International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage (11 papers in press)
An Empirical Analysis of Critical Success Factors of Lean Six Sigma in Indian SMEs
by Harsimran Singh Sodhi
Abstract: This article focuses on the impact of individual factors of Lean Six Sigma in Manufacturing based Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in India. So that main emphasis can be given to majorly contributing factors during implementation of Lean Six Sigma in a manufacturing SMEs. A questionnaire based survey has been done in which the voice of Indian SMEs has been captured regarding the successful implementation of Lean Six Sigma in their organization as a waste management technique. Study has been conducted in two phases. In first Phase survey based upon twenty eight questions has been conducted afterwords in second phase process capability test has been done on considered responses. In first phase with factor analysis it has been concluded that twenty eight factors listed in the Questionnaire (Annexure no.1) can be further reduced to four Major parameters in which similar kind of factors are grouped together. These major four parameters contributing towards the success of Lean Six Sigma in manufacturing SMEs. Second phase of this study Process capability of various phases of Lean Six Sigma has been checked through CPk. Those phases having CPk value less than 0.5 can be neglected as those phases are not contributing significantly towards the successful implementation of LSS.
Keywords: Lean Manufacturing; Six Sigma,Lean Six Sigma,Waste management techniques,Manufacturing Industries.
An integrated model for achieving business strategic objectives with a case study
by Mohamed H. Essawy, El-Awady Attia, Ahmed M. El-Assal
Abstract: In almost all large-scale private companies, top management strategic direction usually focuses on maximizing profit, minimizing wastes, and satisfying customers needs. The current paper proposes an integrated model that uses balanced scorecard (BSC) and quality function deployment (QFD) in the define phase of the six-sigma process (DMAIC). The BSC is used to translate the strategic objectives into operational actions with the associated key performance indicators (KPIs). The KPIs of the balanced scorecard are considered as the voice of customer (VOC) in the QFD house of quality. Whereas all related production sectors of the company are used as the perspectives for satisfying those KPIs. The proposed approach was adopted in one of the largest manufacturing firms located in Egypt. Relying on the KPIs of the BSC and results of QFD, two factories among twelve are highlighted for improvement. Moreover, the defected parts scrap cost, the metal and plastic normal scrap costs were emphasized as the most important KPIs. By investigating the two factories with respect to the different types of scrap costs, the normal metal scrap cost was identified as dominant. The main root causes of the normal metal scrap cost were analyzed. After reducing the effect of these root causes, the scrap cost reduced with an average of 12% of the total scrap cost of each factory. In monetary units, this saving can be translated to about 12.5 million Egyptian pounds. The payback period of the associated improvement expenses is estimated at three months on average. As the output of this study, the proposed holistic approach is considered as a roadmap to select and manipulate continuous improvement projects in the industrial firm.
Keywords: Quality Function Deployment; Six-sigma DMAIC; Strategic Objectives; Balanced Scorecard; Key Performance Indicators; Continuous Improvement.
Six Sigma tolerance analysis for functionality and assemblability: Designing locking systems
by PANTELEIMON KALPAXIDIS, GEORGE BESSERIS, CONSTANTINOS STERGIOU
Abstract: Assembling can be seen as the process of joining together several manufactured parts in order to create a final product-assembly. In Six Sigma terms, overall performance of final product is highly affected by each components design and manufacturing characteristics. A key role for successful fitting plays the specified target of dimensions and tolerances of parts. Assembling parts are designed and studied with the help of CAD/CAM systems. Although these systems are great design tools in terms of reducing design time and minimizing design changes - even with current technology - they dont include methods with associated functions to represent proper design information such that to allow selecting optimal geometrical and functional parameters. This slows down the Design for Six Sigma process. In this work, the following issues are addressed while elucidated through a case study: 1) a method for Six Sigma designers to check for possible part defect which may present misalignment opportunities during assembly, 2) an approach for evaluating part and assembly dimensions and tolerances while ensuring functionality and 3) a corrective action approach for design changes which avoids endangering the increasing of overall cost. The simple unified framework may aid a Six Sigma designer to assess and make product-assembly decisions by offering more robust information.
