International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications (12 papers in press)
Performance analysis of TAS/MRC-based MIMO system over K fading channels
by Rajkishur Mudoi, Rupom Rongphar
Abstract: This paper analyses, the system performance such as outage probability and average bit error rate (ABER) of transmit antenna selection (TAS), multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system over K fading channels. The antenna selection is accomplished at the base station for downlink transmission and maximal ratio combining (MRC) is carried out at the receiver. Based on the channel state information (CSI), the best antenna is selected for transmission at the base station (BS). The closed-form expressions have been obtained for outage probability and ABER. The probability density function (PDF)-based approach is used to analyse the performance of the system. Also along with the fading parameter k, the effects of the number of
transmitting and receiving antennas on the system performance are studied.
Keywords: TAS/MRC; MIMO; K fading channels; outage probability; average bit error rate; ABER.
Dual-scan architecture for 2D discrete wavelet transform using modified lifting algorithm
by Rohan Pinto, Jennifer C. Saldanha
Abstract: An efficient architecture of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in two-dimension (2D) is presented in this paper. The proposed structure has a higher hardware efficiency and better performance than the other DWT structures. The conventional lifting scheme is modified to reduce the latency and critical path to one multiplier delay (1Tm). The processing speed of the architecture is increased by introducing four pipeline stages in the DWT structure. Cohen-Daubechies-Feauveau (CDF) 9/7 wavelet filter is implemented in the paper. The data scanning of the input image for processing is done in Z-fashion. The computation time of an N x N image is N 2 /2 and the temporal buffer requirement is 4N. The DWT architecture developed based on the modified lifting scheme has a regular data flow with a throughput rate of two. Very high speed hardware description language (VHDL) is used to describe the digital design. The architecture is implemented on CADENCE tool with CMOS 180 nm technology. The results after comparison indicate that the proposed architecture is hardware efficient and memory utilisation is reasonable as a result of which this structure can be used in real-time image and video compression.
Keywords: discrete wavelet transform; DWT; lifting scheme; VLSI architecture; pipeline.
ETQM: Fast and Quality Aware Handover Technique for Multimedia Communication in Proxy Mobile IPv6
by C. Sivaprakash, M. Pauline
Abstract: Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) is encouragingly used for mobile communication to enable fast handover. But the PMIPv6 made some issue with multimedia communication. Some of the major problems of PMIPv6 during multimedia communication are high handover delay and poor Quality of Service (QoS). These problems can be overcome by using a better handover process, in literature many techniques have been used for the fast handover, but these techniques lack to provide better QoS of multimedia data. In this paper, an Enhanced Triggering and Quality-aware Mechanism (ETQM) technique are developed to enable the fast handover and maintain a better quality of multimedia data in PMIPv6 communication. The proposed ETQM technique includes two phases. The first phase is concentrated to reduce the handover delay based on the computation of Received Signal Strength (RSS). The second phase is focused to improve the quality of the communication based on the calculation of Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR). The performance of the proposed method is computed based on the metrics such as handover delay, jitter, packet loss and SINR. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the conventional Enhanced Triggering Mechanism (ETM) based PMIPv6. Ultimately the analysis suggests that the performance of the ETQM based PMIPv6 can provide better performance for multimedia communication.
Keywords: Handover delay; PMIPv6; ETQM; RSS; QoS & jitter; packet loss.
Sliding mode control design for nonlinear perturbed systems for tracking performance
by Y.P. Patil, H.G. Patel
Abstract: This article suggested a new interruption estimator sliding-mode control (IESM) technique for the non-linear perturbed processes. In this, the proposed control law is design using an output of the interruption estimator. The effect of modeling uncertainties and external disturbances are effectively counteracted using an interruption estimator approach.The detailed stability study is discussed to prove the stability and robustness of the presented control scheme. Comparative simulation results are rigorously discussed to verify the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed scheme on the inverted pendulum, identicaltank, and asymmetrical process examples.
Keywords: asymmetrical process; interruption estimator; inverted pendulum; identical tank; sliding mode control.
