International Journal of Public Sector Performance Management (221 papers in press)
Project management in a public transformation change process
by Parinaz Farid, Jan Terje Karlsen, Tim Torvatn
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicability of project management as a tool and framework for managing a public transformation change process. The studied case concerns a large public merger project occurring between Trondheim and Klæbu municipalities in Norway. The results demonstrate that the Trondheim-Klæbu case effectively applied project management successfully as a tool for managing the change process. We found that basic project management practices from various knowledge areas were vital and employed in a systematic and integrated manner. We especially identify the importance of a fixed goal, a milestone and progress plan, and good communication with stakeholders.
Keywords: public organization; project management; change; merger; case study.
Board Composition and Voluntary Internet Financial Reporting Evidence from Bangladesh
by Rashedul Hasan, Niaz Mohammad, Ardi Gunardi
Abstract: Internet financial reporting (IFR) can provide a low-cost mechanism for the listed company to reach a wider audience that might result in the reduction of agency cost through improved information asymmetry. This paper not only investigates the extent of internet financial reporting among the listed companies in Bangladesh but also establishes several factors that are influencing IFR among selected firms. A total number of 151 companies listed in both Dhaka Stock Exchange and Chittagong Stock Exchange is chosen for the statistical analysis. The extent of IFR is determined using a disclosure index through content analysis. Multiple regression analysis is used to examine the determinants of the internet financial reporting. It was found that overall IFR disclosure score is very low (17.77%) while low technology industries have disclosed more information on the internet that high technology companies. Regression results found profitability to the most significant predictor of IFR. The proportion of independent directors on board have a significant negative influence of IFR. Meanwhile, board size and CEO duality were not considered as significant predictors of IFR. The study incorporated the impact of internal governance mechanism on IFR while external governance mechanisms are not considered in the research model. The research has important contributions toward informing stakeholders regarding the drivers of corporate internet reporting in Bangladesh. Further research can be initiated on determining the cost and benefits of using internet financial reporting and its ability to become a substitute for printed annual reports as a green initiative. To the best of knowledge, there have not yet been any study that has linked board composition with IFR in the context of Bangladesh.
Keywords: Internet Financial Reporting; Governance; Profitability.
Improving the Route Effectiveness of the Intercity Bus Operators by Co-optation: A Data Envelopment Analysis
by Moovendhan Vellasamy, Githa Heggde, Shatakshi Agarwal, Moyukh Mukherjee
Abstract: Indian private bus operators suffer from cyclical demand in weekly bookings. During the slack days, entire passenger transport industry operates with loss or low margin. This research proposes a co-optation model to overcome the lose arise from the cyclical demand. This paper research the comparative efficiency of Pre and Post co-optation scenarios among the Indian private bus operators. We assume reverse aggregation of less under booking schedules of operators of the same sector can be assigned to a single bus operator who has relatively higher booking than other operators. The co-optation model of reverse aggregation could enhance the efficiency of the industry. Though numerous studies have been done to measure the efficiency of operators, we focused our research on how the operators co-optation could improve the efficiency of the Industry. For this purpose, we analysed the daily trips data of Bangalore-Goa route of Indian private public transport for a month. The comparative efficiency is measured using the DEA method.
Keywords: Data Envelope Analysis; Intercity Bus Transport efficiency; Co-optation; Route Efficiency.
Is performance information used under performance budgeting? A systematic review
by Juan Pablo Martinez Guzman
Abstract: Scholars argue that performance budgeting reforms should move away from congressional budgetary approval and towards multiple decision-making processes within the executive branch. The arguments for that shift are often based on evidence from individual case studies and not from systematic analysis of multiple experiences. This study fills that gap by presenting a systematic review of more than 60 studies that cover reforms in over 20 countries. Our findings show that performance information is often used as an input for decision making; that officials throughout the executive branch (line ministries, executive cabinets, and executive budget offices) are much more likely to use performance information than legislators; and that performance information is as often used for strategic planning and program management as for resource allocation. This study also analyses the factors that explain the use of performance information and builds a framework for future research.
Keywords: performance budgeting; performance-informed budgeting; performance budget management; performance information; public budgeting; systematic review; budget execution; budget formulation; budget approval; performance management.
Inter-agency implementation relations, trust and reforms in public administration in Kenya
by Gedion Onyango
Abstract: Governments often respond to accruing implementation blind-spots by further re-structuration of public bureaucracies. This mostly come with increased agencification and coordination primarily to enhance organizational efficacies and to produce trust for legitimation purposes. Accountability reforms, in particular, rarely address the related but intricate non-formal implementation processes, which also come with these efforts, mainly, organizational trust (or inter-institutional trust). This is despite mounting evidences on centrality of organizational trust in collaborative implementation processes of policy-reforms. Basing on qualitative data from Kenya, this paper explores production of organizational trust and its influence on the implementation environments for accountability reforms between oversight and governmental institutions. Data indicate that common difficulties in collaborative-implementation framework like fragile horizontal accountability-relations, misinterpretations of authority, obsession with control and autonomy, poor organizational-communication mechanisms, public trust deficits, poor internationalization and institutionalization, etc. also correspond to problematic of organizational trust. So, it is suggested that besides building public and inter-personnel trust, a policy-design should device steps that strengthen internal-accountability systems, enhance inter-organizational communication and justice systems. This should improve inter-agency trust and ease cultural-instrumental tensions typical in collaborative implementation relations.
Keywords: organizational culture; organizational communication; anti-corruption reforms; collaborative public management; organizational trust.
Financial Inclusion: Impact of Accessibility, Availability, and Usage of Financial Services- a Study on Household Workers in Madhya Pradesh, India
by Bhuvanesh Kumar Sharma, Pooja Jain
Abstract: The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the impact of the availability of finance, the source of finance and usage of finance on financial inclusion in the different demography of people. This study had made an attempt to throw a light on availability, accessibility, and usage of financial services to the household worker in the selected study area i.e. Gwalior city. Exploratory factor analysis is used to uncover several factors which need to be considered for the purpose of financial inclusion. The study was empirical in nature, therefore, primary data has been used and collected through standardized questionnaires distributed and it has been converted into the Hindi language in the Gwalior region only. The secondary data have been collected through journals, books & internet etc. The population was including all the household workers or domestic help of Gwalior region. 200 respondents selected as sample size by using nonprobability sampling technique. The re-standardized questionnaire used on the basis of Likert type scale for evaluating the accessibility, availability, and usage of financial services. The data was analyzed through statistical techniques; reliability analysis, T-test, Analysis of variance and linear regression, with the help of SPSS software. It can be concluded from the study that the demographic variables have significantly differ in accessibility, availability, and source of financial services.
Keywords: Accessibility of finance; Source of finance; Availability of finance; Demographic variables.
Efficiency and productivity of health insurance business of public and private general insurance companies in India: A DEA approach
by Pooja Kansra, Harinder Singh Gill
Abstract: The objective of the present paper was to examine the efficiency and productivity of health insurance business of public and private general insurance companies in India. The present study was based on the secondary data obtained from the annual reports of Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) and public and private general insurance companies of India. The analysis of the data was made with the help of Data Envelopment Analysis and Malmquist productivity index. It was observed that the mean of technical efficiency of the public sector companies was higher than of private sector companies. The total factor productivity change (TFPC) had decreased for all of the public general insurance companies from 2006-07 to 2013-14. If the trend continues then the public general insurance companies would not find health insurance business lucrative enough. Therefore, need is to raise the productivity of the health insurance business of public general insurers. While, the other private general insurance companies had shown tremendous increase in productivity from 2006-07 to 2013-14. This could be due to the fact that private companies had taken the advantage of technological change, efficiency change, pure technical efficiency change and scale efficiency change as compared to the public companies which had shown the reverse trends for the change in productivity. The mean of technical efficiency of public general insurance companies was 0.416 in 2006-07 and increased to 0.822 in 2013-14. The analysis of the data revealed that public general insurance companies had gradually improved their performance with regard to health insurance business in India. But at the same time there was an intensive competition from the private sector general insurance companies. On the basis of the analysis, it was suggested that the public general insurance companies should expand their activities and outreach in the competitive environment.
Keywords: Health insurance; DEA; Public insurers; technical efficiency; Pure technical efficiency; Scale efficiency; premium; commission; Malmquist productivity index; Total factor productivity change.
Influence Aspects of Audited Financial Statements, Administration Aspects, and Company Operational Aspects to Company Health Level
by Islahuzaman Islahuzaman
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence aspects of audited financial statements, administration aspects, and company operational aspects to company health level and the test results partially indicate that both financial aspects, operational aspects, and administrative aspects have a positive impact on corporate health. This research discusses how the company's health was reflected from financial aspects: return on equity (ROE), return on investment (ROI), cash ratio, current ratio, collection period, inventory turn-over, total asset turn over (TATO), and Total SE to assets. Results if the financial and administration aspects increase, then the health of the company will increase. The operational aspects have a positive and significant influence on the health of the company.
Keywords: administrative aspects; audited financial statements; company health; financial aspects; operational aspects.
IMPACT OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AT MAHIKENG LOCAL MUNICIPALITY
by David Mello
Abstract: All employees need to be motivated to perform at their optimal level. There is a variety of ways in which employees can be motivated. The effective design and implementation of a performance management and development system (PMDS) is one of the ways in which employees can be motivated. The study on which this article is based sought to explore the impact of PMDS on employee motivation. The focus of this study is the Mahikeng Local Municipality (MLM) situated in the North West Province of the Republic of South Africa. The study mainly used the quantitative research method. The study used a questionnaire as an instrument for data collection. The Municipality has 801 employees. A sample of 100 employees was selected for participation. This sample constitutes 10% of the overall population. A major finding of the study is that PMDS does not contribute to employee motivation at the MLM.
Keywords: Performance; management; appraisal; motivation; South Africa; local government; Mahikeng; municipality.
