International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications (16 papers in press)
Improved finite frequency Hoo filtering for Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems
by Abderrahim EL-AMRANI
Abstract: This paper investigates the design problem of Hoo filtering for discrete
non-linear systems in the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) form. Our aim is to design a new filter guaranteeing an Hoo performance level in specific finite frequency (FF) ranges. Using the well-known generalised Kalman Yakubovich Popov lemma, Finslers
lemma, sufficient conditions for the existence of Hoo filters for different FF ranges are proposed and then unified in terms of solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and the less conservatism of the proposed approach in comparison with the existing methods.
Keywords: Finite Frequency; Hoo Filtering; Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) Fuzzy Systems; Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs).
Leader-Follower Formation Suboptimal Control for Quadrotors
by Wesam Jasim, Dongbing Gu
Abstract: In this work, a leader-follower formation control problem of quadrotors is investigated. The quadrotor dynamic model is represented by unit quaternion with the consideration of external disturbance. Nonlinear H1 design approach is introduced and robust controllers for both leader and follower robots are derived by solving a Hamilton-Jacobi inequality following from a result for general nonlinear affine systems. Then some robustness conditions of the proposed controllers are obtained by selecting appropriate parametrised Lyapunov functions. The resultant state feedback
controllers establish the asymptotically stability of the closed-loop nonlinear system. In addition, integral backstepping (IB) controllers are also derived for the leader-follower formation control problem. The purpose of designing IB controllers is to evaluate the robustness of H1 controllers by comparison. The simulation results from both types of controllers are compared and robustness performance of the H1 controllers over the IB controllers are demonstrated
Keywords: leader-follower formation; nonlinear H1 control; integral backstepping control; unit quaternion; external disturbances.
Analytic Hierarchy Process Based Model Reduction of Higher Order Continuous Systems Using Sine Cosine Algorithm
by Tapan Prakash, S.P. Singh, V.P. Singh
Abstract: The analysis of higher order systems is tedious and cumbersome task. This motivated analysts to reduce higher order systems into lower order models using mathematical approaches. In this paper, an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) based approximation of stable higher order systems to stable lower order models using sine cosine algorithm (SCA) is presented. The stable approximant is deduced by minimizing the relative errors in between time moments and Markov parameters of the system and its approximant. In order to match the steady states of the system and its approximant, the first time moment of the system is retained in the approximant. AHP is utilized to convert multi-objective problem of minimization of errors in between time moments and Markov parameters into a single objective problem by proper assignment of weights. To ensure the stability of the approximant, Hurwitz criterion is utilized. The systematic nature and efficacy of the proposed technique is validated by deriving approximants for three different test systems.
Keywords: Analytic hierarchy process; model reduction; Padé approximation; Routh approximation; sine cosine algorithm.
Low power Experimental Prototype of a controlled Three- Phase Inverter using D.S.P (TMS320F2812) for a Hydraulic Energy Conversion Chain Application
by Chirine BENZAZAH, Loubna LAZRAK, Soukaina EL DAOUDI, Mustapha AIT LAFKIH
Abstract: This paper deals with a part implementation of the distributed generation chain system based on hydraulic power source operated in low power and controlled by DSP F2812. The experimental part of the chain includes a controlled two-level three phase inverter connected, via an LC filter, to a load. This latter consists of a balanced three phase resistive without neutral point joint, for this reason, the implementation requires fewer sensors as measuring devices. The proposed control strategy uses just two regulation loops; one of them is for the AC output voltages and the other one is for the input inductor currents of LC filter. This strategy was developed on Matlab-Simulink and implemented in eZdsp TMS320F2812 DSP board from Spectrum Digital. To confirm the efficiency and robustness of the chain part implementation, the experimental results using the implemented inverter was compared with a compact industrial module 7MBR15SA120 inverter mounting with the same control interface and measurement cards. The experimental waveforms comparison prove that there is a good match between the two practice prototypes, validate the theoretical study as well as the simulation results obtained and confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
Keywords: (three phase inverter; DSP F2812 controller; CCS; MATLAB interface; Digital model; Power Integrated Module 7MBR15SA120; IRGPS60B120KDP).
