International Journal of Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation (8 papers in press)
Characteristics of Social Entrepreneurs in Mexico
by Monica Félix González, Antonio Alejandro Arriaga Martínez
Abstract: Within social entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurs are recognized for creating innovative solutions to address social problems or needs. Research on the characteristics of this type of entrepreneurs is in an early stage. This article contributes to the literature by taking the main characteristics of entrepreneurs in commercial entrepreneurship, transferring them to social entrepreneurship and conducting an explorative study with 12 social entrepreneurs in Mexico to provide qualitative evidence that confirms the presence of some of the characteristics found among commercial entrepreneurs, such as opportunity identification, creativity, high commitment, passion, high level of trust, leadership, self-realization and need for independence; and adding new ones to the conversation such as deep love for humanity, good humour, being a dreamer and considering the social initiative as a life-project, among others. The finding of these new characteristics shed light on the understanding of the personality and behaviour of successful social entrepreneurs in a developing country in Latin America.
Keywords: Social entrepreneur; social entrepreneurs’ characteristics; social value creation; social impact.
The Evolution of Social Entrepreneurial Initiatives by Women in India: A Longitudinal Assessment Across Sectors
by Mousumi Roy, Abhijit Roy
Abstract: Women have continued to form enterprises to address one or more of societys many social and environmental challenges, has evolved throughout the world. This article looks at the key issues that motivate primarily Indian women social entrepreneurs in empowering the powerless by promoting literacy, creating opportunities for employment and financial independence, improving health and well-being, and advocating human rights. The concerns and achievements of women social entrepreneurs are classified into two distinct targeted domains - Humanitarian, and the Environment. The development in the past, current state, and future promise of women in these sectors are discussed here, followed by how industry, governments and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have helped in this effort, and the significant challenges faced by women social entrepreneurs in India.
Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship; Women; India; Humanitarian; Environment.
The social inclusion of the elderly: The effect of social marketing on raising awareness among the Portuguese population to campaigns to support the elderly
by Carlos Arriaga Costa, Tânia Afonso Esteves
Abstract: The population is ageing. Several public and private programmes have been addressed to an elderly population. However, there is also the abandonment of care on the elderly. This research analyses the role of social marketing in changing the attitudes of the population toward our elderly. To this end, we conducted a survey in Portugal based on a sample distributed by gender and age groups to shed light on the perception of respondents to the problems faced by the elderly and their reaction to the messages of social marketing directed to their care. While most respondents positively understand the importance of social marketing, they say that social marketing messages do little to change their attitudes. While the generation of 17 to 27 years considers that social marketing campaigns are insufficient, the generation of 50 to 60 is more sensitised to the importance of marketing to the problems of the elderly.
Keywords: social marketing aimed at the elderly; problems of the elderly; domestic violence; abandonment of the elderly.
Exploring the Role of Social Innovation in Developing Sustainopreneurship; A New Approach to Managing the Triple Bottom Line in Sri Lanka.
by Jami Perera, Ruwan Abeysekera
Abstract: This study investigates the role of Social Innovations in developing Sustainopreneurship in Sri Lanka; a new approach to managing the Triple Bottom Line (TBL). Data were gathered through fifteen Sustainopreneurs in-depth interviews and the Multiple case study method was used. The findings of the study reveal that Sustainopreneurs affiliation to nature, competition, and government restrictions, Sustainopreneurs exotic exposure and their attitudes towards being responsible to the planet motivates them to do Social Innovations and Sustainopreneurship. Further, the findings disclose several barriers in developing Social Innovations and Sustainopreneurship. As there has been a dearth of studies directed in the area this study contributes to the Social Innovations and Sustainopreneurship literature in many aspects. The recommendations support and give beneficial information to practitioners and policymakers who could help inform future strategies in the arena.
Keywords: Barriers; Developing; Entrepreneurship; In-depth interviews; Multiple Case Study; Sri Lanka; Sustainopreneurship; Social Innovations; Sustainable development; Triple Bottom Line.