THE IMPACT OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT TAXES ON ECONOMIC GROWTH: AN ANALYTICAL APPROACH FROM THE REPUBLIC OF KOSOVO
by Donat Rexha, Abdylmenaf Bexheti, Hajdin Berisha
Abstract: The effects of direct and indirect taxes on economic growth in transitional countries have created a strong debate regarding their contradictory results. Since taxes represent a vital factor of countries growth, the core objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of direct and indirect taxes on economic growth of Kosovo, as a relatively newly-independent country with a transitional economy. The study covers a ten-year period with a monthly time series from 2006m1 to 2016m9. The time series have been tested for unit root through the employment of Augmented Dickey Fuller test, to determine if time series data are stationary or possess unit root. Through the utilization of Johansen test for co-integration, the study analyses if models contain at least one co-integrating vector, thus indicating significant long-term relationship among direct, indirect taxes and economic growth in the country. Finally, to find the impact of direct and indirect taxes on economic growth, Vector autoregressive model unrestricted VAR has been employed. Results suggest a positive and significant effect of indirect taxes on real GDP in Kosovo. Having into consideration such results and due to the positive effects of indirect taxes contributed by the high dominance level of consumption taxes in comparison with direct taxes, further recommendations for Kosovo tax policymakers have been suggested.
Keywords: direct taxes; indirect taxes; growth; Kosovo.
Does fiscal policy accelerate economic growth in transition economies: The case of Republic of North Macedonia?
by Besnik Fetai , Abdylmenaf Bexheti, Liza Alili-Sulejmani, Veland Ramadani
Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate empirically the relationships and the causal link between fiscal policy and economic growth in the Republic of Macedonia during the period 1990-2015. The study employs the quarterly data set of public finance, which are classified according to Barro and Sala-i-Martin model in a small open economy. For this purpose, we employ Vector Error Correction Model (VECM- henceforth) in order to examine the relationships and causal link between fiscal policy and economic growth. The results of cointegration vector show that productive expenditure and non- distortionary revenues have long run coefficients of 0.86 and 0.84 respectively, indicating positive effect on real GDP, while distortionary revenues have long run coefficient of -1.14, indicating negative effect on real GDP in the long-run. However, unproductive expenditures are excluded from the long-run equilibrium, thus they do not have any effect on economic growth in the long -run. The Granger Causality test shows that productive expenditures and non-distortionary revenues in the Granger sense cause real GDP.
Keywords: Cointegration analysis; Granger Causality test; fiscal policy; economic growth; North Macedonia.
SME Informal Export Model in Cibaduyut SME Cluster in Indonesia
by Wawan Dhewanto, Sri Herliana, Donald Crestofel Lantu, Nur Lawiyah
Abstract: SME cluster is an appropriate environment for SMEs with international ambitions. The model of their business activitiesformally and informally in the context of exportis very interesting to be studied deeper. The role of SMEs in the context of exports in clusters occurs in various countries around the world. There are some studies discussing export activities in SME clusters in developed countries, while there is a lack of discussion for the developing countries. This study aims to analyze the export model activities undertaken by SMEs in one of the clusters. This study is supported by primary data obtained from a case study research of Cibaduyut SME cluster, which is a footwear SME cluster in Indonesia that has the potential and experience in the activities of foreign markets; with qualitative data collected from results of in-depth interviews of 10 SMEs in the cluster. The research obtains an informal export activity model that is carried out in Cibaduyut SME cluster.
Keywords: SME cluster; informal export model; SME internationalization.
THE ROLE OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN IMPROVING EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL PUBLIC SECTOR EMPLOYEES IN ENUGU STATE NIGERIA
by Charity Ezenwakwelu, Chineze Etukokwu
Abstract: The study investigated the role of performance management system in improving employee performance, using federal public sector employees in Enugu State Nigeria as a case study. The objectives of the study were to identify the nature of relationship between performance management system (PMS) and employee performance (EP) and the effect of the various phases of PMS (planning and developing performance, monitoring and reviewing performance and rewarding performance) on key employee performance indicators (output quality, presentism/punctuality and service delivery timeliness). A quantitative research design was adopted using a questionnaire as the tool to gather data from a random selection of two hundred (200) Federal public sector workers in four federal ministries departments and agencies (MDAs) in Enugu state. The data were analysed using the SPSS v20 software. Results from the analyses showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between performance management system and employee performance, meaning that an effective PMS will play a significant role in improving the performance of employees. However, responses of the respondents revealed that although there is a PMS available in their MDAs its effectiveness was not felt. The findings also further revealed that all PMS phases had a significant and positive effect on the EP indicators used. The phase of rewarding performance, however, had the most effect as 83% of the variation in service delivery timeliness in the MDAs was explained by the reward phase. The study concluded that for an efficient federal public sector in Enugu State Nigeria there is the need for an effective PMS to manage the performance of public servants. It was recommended among others that the Federal Government of Nigeria and management of MDAs should give performance management system the importance it deserves by finding ways of enhancing its effectiveness.
Keywords: Employee Performance; Performance Management System; Public Sector; Rewarding Performance; Ministries Departments and Agencies (MDAs).
GOVERNMENT POLICY AND CIGARETTE INDUSTRY PERFORMANCE IN INDONESIA
by Rediyanto Putra, Oryza Ardhiarisca
Abstract: This objective of this study is to examine the level of performance differences of cigarette industry companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) before and after the implementation of government policy that called PP. 109 in 2012. The financial performance of this study is measured by the potential level of bankruptcy, liquidity, profitability, and solvency. This research uses purposive sampling method to determine the research sample. The research period used in this research is for eight years from 2009 until 2016. The research was conducted by using paired t-test. The results showed that there were significant differences in the level of bankruptcy and profitability potential before and after the application of PP. 109 of 2012. The results of the study failed to find any significant differences in the level of liquidity and solvency before and after the application of PP. 109 of 2012. The implications of this study based on the conclusions of the research results indicate that the application of PP no. 109 of 2012 needs to be reviewed again and need other solutions that can be done to maintain the operational sustainability of tobacco companies. This research is only able to use three of four companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange. Thus, further research is expected to maximize the number of companies used by combining secondary data and the company's primary data.
Keywords: Bankruptcy; Government policy; Liquidity; Profitability; Solvability.
The Intersection of National and International Quality Assurance Procedures in Higher Education in Jordan: a deduced guide for academic programs and curricula at Yarmouk University
by Ali Rawabdeh, Dr. Rami M. Tbaishat
Abstract: Purpose: The main aim of this article is to explore the quality assurance procedures in the higher education institutions in Jordan considering national and international accredited agencies.
Design/methodology/approach: The researchers conducted a filed visit to four major public universities and conducted a few on-site interviews with key officers to see at the standard quality assurance and enhancement; and, utilized a few uncovered materials over quality assurance endeavors.
Findings: The quality assurance in higher education institution in Jordan is seen by most of the universities in premises helpful and duty-bound obliged to just accept because of external pressure for demonstrating quality assurance and certification.
For Joran to reach quality assurance in higher education, enthusiastic support of the highest management within the university to decide the proposed structure in this article with clear definition to specification and descriptions to quality units, committees, working groups, over program and course development and delivery collaborated and benchmarked to local and worldwide authorizes organizations.
Originality/value: This valuable contribution can work as a guide for the development of inner quality profile inside the development and delivery of course and program portfolios, in expansion as keep up property quality management and enhancement programs.
Keywords: Quality Assurance; Procedures; Higher education; and Certification.
Does Government Debt promote Economic Growth? New Empirical Evidence from Ghana
by SAMUEL TAWIAH BAIDOO, Emmanuel Duodu, Evans Kwarteng, Grace Boatemaa, Linda Opoku, Alex Antwi, Raphael Akomea Appiah
Abstract: The importance of infrastructural projects by governments cannot be overemphasised as far as economic growth and development are concerned. Though these projects could be financed by generated revenues, this has often not been the case in most developing countries due to lower revenue which in turn leads to huge spending gaps. As a result, governments of developing economies have resorted to both internal and external borrowing to finance such projects. However, this approach to financing these projects is expected to have influence on economies. This study therefore revisits past studies and provides new empirical evidence regarding government debt and economic growth nexus. Using annual time series data from 1980 to 2017 on Ghana, the study employs the autoregressive distributed lag model for analysis. The results show among others that government debt exerts negative influence on economic growth. Based on the findings, vital policy implications have been provided.
Keywords: Government debt; economic growth; infrastructure; developing countries; spending gap; Ghana.
Punctuated Equilibrium Theory and Enhancement of Local Government Investment Pool Innovation
by Julius Nukpezah
Abstract: This article draws on the punctuated equilibrium theory for a theoretical backdrop to examine the causes of incremental and revolutionary changes in LGIP innovations using secondary sources of information. The study finds that the adoption of LGIP innovations that are state-sponsored, local government-sponsored, and risk-averse occurred during focusing events. The second major finding is that incremental changes occurred across states over a period of time to make the LGIPs more effective and comply with unique state investment policy preferences. The study contributes to understanding how governments adapt innovations to their unique environments to reflect their preferences and how they respond to focusing events through enhancements of innovations.
Keywords: Local Government Investment Pools; Cash management; Treasury management; Financial management innovation; Interlocal agreement; Collaboration; Competition; Risk management; Innovation; Performance; Punctuated equilibrium theory.
Study of Executive Compensation of Public and Private Sector Enterprises in India Impact on Corporate Governance
by I. Sridhar
Abstract: Executive compensation in India is strictly legislated and regulated. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the executive compensation between private sector and public sector companies in the NIFTY 50 Index companies after the implementation of corporate governance reforms in India. The study establishes that there is significant difference in executive compensation in terms of CEO Pay and Total Executive Pay between Private sector and Public sector companys thus impacting corporate governance in India. An implication of this study is that it establishes huge gaps in executive compensation in the Indian corporate landscape, thus, posing challenges to governance of public sector companies in India. It makes a case for governance reforms in terms of executive compensation for top management of public sector companies.
Keywords: Corporate Governance; CEO Pay; Total Executive Pay; Public Sector Governance.
Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Employees Commitment: An Empirical Study of Public Sector Organizations in India
by Ruhee Singh, Sweta S. Malla
Abstract: The Study attempts to study the important relationship between firms Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives and its effect on the commitment shown by the employees working in these organizations. Data was collected from 813 employees working in diverse industries in India like Oil & Gas, Power, Telecom, Consumer Durables and Consultancy. The study hypothesized and also found supportive evidence that there exists a positive relationship between CSR and employee commitment. The regression analysis confirmed a significant positive relationship between CSR and employees organizational commitment. An additional finding of the study suggested that the amount of time a person serves in the organizations also affects the employee commitment positively. The findings of the study provided great insights to management, regarding the important role CSR plays not only to the external stakeholders but also positively affects the commitment levels of its employees.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; employees’ organizational commitment; tenure; social initiatives; CSR Law; Indian Mandate.
