International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology (21 papers in press)
Heat loss analysis of three coil solar cavity receiver of parabolic dish collector under wind condition
by Ramola Sinha, Nitin.P Gulhane
Abstract: This paper consider a modified three coil solar cavity receiver and experimentally investigates the effect of increases in cavity inner wall area, fluid inlet temperature (50-80
Keywords: cavity receiver; heat Loss; thermal analysis; analytical modelling; wind test.
Novel Fuzzy-assisted Nonlinear Optimal power generation method for Grid-connected SPV System with TLBO optimization
by MANISHA , Sachin Bhati, Prerna Gaur, Diwaker Pathak
Abstract: This research article presents a novel fuzzy-assisted nonlinear proportional-integral (f-NPI) controller based optimal power generation method for a 100kW grid-connected solar photovoltaic (SPV) system with boost converter topology. The primary objective is to regulate power generation closer to its optimal point when variations in irradiance and/or temperature are experienced. f-PI and novel f-NPI based PV array reference current predictor is implemented to adjust the duty cycle for the converter. The gain parameters of controllers are being fairly tuned using Teaching-Learning based Optimization (TLBO) technique. A comprehensive simulation analysis is carried out using MATLAB R2017a, which verifies that the utilization of primitive parameters i.e. irradiance and temperature in the proposed controller results in enhanced performance in comparison to extant P&O and Fuzzy Logic Controller (using secondary/conventional parameters like voltage and current) in terms of settling time, efficiency and THD. Moreover, the operation of the novel f-NPI based method is found to comply with IEEE 929 standard.
Keywords: fuzzy system; solar photovoltaic system; renewable energy; grid-connected system; optimal power generation method; nonlinear controller; Teaching Learning-based optimization; power efficiency; Perturb & Observe; P&O; Total Harmonic Distortion; THD.
Non-linear management programing for grid connected hybrid system combined to E-mobility facility
by Mohamed Tabaa, Asmae Chakir, Fouad MOUTAOUAKKIL, Hicham Medroumi, Karim Alami
Abstract: The integration of renewable energy sources is a very essential point in the strategic list that has to be met by the different countries' governments to combat the constraints of the 21st century that the increased electricity demand in the residential sector represents the front-line constraints. However, the problem of intermittency inevitably arises. As a result, an optimal energy management represents the most intelligent solution to smooth energy profile during cases of extreme renewable production or critical energy shortages. Furthermore, in the second row the transport sector with major consumption of energy in a given country is regarded. For this reason, in a sense to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that threatens the environmental climate, the development of transportation electrification combined to households equipped with a grid connected PV-Wind-Battery hybrid system is investigated in this paper. In fact, to take advantage of the integration of renewable energy systems to residential sector as well as the notion of transport electrification the two notions are combined for electric vehicles with renewable energy charging. Indeed, the energy management of the global hybrid architecture is proposed via a non-linear programming algorithm and validated with MATLAB simulation.
Keywords: Hybrid renewable energy system; energy management; Electrical vehicle; E-mobility; Smart grid.
PERFORMANCE OF SELECTED ORGANIC WASTES FOR AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIOGAS, KISUMU CITY-KENYA
by Peter Kabok, Frankline Otiende, Michael Oloko, George Ngusale
Abstract: Over years in cities to villages, inadequate and improper disposal of solid wastes exists, especially in Kenya (Africa) that lead to human and animal dumpsite scavenging, health problems, bad smell and unsightliness. The study tested performance of feacal, food and market (vegetables, fruits, tubers, cereals and green maize cobs) wastes for technologies or equipments available for biogas production (Fixed Dome Bio-Digester - FDBD, Flexible Structure Bio-Digester - FSBD, and Simple Ordinary Drum Bio - Digesters -SODBD) within Kisumu City/County. Only FDBD had known design parameter standards. The market waste were pre-prepared by chopping to sizes with own water content. Little water was added to food waste but feacal matter needed less water than 1:1 ratio used for cow dung; all were mixed to porridge consistency. The SODBD (1m3) produced gas in small quantities with high CO2 content. Match box lighting test at an outlet valve tube (25mm) was only positive for the market wastes. The 2.4 m3 FSBD and FDBD produced gas at 56% and 65% (within standards) from market waste and feacal matter feed stocks. The market waste thus suggested a natural co-generation bio-material. Need therefore arises for determining key parameters (for example caloric value, density and ratios) for feedstock in singular or mixed proportions for the digester systems size design. Manual preparation process here informs systems design automation, performance and management of the bio digesters. The available technology and bio material for biogas production is hence an option in managing particular city wastes but with digester design tailored to Bio material or mixture parameter characteristics for improvement of gas production.
