Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology

International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology (IJRET)

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International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology (9 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Effect of base temperature and cooling degree day on optimum insulation thickness in building walls   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohd Shahid, Munawwar Nawab Karimi 
    Abstract: In the present work degree day's method is used to get the optimum insulation thickness for different insulation materials. Some of the commonly used insulation materials available in the market are considered in the study. The study analyses the effect of CDD and base temperature on insulation thickness. The CDD was calculated from the base temperature varies from 18 C to 26 C for the four cities of India. Based on the result, it is found that optimum insulation thickness is affected by the thermal conductivity of the material, base temperature, CDD, material cost, and fuel cost. The optimum insulation thicknesses vary between 1 and 12 centimetres for the different base temperatures. Annual cooling cost per m2 is found minimum at 24 C base temperature, energy-saving varies with the thickness of the insulating materials apply on the wall.
    Keywords: annual cooling cost; base temperature; cooling degree days; energy-saving; optimum insulation thickness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJRET.2022.10047069
  • Viability of power quality enrichment in hybrid renewable energy system by the exploit of D-FACTS device: a review   Order a copy of this article
    by Riaz Israni, ChiragKumar Parekh 
    Abstract: The micro-grid with hybrid renewable distributed generators (h-RDGs) are employed to diminish the pollution, shrink transmission and distribution loss, condense substation requirements, perk up the voltage level of the load, trim down maintenance cost and tiny fuel cost. This proposed review effort includes feasibility of voltage and current profile up gradation on hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES). Typically, FACTS and D-FACTS devices are apposite for this enhancement. Main endeavour is to create the novel optimised model of HRES which encompasses the solar PV system, wind energy conversion system and micro-hydro system. Furthermore, D-FACTS device like UPQC is part of this model to boost up power quality and construct a reliable system. The proposed novel model includes controlled multiple input supply, common AC bus and nonlinear load. This HRES based model is more appropriate to provide electricity to isolated places or lonely rural communities far away from the grid power supply.
    Keywords: solar PV system; wind energy conversion system; micro-hydro system; custom power device; CPD; unified power quality conditioner; optimised hybrid renewable energy system; AC bus; nonlinear load; micro-grid.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJRET.2022.10047070
  • Optimised biodiesel production from waste vegetable cooking oil catalysed by green synthesised calcium oxide nanoparticles   Order a copy of this article
    by Sufian Rasheed, Ramzan Begum, Amirullah ., Arsalan Rasheed, Amir Ali Khan, Akmal Zubair 
    Abstract: The current study proposes a simple, cost-effective and environmentally friendly technique for producing biodiesel via transesterification of waste vegetable cooking oil using green synthesised CaO nanoparticles, as a catalyst. The produced CaO nanoparticles were structurally and morphologically analyzed using several characterisation techniques. The qualitative analysis of produced biodiesel was carried out by using different analytical techniques recommended by the American Society for Testing Materials, such as the acid number test, methanol test, and copper strip corrosion test, and FTIR spectroscopy. The optimised parameters for maximum biodiesel yield (96%) were determined to be a 1% catalyst loading, an 1:8 oil to ethanol ratio, a temperature of 50 C, and a reaction duration of 90 minutes. The prepared CaO nanocatalyst has a high surface area to volume ratio, small average size of 32.4 nm and high crystalline structure which gave rise to their potent catalytic properties.
    Keywords: biofuel synthesis; recycling; triglyceride; methyl ester; transesterification.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJRET.2022.10047071
  • Fabrication of dye-sensitised solar cells using four natural sensitisers of ZnO nanoparticle at different pH values   Order a copy of this article
    by E. Selva Esakki, N.L. Sheeba, S. Meenakshi Sundar 
    Abstract: In this paper, DSSCs were fabricated using the ZnO compound in three different pH values. In each pH values using four natural dyes, in total 12 DSSCs were fabricated. First of its kind, pH variation is used as a photo anode in DSSC fabrication. For the ZnO nanoparticles, the structural analysis is carried out with XRD, FESEM, and EDAX. Optical studies (UV-visible and FTIR) were recorded for extracted natural dyes. The typical J-V curves for solar cells under AM 1.5 using a density of power of 100 mW/cm2 were measured. J-V characterisation study was performed to study the efficiency of the prepared cells. To our knowledge, the efficiency of DSSCs extracted from four dyes with photoanode by varying pH has been reported for the first time. As a result of prepared solar cells, the solar cell derived from the Terminalia leaf at pH-9 showed the higher efficiency of 0.60% compared to other pH values of 3 and 6.
    Keywords: energy conversion; photovoltaic; solar cells; pH.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJRET.2022.10047164
  • Experimentation studies of microalgae biodiesel blends influence on variable compression ratio diesel engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics   Order a copy of this article
    by Bhojraj N. Kale, S.D. Patle, S.R. Kalambe 
    Abstract: Microalgae are found to be most competent and unswerving resource of biodiesel due to their attentional attributes like non-eatable, non-requirement of crop-land for their cultivation. This work was directed to investigate the capability of novel, often overlooked biodiesel from microalgae species, which can be utilised as a substitute fuel in place of traditional diesel. The experimental investigation of impact of biodiesel on performance along with exhaust emission characteristics of single cylinder diesel engine was researched. Various blends of microalgae biodiesel presented a reduction in torque and hence brake power resulting in average reduction of 7.14% in the BTE also 11.54% increase of BSFC as equated to petroleum diesel. With increase in blends ratio in diesel, there were considerable reductions in exhaust emission characteristics which are CO and HC. However, for all the algal biodiesel blends, NOx and CO2 increases but compatible and in acceptable range.