UNIVERSITY AND SOCIAL INNOVATION: THE CASE OF AN URBAN REGENERATION IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ROME
by Francesco Pelagallo, Massimiliano M. Pellegrini, Raffaele Giannitelli, Patrizio Sartini
Abstract: A universitys role has always been to teach and research, however a Third Mission has recently arisen and has become increasingly central to universities focus. Although this new goal has already been already researched, case studies on the social innovation of universities incorporating this Third Mission are less thorough. One case study, which concerns the urban redevelopment of areas in the Municipality of Rome, identifies the specific tasks and functions performed by the university, particularly with regard to related organisational aspects. Therefore, analysing the various phases of this urban redevelopment project, i.e. territorial analysis, meta-project, and regeneration program, a model was developed to analyse the role of the university as an actor, orchestrator, and promoter of "social" culture. This model serves to highlight the contributing factors that enable the transformation of the universitys role from merely a secondary subject to a strategic player of primary importance.
Keywords: Social innovation; Urban regeneration; Entrepreneurial Universities; University’s third mission; University’s social mission.
Evaluation of Probationary Performance of Thai Government Officials
by Ungsinun Intarakamhang, Saran Pimthong
Abstract: This mixed methodology research aims to evaluate the probationary performance of Thai government officials in order to obtain the suggestion for improving the criteria and method of probationary performance. The qualitative research started from an interview with executives, followed by the survey on behaviors of new generation and opinion survey on probationary performance among government officials. Content analysis and multiple regression analysis were applied. According to the findings, data from every source agreed that the main function of probationary performance is to be the last step in selecting qualified government officials suitable for specific agencies. The factors of organization culture of government agencies, the nature of Thai government officials, and behaviors of the new generation can forecast the decision of new generation to work in civil service by 56.90%. The result suggested that the probationary period should be 6 months. It is also recommended that e-Learning and general seminar among officials during probationary period as should not be part of the judgment criteria, but be under supervision of supervisors. In addition, the ratio of performance and behavioral score should be maintained at 50:50, but the minimum score of each attribute is 60%, and the minimum total score is 70%.
Keywords: probation;new government officials; organizational culture; nature of Thai government officials; new generation behavior.
Public Financial Management Efficiency and Electricity Service Delivery in Limpopo Municipalities
by Libago Azwitamisi, Collins, C. Ngwakwe
Abstract: This research examines the effect of public financial management efficiency on provision of electricity in selected municipalities within the Limpopo Province of South Africa. The paper applied a quantitative approach with the aid of panel data regression statistics. The data used were from the annual reports of five selected municipalities in Limpopo Province and the consolidated audit reports of the Auditor General South Africa for a period of five years. Finding from the statistical analysis reveal a P value of 0.0001, which is less than 0.05 alpha value of this research. This therefore suggests a significant relationship between financial management efficiency and electricity service delivery within the sample of five municipalities studied. The implication thus is that the municipalities that improve their financial management capabilities are likely to improve upon their electricity service delivery to the citizens. The paper recommends strengthening of financial management capacity of municipal staff, monitoring of financial venality, improved governance effectiveness and accountability amongst municipal administrators to facilitate the delivery of public goods such as electricity. The paper contributes by proposing a new model framework for assisting public policy on service delivery and for future research to apply the suggested new model to research further on a wider sample with more time period about the effect of financial management efficiency on the supply of public goods in local municipalities.
Keywords: public service delivery; public accountability; electricity provision; public sector management; financial management efficiency; public accountability.
Rewarding Teaching Excellence in Higher Education: An Analysis of an incentive program at a Tier I research institute and a Prescription for Future Teaching Incentive Programs
by Michael D. Johnson, Arunachalam Narayanan, William J. Sawaya III
Abstract: There is significant interest in promoting teaching effectiveness at colleges and universities. At *a large university in US, the chancellor offered a voluntary cash-based teaching incentive program to faculty members teaching graduate and undergraduate courses. This program rewarded top teaching performers each semester based on student feedback of instructional quality. The program awarded cash rewards to 57 faculty members (out of 731 applicants) in the colleges of business and engineering over five semesters. This study examines the effectiveness of the award program on teaching and the effects of course and instructor characteristics. The instructor evaluation data for two years before the award was instituted, during its duration, and for a year after the award program ended was compiled and analyzed. Results indicate that already high performing junior and non-tenure track faculty applied for and won the teaching awards. Also, the award program did not significantly change the teaching performance or grading outcome in the classroom. In spite of consistent participation from a wide range of faculty members, the program ended after five semesters. Insights from this incentive program inform a discussion of key attributes that should be part of a successful teaching incentive program in higher education.
Keywords: teaching incentives; human capital; student evaluation of teaching; salary wage differentials.
Can Auditing and Other Assurance Services Stimulate Public Expenditure Governance? The Context of Fiscal Institutionalization Mediation in Local Government
by Paul Onyango-Delewa, Isaac Nabeta Nkote
Abstract: AbstractrnAchieving acceptable levels of expenditure governance in public entities has been an issue of empirical, theoretical and practical debate for a long time. Albeit with no clear conclusion yet, public expenditure governance especially in African sub-national entities is frequently linked to auditing and related assurance services. Fiscal institutionalization is also another factor commonly cited as significant to locality expenditure governance. This study investigated auditing and other assurance services-expenditure governance relationship in local government. Besides, it examined whether fiscal institutionalization mediates that linkage. Employing cross-sectional research design, data were collected from 21 districts, 9 municipalities and some sub-counties in north-western, northern, north-eastern and eastern regions of Uganda, East Africa. Data were then subjected to structural equation modeling analysis. The findings revealed that auditing and other assurance activities predict changes in public expenditure governance. Moreover, fiscal institutionalization mediates the interaction. Research originality and contribution to literature, theory and practice are examined accordingly.rn
Keywords: Keywords: Local government; auditing and assurance services; public expenditure governance; fiscal institutionalization.
Models for meeting activities in public workplace -Qualitative study in municipalities
by Frøydis Vasset
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the use of two meeting models in municipalities; Whole Person Process Facilitation Meetings and Open Space Technology Meetings. rnThis is a qualitative intervention study, with an exploratory design. Municipalities use these models in different meetings. We have completed three focus group interviews approximately six months after the training and introduction.rnThe informants emphasized that the meeting models could support change processes. The views of managers on value, collaborative ability and management are also important and positive. The informants gained knowledge of communication and collaboration and everyone wished to use the methodology in their future work.rnrn
Keywords: Model; Holistic; Open Space Technology; Whole person process; Municipality.rnrn.
The Influence of Delayed Payments on Time Overrun in Public Sector Projects
by Ibrahim Mahamid
Abstract: This study is conducted to investigate the relationship between payments delay and time overrun in public projects. The study objectives include: 1) identifying the main factors affecting payments delay in public construction projects, 2) identifying the main causes of time overrun in public projects, 2) establishing the relationship between payment delay and time overrun in public projects. To achieve the study objectives, a questionnaire survey was performed. Eighteen (18) factors that might affect payment delay, and 16 causes of time overrun are listed in a questionnaire form. Fifty-five (55) contractors and 40 consultants are asked to rank the individual factors based on their importance level according to their own experience. Results indicate that the top factors affecting payment delay are: client financial problems, delay in work approval, contractor submits claims with mistakes, contractors failure to do work based on bill of quantity, and contractors failure to follow the certain guidelines in claims. The study also concludes that the top five causes of time overrun include: poor labor productivity, lack of contractor experience, inadequate production of raw materials by the country, number of projects going at the same time, and late design changes. Regression analysis for data collected from 30 public construction projects shows a good correlation between payment delay and time overrun in public projects. This study is the first one that investigates payment delay in public projects in Palestine. In addition, it is the first study that address the relationship between payment delay and time overrun in Palestine and other neighboring countries. Therefore, this study is very important and will be very helpful for researchers and professionals to understand the effect of delayed payment on project delay.
Keywords: payments; time overrun; delay; delayed payment; public projects.
Institutional impacts on firm performance
by Florin Peci
Abstract: he paper aims to study the influence of the institutional determinants on the growth of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). First, Kosovo as one emerging economy and country in transition is analyzed from the international business perspective. The main institutional factors faced by SMEs in Kosovo that is involved in international trade will be discussed based on new institutional theory. The study is based on interviews of firms in Kosovo, using a semi-structured questionnaire, conducted in 2015. The econometric findings show that barriers caused by low levels of professionalism and ethics of officials in respective institutions, as well as frequent changes in complicated laws and regulations, have a significant impact on higher transaction costs, which in turn represents a direct obstacle to the further growth of SMEs.
Keywords: Growth; Transition Economies; New Institutional Economy; Institutional barriers; Transaction Costs; Compliance Costs; Entrepreneurship; Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs); Emerging Countries; Public Agency; Kosovo.
IMPACT OF CAPITAL STRUCTURE ON PROFITABILITY IN INDIA
by Ainsley Granville Andre Jorge Bernard, Brahma Edwin Barreto, Rodney D'Silva
Abstract: In the wake of liberalisation and globalisation of economic policies across the globe, investment opportunities have expanded and financing options have widened leading to an increased dependence on capital markets. Companies can use either equity or debt capital to fund their assets; the ideal being a judicious mix of both. The capital structure decision is a vital one for any organisation, as its profitability is directly affected by the way the company decides to finance its assets. The current research is an attempt to measure the impact of capital structure on a companys profitability. The study establishes a hypothesised relationship of the impact of capital structure on business revenue of companies and the interrelationship between capital structure and profitability. Data ranging from 2012 to 2017 of ten companies from within the cement industry were considered for the purpose of the study. Capital structure is represented by Debt/ Equity Ratio while Return on Investment (ROI), Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) and Return on Equity (ROE) have been considered to be the main determinants of profitability. Descriptive Statistics, Correlation analysis and OLS Regression Model were used to analyse the data. The study concludes that out of the ten companies considered for the study, JK Cement, KCP and JK Lakshmi Cement established a positive impact of capital structure on profitability whereas India Cement, Ultra Tech Cement, Ambuja Cement, ACC Cement, Dalmia Bharat, Birla Corp and Prism Cement have revealed a negative impact of capital structure on profitability.
