaswan
Abstract: Green Lean Six Sigma (GLS) is an eco-friendly approach that reduces ecological damages through reduced rejection, wastes, and rework. But it is essential to investigate the success factors of GLS that work as the first line of preparedness for the successful implementation of this sustainable approach. The current research deals with the identification and investigation of GLS success factors. Twenty-three GLS success factors have identified from the literature pertaining to manufacturing and formulated into eight logical grouped or critical success factors using principal component analysis. The prioritisation of GLS critical success factors has done through grey relational analysis by considering a case of the manufacturing industry. It has been found that management and
finance-related are the most significant critical success factors grey relational grades 0.6952 and 0.6682, respectively. The present study will facilitate the management of the manufacturing industries to implement GLS through systematic understanding and investigation of associated success factors.
Keywords: Green Lean Six Sigma; GLS; success factors; grey relational analysis; GRA; sustainability; Lean Six Sigma; LSS; manufacturing.
Lean Six Sigma implementation in Indian manufacturing organisation: a case study
by Yogesh Mishra, Milind Kumar Sharma, Vinod Yadav, M.L. Meena, G.S. Dangayach
Abstract: Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is a blend of the variability reduction tools from Six Sigma and the non-value added activities elimination tools from Lean manufacturing. It succeeds to generate the bottom-line savings to the organisation. Through the application of a case study method, the study presents an implementation of design, measure, analyse, improve, and control (DMAIC) and the benefits of the hybrid LSS approach. The LSS framework is applied to the Indian automotive industry and presented in this paper. There were a lot of improvements found in the key metrics, productivity level, and overall equipment effectiveness when the proposed framework is implemented. The LSS approach is applied to a real-world problem and it gets an overall increased level of 95.16% in concern of productivity, reduction of change over time from 6 minutes to 2 minutes per setup change, and wrong fitting assembly cases reduce to zero. This study helps the practitioners in understanding and step by step implementation of the LSS approach.
Keywords: Lean Six Sigma; LSS; lean manufacturing; Six Sigma; DMAIC; productivity improvement.
Effect of ergonomics on workers performance in Indian small scale industry
by Rohit Sharma, Parveen Sharma, Soyal Mohammed
Abstract: The workers daily work related problem is becoming musculoskeletal condition in India. As of now, the research is being carried out physically in the majority of small and medium enterprises along these lines, the problems of business-related musculoskeletal clutters and injury in different body locations are of major concern. Postural examination tool utilising REBA is connected for evaluation which demonstrates that the workers are working
over as far as possible. The investigation was conducted on 30 employees working in the small-scale industry. Subsequently it was inferred that; there is an absence of ergonomics mindfulness and comprehension in the small scale enterprises. Assessment utilising postural examination REBA demonstrates that the specialists are working over as far as possible. The working level of the workers are having very clumsy stances. Therefore the workers were told not to be in a bad posture and change their postures in order to get rid of musculoskeletal problems.
Keywords: ergonomics; small scale industry; posture analysis; rapid entire body assessment; REBA.
Lean Six Sigma imperatives for casting quality improvement of automotive components: a case
by Rajeev Rathi, Mahipal Singh
Abstract: Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is a systematic operation management strategy aimed to improve the quality of products through the reduction of process variation and waste. In the present case, LSS strategy is implemented in the automotive components manufacturing industry to improve the casting quality and productivity. The main purpose of this research is to extract the various causes of the existence of casting defects and suggest corresponding remedies to pawn them. The result of the case study exhibits the increment in sigma level of the company from 1.90 to 3.30 and analogous escalation in an annual profit of 1.2 million. The outcomes of this study facilitate to industrial managers and practitioners for adopting the same strategy to resolve their complex problems and to achieve business excellence.
Keywords: Lean Six Sigma; LSS; quality improvement; casting industry; Lean manufacturing; defect reduction.
Integration of Six Sigma and lean for superior sustainability of dairy production
by O.S. Deepa
Abstract: This article deals with the implementation of Six Sigma and lean for improving the quality of milk during production process in case of medium sized cooperative organisations. The proposed work illustrates the application of Six Sigma in dairy products by systematic role of DMAIC in case of continuous improvement for quality and for achieving operational superiority. The growing demand of milk and milk products had made the producers to enhance their livelihood by increased production. The application of DMAIC methodology has a significant impact on the overall cost by reducing the waiting time in the manufacturing process of milk and ghee. The waiting time during the production process which is considered as lean is emphasised more in the improve phase of DMAIC and thus is considered as an integration of lean and Six Sigma.
Keywords: Six Sigma; Lean Six Sigma; DMAIC; eco-leanness index; dairy products.