International Journal of Space Science and Engineering
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International Journal of Space Science and Engineering (6 papers in press)
LEO Satellite Formation Flying via Differential Atmospheric Drag by Andrew Tang, Xiaofeng Wu Abstract: Formation flying involves multiple spacecraft flying with pre-defined relation to each other. This allows a number of individual, smaller satellites to work together and accomplish tasks extraneous to single satellite systems. However, the required precision of orbital positioning and control makes the maintenance of such formations quite challenging. This is particularly true for space systems without propulsive controls; even for systems equipped with active control, propellant consumption can be quite high.
To facilitate orbital control, this study investigates formation flying in low earth orbit (LEO), focusing primarily on propulsion-free methods of control for micro and nano- class satellites such as aerodynamic differential drag. A fuzzy logic control algorithm was developed to control the satellites position by manipulating the drag configuration of each satellite in the formation. The outcome of this study shows that successful formation control can be achieved using drag forces alone. The time taken for each formation control and by-products, including altitude loss are evaluated. The orbital modelling presented here can be used as the baseline for a control algorithm developed for station keeping of satellites in low earth orbit. Keywords: formation flying; satellite orbit; atmospheric drag; low earth orbit; LEO; Cube Satellite; leader-follower formation.
Optimal Trajectory Design and Analysis for Soft Landing on the Moon from Lunar Parking Orbits by Santosh Kumar Choudhary, Kaushik Raj, Venkatesan Muthukumar Abstract: This article studies the optimal control solution of the moon-lander problem. The main purpose of this article is to investigate the optimal strategy for trajectory design to ensure the soft landing of the lander from the Lunar parking orbit to the lunar surface with minimum consumption of fuel.
The trajectory design of lunar lander is studied via two cases by formulating the optimal control problems, where specific requirements of this soft landing problem are all incorporated in the problem formulation.
To analyze the proposed optimal strategies for a soft landing the paper briefly illustrates the numerical simulation results and it shows that the required velocity for the soft landing is achieved with minimum fuel consumption.
The investigated computational methods for the optimal solutions of the moon-lander problem in both two cases are conceptually simple and efficient. Keywords: Moon-lander; Optimal control; Lunar parking orbit; Soft landing; Pontryagin’s Principle; Two-point boundary value problem; Bound constrained optimization technique.
Analysis on BDS Signal Ranging Performance Onboard LEO Satellite by Xue Wang Abstract: Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is used to achieve Low Earth Orbiting satellites (LEOs) orbit determination and time synchronization. The high accuracy time synchronization and orbit determination between satellites are completely dependent on time and phase measurement accuracy of GNSS receiver. In this paper, the distortions of new BDS signal and the performance of spaceborne receivers are mainly analyzed. The satellite orbit data are used to calculate the dynamics of radial distance, velocity, and acceleration between the LEO satellite and the BDS satellites, such as geostationary (GEO) and Medium Earth orbit (MEO). In acquisition processing, the effects of signal correlation performance and carriers Doppler are analyzed, such as the correlation loss, the center of correlation curve drift and the Bit inversion. In tracking processing, the carrier-to-noise ratio (), tracking accuracy of code and carrier are analyzed in the case of dynamic, especially the BDS signal is simulated. The results help to define requirements of GNSS receivers for future LEO missions in which determination of high-precision orbits to few decimeters is needed. Keywords: Low Earth Orbit satellite; GNSS Signal; High Dynamic; Acquirement; and Tracking error.
Design of Passive Launch and On-orbit Vibration Isolation System for Control Moment Gyroscopes by Min Luo, Qiong Wu, Wenbo Luo, Wentao Yang Abstract: This paper proposes a robust design of a passive nonlinear viscous damping system, which is capable of not only isolating disturbances induced by Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs) but also reducing the launch loads transmitted to CMGs. A novel and robust design of viscous damper is developed in the current work, which can provide high damping for launch dynamic loading and low damping for on-orbit micro-vibration loading. In order to understand the nonlinear damping mechanisms of such a viscous damper, a theoretical analysis based on power-law fluid theory is given in this paper. The nonlinear effect and performance of the isolation system are demonstrated by launch environment tests and micro-vibration tests. The test results indicate that the isolation system guarantees the dynamic safety of CMGs under the launch environment and the micro-vibration isolation efficiency of CMGs on orbit. Keywords: Control moment gyroscope;Launch vibration isolation;On-orbit vibration isolation;Nonlinear viscous damping.
Comparison of two magnetic damping laws for the attitude acquisition of a dual spin satellite by Mikhail Ovchinnikov, Dmitry Rodugin Abstract: Dual spin satellite motion in the attitude acquisition phase is considered. Starting from the arbitrary rotation state, the satellite should end up with its angular momentum aligned with the orbit normal. The satellite is equipped with magnetorquers that provide the angular velocity damping. Two control strategies are compared, that is the simple exponential damping and weighted damping arising from the classical sliding control implementation. The time response of the control system depending on the satellite inertia moments is analyzed. Simple damping is proven to provide better results for the low control authority even for the significantly elongated satellite. This result is proved with the analytical solution for the characteristic exponents approximations. Weighted damping is shown to provide better results for significant control authority through numerical simulation. Keywords: dual spin; bias momentum; flywheel; magnetic attitude control; magnetic damping.
Radiance Enhancement and Shortwave upwelling Radiative Flux methods for efficient detection of cloud scenes by Rehan Siddiqui, Rajinder K. Jagpal, Sanjar M. Abrarov, Brendan M. Quine Abstract: The description, interpretation and imagery of cloud scenes by remote sensing datasets from Earth-orbiting satellites have become a great debate for several decades. Presently, there are many models for cloud detection and its classifications have been reported. However, none of the existing models can efficiently detect the clouds within the small band of shortwave upwelling radiative wavelength flux (SWupRF) in the spectral range from 1100 nm to 1700 nm. Therefore, in order to detect the clouds more efficiently, a method known as the radiance enhancement (RE) can be implemented (Siddiqui et al., 2015; Siddiqui et al., 2016b; Siddiqui, 2017). Satellite remote sensing database is one of the most essential parts of research for monitoring different atmospheric changes. This article proposes a new approach how with RE and SWupRF to distinguish cloud and non-cloud scenes by space orbiting Argus 1000 spectrometer utilizing the GENSPECT line-by-line radiative transfer simulation tool for space data retrieval and analysis (Quine and Drummond, 2002; Jagpal, 2011; Siddiqui et al., 2015; Siddiqui, 2017). This approach may be used within the selected wavelength band of Argus 1000 spectrometer in the range from 1100 nm to 1700 nm to calculate the integrated SWupRF synthetic spectral datasets. We used the collected Argus observations starting from 2009 to investigate the radiative flux and its correlation with cloud and non-cloud scenes (Siddiqui et al., 2017). Our results show that the both, RE and SWupRF model, are capable of identifying most of the cloudy scenes except for some thin clouds that cannot be identified reasonably with high confidence due to complexity of the atmospheric system. Based on our analysis, we suggest that the relative correlation between SWupRF and RE within a small wavelength band can be a promising technique for estimating the solar and thermal energy balance involving cloud layers. Keywords: radiance enhancement; cloud detection; radiative transfer; shortwave; upwelling flux; micro-spectrometer; remote sensing.