Keywords: Capital Structure; Debt/ Equity Ratio; Return on Investment (ROI); Return on Capital Employed (ROCE); Return on Equity (ROE).
How Do Island Entrepreneurs Survive and Thrive?
by Muslim El Hakim Kurniawan, Gatot Yudoko, Mursyid Hasan Basri
Abstract: How to become a successful entrepreneur? Of course, there are various answers to this question, especially if the faced challenges are not equal. The island entrepreneurs do not only face day to day deficiencies, but also to some extent,
Keywords: island; entrepreneur; small-medium industries; government; competitive advantage.
ESTIMATING AN OPTIMAL DEBT/ GDP RATIO: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION FOR INDIAN STATES
by Varun Chotia
Abstract: The objective of this study is to get an insight into the debt scenario of different states of India and understand the factors governing it, thereby estimating an optimal debt/GDP ratio for each of them. The study begins with estimating the trend for optimal debt and plotting it parallel to the actual debt for each Indian state for the time period from 2002-03 to 2014-15. We have employed the modified Blanchard model (1983) for estimating optimal debt/GDP ratio. The results display notable difference between optimal debt/GDP ratios and actual debt/GDP ratios for almost all Indian states. The study concludes with some major findings: i) North-eastern states are facing challenges from perpetual high indebtedness ii) Debt relief schemes promoting agriculture have contributed to achieve debt sustainability in northern and western states iii) Southern India has managed its debt perfectly over the gone by years iv) the newly created states of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand started with low debt burden in initial years but have later moved on towards high indebtedness. The research study has noteworthy policy implications for Indian state governments. In states where debt/GDP ratio is rising constantly, the governments should aim at achieving a balance between anchoring debt sustainability and high growth yield in long run. For states where actual debt/GDP ratio is below the optimal level, policy focus should be on providing cushion against external financial crisis and market shocks. rnrnrn
Keywords: Optimal Debt/GDP; Debt sustainability; Indian states; Economic Growth.
An Empirical Analysis of Budget Stabilization Funds (BSFs) and Cutback Management: Which Strategy Is More Effective for U.S. State Governments?
by Sungchan Kim, Soyoung Park
Abstract: Until recently, decision-makers in subnational governments have had to adopt some budgetary strategies in order to stabilize budgets during economic changes. Both budget stabilization funds (BSFs) and cutback management are major strategies to cope with budgetary difficulties. However, there is little research on which budgetary strategy subnational governments should use in a certain context. This study attempts to examine the impact of both BSFs and cutback management and compare their effectiveness by using the dataset of U.S. state governments from 2001 to 2013. We find that BSFs increase the volatility of total expenditures, while cutback management is effective in reducing volatility. However, if state governments implement cutback management, they may not attain fiscal stability despite spending more money. On the other hand, boosting the economy by increasing expenditure is effective in reducing volatility of total expenditures in the context that they spend BSF.
Keywords: budget stabilization funds (BSFs); cutback management; fiscal stability.
Relationship among transformational leadership, workplace spirituality and team effectiveness: A Conceptual Framework
by Nandana Prabhu, Navin Kumar Koodamara
Abstract: This paper analyzes the theories that support the conceptualization of mediating role of workplace spirituality in the relationship between transformational leadership and team effectiveness. A critical enquiry approach is used to identify relevant theories and their gaps so as to explore the theoretical foundations for the proposed relationship among constructs of the study. This paper has found that symbolic interactionist theories of identity and the theory of transformational effects on motivation based on the self- concept provide strong theoretical support to explain the relationship among constructs of the study. The theories of individuation, workplace spirituality facilitation, organizational transformation approach, and the theory of stratified system have provided strong support for the role of workplace spirituality in facilitating the relationship between transformational leadership and team effectiveness. Need to cultivate transformational leadership among team members, creating meaningful work, and building connectedness among team members are the managerial implications of this research.
Keywords: Transformational leadership; team interaction process; workplace spirituality; team effectiveness; identity theories.
Response to Local Financial Emergencies in Michigan: A New Public Management Perspective
by Julius Nukpezah, Tamara Dimitrijevska-Markoski, Ismail Soujaa
Abstract: The study draws on the New Public Management (NPM) scholarship to investigate the financial emergencies in Michigan cities. The study examines the circumstances under which the state government of Michigan declares financial emergencies in its local governments and studies NPM strategies that appointed emergency managers use in responding to the crises. Through detailed examination of the experiences of seven Michigan cities that had appointed emergency managers, the findings of the study provide practical lessons for governments on how to use NPM strategies to reduce cost, increase revenues, reorganize City Halls, foster interlocal cooperation, contract-out services, and promote diverse economic development initiatives that make cities more stable financially.
Keywords: Financial emergencies; financial crises; financial emergency laws; municipal bankruptcy; emergency response and recovery; exogenous shocks; local vulnerability; new public management.
Overcoming Barriers to Achieving Sustainable Development at Universities in Vietnam
by Khoa T. Tran, Phuong V. Nguyen, Truc Thi Thanh Vo, Thao T.U. Dang
Abstract: Numerous studies in the business context have identified variables that can promote sustainable development. By contrast, studies of universities have mostly clarified challenges of higher education, with little focus on elucidating current barriers to sustainable development in the field. Therefore, this paper aims to identify barriers to developing sustainability in the context of higher education in Vietnam. A qualitative approach is used to analyze data collected from 32 in-depth interviews. The findings show that the current barriers to developing sustainability at universities in Vietnam include the quality of training; outdated curricula; the quality of current faculties and new recruitment; and the lack of community and industry connections. In addition, the analytic hierarchy process approach is used to rate the priority of solutions for overcoming these barriers. The results provide implications for dealing with the current issues of universities in Vietnam. In particular, feasible solutions need to be implemented simultaneously with greater support from university leaders and policymakers. To achieve the expected benefits, efforts to overcome the identified obstacles should be actively carried out.
Keywords: sustainable development; higher education; barrier; overcome.
Significance of physical comfort and emotional support on confidence and trust in healthcare professionals
by BHOOMADEVI AMIRTHALINGAM, GANESH M, PANCHANATHAM N
Abstract: Physical comfort and emotional support being one of the principle component of patient-centered care in healthcare delivery, however not given much importance by the researchers in India. Furthermore, previous studies done in western countries given some insights on physical comfort and emotional support.rnThis study precisely aimed to fill these observed gaps by first focusing on the perception of healthcare professionals from the tertiary healthcare centers in Chennai and secondly in understanding the perception of patients from same setup hospitals in the major factors of physical comfort and emotional support. Finally, the impact of these two factors on the confidence and trust of healthcare professionals. The results from this study indicated that assistance with daily activity followed by emotional support has influence on confidence and trust of healthcare professionals. In addition, the results exerted strong evidence that patient needs explanation on the medications in the language they can understand, environmental comfort and emotional support. Furthermore, the study provides understandings into the research and managerial implications of such findings. rn
Keywords: Physical comfort; Emotional support; Confidence and Trust; Healthcare Professionals; Patients.
Administrative Innovation and Organisational Justice across Municipalities in Jordan: Organisational Commitment as a Mediatory Role
by Raed Ababneh, Sahem Nawafleh, Mohammed Rawabdeh
Abstract: The role adopted by Organisational Justice (OJ) in line with Administrative Innovation (AI) is recognised as critical in terms of its influence on the viewpoints and performance of employees. Organisational Commitment (OC) as a mediatory role was utilised, with completing an analysis on the role adopted by OJ in relation to the AI of employees. Self-administrated questionnaire was applied, with sample comprising 369 employees from municipalities based in Jordan. Structural-Equation-Modelling through AMOS was implemented. The assessments of employees in regards distributive and procedural justice were a factor seen to be positively and significantly related to the OC displayed by the employees. Moreover, regarding distributive justice; employee perceptions demonstrated a significant and indirect effect in line with AI through OC. Furthermore, regarding procedural justice, it was found to have both indirect and direct effects on AI. Finally, interactional justice was recognised as not significantly impacting neither OC nor AI.
Keywords: Administrative innovation; distributive justice; interactional justice; procedural justice; organisational commitment; organisational justice; mediation; Municipalities; Jordan.
Value Creation through Agile Social Entrepreneurs toward Sustainable Development for Generation Next: An Unified Empirical Case Analysis
by Pragyan Gharai, Jayant Kumar Panigrahi, Ipseeta Satpathy, Biswajit Das
Abstract: The research article is an exploratory and descriptive work with a realistic approach to the functioning of social entrepreneurs. Current social entrepreneurs (SEs) in essence work with a capability for innovative application for business. They are apt and agile in tackling vital socialrnproblems scanning the eco-system. They offer novel feasible ideas for ameliorating social conditions by en-cashing on the lacunae of government for mitigating the societal need. Social entrepreneurs vigorously explore with the panacea to address the critical problems affably, by constructing systems with a solution. They persuade the specific societies to involve themselves and move in different avenues and directions. It builds a spirit of consensus to co-create value and collaborative business with a social responsibility. With this backdrop, the present research paper attempts to highlight the entrepreneurship initiatives undertaken by a few leaders; towards the designed development of education sector. The primary objective and focus of the research paper is to insinuate and illustrate the contributors of the social-rneducational entrepreneurs, for the improvement and augmentation of education. By taking a non-positivistic stance and qualitative methods the explorative insight has witnessed the real-life cases of social entrepreneurs and their cosmic driving force; that was embedded in them for delivering service in the field of education. The objective of the research paper was to study about, how social entrepreneurs have shown constant interests and succeeded in creating value in the development of education. The analysis emphasized the scope and challenges encountered by the SEs while implementing plans for the prosperity of the society. Just like entrepreneurs transform the fascia of business or create a new business, SEs act as change angels creating opportunities, developing innovative solutions on a big scale for the society
Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship; Education; Sustainable Development; Value Co-Creation,Social Issues.