Keywords: Design Parameters; Market Wastes; Technologies; Biogas; Performance.
Perception towards Rooftop Solar PV in India: Comparison between adopters and non-adopters
by Amitabh Satapathy, Arvind Jain, Sunil Barthwal
Abstract: The purpose of the study is to analyse the perception of consumers in India towards rooftop solar PV and find out if the difference in perception between adopters and non-adopters is a major reason for its poor adoption. It is surprising that growth in rooftop solar PV in India has been quite disappointing so far despite many obvious advantages. This paper through literature review found out five important factors of adoption for rooftop SPV and those are complexity, financial attractiveness, environment benefits, social image and trialability. On these five factors, the paper verified how the adopters perceive the rooftop solar PV in India compared to the non-adopters through statistical analysis of data collected through survey in the states of Kerala and Odisha in India.
Keywords: Rooftop; Solar PV; Perception; Adoption; Hypothesis.
Optimal sizing of a PV-WT hybrid system for a street lighting application based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming: A comparative study
by Mohamed Hascuri, Mustapha Ait Rami, Mostafa Derrhi
Abstract: This paper presents an approach to establish the optimal sizing of a stand-alone PV-WT hybrid system composed of Photovoltaic (PV) panels, Wind Turbines (WT), and a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS). The system is used in a public lighting application for a neighborhood located in the city of Tangier. The sizing problem is formulated based on a Mixed Integer Linear Programming approach which is solved by using three different methods: Genetic Algorithm (GA), Ant Colony Algorithm, and the Branch and Cut Algorithm (BCA). From the simulation results we have provided a clear numerical comparison between these methods, for which, BCA highly outperforms GA.
Keywords: PV-WT-BESS systems; Mixed Integer Linear Programming; Public
Lighting; Biologically inspired Algorithms.
Evaluation of Enzymatic Delignification of Rice Straw Residues for Bioethanol Production
by Sougata Bera, Tandrima Banerjee, Abhijit Samanta
Abstract: The biomass based biofuel production from sustainable resources such as lignocellulosics account for the larger alternative energy in the world for achieving zero emissions of greenhouse gas and reduction of global warming. In this study lignocellulosics such as rice straw, as agricultural residues collected from South 24 Parganas district of West Bengal, have been explored their potential availability for alternative sources of production of bioethanol. The delignification of rice straw cell wall was performed through alkali pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis using microorganism Trichoderma reesei, yielded high fermentable sugar for conversion to bioethanol. The efficacy of the delignification process was supported by the structural characteristics of the delignified substrate via. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence microscopy and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). After 240 hours of hydrolysis the optimum sugar was obtained 135.2
Keywords: Lignocelluloses; Agricultural residues; Saccharification; Biofuel; Packed Bed Reactor.