    Keywords: algal biodiesel; fuel properties; VCR compression ignition engine; performance characteristics; emission characteristics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJRET.2022.10048728
  • Techno-economic optimisation of a standalone solar PV battery energy storage system: a metaheuristic approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Kudzanayi Chiteka, Tendaishe Munetsiwa, Tatenda Kanyowa, Garikayi Victor Nyakujara, Emmanuel Ndala 
    Abstract: This study optimised the battery energy storage system of a standalone solar home system. The optimisation considered the futuristic price drops in battery energy storage systems due to future technological developments. Two battery technologies i.e., the lithium ion battery type and the sealed maintenance free battery were analysed. This study modelled the life of a battery energy storage system against the depth of discharge and the cost of energy storage. It was revealed that optimising the battery energy storage system considering future price drop reduced the levelised cost of energy by at least 17% and in this study a levelised cost of energy of US$0.066 was obtained which is 8.33% less than the standard domestic tariff in Zimbabwe. This study recommended an optimal depth of discharge of respectively 73% and 45% for lithium ion batteries and sealed maintenance free batteries.
    Keywords: solar energy; battery energy storage system; BESS; optimisation; metaheuristic; solar home system; SHS; depth of discharge; DoD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJRET.2022.10048345
  • Experimental study and comparison of integrated solar dryer with and without reversed absorber and reflector   Order a copy of this article
    by Vijay R. Khawale, Bhojraj N. Kale, Vilas G. Dhore 
    Abstract: The aim of manuscript writing is to recommend a solar crop dryer with reversed absorber and reflector which collect the maximum possible solar emission. For experimentation, the model was made adjustable such that it can satisfy the required conditions. Two types of solar dryers are used: 1) solar dryer without reversed absorber and reflector; 2) solar dryer with reversed absorber and reflector. The average collector efficiency (?c), drying efficiency (?d) and the picking efficiency (?p) of multi-pass SCD with reversed absorber and reflector (SD6) values were 34%, 49% and 64% respectively. Excel software was used to find the changes in moisture content with the time and constants by graphical method. These values show that SD6 is more effective than any other solar dryer. The experimental data is more suitable for Pages’ model than other models. Pages’ model gives the best results with the maximum value of R2 and the minimum value of MBE and RMSE. It has been found that SD6 is the most effective solar dryer and can be used to dry other agriculture food products also.
    Keywords: flat plate collector; solar crop dryer; reversed absorber; reflector; red chilli.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJRET.2022.10048427
  • Incorporating grid extension into the geospatial multi-criteria analysis of the suitability of multi-renewable energy projects   Order a copy of this article
    by Dave J. Pojadas, Michael Lochinvar S. Abundo 
    Abstract: Geographic information system-assisted multi-criteria analysis is the most popular approach in selecting the most suitable sites for renewable energy projects. The current practice in this approach often takes only one or two technologies at a time (mostly solar and wind), and grid extension has never been considered in the process. This paper presents a methodology for selecting sites for utility-scale renewable energy projects considering solar, wind, biomass, and hydro resources all at once. Splitting the study area according to proximity from the existing grid and extending the latter to relatively distant areas is proposed to account for the possibility that resource quality may outperform grid infrastructure investment. As a parallel research objective, the sensitivity of new (terrain ruggedness index and resource density) and traditional ranking criteria was investigated. The case study showed that a resource over 5 km away from the grid is a better project option when the grid is extended.
    Keywords: grid extension; geospatial; multi-criteria analysis; suitability analysis; renewable energy; wind energy; solar energy; biomass; hydropower.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJRET.2022.10048428
  • A new effective solution for wind farm layout optimisation problem using self-sacrificing artificial bee colony algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Nirmala Sharma, Harish Sharma, Ajay Sharma, Jagdish Chand Bansal 
    Abstract: The wind farm layout optimisation problem (WFLOP) is a complex constrained optimisation problem to find the optimal locations of wind turbines in a wind farm so as to maximise energy output. Artificial bee colony (ABC) is a swarm intelligence-based optimisation algorithm. This paper presents a modified variant of ABC and its application to WFLOP. A new phase inspired by the altruistic behaviour of honeybees is incorporated with ABC to enhance the exploitation capability of the algorithm. Here, a lower fit solution always sacrifices its chance of updating its position for a higher fit solution. The proposed phase is named as self-sacrificing phase and the proposed strategy is termed as self-sacrificing ABC (SeSABC) algorithm. The proposed technique is examined using a set of constrained optimisation functions and applied to solve WFLOP. For a given wind farm, the optimum locations of turbines are obtained and a maximum number of turbines are identified.
    Keywords: wind energy; wind farm; swarm intelligence; nature inspired algorithms; wind turbines.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJRET.2022.10048603