Risk ascertained determinants of Cost of equity capital A comparative analysis across regulated sectors in India
by Sushma Yalla, Karuna Jain, Som Sekhar Bhattacharyya
Abstract: Indian is one of the developing economies where there is a lack of basic infrastructure. To boost up the flow of investments in Indian regulated sectors, and also to arrive a fair rate of return in these sectors; it is necessary to estimate the risk ascertained determinants of cost of equity capital. Empirical studies of this nature from the Indian context are scarce. The present study analyses the risk ascertained determinants of the cost of equity capital across panel data of three regulated sectors of India namely power sector, telecom sector and oil & gas sector. The study has adopted a methodology of multivariate regression to assess the risk ascertained determinants of the cost of equity capital. The research findings indicated that regulatory risk factor is significant for telecom and power sector; on the contrary, regulatory risk factor is not significant for oil & gas sector. Hence, on sectorial level regulatory risk exists in Indian telecom and power sectors.
Keywords: India; Stationarity test; Systemic risk; APT; Random effect panel data; Hausman test.
Institution of Organisation and Organic Jasmine-Rice Production Extension of the District Agriculture Offices in Thung Kularonghai
by Pitundorn Nityasuiddhi
Abstract: This research was aimed to explain the relationship between the institutional components of organisations - formal rules and informal rules - and their consequent effects on the organic jasmine-rice production extension projects implemented in Thung Kularonghai rice field, Northeast Thailand by three District Agriculture Offices. Qualitative approach was utilised with the officials and rice farmers in the districts concerned, as the key informants. It was found that there were decoupled relations between the formal rules as the external centralised projects and the offices prevailing formal rules and informal rules as values and attitudes of field extensionists towards these coercive projects. Consequently, the effect was that field staffs neglected the performance of routine advisory services for organic jasmine-rice production. Taken-for-granted conduct then occurred. As other field activities have still occasionally been practiced by them, they seem likely to be just symbolic of the formalised performances for achieving public legitimacy.
Keywords: institution of organisation; decoupling relation; taken-for-granted performance.
Reverse Innovation and its Antecedents: Creating value for people at the bottom
by Prigya Rawat, Vijay Kumar Jain
Abstract: The primary challenge confronting business is to serve the poor. Charity cannot solve current problems. Reverse innovation has the potential to transform every industry, including energy, healthcare, and transportation, housing, and consumer products. Reverse innovation being low-cost innovation can serve billions of people standing at the bottom of the pyramid. The paper aims to determine the antecedents of reverse innovation. A theoretical framework was developed to explain and empirically verify the antecedents of reverse innovation. The framework was tested and statistically validated using structural equation modeling relying on data collected through 878 respondents working at the executive level of the firms practicing reverse innovation in India. Managing customer perception has emerged as an essential antecedent of reverse innovation followed by an understanding of local product requirement, simplifying regulatory environment and developing new business model respectively. The findings of the study would contribute towards promoting reverse innovation in developing and developed market, thereby serving people at the bottom. This would also open new opportunities for MNCs in the established market as well.
Keywords: Reverse Innovation; Business Model; Customer Perception; SEM.
The Causal Relationship Model of Factors Affecting the Quality of Life of People Living in Special Economic Zones
by Adirek Vajrapatkul, Somboon Sirisunhirun
Abstract: This study investigates the effect of good governance, public service quality, and social cohesion on the quality of life of people living in Chiang Rai Special Economic Zone (SEZ). Questionnaires were distributed to residents of the three districts of the Chiang Rai SEZ, namely, Mae Sai, Chiang Saen, and Chiang Khong. The 652 valid questionnaires were analyzed by descriptive statistics, EFA, CFA, and SEM analysis. It was found that the critical fit indices of CMIN/DF, GFI, CFI, IFI, NFI, and RMSEA passed the cut off criteria. Also, both direct and indirect effects were significant. The results support the proposition that the level of the quality of life of residents in Chiang Rai SEZ can be increased by improving good governance, public service quality, and social cohesion. Thus, it is proposed that the government should increase the quality of life of people by incorporating new governance principles, new service types, and new social cohesion activities that fit within the context of Chiang Rai SEZ.
Keywords: structural equation model; good governance; public service quality; social cohesion; quality of life; special economic zone (SEZ); Chiang Rai; Thailand.
Do Green Banking Initiatives lead to Competitiveness and Improved Financial Performance? - An Empirical Analysis of Indian Banks
by Ramanpreet Singh, Kritika Nagdev, Nawal Kishor
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether green banking initiatives taken by the Indian banks have increased their competiveness and financial performance or not. This study makes an attempt to develop a conceptual model from literature sources. In order to validate the model, the primary data was collected using structured questionnaire administered on employees of the banks. The data has been analysed applying the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and multiple regression for competiveness. For analysing financial performance secondary data was collected from the websites of Reserve Bank of India, Indian Banking Association and annual reports of the banks for the period 2005 to 2016. The panel data regression has been used to test the impact of possible factors including green banking initiatives on financial performance measured by Return on Asset (ROA). Result indicates that there is no significant impact of green banking initiative on the financial performance of the bank but green banking initiatives have increased the competitiveness of the banks through improved operational efficiency, cost saving, financial efficiency and product improvement. Thus, we have observed green banking directly improves competitiveness and indirectly improves financial performance.rn
Keywords: Financial performance; Competiveness; Green banking; Return on Asset; Sustainable practices.
The interplay of Cultural Rigidity, Vertical Communication, and Perceived Severity of Decline: An Empirical Affirmation from the Public Sector
by Suja Karthika
Abstract: The performance of an organization; whether growth or decline is impacted by its incumbent culture. When this culture inclines towards rigidity, it becomes all the more difficult to achieve the performance goals. Cultural rigidity, introduced by (Maheshwari, 2007), is often considered to be an offshoot of the public sector and is defined as the excessive cohesiveness and strong organization culture leading to group think and conformist behavior. Operationalized as concurrence seeking and enhanced group identity, it proves to be a deterrent for the smooth functioning of a state owned enterprise, which is already burdened with layers of political and bureaucracy fabric. Communication is often touted to be the meta-mechanism for initiation, furtherance, alteration and sustainability of culture in an organization and has a pivotal role to play in the performance of an organization. The study attempts to understand the abating effect of cultural rigidity on perceived severity of decline and more importantly assess the intervening role of vertical communication in the cultural rigidity-perceived severity relationship. The context of the study was public sector, as the constructs have been studied to have enhanced significance there. A survey was conducted in four state owned enterprises in the state of Kerala, India, which has been facing performance decline over the past 6 years. Adapted scales are used to collect the data (sample size: 281 top and middle level managers). Requisite analysis reveals that, vertical communication has a compelling role in determining the strength of relationship between cultural rigidity and perceived severity of decline. The results give way to a plethora of managerial implications on how vertical communication can be managed to influence cultural rigidity and thereby cause a change in the perception about the performance of the organization.
Keywords: Culture Rigidity; Vertical Communication; Perceived Severity of Decline; State Owned Enterprises; Concurrence Seeking; Group Identity.
Innovative Income Source and Risk in Banking: A Study of Public Sector Banks in India
by Shraddha Sharma, Geeta Sharma
Abstract: Innovation is one of the key sources of growth simply as a new method, product, idea, etc. Globally, due to increasing competition, banks are looking for the innovative ways of income sources to increase their profitability. Like international banks, some of the Indian public sector banks are also following the trends of increasing other income to enjoy the diversification benefits. Considering the importance of income diversification, this study analyses the impact of income diversification on financial
performance and risk profile of public sector banks in India from 20032016 using secondary data. Panel data regression results conclude positive impact of income diversification on performance of banks in India and indicate that increase in the share of non-interest income may also increase the risk profile of banks. The findings are helpful to the banks management and regulators to make policy for strategic role of income diversification in value creation and risk-reduction for banks.
Keywords: non-interest income; NII; interest income; risk-adjusted return on assets; RAROA; risk in banks; panel data regression; income diversification; Herfindahl-Hirschman index; HHI; India.
The Causal Relationship Model of Factors Affecting the Quality of Life of People Living in Special Economic Zones
by Adirek Vajrapatkul
Abstract: This study investigates the effect of good governance, public service quality, and social cohesion on the quality of life of people living in Chiang Rai Special Economic Zone (SEZ). Questionnaires were distributed to residents of the three districts of the Chiang Rai SEZ, namely, Mae Sai, Chiang Saen, and Chiang Khong. The 652 valid questionnaires were analyzed by descriptive statistics, EFA, CFA, and SEM analysis. It was found that the critical fit indices of CMIN/DF, GFI, CFI, IFI, NFI, and RMSEA passed the cut off criteria. Also, both direct and indirect effects were significant. The results support the proposition that the level of the quality of life of residents in Chiang Rai SEZ can be increased by improving good governance, public service quality, and social cohesion. Thus, it is proposed that the government should increase the quality of life of people by incorporating new governance principles, new service types, and new social cohesion activities that fit within the context of Chiang Rai SEZ.
Keywords: structural equation model; good governance; public service quality; social cohesion; quality of life; special economic zone (SEZ); Chiang Rai; Thailand.
Cultural Challenges in Implementing Village Funds Management System In Achieving Good Village Government
by Yolinda Yanti Sonbay, Bambang Tjahjadi, I. Made Narsa
Abstract: This study presents the role of local culture and community characteristics in applying system of village fund management to promote accountability, transparency and participation. It aims to show how local culture affects the implementation financial system that intends to gain uniformity. In this study, local culture of the Dawan tribe on Timor Island of Eastern Indonesia is taken into account. The cultural dimensions proposed by "Hofstede" will be used to identify the cultural characteristics of Dawan people and relate those characteristics to the accountability, participation and transparency in the management of village fund. This study presents a new insight on the influence of culture toward accounting.
Keywords: Good Village Governance; culture; Village Fund Management System; ethnography; Dawan Tribe.
