International Journal of Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation (12 papers in press)
Preschool remodelling through systemic (ex)change
by Malin Lindberg, Mia Heikkila, Jennie Schaeffer, Cecilia Nordquist
Abstract: Based on the experiences from a social innovation process of Swedish preschool remodelling aiming to enhance equal and inclusive learning and play the study investigates socio-material dimensions in complex multi-actor/level (ex)change. Previous studies on systemic change through social innovation ecosystems help reveal dynamics and challenges in the coordination of varying logics and interests among the involved preschools, municipality, architectural firm, universities and innovation agency. The shared appreciation of equal preschools as universally good and desirable, served to conceal contestations of the principal aspirations of innovative socio-material transformation, instead conceptualising it as conflicting institutional logics and lacking cross-institutional coordination. The study further confirms that the large complex sys-tems that characterise formal education may hamper innovation by its high degree of inertia, while distinguishing a potential for enhanced innovation through participatory, empowering approaches in social innovation ecosystems.
Keywords: education; equality; participatory research; preschool; social innovation; systemic change.
Influence of entrepreneurial competencies and motivations on social entrepreneurship intention: an empirical study related to Tunisia
by Ines BEN CHIKHA
Abstract: Recently, social entrepreneurship has attracted a great deal of attention from scholars, practitioners and policy makers since it presents one of the main solutions for solving social, economic and environmental problems. To participate in this research area, we carry out in this work an empirical investigation of the impact of both entrepreneurial competencies and motivations on the formation on the social entrepreneurial intention based on 310 questionnaires from Tunisians who are pursuing incubation programs in the context of social entrepreneurship. Using the partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) method, we have shown that entrepreneurial competencies and motivations positively influence social entrepreneurial intention. This reinforces the conclusions that said entrepreneurial competencies and motivations have an effect on entrepreneurship in general. In addition, these findings may attract the attention of incubators who can act on these two determinants to stimulate social entrepreneurship.
Keywords: Social entrepreneurial intention; entrepreneurial competencies; entrepreneurial motivations; PLS-SEM.
Global Mamas: Confronting the Challenges of Marketing Fair Trade Apparel to Female Millennials
by Alyson Vanderploeg, Tanya Domina, Seung-Eun Lee
Abstract: This case presents to students the challenges that Global Mamas, a fair trade non- profit organization, is experiencing in marketing its products to female Millennials. Research has indicated that female Millennials have a significant interest in purchasing fair trade products; however, there are a number of concerns that have prevented fair trade products from gaining mainstream acceptance among this consumer group. First, the case defines fair trade and discusses the growing niche market surrounding it. Second, Global Mamas is introduced and its current marketing, production, and distribution strategies are examined, as well as the current challenges Global Mamas is facing in capturing the attention and gaining the loyalty of this growing niche market. Students will be able to explain the foundational principles of fair trade and develop potential marketing strategies intended for the industrys niche market, addressing concerns they have regarding fair trade products and labelling procedures.
Keywords: fair trade; female Millennial; social media; marketing strategies.
The state of the art of corporate social responsibility reporting practices and their contribution to sustainable development. Analyzing CSR patterns framed by sustainable development theories as benchmark for modern entrepreneurs
by Ioana- Maria Dragu
Abstract: This paper presents an overview of corporate social responsibility (CSR) theories that can be implemented by modern entrepreneurs within practical business context. The research study comprises a state of the art on the literature review of corporate social responsibility practices. This research focuses upon the importance of conceptualizing CSR practices in the entrepreneurship context. Nowadays, entrepreneurs aim to contribute to the economic progress of society without compromising the well being of future generations. Entrepreneurs need innovation, because for the modern businessmen social responsibility becomes a vital asset influencing the success of the business.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility; sustainable development; entrepreneurship; innovation.
