International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage (12 papers in press)
Leanness Production System through Improving of Upstream Process based on Check-Act-Plan-Do (CAPDo) Cycle
by Che Ani Mohd Norzaimi, Kamaruddin Shahrul, Abdul Azid Ishak
Abstract: In this paper, upstream process of production system was studied and improved according to the modified Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle, known as Check-Act-Plan-Do (CAPDo). The PDCA cycle has been widely recognized and utilized by the industrial practitioners, but most of focus on the production processes and less consideration to the upstream process. This research has been conducted by reviewing the current trend of the continuous improvement program, and developed systematic approach of upstream process to improve the production efficiency based on CAPDo cycle because it was consists of predecessor works of the production system, and failure or inefficient will cause production delinquency. The result as implemented in a selected case study industry shows significant process improvement for upstream process. The waiting time of the production process due to misaligned time of the pre-preparation part has been identified as a root cause and this issue has been solved through the systematic approach.
Keywords: upstream process; production system; PDCA; CAPDo; predecessor works.
Dynamic Sigma-TRIZ Solution Model for Manufacturing Improvement and Innovation, Case study in Thailand.
by Jakrapong Karnjanasomwong, Natcha Thawesaengskulthai
Abstract: The aim of this research is to examine how improvement and innovation methodology can be practically implemented in manufacturing area in Thailand. Six sigma is considered an essential methodology approaching for product and process improvement. The methodology applies 5 Six Sigma phases, DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve and Control) for resolving the respected problems which demonstrated a lot of successful stories for decades. This paper is an attempt to introduce new model of manufacturing improvement and innovation which mainly based on DMAIC phases. Dynamic Sigma-TRIZ Solution Model is proposed to enhance the opportunity of deploying improvement and creating innovative solutions in manufacturing process whereas that Dynamic Sigma-TRIZ Principle Matrix database was created from 107 examined projects and also keep updating regularly once additional problems or opportunities got resolved. The paper discussed the real-life cases when Dynamic Sigma-TRIZ Solution Model was implemented successfully in resolving manufacturing problems in different aspects.
Keywords: Six Sigma; TRIZ; Big Data and Analytics; Manufacturing; Competitive Advantage.
Factory-in-Factory (FiF) Concept as a New Business Model for Automotive Production System
by Che Ani Mohd Norzaimi, Kamaruddin Shahrul, Abdul Azid Ishak
Abstract: In this research, a review of the continuous improvement program concepts and applications as employed in the automotive manufacturing ecosystem is analysed based on published articles. The objective of this study is to develop a systematic Factory-in-Factory (FiF) framework of production system by minimizing wastes according to the unresolved issues of the current continuous improvement program. The outcomes obtained from evaluation of the current trend in the continuous improvement programs show that even though the establishment of continuous improvement has been a key to successful business model, there are significant unresolved issues with regards to the vendors. To solve the problem, the future trend of business model in the automotive tier system has been introduced which is Tier-0 and a new production system known as Factory-in-Factory (FiF). The objectives of the new production system are to minimize costs and shorten the lead time through wastes elimination.
Keywords: Continuous improvement; automotive manufacturing ecosystem; business model; vendors; Tier-0; Factory-in-Factory (FiF).
A proposed model for the effect of entrepreneurship on total quality management (TQM) implementation: An applied study on dairy and juice manufacturing companies in Egypt
by Amal Farouk
Abstract: Entrepreneurship becomes a central issue for research in the developing countries. To date no study clarified how corporate entrepreneurship affects TQM implementation. This study aims at empirically investigates the significant impact of corporate entrepreneurship on TQM implementation in the Egyptian dairy and fruit juice companies. In contrast, most of the previous studies illustrated the effect of entrepreneurship on many factors rather than TQM or they correlated one of entrepreneurship sub-dimensions to TQM implementation. The initial sample in this research consisted of 900 employees who had been contacted by telephone. Overall, the results indicate that the six entrepreneurship variables significantly affect TQM implementation. Entrepreneurs skills sub-variable has the highest effect while product characteristics had the lowest effect. These findings contribute to increasing the knowledge about corporate entrepreneurship constructs and clarifying how these constructs affect TQM implementation in a developing country such as Egypt.
Keywords: TQM; entrepreneurship; entrepreneur’s skills; entrepreneur’s passion.