Combustion and Performance Analysis of Compression Ignition Engine fuelled with varying Orange Peel Oil based Biodiesel and Diesel
by Philip Adebayo, Samson Fasogbon, Akinola Ogunsola
Abstract: One of the key challenges in internal combustion engine is how to simultaneously improve combustion behaviour and performance characteristics. In this light, research has evolved on the modification of design parameters and development of new fuels. To this end, blends of biodiesel from Orange Peel Oil base biodiesel and neat diesel (B10, B20, B30, B40, B50, B60, B70, B80, B90, B100) were used to study the combustion and performance characteristics of diesel engines. Diesel-RK software was used to model a four stroke, single cylinder, water cooled, direct injection, diesel engine of Kirloskar make the combustion and performance parameters were studied for an engine speed of 1500 to 3500 rpm, at full load condition. The result showed similarities in behaviour of pure diesel, biodiesel, and its blends. In comparison with diesel, the cylinder pressure, heat release rate, ignition delay and brake power were lower, for orange peel oil-base biodiesel and it blends while brake specific fuel consumption, and volumetric efficiency were higher. The study concludes that Orange Peel Oil base biodiesel has the potential of replacing pure diesel; and that optimal performance and combustion is possible when the biodiesel is ten percent in the biodiesel/diesel volume blend (B10).
Keywords: Orange Peel Oil; Biodiesel; Combustion; Performance; Diesel-RK software.
Tuning of Series resistance by reducing the trap energy of Methyl Red dye based Organic Devices in presence of ZnO nanoparticles
by Pallab Kumar Das, Nabin Baran Manik
Abstract: In any organic device, the series resistance (Rs) plays an important role to control the performance of the device. Typically, the value of Rs in organic devices is very high. But there are not many studies on the reason behind the high value of Rs of the organic devices. In this work, we have reported that trapping of charge carriers is responsible for the high value of Rs of the organic devices. We have measured the Rs of Methyl Red (MR) dye-based organic device in the absence and presence of ZnO nanoparticles and also we observed the effect of trap energy (Ec) on Rs in the presence of this nanoparticle. We have used Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coated glass plate as a front electrode and Aluminum (Al) as the back electrode to prepare the organic device. The value of Rs is measured by the Cheung-Cheung method and the obtained value is verified by using H(I)-I plot. The extracted value of Rs using these two methods shows uniformity with each other. The trap energy has also been estimated from the dark I-V characteristics. It has been observed that by incorporating ZnO, trap energy is reduced from 0.098eV to 0.056eV. The extracted values of Rs are about 7.065 M? and 0.964 M? for only MR dye based device and MR with ZnO organic device, respectively. It can be said that lowering of trap energy in the presence of ZnO reduces the device Rs which enhances the flow of free charge carriers and improve the device performance.
Keywords: ITO/Methyl Red/Al system; ZnO Nanoparticles; Series resistance (Rs); Trap energy (Ec).
Design, Construction, and Performance Testing of a Simple Low-Cost Solar Dryer for Agricultural and Food Products
by Kapil SHARMA, Shobhit Srivastava, Jasbir Singh
Abstract: This paper presents the design, construction, and testing of a simple solar dryer for food preservation, which is designed, constructed and tested in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gurukula Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar, India. Its construction was completed using mainly inexpensive locally available materials to make it relatively inexpensive for the average poor farmer living in rural areas. Experimental analysis is performed for both natural and forced convection on solar air dryers. The performance of natural and forced convection is compared. The maximum obtained tray temperatures were 72
Keywords: Design; Solar Energy; Solar Dryer; Moisture Content; Temperature; Performance Evaluation; Efficiencies; Natural Circulation.
A new algorithm for impacts of multiple DGs and D-STATCOM in unbalanced radial distribution networks
by RAAVI SATISH, P. Kantarao, K. Vaisakh
Abstract: A major research is going on distributed generation (DG) which utilise renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, fuel cells etc. for electric power generation. As the renewable energy sources are geographically widely spread and of low capacity, they can be connected to distribution networks. This paper proposes a three-phase power flow algorithm (PFA) for unbalanced radial distribution networks (URDN) with multiple installations of DGs and distribution static synchronous compensator (D-STATCOM). The proposed PFA utilized the special topology of radial distribution networks (RDN) to divide the network into different sections. The bus numbers and branch numbers of these sections are stored in row entries of BUS_NUM and BRANCH_NUM matrices respectively. These matrices make the implementation of PFA simple. The accuracy of the three-phase PFA without the integration of DGs and D-STATCOM is tested on IEEE-13 bus URDN and the results are found to be very accurate with the literature. Several case studies are carried on IEEE-13 bus URDN with integration of DGs and D-STATCOM. The test results show that the proposed PFA can effectively handle different DG modeling and D-STATCOM and overall energy saving, reduced power loss and improved voltage profile are achieved with these integrations.