Augmentation of Effectiveness of New Product Development through Social Media: An Empirical Validation
by Sonica Rautela, Samir Yerpude, Tarun Kumar Singhal
Abstract: Purpose: The world is changing dramatically. These changes can be witnessed in different macro-environmental factors. The organizations are also witnessing a constant change in their business environment. In such high volatile environment, business firms need to innovate and change themselves. Therefore, it becomes vital for firms to adjust and alter their offerings to keep pace with the changes. New product development (NPD) is the lifeblood for any firm, and their success contributes towards profitability and growth. New products are not only crucial for the profitability of any firm but also provide a competitive edge. However, only a small percentage of new products become successful in comparison to the number of new products introduced in the market. This portrays that the users are unwilling to accept the new products. Therefore, there lies a strong need to involve and inculcate the viewpoints of customers while designing a product so that they are not mere receivers of products but also active participants in the creation of products. Further, as per this study, the involvement of other vital elements such as the sales department, R & D department, and the company level drivers play a critical role in the success of a new product.
Design/methodology/approach: The study presented is two-fold. First, with the help of extensive literature review, researchers have stated the gaps in the theoretical foundations mentioned in the previous studies. As a second step, the gaps are converted into hypotheses and statistically tested with the help of Structured Equation Modelling.
Findings: Results indicate that the four parameters, i.e., Company level drivers, Social Media Inputs, Sales Dept. Inputs and Research & Development Inputs influence the New Product Development (NPD) effectiveness positively, while the parameter Social Media Inputs scores the highest amongst them.
Practical implications: The organizations need a judicious blend of the four parameters, i.e., Company level drivers, Social Media Inputs, Sales Dept. Inputs and Research & Development Inputs while designing the new product. While more weightage is to be allotted to social media inputs, this will mitigate the risk of new product failure in the market significantly while, on the other hand, make the customers feel empowered.
Keywords: New Product Development (NPD); Social Media Inputs; Company Level Drivers; Sales Department; Research & Development (R&D); Effectiveness.
Merit Bureaucrats, Good Governance and Innovation
by DANJUMA ABDULLAHI, Muhammad Zayyanu Umar, Yahaya Tanko Baba, Ibrahim Maishanu
Abstract: This paper analyses the roles of professional bureaucrats within the context of good governance. The relevance of bureaucrats in improving governance is considerably desired by government institutions with the aim of increasing the level of socio-economic and political development in the society. Theoretically, new institutionalism is employed to examine the relevance of professional bureaucrats in accelerating the overall governance. Methodologically, qualitative approach is adopted to study the bureaucratic institution with a view to identify its relevance in governance. 15 Informants were interviewed ranging from top government functionaries, Legislatures as well as stakeholders. The findings of the paper revealed the major issues in the bureaucratic institution which involves among others; corruption, lack of merit system, poor training, favoritism, etc. The recommendations of the paper therefore, is for the bureaucrats as engine of nations development should be more professional and put the National interest above their personal interests in achieving an effective governance.
Keywords: Bureaucracy; Good Governance; Institution & Professionalism.
Using modern decorative design in the products to win new customers and markets
by Tarek Ismail Mohamed
Abstract: The colored decorative units and patterns are playing an important role in attracting attention in various products and increasing their value, thus increasing the purchases of these products to achieve high profits for the companies.
The perception of colors and their value are affected by a historical concept in terms of the culture of the viewers, as well as its relation to the neighboring colors and the nature of the designed forms.
In addition, different colors are often associated with emotional state and human values, but these are often variable between cultures, for example, the red color is a motive for movement, orange and purple tonic for the spiritual state, yellows for cheerfulness, green for comfort and warmth, blue to relax, white to be pure and black to grieve etc.
In this research, I made some innovative, colored decorative experiments on various products which are already existing in the international markets to give it more attraction and attention of consumers and improve its purchasing value.
Through the various educational experiments which are carried out in this research, designers can create many ideas of new colored decorative units for their products that meet the needs and desires of different users. Bringing innovative and competitive products and services to the market, thereby strengthening their company's position in front of other competing companies.
Keywords: Neo decorative design- motifs - Product Design- Consumer Perception.
Influence of Enablers on Processes and Benefits of Knowledge Management in a Closed Environment: A Structural Equation Modelling
by Asha Nagendra, Srinivasan Morappakkam
Abstract: Knowledge Management (KM) itself can be divided into two essential components, the process (KMP) and the benefits (KMB). This has led to the analysis of certain enablers which influence the processes of knowledge management and also identifies the benefits.
Purpose of this study is to analyze issues which affect the success of knowledge management and the relationship between enablers, knowledge management process and the benefits of knowledge management, using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM).
Process and Tools. Visualizing their complex relationship in a closed environment like the army it was imperative that these facets be analyzed and tested using Structural Equation Modelling. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) has been adopted for this study.
Outcomes. This paper studied the shortlisted enablers and analysed its relationship with knowledge management. To elaborate: How they influenced the process and ensure the true benefits of knowledge management implementation. The study aligns the reason for using PLS-SEM with the software SMARTPLS. It brings out the statistical relevance and the degree of impact of each enabler on knowledge management process KMP and knowledge management benefits KMB.
Keywords: SEM, PLS-SEM, Knowledge Management Enablers, Closed Environment
Keywords: Keywords: SEM; PLS-SEM; Knowledge Management Enablers; Closed Environment.
Relational mediating Performance Management Systems. Evidence from the Italian healthcare context
by Rosanna Spanò, Luca Ferri, Andrea Tomo
Abstract: Purpose: Literature to date has quite overlooked the comprehension of the softer dimensions of performance management systems and their nature as means of mediation within complex contexts, and especially healthcare. Thus, the aim of this paper is to understand what are the factors that shape PMSs discursive ability to act as means of mediation and to foster positive responses to processes of change in healthcare.
Methodology: We refer to the PMS framework by Ferreira and Otley integrated with the refinements proposed by Broadbent and Laughlin in their Middle Range Theory, and employ the case study of an Italian Regional Health Service.
Findings: The study illustrates how the Region Alfa could shape its PMS, focusing on a wide range of interrelated elements, such as changing context and environment, evolving models of rationality, PMS design, and PMS operationalisation.
Value: The study provides an analytical framework for examining PMS implementation that goes beyond the somewhat incomplete understanding that resistance or hybridisation occur in all situations, and which allows a better comprehension of the nature of the discourse and its outcome.
Keywords: Performance Management Systems; Resistance; Hybridization; Healthcare.
Factors and Dynamics of Linkages between Strategic Visions and Their Outcomes in the Public Sector at the Ulundi and the Nongoma Local Municipalities, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa
by Thembinkosi Zulu, Sibonakaliso Nhlabathi
Abstract: This study investigated factors and dynamics of linkages between strategic visions and their outcomes using the economic development strategic visions of the Ulundi and Nongoma local municipalities. On the basis that public organisations plan for their future by developing strategic visions, which guide their actions. However, though organisations plan, frequently they fall short in realising the outcomes set out in their strategic plans. The study adopted a qualitative research approach. The study found that shortages of resources and lack of collaboration between stakeholders constrained success of the outcomes set strategic visions. The results showed a converse relationship between factors enabling the attainment of strategic outcomes and factors constraining the attainments of strategic outcomes. Therefore, the study recommended collective effort between stakeholders to carry out the set strategic goals and effective resource mobilisation to ensure that organisations have adequate resources to execute the set strategic visions.
Keywords: Local Economic Development; Strategy; Strategic planning; Strategic visions; Strategic Management; Public Sector; Outcomes.
Comparative study of Formal Levels of HRM between small manufacturing and small ITES firms
by Mridul Nath, Shubhasheesh Bhattacharya
Abstract: Small firms form an integral part of the economy of a country. They are present in millions and are responsible for large scale employment. Access to resources is a constant challenge. This study attempts to segregate small firms into two categories; manufacturing and ITES; and understand if there is a difference in the way they manage their human resource practices. Comparative study reveals that owners of small manufacturing firms manage their human resource function differently compared to owners of small ITES firms. In manufacturing firms, the owner takes on the additional role of a HR champion and drives HR practices. However in ITES firms, due to the nature of the workforce, rate of growth and other important demands of the business; a significant investment is made in creating a distinct human resource function staffed with professionals for implementing formal HR practices. For a small firm that constantly faces shortage of resources, we see two contrasting approaches in managing human resources.
Keywords: Human Resources; HRM; MSME; Small firms; Small manufacturing firms; Small ITES firms; Formal levels of HRM.
Understanding the nuances of disruptive career attitudes and mobility preferences of Indian Millennials
by Meha Joshi, G.C. Maheshwari, Rajan Yadav
Abstract: The purpose of this research paper is to empirically examine the relationship between organisational career management, protean career attitude, and organisational citizenship behaviour for employees working in multi-national organisations .Data from 205 employees working in Multi National organisations located in Delhi, Noida and Gurgaon region are used to examine the hypothesized relationships. Structural equation Modelling and Moderator regression analysis is used in the study to statistically analyse the research objective. Results show that Protean career attitude and Organisational Career management are significantly correlated with Organisational Citizenship behaviour. The result also shows that the organisational career management moderates the relationship between Organisational Citizenship behaviour and protean career attitude .The results of the study would help the organisations to work on career management aspects of the employees, which significantly moderates the impact of Protean Career attitude on the employees to ensure the Organisational Citizenship Behaviour.
Keywords: Protean career attitude; Organisational Citizenship Behaviour; Structural Equational Modelling; career management.
Low Voltage Quasi Floating Gate Current Mirror with Improved Output Impedance
by Narsaiah Domala, G. Sasikala
Abstract: Current mirror with a wide variety of application has become a basic block of analog circuits. The main parameters affecting its performances are linearity range, input compliance voltage, input and output impedance, and bandwidth. In this paper, a quasi-floating gate based current mirror design is modified in terms of increasing the output impedance. The improvement achieved is without affecting the other performance parameters of current mirror. The proposed current mirror uses the gate driven quasi floating bulk technique which results in effective transconductance as the sum of gate and scaled body transconductance. This increased transconductance boosts the output impedance from 800 kilo ohms to 3 mega ohms without degrading any of the other current mirror performance parameters. The complete analysis of presented current mirror is done using HSpice simulator on 0.18 um twin-well CMOS technology at a supply voltage of 0.5V.
Keywords: Current Mirror; quasi floating gate; quasi floating bulk; Transconductance; output impedance; Bandwidth.