PAPR reduction and error performance in MIMO-OFDM based wireless system:
a comparative approach
by Balram Timande, Manoj Kumar Nigam
Abstract: As mobile users and applications are rapidly increasing, it is obligatory to have more reliable, high speed, high capacity wireless networks. In a wireless system, the transmitted signals are scattered from the different objects and thus subjected to multi-path fading, which leads to degrade the system performance in terms of spectral efficiency, throughput or capacity, and quality of services (QoS). In this article, maximal-ratio-combining (MRC) diversity at the receiver to improve capacity and signal quality is proposed. A comparative approach between various PAPR reduction schemes like iterative clipping and filtering (ICF), partial transmit sequence (PTS) and selective mapping (SLM) is also presented. The simulation is performed using QPSK
modulation, 128 subcarriers, the over-sampling factor of 8. The results indicate
that MRC at the receiver gives better BER performance than the conventional method and the proposed ICF method achieves the best level of PAPR reduction using a minimum number of iterations.
Keywords: wireless communication; channel; antenna configuration; interference; error rates; clipping; filtering; selective mapping; SLM.
Narrowband internet of things: analysis of frame structure, NPSS sequence generation and detection
by Rasveen , Khyati Chopra, Sandeep Kumar
Abstract: A new cellular technology named narrowband internet of things (NB-IoT) introduced in 3GPP Rel-13 provides wide-area coverage, deep penetration, long battery life and stable performance. The need of this novel technology is to make a rapid communication link, lower battery consumption and reduce the number of retransmissions. The primary requirement to achieve this is to reduce the time for searching the synchronisation signals. NB-IoT device has a random frequency offset which affects the narrowband primary synchronisation signal (NPSS) detection complexity. In this study we firstly, generated an NPSS sequence for which Zadoff-Chu (ZC) sequencing is used. Secondly, to minimise the complexity of NPSS detection, the proposed work performed coarse frequency and timing offset estimation on a received signal. Autocorrelation technique was used for the detection of NPSS. The simulation results showed that the proposed NPSS detection method reduced the search
time for the synchronisation signal even when there is a large frequency offset.
Keywords: narrowband internet of things; NB-IoT; narrowband primary synchronisation signal; NPSS; narrowband secondary synchronisation signal; NSSS; sequence generation; correlation; detection.
Performance comparison of multipath routing protocols for mobile ad hoc network
by Sanjeev Kumar Prasad, Tripti Sharma
Abstract: In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), nodes are connected by multihop wireless connections and topology is changing very frequently due to movement of nodes. Therefore, it leads to the need of efficient dynamic routing protocols. Many routing protocols have been proposed for communication in dynamic environments and it is observed that multipath routing protocols are more preferred over the single path routing protocols in terms of many network parameters such as delay, energy consumption etc. These protocols are designed to fulfil the requirements of communication in the network. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to determine a difference between multipath routing protocols when operating in large-area MANETs with the help of constant bit rate and variable bit rate data-traffic patterns and these traffic patterns apply on the network with the different speeds and vary simulation pause time. This paper tests the performance of the following multipath protocols AOMDV, BAOMDV, BAMR, and LLECP-AOMDV on the NS-2 network platform.
Keywords: mobile Ad hoc networks; MANET; multipath; routing; bandwidth; traffic patterns.
Discrete-time simulation for performance modelling of FIFO single-server queuing system
by Ridhima Mehta
Abstract: Optimal queue management is crucial for improving the network operation since packet loss is commonly attributed to the likelihood of buffer overflow at intermediate routers on end-to-end communication path. In this paper, a transient discrete-time simulation model is proposed based on queuing theory served by single-server system and single first-in first-out (FIFO) queue. This queuing service framework effectively enforces the best-effort service to the streams of incoming data packets across the network with disparate quality of service (QoS) requirements. We plot the network performance measures such as queue length, delay, server utilisation and packet lifetime to validate the practical wireless systems. Besides, we employ conventional multiple-objective genetic algorithm to model the trade-off among key queuing system parameters including queuing delay, packet drop rate and network bandwidth. Finally, the efficiency of our queuing optimisation model is significantly compared with previous works in terms of bandwidth utilisation, delay, and packet loss rate.
Keywords: FIFO queue; genetic algorithm; packet lifetime; queuing delay; queuing server utilisation.