Variations of Length of Stay: A Case Study Using Control Charts in the CRISP-DM Framework
by Nasibeh Azadeh-Fard, Fadel Megahed, Fatma Pakdil
Abstract: In-patient length of stay (LOS) at hospitals is considered a critical catch-all metric because it is widely used to measure the overall efficiency of healthcare services. The goal of this paper is to effectively analyze and monitor hospital LOS to help improve healthcare quality. Given the fact that abnormal LOS results in increasing cost for all stakeholders, this study proposes a new framework based on cross-industry standard process for data mining framework (CRISP-DM) and Six Sigma methodology, including control charts for monitoring and improving LOS. The utility of the proposed method is demonstrated through a case study involving 11,722 internal medicine patients at a large hospital in Southwest Virginia. Outcomes of this study have potential to support decision makers at hospitals to detect abnormal LOS by identifying effective and efficient ways to minimize it, thereby reducing costs.
Keywords: Hospital Length of Stay; LOS; Control Charts; Quality; Internal Medicine; CRISP-DM; Data Mining; DMAIC; Quality Improvement in Healthcare; I-MR Charts; Six Sigma.
An Empirical Analysis of Critical Success Factors of Lean Six Sigma in Indian SMEs
by Harsimran Singh Sodhi
Abstract: This article focuses on the impact of individual factors of Lean Six Sigma in Manufacturing based Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in India. So that main emphasis can be given to majorly contributing factors during implementation of Lean Six Sigma in a manufacturing SMEs. A questionnaire based survey has been done in which the voice of Indian SMEs has been captured regarding the successful implementation of Lean Six Sigma in their organization as a waste management technique. Study has been conducted in two phases. In first Phase survey based upon twenty eight questions has been conducted afterwords in second phase process capability test has been done on considered responses. In first phase with factor analysis it has been concluded that twenty eight factors listed in the Questionnaire (Annexure no.1) can be further reduced to four Major parameters in which similar kind of factors are grouped together. These major four parameters contributing towards the success of Lean Six Sigma in manufacturing SMEs. Second phase of this study Process capability of various phases of Lean Six Sigma has been checked through CPk. Those phases having CPk value less than 0.5 can be neglected as those phases are not contributing significantly towards the successful implementation of LSS.
Keywords: Lean Manufacturing; Six Sigma,Lean Six Sigma,Waste management techniques,Manufacturing Industries.
An integrated model for achieving business strategic objectives with a case study
by Mohamed H. Essawy, El-Awady Attia, Ahmed M. El-Assal
Abstract: In almost all large-scale private companies, top management strategic direction usually focuses on maximizing profit, minimizing wastes, and satisfying customers needs. The current paper proposes an integrated model that uses balanced scorecard (BSC) and quality function deployment (QFD) in the define phase of the six-sigma process (DMAIC). The BSC is used to translate the strategic objectives into operational actions with the associated key performance indicators (KPIs). The KPIs of the balanced scorecard are considered as the voice of customer (VOC) in the QFD house of quality. Whereas all related production sectors of the company are used as the perspectives for satisfying those KPIs. The proposed approach was adopted in one of the largest manufacturing firms located in Egypt. Relying on the KPIs of the BSC and results of QFD, two factories among twelve are highlighted for improvement. Moreover, the defected parts scrap cost, the metal and plastic normal scrap costs were emphasized as the most important KPIs. By investigating the two factories with respect to the different types of scrap costs, the normal metal scrap cost was identified as dominant. The main root causes of the normal metal scrap cost were analyzed. After reducing the effect of these root causes, the scrap cost reduced with an average of 12% of the total scrap cost of each factory. In monetary units, this saving can be translated to about 12.5 million Egyptian pounds. The payback period of the associated improvement expenses is estimated at three months on average. As the output of this study, the proposed holistic approach is considered as a roadmap to select and manipulate continuous improvement projects in the industrial firm.
Keywords: Quality Function Deployment; Six-sigma DMAIC; Strategic Objectives; Balanced Scorecard; Key Performance Indicators; Continuous Improvement.
Six Sigma tolerance analysis for functionality and assemblability: Designing locking systems
by PANTELEIMON KALPAXIDIS, GEORGE BESSERIS, CONSTANTINOS STERGIOU
Abstract: Assembling can be seen as the process of joining together several manufactured parts in order to create a final product-assembly. In Six Sigma terms, overall performance of final product is highly affected by each components design and manufacturing characteristics. A key role for successful fitting plays the specified target of dimensions and tolerances of parts. Assembling parts are designed and studied with the help of CAD/CAM systems. Although these systems are great design tools in terms of reducing design time and minimizing design changes - even with current technology - they dont include methods with associated functions to represent proper design information such that to allow selecting optimal geometrical and functional parameters. This slows down the Design for Six Sigma process. In this work, the following issues are addressed while elucidated through a case study: 1) a method for Six Sigma designers to check for possible part defect which may present misalignment opportunities during assembly, 2) an approach for evaluating part and assembly dimensions and tolerances while ensuring functionality and 3) a corrective action approach for design changes which avoids endangering the increasing of overall cost. The simple unified framework may aid a Six Sigma designer to assess and make product-assembly decisions by offering more robust information.