Performance Superiority of CA_TM Model Over N-P Algorithm in Detecting 2 Fluctuating Targets with Four Degrees of Freedom
by Mohamed El_Mashade
Abstract: The receiving of targets information mixed with undesired contribution of clutter causes affects the operation of radar systems. Modern radars have adopted adaptive processing techniques to mitigate the deleterious effects of the unwanted clutter and jammer. In this regard, the CFAR processors play a vital role in organizing the detection of fluctuating targets in heterogeneous background environments. Specifically, the popular CA-CFAR processor is incapable of maintaining its design false alarm probability when facing clutter with statistical variations. OS and TM algorithms have been suggested to achieve robust estimates of the threshold in heterogeneous situations. These techniques, however, do not fully utilize the a priori information related to the clutter distribution resulting in degradation in their detection performance in homogeneous clutter. In order to simultaneously exploit the merits of CA, and OS or TM processors, a hybrid combination of them have been recently proposed. They are named as CA_OS and CA_TM approaches. This paper is devoted to the analysis of these new models in the case where the radar receiver post-detection integrates M-pulses to carry out its object. Closed-form expression is derived for their detection performance. The primary as well as the outlying targets are assumed to be fluctuating following χ2-distribution with four-degrees of freedom in their fluctuation. Our simulation results reveal that the new version CA_TM exhibits a homogeneous performance that outweighs that of the classical Neyman-Pearson (N-P) detector which is employed as a baseline comparison for other techniques in the CFAR world.
Keywords: adaptive processors; clutter and interference; derived detectors; χ2-distribution; Swerling models; SWIII & SWIV; postdetection integration of M pulses; multitarget environments.
Robust Output Feedback Control for Uncertain Chaotic Systems
by Mohammad Salah, Hazem El-Hageen, Osamah Badarneh, Mohammad Ababneh, Mohammed Abu Mallouh
Abstract: Chaos phenomena can be found in many scientific disciplines such as astronomy, biology, chemistry, engineering, geology, mathematics, medicine, meteorology, and even social sciences. Such phenomena can seriously affect the behavior of some vital applications such as communications and security systems. Hence, a controller is required to handle chaotic behaviors that affect systems stability. In this paper, a robust output feedback controller is proposed to stabilize electronic circuits used in communications and security systems that exhibit chaotic behaviors. The proposed controller is designed to deal with unknown system parameters and time-varying uncertainties. Only the system output is utilized in the proposed controller and other states are estimated. Therefore, a high gain observer is utilized. Numerical study is introduced in this paper to demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed controller. The controller performance is investigated under various system configurations and different operating conditions and a satisfactory tracking is observed.
Keywords: chaotic system; control of sprott circuit; robust control; output feedback control; high gain observer.
Adaptive Neural network control for a class of MIMO Non-affine uncertain systems with input dead-zone nonlinearity and external disturbance
by Zerari Nassira, Mohamed Chemachema, Najib Essounbouli
Abstract: This paper studies an adaptive tracking control for a class of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) non-affine nonlinear systems, with input Dead Zone nonlinearity and external disturbances. By using the mean-value theorem, the system model is transformed into an affine form so as the difficulty in controlling non-affine systems is overcome. In the proposed control design, neural networks (NNs) are used to approximate the unknown nonlinearities based on their universal approximation properties. To compensate for approximation errors and external disturbances, an adaptive robust control term is introduced. In comparison with existing approaches, the structure of the designed controller is considerably simpler, and can handle a wider range of nonlinear systems. The stability of the closed-loop system is investigated by using Lyapunov theory. The simulation results illustrate the proposed method.
Keywords: Adaptive control system; Neural networks; Multi-input Multi-output (MIMO) unknown non-affine Systems; Dead Zone input.
Scalable Energy Efficient Routing Mechanism Prolonging Network Lifetime in Wireless Sensor Networks
by Omkar Singh, Vinay Rishiwal
Abstract: Due to the tiny size, nodes in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) are restricted in battery capacity. As a result, a node and in turn a network of such nodes is not operational for a long time. Further, in some hostile area battery cannot be replaced easily once deployed. Therefore, an energy conservation scheme or algorithm is needed to prolong the network lifetime. In this paper, an Energy Efficient Routing Scheme (EERS) is proposed and evaluated. This scheme extends the lifetime of network by selecting the finest shortest path to transmit data packets to the destined nodes. EERS selects a path/quality link over which it has minimum number of hops with maximum remaining energy over that path. Proposed scheme EERS is compared with other existing schemes for different parameters and varying size of network (100-1000 nodes). The Simulation results shows that the EERS scheme prolongs the network lifetime 10%-15% as compared to other considered schemes. EERS also minimizes the delay for transmitting data packets and increases the packet delivery ratio.