Digital Customer Order Management enabled by the Internet of Things An empirical validation
by Samir Yerpude, Tarun Kumar Singhal
Abstract: Cyber-physical system dictate the current Industrial revolution 4.0. Characteristics such as small batches yet upholding the economies of scale is the future. Innovations such as Internet of Things (IoT) help collaborate between the physical and virtual environments which assist a collaboration. Isolation between the systems is avoided and comprehensive view gets generated with the real time data generated from the IoT landscape. Customer experience is the new brand and the survival of organizations is dependent on the same. Kotler has mentioned that key to customer retention is customer satisfaction. Statistics reveal that existing customer base supports 60% of the future business therefore customer retention becomes vital for an organization. Best prices, agility and connectedness are some of the fundamental expectations from todays customer. Globalization fueled fierce war and have taken competition to an altogether new level. Organizations leverage data collected from the customer, their orders, market etc and finally links it to the suppliers.
Keywords: Supply Chain Management; Order Management; Digital Order Management; Internet of Things; Customer Order Management.
Social Advertisement Awareness and Social Media Engagement Attitude of Consumers: An Empirical Examination
by SHANTHI RAVIKUMAR, M. REKHA, J. Bhanu Priya
Abstract: The society is witnessing an imperative and necessary requirement of social media platform to share their perception, opinion, experience, preference and attitude towards their daily lives. The consumers are tends to engage themselves in social media participation for the purpose of making their life more informative and knowledgeable. So, the social advertisements are playing a vital role to indoctrinate the consumers behaviour and attitude. In this digital era the social advertisements are taken to the people through social media sites in the form of memes, posts, images etc. thus the study gains importance in this modern world measuring the media engagement in social advertisements. In recent scenario, advertisement becomes an important strategy to reach the social groups via social media platforms. The purpose of this paper is to determine the consumers social media engagement attitude towards social advertisement campaigns awareness. This study sample size was 160 and convenience sampling technique had been used to collect the primary data from respondents through a structured questionnaire and exploratory factor Analysis applied to determine the dimensions of social media engagement attitudes of social advertisements campaigns. The study concludes, the role of social advertisements cannot be ignored or negotiated. It is very important to make these ads more effective to tackle the social issues. But it has been observed that the approach to social advertisements has been indifferent.
Keywords: Social Media; Advertisement; Media Engagement; Consumer Attitude; Awareness Campaigns.
ANALYSING THE BRAND RESONANCE AMONGST TELECOM SUBSCRIBERS IN NAGPUR CITY
by Amir Hafizullah Khan, Shravan Jasraj Chandak, Bhumika Kewalramani
Abstract: The literature on brand resonance has garnered considerable attention by showing the relationship between consumers and brands. The objective of the study is to identify and measure dimensions of brand resonance and also to investigate the association of these dimensions in developing the psychological bond with customers. The methodology of the present study has identified thirty-four empirically developed brand resonance variables and after applying factor analysis, these components were reduced to five new brand resonance factors such as satisfaction, popularity, trust, devotion and connect. Further, a regression test was applied to find out the linear relationships among various variables of brand resonance. The analysis and findings proposed a new brand resonance model which would be beneficial for the telecom sector to evaluate their relationship with customers.
Keywords: Brand Resonance; Telecom Subscribers; Loyalty.
Online Trade of Coir Mats: Perspectives of SME Coir Traders from Kerala
by Keerthy S Sayi, K. G. Sofi Dinesh
Abstract: India accounts for more than two- third of the world production of coir and coir products ,Kerala is the largest producer in India. Currently, the coir industry in the state is in a bad shape and there is a need to tap the domestic market for coir-based products. This study aims to check the perspective of the traders towards adopting technology for selling coir products online as this has not been. This study has looked into the willingness of the traders to sell their coir products online through a survey. The model of the study was based on the TAM and the data was analyzed using SEM. The study shows that if traders perceive selling online to be useful compared to traditional selling, they are willing to switch to online selling.This will help them to come out with innovative ways to sell online
Keywords: Coir products;TAM;perception;SMEs;IT adoption;self-efficacy;e-commerce; coconut;.
STUDY OF VARIABLES SPECIFIC TO ONLINE RETAIL WEBSITES THAT IMPACT PURCHASE DECISION OF CONSUMERS IN CENTRAL INDIA
by Shravan Jasraj Chandak, Pritam Bhadade, Amir Khan
Abstract: A lot of research has been done for understanding consumer buying behaviour in the online retail environment. However, most of the studies either focus on the advantages and disadvantages of online over offline retail, hindrances in online shopping or other factors which could act as a catalyst for online shopping. Moreover, most of the studies done till date are related to purchase from an online retail environment, in general. Very less amount of work is done in relation to purchase done from a particular website among various options available to the customer.
With the help of available literature, the study has identified various variables that can impact purchase from a particular website with the help of relevant literature available on the topic. A questionnaire is designed capturing responses of 561 respondents for these variables among various demographic groups. Reliability and validity of the questionnaire has been measured using relevant statistical tools. Twenty-four identified variables are reduced to five factors using factor analysis technique having acceptable KMO values. Hypothesis testing is done to study variance in buying behaviour of the consumers across various groups. The study identifies factors that on which online retailers (websites) should focus on better conversion of website visitors to online customers. The factors that were found to be relevant are Goodwill of the Website, Website Design, Support system of the website (Online Retailer), Privacy & security of website and Logistics parameters
Keywords: Website-related variables; online consumer buying behaviour; e-retail.
Compliance with Standards of Integrity and Transparency in Employment and its Impact on the Performance of Local Governments in Jordan
by Mohammad M. Taamneh, Tamara Al Yakoub, Rami Tbaishat
Abstract: This paper empirically investigates the extent to which Local Government Units (LGUs) comply with standards of integrity and transparency in employment and this compliances impact on the LGU performance. To collect the primary data, a random sample was selected from elected and appointed individuals in four governorates at the municipal and sub-municipal level. Three hundred surveys were distributed; 245 were returned and accepted for data analysis. The results indicated that the participants perceived the LGUs commitment to practising integrity and transparency standards and their overall performance to be moderate. This finding supported the hypothesis that standards of integrity and transparency positively impact the overall performance of LGUs. The study recommends that the standards of integrity and transparency at LGUs be enhanced so as to make that impact greater.
Keywords: Integrity; Transparency; Local Government; Performance Management; HRM; Municipalities; Employment; Jordan.
Corporate Governance Reforms in State Enterprises & Parastatals and Capital Investment Financing in Zimbabwe
by ALEXANDER MAUNE, ZAKARIA CHIKAZA
Abstract: This study examines corporate governance reforms in State Enterprises and Parastatals and capital investment financing in Zimbabwe through an econometric regression model. In the study, data was obtained from the World Bank, Worldwide Governance Indicators (2016) database. The results shows that the independent variables statistically significantly predicted foreign direct investment in Zimbabwe, with F (6, 11) = 4.15, p = 0.0201, R2 = 0.6935 and an Adjusted R2 = 0.5264. The six independent variables added statistically significantly to the prediction of p < 0.05. The independent variables accounted for 52.64% of the dependent variability in foreign direct investment in Zimbabwe. This study will go a long way in influencing government policy formulation, implementation and further future research. The study will help expand the academic knowledge base and as such contribute in filling the gap that exists within the body of knowledge. This study, however, is of great importance to government, private sector and the academia.
Keywords: Corporate Governance; Reforms; State Enterprises; Parastatals; Capital; Investments Financing; Zimbabwe.
Communities of Practice for Digital Knowledge Management: A Case Study of Web 2.0 in the University of Delhi
by NAMITA JAIN, Vikas Gupta
Abstract: Man is a social being who craves for communities to share experiences, gain knowledge and solve problems. The modern-day problems are complex that necessitates teamwork, collaboration and collective brainstorming. Though people engage in face-to-face meetings and discussions, the paucity of time and geographical distances make coordination among them difficult. Revolutions in information technology and related interventions have solved these issues to a large extent and have drastically changed the way people communicate and interact with each other. Web 2.0 technologies are a new force to reckon with in this digital era and its followers are multiplying worldwide exponentially. With their acceptability, accessibility, convenience and low cost, they have become routine to the digital natives (Prensky, 2001; Kirschner and Karpinski, 2010, Amin et al., 2018). The purpose of this paper is to explore the usage of web 2.0 technologies for academic purposes by the students, faculty and administrators in institutes of higher education. To achieve this end, the qualitative approach of case study analysis has been adopted. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using grounded theory (GT). The findings suggest that online communities of practice (COPs) exert a positive influence on the performance of its members, used in a positive spirit. These communities have promoted knowledge creation, storage, transfer and application motivating members to learn and contribute to the organisations knowledge assets. This paper contributes to the extant literature by analysing the impact of web 2.0 technologies on the performance of its members. It may be mentioned that such studies are very few and, in their infancy, especially in an academic setting. The paper also recommends how networking tools can be effectively harnessed by organisational members to remain updated and competitive synergising learning and co-creation. All this is important as educational institutions, like businesses, are facing the pressure to enhance performance and achieve global recognition in the world rankings (Jundale and Navale, 2009).
Keywords: Communities of practice (COPs); knowledge; technology; education; networking; collaboration; Web 2.0.
Determinants for Enhancing Online Shopping Experience on E-commerce Websites
by Sujata Joshi, Ritesh Mohanty, Shreya, Singh
Abstract: The paper aims at identifying the determinants for enhancing online shopping experience on E-commerce websites. Primary data was collected from 150 respondents in order to understand what factors would help enhance their online shopping experience through ecommerce websites. Factor and regression analysis were used for analysing the data using SPSS. The findings of the study show that Payment experience, Product experience, and Website experience have a significant effect on the online shopping experience of customers using ecommerce websites for shopping. The conceptual model proposed in the paper will be useful to ecommerce vendors in order to understand how to make the shopping experience more satisfying for the customers. It will also help the IT companies who manage the backend of the ecommerce websites in order to make the websites function well and give customers enhanced shopping experience.
Keywords: Ecommerce websites; Online Shopping Experience; Payment experience; Product experience ; Website experience.