Keywords: Six Sigma; assembling process; tolerance Analysis; CAD; SPC; nonparametric methods.
Evaluation of the Performance and the Efficiency of Water Supply Organizations Using Data Envelopment Approach
by Nader Al Theeb, Hazem Smadi, Moayyad Obaidat
Abstract: The main objective of this study is to use the data envelopment approach (DEA) in combination with sensitivity analysis and key performance study to evaluate the performance and efficiency of the collection works of water companies, especially in a local water company in Jordan. Constant return to scale (CCR) model is applied to ten decision-making units (DMU), where each DMU represents a geographical area. In the results, it is found that DMU3 and DMU5 are inefficient in many quarters, whereas the other DMUs, such as DMU1 and DMU2 show an efficient score in many quarters. Additionally, sensitivity analysis is used to investigate the collection if the performance becomes efficient for some inefficient DMUs. Furthermore, when linking the relative efficiency scores with the collection ratio KPI, it is found that most of the DMUs were not able to reach 100% scores for many quarters.
Keywords: water supply; key performance indicators; KPI; data envelopment analysis; sensitivity analysis.
Identification of Critical Success Factors for implementing Six Sigma methodology and grouping the factors based on ISO 9001:2015 QMS.
by Veena T R, Prabhushankar G V
Abstract: In the present day scenario, many business and quality management methods are used in industries to improve quality and standardize the process. Six Sigma methodology started by Motorola is one such methodology which is used by industries to reduce variability and cost, increase profit of the process. Six Sigma methodology will help to identify and eliminate/reduce defects so that process is standardized. In this paper literature review is done to identify the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for accomplishment of Six Sigma methodology. Further, the CSFs identified are grouped into different groups based on clauses of ISO 9001 Quality Management System standard. In this paper the identified CSFs are grouped in Clause 4: context of organization; 5: Leadership; 6: Planning; 7: Support; 8: Operations; 9: performance evaluation and 10: Improvement This data could be used by the organizations which implement ISO9001:2015 QMS to effectively implement Six Sigma methodology along with QMS standard.
Keywords: Six Sigma methodology; Quality Management System; Critical Success Factors (CSFs); Clauses of ISO 9001:2015 QMS standard.
Quality improvement through the application of quality tools and simulation technique: A case study in a SME
by Soundararajan K, Janardhan Reddy K
Abstract: During the recent years, researchers have been pointing out that the implementation of quality tools in conjunction with simulation techniques have not yet been examined in small and medium sizes enterprises (SMEs). With an aim of filling this research gap, the case study presented in this paper was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, four quality tools namely, brainstorming, cause and effect, normality test and design of experiments were applied. In the second phase, simulation technique was applied. The solution obtained was implemented in practice, which decreased the defect rate from eight percent to one percent in the production of bush cam castings. The experience gained by conducting this case study indicated that application of quality tools in conjunction with simulation technique would facilitate SMEs to achieve quality improvement effectively and economically.
Keywords: Quality improvement; brainstorming; cause and effect diagram; design of experiments; simulation.
Applicability of quality tools and techniques in manufacturing and service organizations: A comprehensive survey
by Vivek Sharma, Sandeep Grover, S.K. Sharma
Abstract: Implementation of Quality tools and techniques (QT&T) has exemplified many benefits over the years in manufacturing as well in service organizations. Previous surveys on QT&T emphasized mainly upon performance of products, processes and services of the organizations and not discussed about implications and adaptability of QT&T category. The purpose of this survey research is to scrutinize different categories of QT&T to examine the level of adoption, applicability, benefits and challenges faced by various organizations in NCR region and industrial town Bhiwadi (Rajasthan) India. An exploratory questionnaire survey consisting of three parts was distributed out among 398 organizations. A total of 26.63 percent response rate was received out of 106 organizations. Categories like problem solving tools, productivity tools and performance measurement tools retain to be most dominant for improving efficiency of organizations after analyzed by SPSS 18 statistical software.
Keywords: Quality tools and techniques; categories; adoption; implementation.