Keywords: distributed generation; renewable energy; radial distribution networks; unbalanced; three phase power flow algorithm; distribution static synchronous compensator.
Some Findings of Survey on Rooftop Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants
by Jatin Shah, Shrikant Londhe
Abstract: In the recent times, the rooftop solar photovoltaic power plants have become quite popular. This paper presents relevant findings of the survey of solar power plants carried out in and around Amravati, a district place in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra State in India. Seventeen different plants were visited time and again over the year and data related to installation, commissioning, operation, maintenance and monthly billing by electricity distribution company is collected. Findings are presented in the form of systematic studies to clearly bring out a picture about power generated by rooftop solar power plants. The effect of dust and proper cleaning on the performance is examined. The detailed study on the payback period is made and important observations with regard to the capacity of plant, the incentives claimed and the actual consumption of user is included.
Keywords: Solar photovoltaic systems; Rooftop solar power plant; Solar power generation; Net metering; Payback period; Conversion efficiency.
Improved Performance Output of Microbial Fuel Cell by Supplements of Ionic and Non-ionic Osmolytes using Pressmud as inoculum
by Aradhana Singh, Anubha Kaushik
Abstract: The study reports beneficial effects of adding combination of NaCl and sucrose in different ratios to the feedwater in the anodic chamber of dual chamber microbial fuel cell (DMFC). Dilute distillery wastewater was used as substrate with its native microbes serving as inoculum in a short term study (7h). Maximum open circuit voltage (OCV) of 0.57 V was generated in the MFC when 0.2 and 0.3% of salt and sucrose (2:3 ratio) were added to the substrate. In a long term experiment (22d), using pressmud as a new inoculum source, and 2:3 NaCl-sucrose ratio, the maximum OCV increased to 0.88 V with a maximum power density generation of 129 mW/m3. The novel approach of using combined osmolyte NaCl-sucrose supplement to the distillery waste-feedwater suggests excellent promotional influence on output of the MFC, while using native microbes of distillery wastewater, and more prominently on using the new pressmud inoculum source.
Keywords: MFC; NaCl; Sucrose; Osmolyte; Inoculum; Pressmud; Power generation.
Oil yield and fuel property study of rubber seed oil-based biodiesel: a promising feedstock for sustainable bio-energy production
by Rishikesh Deka, Jyotirmoy Sarma, Jayanta K. Sarmah
Abstract: Climate change and energy security are the major issues in the Asian Countries especially in India due to energy crisis and escalating energy prices. Utilization of the non-edible feedstocks for alternative fuel production is a remedy to the issues. Hevea brasiliensis, rubber tree, is a potential non-edible feedstock and is found abundantly in the state of Assam, India and is not explored much for sustainable biodiesel production. Herein we report extraction and characterization of the rubber seed oil (RSO) and subsequent conversion to biodiesel by the trans-esterification process. Effect of microclimate change on the oil yield based on seeds collected from two nearby districts of Assam are investigated. Acid esterification of the RSO followed by alkaline transesterification results in high-quality biodiesel. The calorific value of 9675.1 kcal/kg is recorded which is superior to the reported literature (compared in the results and discussion section). An oil yield of ~ 37.38% was recorded in the present study. Seeds of Hevea brasiliensis collected from the state of Assam is found as a promising alternative for use in biodiesel production.
Keywords: Rubber oil; transesterification; acid value; biodiesel.
