International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology (8 papers in press)
Renewable Energy Investment Prospects in Turkeys Power Generation Sector
by Linet Ozdamar
Abstract: Turkeys power demand is mainly met by fossil fuel generation plants. In the last decade, Turkey has focused on hydro power development in order to reduce carbon emissions and her dependency on imported fuels. 25% of power demand is met by hydropower, however, in the long term, hydropower efficiency is expected to decrease due to desertification. Turkey has also recently embarked on wind power development; however, its potential is not so high on a national scale. At present, solar farm capacity is almost non-existent despite the fact that Turkey has a good insolation level. Here, we develop a model that considers various renewable resource options to meet long term demand while maximizing the net present value of the power generation sectors net returns. The results of this model indicate that the sector can be transformed into a sustainable one over the next two decades by directing the majority of new investments to solar power while also using the full potential of wind and hydro power. Renewable resource share in power supply can go up to 65% by the year 2040 if appropriate policies such as carbon tax is implemented while continuing to provide current renewable energy purchase incentives. The model also provides the annual and cumulative expenses of the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources for different demand, purchase price, renewable resource share goals and different carbon tax implementation scenarios for subsidizing renewable resource investments.
Keywords: power generation; renewable resources; long term power supply plan; government subsidies and budget; carbon tax; renewable energy targets; climate impact on hydropower; long term power consumption scenarios; private sector financial planning; Net Present Value of power sector; mathematical model; Mixed Integer Programming;.
Contribution to The Reliability Study of Photovoltaic Systems Using Static and Dynamic Analysis Methods
by Ismahan Mahdi, Bouchra NADJI, Zineb SIMEU-ABAZI
Abstract: The access to clean energy became, more and more, large with the technological revolution in the industry, in particular, solar energy. Considering the competing manufacturing of the solar panels, it is interesting to guarantee: the reliability, the availability, as well as the durability of these panels. However, the study of reliability has not been received great attention from researchers. An estimation of lifetime and why not improve enhance it, is still possible. For that, it is necessary to distinguish the different failure modes, their causes and their effects on solar modules, in our case composed by Silicon, the most spread technology and the most used in the production of electricity. In this article, we will present a contribution to the reliability study of photovoltaic (PV) systems. First, the study will be focused on the static analysis of our PV system by using: SADT (Structured Analysis and Design Technique) and FAST (Function Analysis System Technique) methods, which make it possible to carry out a functional analysis of our system. In the second time, our study will be based on the dynamic analysis by using: the FMECA (Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis), the FTA (Fault Tree Analysis) and finally the SPN (Stochastic Petri Nets) methods. These allow making a dysfunctional analysis of the system by introducing the time factor which is very important in our study.
Keywords: Solar energy; PV module; Reliability; Failure; Petri Nets; MTBF; Fault Tree.
Enhancing the Performance of a Building Integrated Compound Parabolic Photovoltaic Concentrator using a Hybrid Photovoltaic Cell
by Damasen Ikwaba Paul, Mervyn Smyth
Abstract: In this study, a hybrid photovoltaic (PV) cell consisting of high efficiency and low efficiency cells was designed and fabricated. For comparison, low efficiency single cell was also fabricated and both PV cells were evaluated within a CPC. The fabrication of a hybrid cell was based on the simulation analysis which identified the regions with high energy concentration and low energy concentration in the CPC. Results indicates that the overall experimental daily power output of a hybrid PV cell on a clear sunny day and partial cloud day is higher than that of low efficiency single PV cell by 12% in both cases. On the other hand, the overall theoretical daily power output of a hybrid PV cell on a clear sunny day, partial cloud day and overcast day is also higher than that of low efficiency single PV cell by 11%, 10% and 13%, respectively.
Keywords: Building integrated concentrating Photovoltaic; symmetric 2-dimensional compound parabolic concentrator; hybrid PV cell; low efficiency single PV cell; non-uniform illumination; experimental daily power output; theoretical daily power output; low-concentrating system.