Keywords: WSN; Routing; Energy; DEEC; EESAA; EAP; EERS.
Delay-Dependent Admissibility And Control of Discrete-Time Switched Singular Systems with Time-Delay.
by Chaibi Noureddine, Charqi Mohammed, Ouahi Mohamed, Tissir Elhoussaine
Abstract: This paper is concerned with the problems of Admissibility and Control for a
class of Discrete-time Switched Singular Systems with Time-Delay for arbitrary
switching law. Firstly, a new delay-dependent sufficient condition is established
in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) by constructing a novel Lyapunov-
Krasovskii functional so that the discrete-time Switched Singular Systems with
time-delay to be regular, causal and asymptotically stable. The proposed criterion
is proved to have some advantages over other existing results. Then, a state
feedback controller is designed to guarantee the admissibility of the closed-loop
Switched Singular Delay System, by using the skills of matrix theory. Some
slack variables are introduced for more relaxation. Finally, Numerical examples
are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach and to
compare the obtained results with some existing ones in the literature.
Keywords: Discrete-time Switched Singular Systems; Switching signal;
Lyapunov-Krasovski functional; Time-Delay; Admissibility; Causality;
Regularity; Stability Asymptotic; State Feedback Control; Linear Matrix
Control of PMSG wind electrical system in network context and during the MPP tracking process
by Youssef Errami, Abdellatif Obbadi, Smail Sahnoun
Abstract: The rapid growing of wind power industry makes the research area of Wind Electrical System (WES) control more attractive to researchers. This study presents a control strategy for grid-connected WES based on a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). The power system comprises five PMSG based 2MW which connected to the dc bus with rectifiers, whereas the grid-side inverter is connected to the power grid throughout a grid-side filter. The objectives of grid side inverter are to deliver the energy from the PMSGs side to the power grid, to regulate the dc-bus and to achieve unity power factor (UPF). It can separately control reactive and active power production. The generator side converters are employed to control the velocities of the PMSGs with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm to maximize the extracted power from Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) under low, medium or high wind velocity mode. Moreover, a pitch control algorithm is proposed so as to limit the excess of wind power above rated wind speed conditions and to prevent wind turbines damage from excessive wind velocity. We give a complete model of the WES and present Vector Control Technique (VCT) approach for both the generator and grid side converters. Then, the proposed VCT strategy is able to fully decouple the quadrature (q) and direct (d) components of the currents. Simulations results using MATLAB/Simulink software are presented and discussed to validate the proposed control scheme for fault conditions into the grid as well as for normal working conditions.
Keywords: Wind Electrical System; PMSG; MPPT; VCT; fault electric network.
Receding horizon control based on the variational iteration method
by Rima TERKMANI, Ahmed MAIDI, Saïd GUERMAH, Mohamed AIDENE
Abstract: In this paper, a new indirect method is proposed for the receding horizon control of dynamical systems. It consists in solving, over a control horizon, the optimality conditions using the variational iteration method. The optimality conditions are given by the Euler-Lagrange equations and their associated boundary conditions. This two-boundary values problem is solved iteratively using a correction functional that yields both the optimal state and the optimal control. Then by imposing, at each sampling time, the current boundary conditions, a system of algebraic equations is obtained and solved, which allows to define the piecewise optimal control to be applied at the current sampling time. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated by two application examples.
Keywords: receding horizon control; model predictive control; optimal control; calculus of variations; Euler-Lagrange equation; variational iteration method.
An Adaptive algorithm for energy efficient network selection in heterogeneous networks
by Silki Baghla, Savina Bansal
Abstract: In heterogeneous environment, mobile terminals should be equipped with multiple interfaces to have requisite services from available networks. This flexibility is achieved at the cost of significant power consumption at network side as well as mobile terminals. Energy consumption of mobile terminal increases with increase in simultaneous connections as well as user applications. When a user roams in the overlapping area of different networks, it is required to maintain service continuity with the network which offers requisite quality of service and maximum lifetime to the mobile terminal. So, a VHO technique, which provides optimum network selection by considering user's preferences and at the same time is able to adapt to the current battery status is the need of the day. In this work, an adaptive algorithm for network selection is proposed which provides a balance between desired quality of service (QoS) with the present battery level of mobile terminal. Vector normalized preferred performance based VIKOR algorithm (V-VPP) is used as a baseline algorithm for energy efficient network selection. Performance of V-VPP is also compared with conventional multiple attribute decision making algorithms on the bases of number of handovers, lifetime and network selection.