Keywords: Six Sigma; assembling process; tolerance Analysis; CAD; SPC; nonparametric methods.
Evaluation of the Performance and the Efficiency of Water Supply Organizations Using Data Envelopment Approach
by Nader Al Theeb, Hazem Smadi, Moayyad Obaidat
Abstract: The main objective of this study is to use the data envelopment approach (DEA) in combination with sensitivity analysis and key performance study to evaluate the performance and efficiency of the collection works of water companies, especially in a local water company in Jordan. Constant return to scale (CCR) model is applied to ten decision-making units (DMU), where each DMU represents a geographical area. In the results, it is found that DMU3 and DMU5 are inefficient in many quarters, whereas the other DMUs, such as DMU1 and DMU2 show an efficient score in many quarters. Additionally, sensitivity analysis is used to investigate the collection if the performance becomes efficient for some inefficient DMUs. Furthermore, when linking the relative efficiency scores with the collection ratio KPI, it is found that most of the DMUs were not able to reach 100% scores for many quarters.
Keywords: water supply; key performance indicators; KPI; data envelopment analysis; sensitivity analysis.
Identification of Critical Success Factors for implementing Six Sigma methodology and grouping the factors based on ISO 9001:2015 QMS.
by Veena T R, Prabhushankar G V
Abstract: In the present day scenario, many business and quality management methods are used in industries to improve quality and standardize the process. Six Sigma methodology started by Motorola is one such methodology which is used by industries to reduce variability and cost, increase profit of the process. Six Sigma methodology will help to identify and eliminate/reduce defects so that process is standardized. In this paper literature review is done to identify the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for accomplishment of Six Sigma methodology. Further, the CSFs identified are grouped into different groups based on clauses of ISO 9001 Quality Management System standard. In this paper the identified CSFs are grouped in Clause 4: context of organization; 5: Leadership; 6: Planning; 7: Support; 8: Operations; 9: performance evaluation and 10: Improvement This data could be used by the organizations which implement ISO9001:2015 QMS to effectively implement Six Sigma methodology along with QMS standard.
Keywords: Six Sigma methodology; Quality Management System; Critical Success Factors (CSFs); Clauses of ISO 9001:2015 QMS standard.
Quality improvement through the application of quality tools and simulation technique: A case study in a SME
by Soundararajan K, Janardhan Reddy K
Abstract: During the recent years, researchers have been pointing out that the implementation of quality tools in conjunction with simulation techniques have not yet been examined in small and medium sizes enterprises (SMEs). With an aim of filling this research gap, the case study presented in this paper was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, four quality tools namely, brainstorming, cause and effect, normality test and design of experiments were applied. In the second phase, simulation technique was applied. The solution obtained was implemented in practice, which decreased the defect rate from eight percent to one percent in the production of bush cam castings. The experience gained by conducting this case study indicated that application of quality tools in conjunction with simulation technique would facilitate SMEs to achieve quality improvement effectively and economically.
Keywords: Quality improvement; brainstorming; cause and effect diagram; design of experiments; simulation.
Applicability of quality tools and techniques in manufacturing and service organizations: A comprehensive survey
by Vivek Sharma, Sandeep Grover, S.K. Sharma
Abstract: Implementation of Quality tools and techniques (QT&T) has exemplified many benefits over the years in manufacturing as well in service organizations. Previous surveys on QT&T emphasized mainly upon performance of products, processes and services of the organizations and not discussed about implications and adaptability of QT&T category. The purpose of this survey research is to scrutinize different categories of QT&T to examine the level of adoption, applicability, benefits and challenges faced by various organizations in NCR region and industrial town Bhiwadi (Rajasthan) India. An exploratory questionnaire survey consisting of three parts was distributed out among 398 organizations. A total of 26.63 percent response rate was received out of 106 organizations. Categories like problem solving tools, productivity tools and performance measurement tools retain to be most dominant for improving efficiency of organizations after analyzed by SPSS 18 statistical software.
Keywords: Quality tools and techniques; categories; adoption; implementation.