MB-OOK transceiver design for terahertz wireless communication systems
by Serghini Elaage, Mohammed El Ghzaoui, Abdlmounim Hmamou, Jaouad Foshi, Jamal Mestoui
Abstract: The first step to design an efficient terahertz (THz) system is to find out suitable waveforms and modulation schemes that can be used in THz wireless system. Towards this end, a compromise between low-complexity and high data-rate had to be considered when selecting the appropriate transmission technique. The purpose of this work is to study the feasibility of THz system at a short distance by mean of pulse-based modulation. To do that, a multi-band on-off keying (MB-OOK) transceiver has been presented and analysed under a channel model that considers both line-of-sight (LOS) and non-los (NLOS) components. We examined three approaches named monoband OOK, 4 sub-bands OOK and 8 sub-bands OOK. Simulation results carried out for the three approaches. A data rate of 125.09 Gbps can be supported at 20 m using the 8 sub-bands approach with a bit error rate (BER) less than 10 -3.
Keywords: multi-band on-off keying; MB-OOK; bit error rate; BER; terahertz; THz; wireless local area network; WLAN; data rate; line-of-sight; LOS; non-LOS; NLOS.
Special Issue on: Artificial Intelligence-Enabled Cognitive Radio Networks
Design and analysis of tagged-T antenna for 5G applications
by Aylapogu Pramod Kumar, D. Venkatachari, J. Siddarthavarma
Abstract: Nowadays, wireless telecommunication system is increasing with rapid growth. In order to boost the gain and radio bandwidth of the antenna, the dual band functions are playing a vital role. The prime motto of this article is to get high gain with a tagged-T type antenna and it is designed for the 5G applications with truncated ground. The proposed antenna covers a frequency in the range of 2 GHz to 10 GHz. The notch on the antenna facilitates the dual band activity, improvise the gain. The antenna is designed with substrate as Rogerss material with a r = 4.4 (relative permittivity) of dielectric constant loss tangent value of 0.0009 and having a density of thickness 1.6. The proposed antenna used for various applications such as X-band, satellite applications, etc. especially it is useful for 5G applications by obtaining the more gain. The simulation results are verified with the aid of Ansys HFSS software. This design achieves the S11 losses are 31.54 dB and 30.02 dB at
respective frequencies 8.84 GHz and 3.40 GHz. Similarly, the gain is 1.75 dB, bandwidth of 5.4 GHz.
Keywords: tagged-T; high gain; bandwidth; multiband applications; VSWR; communications.
Design of a constant-bandwidth variable-gain amplifier for 5G receivers
by Yogesh Prasad, J. Manjula
Abstract: This paper describes the designing of the variable gain amplifier (VGA) for 5G receivers. Novel gain boosting technique is introduced in order to achieve more amplification at a higher frequency. The designed VGA provides continuous gain from 3.5 GHz to 4.2 GHz frequency range. At the frequency of 700 MHz the noise spectral density is 30.3936 nV/ Hz. The designing and simulations are performed using the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 45 nm process technology using the
Cadence Virtuoso tool. The overall power consumption is 0.0156 mW under the supply voltage of 1 V.
Keywords: 5G receiver; variable gain amplifier; VGA; gain booster technique.
Architectures and circuit design techniques of receivers suitable for AI enabled IoT applications
by R. Sri Uma Suseela, K. S. N. Murty
Abstract: The internet of things (IoT) applications are increasing exponentially in the day to day life. Similarly, usage of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in the IoT devices, improving their efficiency and selectivity with the penalty of additional power consumption for data processing. Therefore, the DC power consumption of IoT radio is a critical design specification, and it directly influences the battery life and usage. Recently, both academia and industry have involved in developing such radio at low power with the various innovative receiver and transmitter architectures. The Bluetooth low energy (BLE) and ZigBee transceivers at 2.4GHz are suitable for IoT applications with relaxed specifications requirements. This paper presents a review of the various low power ZigBee/BLE receiver architectures, and circuit design techniques suitable for AI enabled IoT applications include low voltage, sub-threshold, and current reuse. Similarly, the circuit design techniques in the on-off shift keying (OOK) receivers for IoT and wake-up applications presented.
Keywords: IoT; artificial intelligent; receiver; ZigBee; Bluetooth low energy; BLE; on-off shift keying; OOK; low power; wake-up.