International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology
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International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology (7 papers in press)
Calculate optimum insulation thickness to all over Indian city and compare it with the degree day method by Shaheen Hasan, Sabah Khan Abstract: The study is done on 60 cities from different climatic zones of India. Thermal insulation is an essential parameter in the building sector to save energy and money. This research focuses on using five insulation materials (extruded polystyrene, expanded polystyrene, glass wool, rock wool, and polyurethane). It investigates the effect of the insulation materials thermophysical properties in saving energy, life cycle cost, and payback period. The calculation is conducted using five different (coal, oil, gas, natural gas, and electric) fuels. The energy calculation is done using a heat balance algorithm. The results are compared and verified with the degree day method. EnergyPlus software is used to validate the results for the sixty cities selected. The difference in energy efficiency savings between these two methods is analysed to determine the potential error of each method. Keywords: degree day; DD; EPS; XPS; PUF; GW; RW; life cycle cost; payback period. DOI: 10.1504/IJRET.2021.10039646
Cascaded controller for single-phase shunt active power filter and STATCOM by Abdul Balikci, Hossein Hafezi, Eyup Akpınar Abstract: Reactive power and harmonic current compensation are considered as two important issues in the electrical power system since they have strong impact on real power loss, voltage stability, resonance and operation cost. This paper presents a simple, yet effective cascade controller which is analysed and implemented on a single-phase grid-connected H-bridge and multilevel U-cell inverters. The proposed controller is used for the single-phase STATCOM and shunt active power filter. The DC bus capacitor voltages are regulated with the proportional-integral (PI) controllers. The proportional resonant (PR) controller is used for AC current control. The cascade operation of the PI and the PR controllers generates the control signal for the sinusoidal pulse width modulation. The reactive power compensation and harmonic current elimination are carried out by using the fundamental component of the grid current. The performance of the controller is analysed and the results of simulation and experimental work are presented. Keywords: power quality; single-phase STATCOM; shunt active power filter; SAPF; current controller. DOI: 10.1504/IJRET.2021.10040173
Design, construction and performance testing of a simple low-cost solar dryer for agricultural and food products by Kapil Dev Sharma, Shobhit Srivastava, Jasbir Singh Abstract: This paper presents the design, construction, and testing of a simple solar dryer for food preservation, which is designed, constructed and tested in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gurukula Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar, India. Its construction was completed using mainly inexpensive locally available materials to make it relatively inexpensive for the average poor farmer living in rural areas. Experimental analysis is performed for both natural and forced convection on solar air dryers. The performance of natural and forced convection is compared. The maximum obtained tray temperatures were 72°C and 203°C, respectively, in natural and forced convection, and the moisture removed from red chillies were 64% and 78%. The drying rate and the system efficiency were 26.67 gm/hr and 57.45%, respectively. The maximum price to construct this dryer is Rs. 2,000, therefore, it can be an alternative to expensive dryers, allowing it to be used by local farmers. Keywords: design; solar energy; solar dryer; moisture content; temperature; performance evaluation; efficiencies; natural circulation. DOI: 10.1504/IJRET.2021.10040851
Oil yield and fuel property study of rubber seed oil-based biodiesel: a promising feedstock for sustainable bio-energy production by Rishikesh Deka, Jyotirmoy Sarma, Jayanta K. Sarmah Abstract: Climate change and energy security are the major issues in the Asian countries especially in India due to energy crisis and escalating energy prices. Utilisation of the non-edible feedstocks for alternative fuel production is a remedy to the issues. Hevea brasiliensis, rubber tree, is a potential non-edible feedstock and is found abundantly in the state of Assam, India and is not explored much for sustainable biodiesel production. Herein we report extraction and characterisation of the rubber seed oil (RSO) and subsequent conversion to biodiesel by the trans-esterification process. The effects of microclimate change on the oil yield based on seeds collected from two nearby districts of Assam are investigated. The acid esterification of the 'RSO' followed by alkaline transesterification had resulted to high-quality biodiesel. The calorific value of 9,675.1 kcal/kg is recorded which is superior to the reported literature (compared in the results and discussion section). An oil yield of ~37.38% was recorded in the present study. Seeds of Hevea brasiliensis collected from the state of Assam are found as a promising alternative for use in biodiesel production. Keywords: rubber oil; transesterification; acid value; biodiesel. DOI: 10.1504/IJRET.2021.10040853
An assessment of key environmental factors that impact performance and energy yield of large photovoltaic power plants by Saji Salkalachen Abstract: Despite a good track record, the prime silicon-based cell and module technology face serious challenges in-field operation. Several yield-limiting factors, namely temperature, dust and soiling, potential induced damage (in humid conditions), etc., are responsible for losses in energy generation and, consequently, result in high maintenance cost. This study helps to assess a few key issues and reviews various options to redress them. The vertically mounted double-glass bifacial PV modules combine the advantages of low operating temperature, low soiling, land conservation, and improved energy yield. Incremental changes and engineering insights from a deep understanding of the ecology and environmental factors will impact the efficiency of operation and performance cycle of PV power plants favourably. Keywords: photovoltaic module; temperature regulation; anti-soiling; super-hydrophobicity; vertically mounted photovoltaic power plant. DOI: 10.1504/IJRET.2021.10040854
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell dynamic model based on time series analysis for fault diagnosis by Sujit Sopan Barhate, Rohini Mudhalwadkar Abstract: Proton exchange membrane fuel cell is being used in automobiles as it is a clean energy generator. However, there is a need to improve its useful life in the automotive application. Fuel cell life can be improved by detecting fault conditions and correcting them in run time. Fault detection needs a robust model to predict fuel cell output. In this paper, we propose an autoregressive moving average (2, 1) model for the fuel cell. The model is experimentally validated in static as well as dynamic conditions. The mean square error of the model predicted output is less than 2 × 10−5. A novel approach for fault detection and isolation is proposed and experimentally validated. Fault in the fuel cell is detected by comparing the change in cell power per change in cell voltage and change in cell voltage per change in cell current of the cell under operation with the healthy cell. Keywords: proton exchange membrane; PEM fuel cell model; fuel cell faults; fuel cell faults isolation; ARMA model. DOI: 10.1504/IJRET.2021.10040318
Optimisation of a photovoltaic pumping system based on sliding mode control by Asma Zaidi, Karim Dahech, Tarak Damak Abstract: This work describes an optimisation strategy of the operation of a photovoltaic pumping system. The proposed structure is composed by a PV generator, a boost converter working as maximum power point tracker, a voltage source inverter and an induction machine driving a centrifugal pump. This structure permits to maximise the daily debit of the pump through the indirect field orientation control based on sliding mode and the maximum power point tracking based on fast terminal sliding mode. The effectiveness of the conceived strategy is validated by the simulation of the response of the whole PV pumping system. Keywords: fast terminal sliding mode control; FTSMC; maximum power point tracking; MPPT; maximum power voltage; MPV; PV generator; indirect flux orientation control; IFOC; sliding mode control. DOI: 10.1504/IJRET.2021.10039674