Analysis of facility layout using MCDM approach: a case study of a manufacturing industry
by Parveen Sharma, Rohit Sharma
Abstract: The overall cost and production of any industry is directly affected by the shop floor layout. The analysis and evaluation at the design stage of layout plays a crucial role. Present research work demonstrates a case study about the analysis of layout alternatives based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methodology. Qualitative factors directly affect the performance of the layout. Three qualitative factors (routing flexibility, production area utilization and human issues) have been analyzed. The steps of the AHP methodology have been adopted, andthe values of eigenvalue ( ), consistency index(CI), average random consistency (RI), and consistency ratio (CR) have been calculated for each selected factor. Priority vector has been calculated for each factor on the basis of above said values. From the results, it was found that for routing flexibility alternative 1.5 demonstrates best priority vector. For production area utilization, alternative 1.1 and 1.3 shows higher priority vectors on the other hand, forhuman issues, alternative 1.3 has best value of priority vector. It has been found that layout 1.3 is the best out of the five layouts selected for the current study.
Keywords: facility layout; AHP;qualitative factors; priority vector.
Reducing Packaging Material Defects in Beverage Production Line Using Six-Sigma Methodology
by Supratim Dutta, Sanjita Jaipuria
Abstract: In a beverage manufacturing plants, glass bottles are primarily used as packaging material to distribute the product. After consumption of beverage, the glass bottles are collected back from the market, cleaned and refilled with fresh beverage for distribution. Throughout this returnable glass (RGB) bottle production line, breakage of glass bottles happens due to various reasons. Currently, it is operating at 4-sigma level and facing average losses of Rs. 9810637.333 per year. This study highlighted the effective implementation of Six-Sigma methodology to control the defects rate of glass bottles to reduce the total production cost. From the study it has identified that the major reasons for breakage of glass bottles are improper design of process and facility layout, improper handling of glass bottle, improper process management, working environment and lack of employee morals. Further, suggestions have been proposed for action plan to better management the RGB line.
Keywords: Six-Sigma; DMAIC process; Beverage Manufacturing Company; Returnable Glass Bottle Production Line.
AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION TO EVALUATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SUCCESS FACTORS OF LEAN SIX SIGMA AND WASTE MANAGEMENT ISSUES
by Harsimran Singh Sodhi
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this research paper is to evaluate the relationship between critical success factors (CSFs) of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) with the various issues contributing towards waste management in manufacturing SMEs. Design/methodology/approach In this study, 121 SMEs of manufacturing sector have been extensively surveyed, to assess the relative impact of level of waste and the waste management techniques implemented in the manufacturing sector. The correlations between various major factors of LSS with the various major issues contributing towards waste management in Indian SMEs industrial organizations has been identified.Findings After reviewing the literature it has been found that LSS is the waste management technique which addresses most of the major issues related to the industrial waste. Therefore the correlation between the various issues and the factors of LSS has been developed through the calculation of Cronbach Alpha and Value of Reliability and variability measure for all the constructs. Afterwards Discriminate Validity Testing has been done and Pearson Correlation Matrix has been formulated. Multiple regression analysis has also been done in order to access the significance of major contributing factors of implementation of LSS. Originality/value This study provides the relationship between the issues related to the higher waste in manufacturing sector with the major contributing factors of a waste management technique i.e LSS considered in present study.
Keywords: Lean Manufacturing; Six Sigma; Lean Six Sigma; SMEs.
The Effect of Six Sigma approach as a tool for strategic cost management on achieving competitive advantage: The case of Jordanian industrial public shareholding companies
by Inaam Al-Zwaylif, Lilian Taher
Abstract: The study aimed at investigating the effect of six sigma criteria on competitive advantage for Jordanian industrial public shareholding companies. Data was collected from a random sample using a questionnaire specially designed for this purpose. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to test the hypotheses using the stepwise approach. The study revealed that Six Sigma criteria as a whole significantly affect the competitive advantage; and each criterion was significant and explained a significant amount of the variance in a competitive advantage. The findings of the study also showed that Jordanian industrial companies apply Six Sigma criteria at an average level, and they are interested in the competitive advantage at an average level.
Keywords: Six Sigma; strategic cost management; competitive advantage; industrial companies; Jordan.