Success Factors of FinTech Startups in Hong Kong
by Yie Kei Li, Nicholas Harkiolakis
Abstract: This study surveyed 150 FinTech CEOs or founders in Hong Kong and Shenzhen to understand key success factors for a FinTech startup. FinTech startups tend to be formed by, on average, three founders who complement their expertise in both the IT and financial industry fields. An average startup capital of around USD 500,000 to USD 1 million seems to be the norm for local FinTech startups. Multiple funding sources are typically considered, including family funds, in many cases required by outside investors as proof of commitment. Government policies (e.g. free rental and tax cuts in early stages) were deemed important for initial growth. The studys regional focus might not validate a generalization to other financial centers but findings contribute further understanding of the FinTech phenomenon in one of the worlds most active finance markets. Future research is required to investigate other financial centers worldwide (Silicon Valley, Wall Street, Singapore, etc.).
Keywords: FinTech; Business models; Financial startups; Success factors; Theoretical Framework.
Unusual Entrepreneurs for Unusual Entrepreneurship
by Thierry Burger-Helmchen
Abstract: This paper proposes a framework that contributes to facilitating understanding of unusual forms of entrepreneurship and their interaction with economics actors and institutions. Particularly, our framework is based on the 5M framework (markets, money, management, macro and meso environment) proposed by Brush et al. (2009). We analyse these factors in the light of unusual entrepreneurship: unusual macro environment, unusual meso environment, unusual management, unusual money, unusual money, unusual market, and in addition unusual microenvironment. Our contribution is threefold: 1) to enhance knowledge and understanding of unusual forms of entrepreneurship; 2) to advance knowledge and raise awareness of new forms of entrepreneurship and the related benefits and challenges; 3) to provide insights of a range of social, economic and cultural factors that will impact on entrepreneurial activities among indigenous and migrants.
Keywords: entrepreneurship; indigenous; conceptual model; immigrantrnentrepreneurship.
Characteristics of Social Entrepreneurs in Mexico
by Monica Félix González, Antonio Alejandro Arriaga Martínez
Abstract: Within social entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurs are recognized for creating innovative solutions to address social problems or needs. Research on the characteristics of this type of entrepreneurs is in an early stage. This article contributes to the literature by taking the main characteristics of entrepreneurs in commercial entrepreneurship, transferring them to social entrepreneurship and conducting an explorative study with 12 social entrepreneurs in Mexico to provide qualitative evidence that confirms the presence of some of the characteristics found among commercial entrepreneurs, such as opportunity identification, creativity, high commitment, passion, high level of trust, leadership, self-realization and need for independence; and adding new ones to the conversation such as deep love for humanity, good humour, being a dreamer and considering the social initiative as a life-project, among others. The finding of these new characteristics shed light on the understanding of the personality and behaviour of successful social entrepreneurs in a developing country in Latin America.
Keywords: Social entrepreneur; social entrepreneurs’ characteristics; social value creation; social impact.
The Evolution of Social Entrepreneurial Initiatives by Women in India: A Longitudinal Assessment Across Sectors
by Mousumi Roy, Abhijit Roy
Abstract: Women have continued to form enterprises to address one or more of societys many social and environmental challenges, has evolved throughout the world. This article looks at the key issues that motivate primarily Indian women social entrepreneurs in empowering the powerless by promoting literacy, creating opportunities for employment and financial independence, improving health and well-being, and advocating human rights. The concerns and achievements of women social entrepreneurs are classified into two distinct targeted domains - Humanitarian, and the Environment. The development in the past, current state, and future promise of women in these sectors are discussed here, followed by how industry, governments and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have helped in this effort, and the significant challenges faced by women social entrepreneurs in India.
Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship; Women; India; Humanitarian; Environment.