Effect of some operational conditions on bioelectricity production in algal fuel cell
by Victoria Adenigba, Julius Oloke, Iyabo Omomowo, Collins Odjadjare, Oluwabusayo Oluyide, Seun Ogunsona
Abstract: Optimization of bioelectricity production from microalgae in double chamber algal fuel cell was investigated. Ten microalgae were isolated from pond and sea water. They were identified as follow: Nanochloropsis sp, Chlorella sorokiniana and Coelastrella sp.. Others include Chlorococcum sp, Neodesmus pupukensis, Chlorella vulgaris, Leptolyngbya boryana, Chlamydopodium starrii, Parachlorella sp. and Neochloris aquatica. The bioelectricity potential of these microalgae was determined in human urine as substrate. Three microalgae; C. vulgaris, C.sorokiniana and Parachlorella. sp with the best output were selected for optimization: pH, inoculum size, salt bridge concentration, oxidizing agent and number of salt bridge. At the end of the different experiments, C.vulgaris, C.sorokiniana and Parachlorella sp. had maximum output of (1.49 V;1.31 mA), (1.67 V; 1.4 mA) and (1.46 V; 1.25 mA) respectively. The optimum requirement for the 3 microalgae were similar: pH of 8-8.5, 10-15 ml of each algal as inoculum,1 M KCl based salt bridge, potassium permanganate as oxidizing agent and increase in the number of salt bridges favoured optimum performance by each microalgae.
Keywords: Algal fuel cell; Human urine; Microalgae; Optimization; Pond water; Sea water.
Testing and Simulation of a Solar PV / Battery Storage System with and without PWM Charge Control
by Wael Yassine, Kevin Anderson
Abstract: This paper presents an experimental and modelling study of an off-grid solar photovoltaic system using pulse width modulation (PWM) charge control and battery storage using Manganese Oxide as the cathode, Carbon Titanium Phosphate Composite as the anode, and Alkali-ion Saltwater as the Electrolyte battery cells. The paper presents the development and fabrication of a test apparatus, experimental data collection and numerical modelling and simulation of the system. The experimental data for charging and discharging the system is used to correlate the numerical simulation model output. Results for charging and discharging the system are subsequently used to develop transfer function models of the systems charging and discharging behavior.
Keywords: photovoltaic; batteries; charge controller; modeling; simulation; experimental.
DFIG-based wind energy conversion system using five-level FSVM technique
by BENBOUHENNI Habib, Zinelaabidine BOUDJEMA, Abdelkader BELAIDI
Abstract: Direct vector control with space vector modulation (DVC-SVM) is one of the most popular techniques in the case of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) due to its simple and easy to implement. This technique gives more total harmonic distortion (THD) of rotor current and power ripples. In this article a DVC with five-level fuzzy SVM technique is presented and it is proven that this technique reduced the harmonic distortion of stator current, reactive power ripple and active power ripple. Finally, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique, extensive simulations are performed in Matlab/Simulink under different conditions.
Keywords: Direct vector control; doubly fed induction generator; space vector modulation; five-level fuzzy SVM; THD.
Retrofitting Solar Power Plants with Thermal Energy Storage
by Mohammad Abutayeh, Kwangkook Jeong
Abstract: A thermal energy storage system module has been retrofitted into a validated systemlevel model of an existing concentrating solar power plant to evaluate the outcome of incorporating energy storage into its operation. The number of solar field loops had to be doubled to provide the proposed thermal energy storage system with heat leftover after delivering the heat demand of the power block. Most power block equipment were unaffected by the energy storage augmentation; however, the capacity of the heat transfer fluid pump was amplified to meet the increased circulation demand in the solar field. As a result of this thermal energy storage augmentation, electric power generation was increased and made more streamlined while idle time was reduced. Formulas to size thermal energy storage systems and solar fields are introduced. Sample results from the validated concentrating solar power plant model operating with and without the proposed thermal energy storage augmentation are presented.
Keywords: concentrating solar power; thermal energy storage.
An assessment of the factors that influence the successes and failures of independent power producer projects.
by Arnesh Telukdarie
Abstract: The progression of the REI4P is under enormous threat owing to regulatory framework. This paper aims to define the current REI4P market conditions and recommend solutions for continuous improvement of IPPs. Secondary data is first analysed for the five years of REI4Ps existence, comparing leading and follower countries. A quantitative research study is also conducted to quantify factors that has an influence on the performance of IPPs in South Africa. According to this analysis and SAs gross domestic product (GDP), the investment in REI4P is close to parity with leading economies such as Germany. The REI4P is demonstrating abilities to be a global leader in RE generation owing to the best solar and wind resources in the world being available in South Africa.
Keywords: renewable energy; independent power producers; market conditions; contracting methods; project management.