Keywords: Vertical handover; Heterogeneous; Next generation; QoS ; VIKOR; V-VPP.
A Review of Hardware Platforms for Wireless Ad Hoc Mobile/Sensor Networks
by Mousami Vanjale, Shilpa Gaikwad, J.S. Chitode
Abstract: Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self-organized wireless communication network (WCN) without any fixed infrastructure. The nodes in MANET are small, battery operated and autonomous. They can sense, process and communicate wirelessly. The applications of MANETs include battle field communication, rescue operations, and information exchange at conference or classroom. Ease of deployment without any need of physical infrastructure makes MANETs a popular choice for WCN. Constraints like limited battery power, lack of centralized control, need of specialized routing protocols etc., impose research challenges on large physical deployment of MANETs. Tools such as simulation, emulation and real world implementation, help in finding solutions to face these challenges. Selection of appropriate tool often consumes a lot of time. This paper contributes a detailed review of various hardware platforms with their attributes and applications. This will help the researchers to select an appropriate hardware platform for their intended application.
Keywords: Review; hardware platforms; wireless ad hoc network; sensor network; MANET; physical deployment; real world implementation; IEEE 802.15.4; ZigBee; sensor/s.
Wireless Backhaul Networks: Centralized Vs Distributed Scenario
by Gitimayee Sahu, Sanjay S. Pawar
Abstract: The ultra-dense network (UDN) has been considered as a promising candidate for future 5G Network to meet the explosive data demand. To realize UDN, a reliable, Gigahertz (GHz) bandwidth and cost-effective backhaul network connecting ultra-dense small-cell BSs (SBS) and Macrocell BS (MBS) are pre-requisite. Millimeter wave (mmWave) spectrum can be used to obtain potential Gigabit-per-second (Gbps) traffic for wireless backhaul. Moreover, mmWave can easily integrate with massive MIMO for improved link reliability. In this research work, we analyze the wireless backhaul traffic in two different scenarios (e.g., centralized and distributed) using small cell and mmWave communication. Furthermore, the energy efficiency (EE) of wireless backhaul network is compared for different network architecture and frequency bands. Numerical comparison results provide some guidelines for deploying future 5G wireless backhaul network in economical and highly energy-efficient way.
Keywords: Centralized network; distributed network; Energy efficiency; Wireless backhaul network.
VLSI implementation of an efficient MBIST architecture using RLFSR
by Nisha O.S, K. Siva Sankar
Abstract: An area and power efficient FPGA implementation approach of memory built in self test (MBIST) is presented in this paper. It is consist of an array of 2 bit linear feedback shift register (LFSR), the switching activity of address generator used in previous MBIST architectures are high. This unwanted switching activity is affecting the power consumption of entire MBIST. We propose the MBIST with ring based LFSR used to avoid the main problem of power consumption. The 2-bit 2N pattern generator combines with a conventional (N-2) bit 2 (N-2) LFSR and a 2-bit 4 pattern generator are both controlled separately by a two separate clocks of two different frequencies to generate all possible memory address location of a memory under test. The proposed architecture is implemented on vertex4 FPGA technology in Xilinx software. We showed that results improve the performance of the proposed design by comparing with the existing design
Keywords: Memory built in self test (MBIST); Ring LFSR (RLFSR); 2D-LFSR; switching activity; FPGA; Xilin.
Analysis and optimization of 8x1 double U slotted patch array for future 5G communications
by Abir Zaidi, Abdennaceur Baghdad, Wahaj Abbas Awan, Souhir Faleh, Abdelhakim Ballouk, Abdelmajid Badri
Abstract: In this manuscript, an 8x1 rectangular U slotted patch antenna array designed for future 5G communications is presented. The proposed antenna is designed using the 3D EM CSTv18 microwave Studio based on the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method and compared using HFSSv19 EM (High-Frequency Structure Simulator) based on the FEM (Finite Element) method. Three scenarios are considered in this work, the first one is the analysis of antenna performance of single element, regular antenna array and slotted antenna array in order to evince the performance of the proposed antenna for future 5G communications. The designed array antenna presents good results in terms of return loss, efficiency, VSWR, input impedance and gain. Moreover, a comparison between the proposed work and other related works is presented.
Keywords: Patch antenna Array; rectangular patch; Millimeter wave; CST; HFSS.