CROWD FUNDING AND START-UPS: INDIAN CONTEXT
by Socrates Shahrour, Uma M H
Abstract: Start-ups play an important role in increasing economic growth, whether as regards rising domesticrnproduction or leading to reducing unemployment.rnObtaining funds for a start-up project is one of the biggest challenges that entrepreneurs might facernwhen starting their own business. They initially pursued support from research grants, or banks, butrnmost of the time they were unable to provide the banks with adequate guarantees. That's when itrncomes to the idea of setting up a special institution to provide finance to start a new business withrnnew idea. The principle of microfinance dates back to the 1970s to provide credit to poor peoplernwho couldn't get money through normal channels of finance.rnCrowdfunding is a new trend of getting resources for the new projects, enabling entrepreneurs torntake advantage of the internet to raise small amounts of money for their small business from a largernnumber of people. Based on secondary data, the study addresses the following research questions:rnrnWhat is crowdfunding?rnrnIn which context/s is it used in India?rnrnHow does crowdfunding help start-ups in India?
Keywords: Economic growth; Small businesses; Crowdfunding; Start-ups; Financial resourcesrnCrowdfunding Platforms.
An Impact Evaluation of Entrepreneurship Education on Self-Employment Option Among Nigerian University Undergraduates
by Olufemi Obembe, Rosaline Soetan, Ifeolu Olagbaju, Olajumoke Oyetunji-Alemede, Folashade Akinyemi
Abstract: This study adopted a propensity score matching method to evaluate the impact of entrepreneurship education on self-employment prospects of students from three universities in Nigeria. Students that were yet to take entrepreneurship education course were randomized to serve as controls for those that had taken the course. The outcome variable was measured using a binary choice variable and a continuous variable generated from a scale that measures the likelihood of students taking into self-employment. The MatchIt package in R was utilized for the evaluation and our results show that entrepreneurship education had a positive but not significant impact on self-employment choice among the students. This indicates that entrepreneurship education alone may not be sufficient in reducing youth unemployment in Nigeria.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship Education; Impact Evaluation; Youth Unemployment; Nigeria; Propensity Score Matching.
Social Entrepreneurial Biotechnology and Collaboration in Mexico
by Christos Apostolakis, Katharyn Apostolakis, Rafael Alcaraz, Marcia Villasana Campos
Abstract: This article reflects upon an experimental research-based approach to examine collaboration within social entrepreneurial biotechnology in a particular setting, that of Mexicos university sector. The impact of entrepreneurial collaboration to biotechnology can be considered as a vital element for sustainability in growth in a wide range of geographical jurisdictions. In this respect, the article explores, even at an initial stage, the development of entrepreneurial collaboration regarding biotechnology operations in Monterrey, Mexico. Therein the role of the regional university, Tecnologico de Monterrey is analysed and emphasised. rnMethodology-wise it relies upon observations and initial semi-structured interviews that can constitute the basis for further research expansion. The results are really encouraging as the day biotechnology will contribute substantially to the sustainable growth of Monterrey and the region of Nuevo Leon should be regarded as arriving shortly. To this extent, support to rnCovid-19 pandemic vaccination programmes is accurately speculated.
Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship Biotechnology; Collaboration; Tec de Monterrey; Mexico.
Minority status and self-employment among women: The mediating role of adaptive behaviour and networks.
by Emmanuel Philemon Wandera, Isaac Nkote Nabeta, John C. Munene, Sarah Wasagali Kanaabi
Abstract: TThe purpose of this study is to establish the relationship between minority status and self-employment, and the mediating role of adaptive behaviour and networks in such a relationship among self-employed women. Based on a cross sectional survey, data were collected from 203 self-employed women and analyzed with partial least square structural equation modelling(PLS SEM) using SmartPLS version 3.2.9. Findings indicate a positive and significant relationship between minority status, adaptive behaviour and self-employment, but networks do not. In addition, adaptive behaviour plays a partial mediating role. These findings provide useful insights into the role of minority status and adaptive behaviour in boosting self-employment but also adaptive behaviour as a conduit through which minority status relates with self-employment among women. Therefore, we recommend that women who are in self-employment further develop and maintain frugal behavior that help them to minimize expenditure and save money needed for the business venture expansion.
Keywords: Self- employment; Minority status; Adaptive behaviour; Networks; PLS-SEM.