Production, Characterization, Comparison and Performance of Algae Biodiesel as an Eco-Friendly Fuel
by ALPESH MEHTA, NIRVESH MEHTA
Abstract: Energy hunger is increasing drastically due to industrialization and improvement in the living standards of the citizens causes global warming, pollution and related issues. If the same pattern for the utilization of fossil fuels continues, resources of petroleum-based fuel can drained in next few years with ascend in environmental issues. Hence, the researchers are putting their best efforts for exploring the alternative source for energy generation.
The current research talks about selection and justifications of algae as a fuel, design, and development of fast pyrolyser for biodiesel production, fuel characterization, and performance test on an FCR (fixed compression ratio) diesel engine with blending ratio varies from B0, B20, B50, and B100. At B100, the diesel engine gives its best performance at full load with the compression ratio of 16 (brake thermal efficiency = 11.5%, BSFC=0.7609 kg/kW-hr). Results of exhaust gas analysis for B100 and B20 are also cited which satisfy the prevailing emission norms. Least emission of green house gases are observed using algae biodiesel. Thus, algae biodiesel can be the most promising eco-friendly fuel for solutions of the current global issues.
Keywords: FCR Engine; Uncertainty analysis; Biodiesel; Algae; Eco-friendly fuel.
Design and Control of Autonomous Hybrid Wind Solar System with DFIG Supplying Three-Phase Four-Wire Loads
by Arjun Kumar G B
Abstract: This paper presents the design, control and evaluation of an Autonomous Hybrid Wind Solar System (AHWSS) energy system feeding into three-phase, four-line loads and an array of batteries. Wind Energy Conversion System Connected to the Grid (WECS) contains Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) and two PWM voltage source converters i.e. Grid Side Converter (GSC) and Rotor Side Converter (RSC) connected back to back at DC-link and are provided with an algorithm for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT). The grid voltage-oriented control algorithm is used to maintain a steady DC bus voltage for the GSC and to balance the reactive power at the power grid even the divergence in frequency and voltage can be regulated with this novel approach. The stator voltage-orientated vector control is implemented in the RSC control strategy, delivering effective controlling of active and reactive power at the stator, and also a MPPT is achieved through controlling the Tip Speed Ratio. The photovoltaic (PV) system along with the boost converter is fed to the DC link. Perturb and observe (P&O) and Incremental Conductance (IC) MPPT algorithms are implemented to the solar PV system with varying solar insolation and their performances and efficiencies are compared. The model is implemented in MATLAB's Sim-power-system toolkit with ode3 solver and is presented in different scenarios, e.g., solar irradiation, differing wind velocity, dynamic, and unbalanced nonlinear loads. In these all constraints, DFIG's stator winding currents are balanced with low Total Harmonics Distortion (THD), value less than 4% in all scenarios
Keywords: Autonomous Hybrid Wind Solar System (AHWSS); Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG); Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) Array; Vector Control.
Special Issue on: ICONRER-2019 Emerging Trends in Renewable and Sustainable Energy
A computational fluid dynamics study of condenser for condensation of bio-oil vapour from fast pyrolysis of biomass
by Tanushree Soni, Bheru Lal Salvi
Abstract: In this work, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of shell and multi-tube condenser with baffle plates was done for flow visualisation and improved heat transfer for condensation of biomass vapour. The water as cooling fluid was circulated through tubes and bio-oil vapour as inlet hot fluid was passed through condenser shell. The CFD model was validated with the experimental results of newly designed and developed condenser for fractional condensation of bio-oil vapour. It was observed that use of baffle plates in the condenser shell diverted the vapour flow direction and increased the path of travel, which would result into improved heat transfer. Furthermore, for the fractional condensation, single shell with baffle plates and multi-outlets was sufficient instead of using two or more condensers. Overall, the study is more dedicated for inside flow visualisation of biomass vapour flow and improvement in the baffle plates placing and orientation.
Keywords: CFD analysis; Shell and tube condenser; condensation; baffle plate; bio-oil vapour.