The social inclusion of the elderly: The effect of social marketing on raising awareness among the Portuguese population to campaigns to support the elderly
by Carlos Arriaga Costa, Tânia Afonso Esteves
Abstract: The population is ageing. Several public and private programmes have been addressed to an elderly population. However, there is also the abandonment of care on the elderly. This research analyses the role of social marketing in changing the attitudes of the population toward our elderly. To this end, we conducted a survey in Portugal based on a sample distributed by gender and age groups to shed light on the perception of respondents to the problems faced by the elderly and their reaction to the messages of social marketing directed to their care. While most respondents positively understand the importance of social marketing, they say that social marketing messages do little to change their attitudes. While the generation of 17 to 27 years considers that social marketing campaigns are insufficient, the generation of 50 to 60 is more sensitised to the importance of marketing to the problems of the elderly.
Keywords: social marketing aimed at the elderly; problems of the elderly; domestic violence; abandonment of the elderly.
Exploring the Role of Social Innovation in Developing Sustainopreneurship; A New Approach to Managing the Triple Bottom Line in Sri Lanka.
by Jami Perera, Ruwan Abeysekera
Abstract: This study investigates the role of Social Innovations in developing Sustainopreneurship in Sri Lanka; a new approach to managing the Triple Bottom Line (TBL). Data were gathered through fifteen Sustainopreneurs in-depth interviews and the Multiple case study method was used. The findings of the study reveal that Sustainopreneurs affiliation to nature, competition, and government restrictions, Sustainopreneurs exotic exposure and their attitudes towards being responsible to the planet motivates them to do Social Innovations and Sustainopreneurship. Further, the findings disclose several barriers in developing Social Innovations and Sustainopreneurship. As there has been a dearth of studies directed in the area this study contributes to the Social Innovations and Sustainopreneurship literature in many aspects. The recommendations support and give beneficial information to practitioners and policymakers who could help inform future strategies in the arena.
Keywords: Barriers; Developing; Entrepreneurship; In-depth interviews; Multiple Case Study; Sri Lanka; Sustainopreneurship; Social Innovations; Sustainable development; Triple Bottom Line.
CROWD FUNDING AND START-UPS: INDIAN CONTEXT
by Socrates Shahrour, Uma M H
Abstract: Start-ups play an important role in increasing economic growth, whether as regards rising domesticrnproduction or leading to reducing unemployment.rnObtaining funds for a start-up project is one of the biggest challenges that entrepreneurs might facernwhen starting their own business. They initially pursued support from research grants, or banks, butrnmost of the time they were unable to provide the banks with adequate guarantees. That's when itrncomes to the idea of setting up a special institution to provide finance to start a new business withrnnew idea. The principle of microfinance dates back to the 1970s to provide credit to poor peoplernwho couldn't get money through normal channels of finance.rnCrowdfunding is a new trend of getting resources for the new projects, enabling entrepreneurs torntake advantage of the internet to raise small amounts of money for their small business from a largernnumber of people. Based on secondary data, the study addresses the following research questions:rnrnWhat is crowdfunding?rnrnIn which context/s is it used in India?rnrnHow does crowdfunding help start-ups in India?
Keywords: Economic growth; Small businesses; Crowdfunding; Start-ups; Financial resourcesrnCrowdfunding Platforms.
An Impact Evaluation of Entrepreneurship Education on Self-Employment Option Among Nigerian University Undergraduates
by Olufemi Obembe, Rosaline Soetan, Ifeolu Olagbaju, Olajumoke Oyetunji-Alemede, Folashade Akinyemi
Abstract: This study adopted a propensity score matching method to evaluate the impact of entrepreneurship education on self-employment prospects of students from three universities in Nigeria. Students that were yet to take entrepreneurship education course were randomized to serve as controls for those that had taken the course. The outcome variable was measured using a binary choice variable and a continuous variable generated from a scale that measures the likelihood of students taking into self-employment. The MatchIt package in R was utilized for the evaluation and our results show that entrepreneurship education had a positive but not significant impact on self-employment choice among the students. This indicates that entrepreneurship education alone may not be sufficient in reducing youth unemployment in Nigeria.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship Education; Impact Evaluation; Youth Unemployment; Nigeria; Propensity Score Matching.