Performance improvement of Savonius turbine by design modifications: A review
by Amit Mandal, Kunj Bihari Rana, Brajesh Tripathi
Abstract: Savonius turbine is a vertical axis wind turbine with a huge potential of harnessing wind energy. For utilizing wind energy, horizontal axis wind turbine is a commonly used machine. The use of vertical axis wind turbines is not common due to their poor efficiency compared to horizontal axis wind turbine. The researches in the direction of performance improvement by design modifications have increased in recent years. Present review incorporates the latest advancements in design modifications of Savonius wind turbines for performance improvement. It is observed that, the power and torque coefficients of Savonius turbine can be improved by two ways i.e., by flow augmentation and negative torque reduction. This paper summarizes the various types of modifications applied over Savonius rotor for performance improvement.
Keywords: Wind energy; Vertical axis wind turbine; Savonius turbine; Blade profile; Flow augmentation; Efficiency improvement.
Parametric Analysis of Scheffler Concentrator with Convex Receiver for Direct Steam Generation
by Dnyaneshwar Malwad, Vinod Tungikar
Abstract: In this work, Scheffler dish with improved design of the receiver is used for direct steam generation. Experiments were conducted from February to May 2019, for monthly performance assessment of 16 m2 Scheffler concentrator. Effect of varying aperture area, solar beam radiation, ambient temperature and wind speed on the thermal efficiency of the system is investigated. The average receiver temperature at focus observed to be 323oC with average beam radiation 656 W/m2. From the results, the Thermal efficiency of the system is reduced by 2.36% with a decrease in aperture area from 12.82 to 9.59 m2. The average thermal efficiency of the system decreased linearly from 57.29% to 39.99% with an increase in wind speed from 0.5 to 6 m/s where as it reduced by 1.13% with an increase in ambient temperature from 24oC to 46oC.
Keywords: Scheffler dish; beam radiation; aperture area; direct steam generation; monthly performance; thermal efficiency.
Design and Implementation of Interleaved High Gain dc-dc Converter
by VINOD SHRIVASTAVA
Abstract: dc-dc converters playing a vital role in solar power system. They reduce the problem of shadow effect on solar panel. Different converter topologies help to reduce the shadow effect. This research paper showing a topology for high voltage gain. In this paper presents two topologies of dc-dc converter for high gain with fewer ripples on output side. Topology 1 is related to single stage amplification with various components, while topology 2 presents double stage amplification. The proposed topology 2 gives voltage gain of about 12 and the efficiency of this converter is about 85%. This converter is designed for 34 V input and 407 V output. This topology has been also compared with two existing topologies with voltage gain, efficiency and voltage ripples. A 224 Watt, 34V input and 407V converter has been developed in this paper.
Keywords: high step-up; boost converter; single stage amplification; double stage amplification; interleaved converter.
To Inspection of SPV Coupled IEEE 14 Bus System during Fault Condition
by Riaz Israni
Abstract: In this technical paper, IEEE 14 Bus system is connected with SPV (Solar Photovoltaic) system. This interconnection of SPV and IEEE 14 Bus system is evaluated during fault condition. In this paper synchronous generator is replaced by SPV unit. Primarily, SPV system of 40MW capacity is connected at bus 2 at the place of 40 MVA synchronous generator. When fault occur on any of the transmission line of IEEE 14 bus system, then system becomes unstable for short time duration. IEEE14 bus works on 60Hz frequency. SPV has ability to fluctuate output power which depends on input temperature and irradiation of solar. By varying temperature and solar irradiation of SPV, output power may oscillate, but to build constant output power we assume SPV to be under Standard Test Condition (STC). During fault condition, output of SPV may disturb and this observational study is the main purpose of this paper. The IEEE 14 bus system has three synchronous condensers (to maintain power factor) and one slack bus. When SPV is coupled with IEEE 14 bus, then quality of power is reduced due to harmonic in SPV system. To reduce harmonic, filter system is used.
Keywords: IEEE 14 Bus system; SPV system; synchronous generator; Bus 2; Standard Test Condition.