Who are the users? User Categorisations and Implications on Building Performance Measurement
by Nils O.E. Olsson, Geir K. Hansen, Siri Hunnes Blakstad
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to identify various types of users of buildings, and to discuss implications on building performance measurement. We propose a model and map user categories in buildings. Our research is based on a case study of user structures related to numerous buildings. Multiple sources of information are used, including document studies, interviews and observations. Results indicate that there are several types of users. We find that the question Who are the users? is not easy to answer in some cases and requires more nuanced answer. Measurement of building success in a user perspective needs to be done with care for who the users really are. Most of the literature on stakeholder management focuses on users as a single, easily defined and homogenous group. Our research challenges such a simplified perspective, especially for public sector projects.
Keywords: Users; Buildings; Performance; Measurement; Categorisation; Project; Success; Stakeholder; Facilities management; Evaluation; Construction.
TRANSPARENCY OF PUBLIC SERVICE IN ARCTIC REGION: SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSES
by Mariia Rubtcova, Elena Vasilieva
Abstract: The paper presents the results of a study conducted in 2018 in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia. The big part of the territory of this region is located in the Arctic, which has a low population density and large distances between settlements, which increases the importance of public consent for the effectiveness of public administration. The aim of the study was to determine the level of transparency of public authorities in their interaction with civil society. The authors did a corpus-based content analysis of administrative regulations and conduct the questionnaire survey (N=439). It has been established that Russian civil society has a request to participate in the adoption of state decisions, but at the same time, citizens are not ready to fully implement public control.
Keywords: Arctic region; social practices; public administration; civil society; public service; transparency.
Public Business Model Management: A Literature Review-Based Integrated Framework
by Bernd W. Wirtz, Jan C. Weyerer, Julia Kohler
Abstract: The business model concept greatly contributes to effective and efficient management and has become important for the public sector in light of the rapid changes in its environment. However, the development of business models is still a novelty to public managers and current research lacks conceptual sophistication calling for in-depth studies. Based on an analysis of public business model frameworks, this study provides an integrated public business model framework, specifying the concept for public management. The study simplifies public business models conveying a comprehensive picture that may serve as a reference point for researchers and practitioners.
Keywords: public business model; framework; public administration; public sector; public management.
The role of the state apparatus in organizational capacity development: a case study in the presidential staff office of the President of the Republic of Indonesia
by Roy Pakpahan, Abdul Hakim, Siti Rochmah, Endah Setyowati
Abstract: Capacity building is a means to help governments, communities, and individuals to develop their abilities and knowledge to achieve organizational goals. In addition, it is also an effort to use capabilities and actions to strengthen the organizations ability to achieve its vision and mission. This study aims to describe and comprehensively analyze whether capacity building will be effective if (a) the organizations vision and mission are translated operationally and understood by all stakeholders in the organization, (b) the policy system created has an adaptive ability to internal and external changes, (c) an efficient but effective organizational structure exists in supporting the implementation of main tasks and functions of the organization, (d) there are improvements in managerial and leadership capabilities of personnel in certain positions, (e) there is development of human resources aiming at enhancing conceptual and technical capabilities coherent with their main tasks and functions, (f) the internal and external accountability systems are measured through the achievement of individual performance related to their positions, and (g) the development of a network system produces support for the organization to realize its vision and mission. The developmental model of the capacity building could be used to increase the effectiveness of the public policy formulation process, not only inside the presidential staff office but also in the public institution and organization.
Keywords: capacity building; presidential staff office; state apparatus.
Entrepreneurial orientation in public sector: The comparative study
by Ramo Palalic, Ema Nurkovi?, Ognjen Ri?i?
Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to investigate whether leadership, networking and business environment have an impact on the entrepreneurial orientation of public sector employees. The primary quantitative survey instrument was utilized to collect data from 204 participants in Montenegro (MNE) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H), using the convenience sampling method. The cross-sectional data collection method was utilized to in order to collect data in the period April-August, 2019. The study used t-test and regression analysis in attaining results for the proposed hypotheses. Results show the difference between B&H and MNE regarding the entrepreneurial intentions of public sector workers. While, in Montenegro, the networking could influence the entrepreneurial intentions of public sector employees, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the results are indicating that leadership, networking and business environment have influenced the entrepreneurial intentions of public sector employees. This study provides a significant contribution to the understanding of the entrepreneurial intentions of public sector employees in Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial intentions; Entrepreneurship; Leadership; Networking; Business Environment; Montenegro; Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Use of Social Media by Selected Indian Private Sector Banks
by Arti Chandani, Rajiv Divekar, Shilpi Kaushik, Mita Mehta, B. Neeraja, Sanchari Debgupta
Abstract: We are living in a digital world where everything is planned to be digitized leading to an increased use of social media and Information Technology in our daily lives. Businesses today need to reach out to their customer in a cost efficient manner, while improving efficiency. This is where social media comes into play by helping them gather information and reach out to wide spread customers effectively and efficiently. Presently, banks have also joined the bandwagon of social media simply because of the presence of huge number of users of social media. The present study explores different social media platforms used by the Indian private sector banks with an objective to stay connected with their customers. 10 top private sector banks constitute the sample of the study and Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, YouTube are the social media platforms which are being studied. Findings show that Facebook has more extensive usage by banks followed by Twitter whereas YouTube and LinkedIn have lesser usage.
Keywords: Social Media; Digitisation; Private Sector Banks; Facebook; LinkedIn; Twitter; YouTube.
Procurement and Contract Management Deficiencies: Analysis of State Audit Reports
by Sawsan Abutabenjeh, Rene Rendon
Abstract: State governments obligate trillions of dollars on contracts for needed products/services. These contracts must be in compliance with statutory requirements focused on achieving public policy objectives. However, these objectives are not always achieved and the government risks not receiving the best value for funds expended. State agencies continue to identify deficiencies and monitor their contracts to ensure they meet mission and public policy objectives. The purpose of this research is to analyze contracting deficiencies identified in state auditor reports to determine how they align with type of product/service, contract life cycle phase, and auditability theory component. Based on an analysis of 165 deficiencies, the findings indicate that the majority of deficiencies were aligned with the procurement of professional services and occurred during the acquisition planning, source selection, and contract administration contracting phases. We also found that the contracting deficiencies were aligned with lack of capable processes and in-effective internal controls.
Keywords: Contract Life Cycle; Auditability Theory Components; Contracting Deficiencies; State and Local Governments; State Auditors; Qualitative Analysis; Content Deductive Analysis.
Effects of Burnout on Intention to Leave by Public Banking Sector in Bangladesh
by Md. Saidur Rahaman, Md. Mizanur Rahman
Abstract: The fundamental objective of this paper is to test the effects of burnout on the intention to leave among the employees of public commercial banks in Bangladesh. Simple random sampling techniques with 249 employees from different public commercial banks in the eastern and northern part of Bangladesh have been taken as the sample size in this paper. The AMOS and SPSS software have been used for data analysis. Initially, researchers used descriptive statistics through SPSS to find out the mean, Standard Deviation (SD) and correlation. Finally, using the Structural Equation Model (SEM), the direct effect of burnout on the intention to leave was revealed. It is found that burnout explained 49% variance in turnover intention (R2=0.49). And, significant positive effects of burnout has been found on turnover intention (?= 0.07, p<0.000). The assumptions of two theories (social exchange and JD-R theory) of this study are relevant to the banking environment of Bangladesh. In practical, banking authority can be aware about to know the approaches to minimize the rate of intention to leave of bank employees and increase the awareness of the negative effects of burnout. Only the two regions of the country have been used to collect the data that may not generalize the findings of the study for the whole banking sectors in Bangladesh.
Keywords: Employees’; Burnout; CB-SEM; Intention to leave; Public Commercial Bank.
Towards Realization of the Public Value of e-Government: anticipation-reality gap and critical success factors in the context of Rwanda
by Jean Damascene Twizeyimana
Abstract: Motivation & objective
There are good arguments for considering the values of stakeholders in all stages of the development of a project. A fair consideration of the public value of a project is crucial for the success of that project. Failing to involve and meet stakeholders values in a project will result in rejection of the project. The main objective of this study is to investigate the anticipation-reality gap; and, thereby, to identify the critical success factors for realizing the public value of e-government. Public refers to citizens in their different stakeholder roles.
This study follows an interpretive case study using the empirical case of the IREMBO project, a PPP to build and operate a single-window portal for e-government in Rwanda. The data analysis utilized thematic analysis and concept-driven coding approaches. The data analyzed consists of IT policy documents, project documents, and interviews with policy-makers; project managers; public servants; citizens; and intermediaries.
Findings & conclusions
The study describes gaps between anticipated and realized values and their interrelationships in the IREMBO project. Recommendations are proposed as critical success factors. The findings suggest that the study of the public value of e-government should follow a stakeholder-centric approach because of value discrepancies across stakeholders. The findings also revealed that cultivating the installed base of socio-economic and technical capabilities, including but not limited to stakeholder involvement and business process reengineering, will be a promising avenue for realizing the public value of e-government in Rwanda. For illustration, the partnership between the government of Rwanda and the private partners is seen as a catalyst for the development of the existing information infrastructure. The results from this partnership are improved possibilities for access and use of government e-services, improved awareness of the project, and improved e-skills and competitiveness.
Keywords: Public value; reality gap; Least Developed countries (LDCs); stakeholder involvement; critical success factors; BPRs; Information Infrastructure.
Employee Turnover Intention: A Comparative Study of Jordanian Public and Private Sector Employees
by Seif Athamneh, Michael Guerra
This research aims at comparing the private and public sectors in Jordan to determine which sector has a higher turnover rate. Intention to quit and the differences in the private and public sector can be associated with factors promoting satisfaction and dissatisfaction among employees.
This research utilizes the quantitative research approach, where data collected are presented statistically to demonstrate responses to various questions presented to respondents. The research comprises a sample of 405 respondents whose intention to quit was queried using a questionnaire.
Employees in the private sector were more likely to be actively seeking a new job, seriously thinking of leaving and less obligated to stay with their current employer compared to public sector employees. In addition, men were less likely to be emotionally attached to the organization or willing to spend the remaining part of their careers in their current organization compared to women and employees overall. Intention to quit was highest between the ages of 25-45.
Keywords: Employee turnover; intention to quit; employee retention; human resource management; Jordan private sector; Jordan public sector.
The role of Financial Inclusion in driving Women Empowerment: A Study of Ghettos
by Shivangi Bhatia, Seema Singh
Abstract: The current paper investigates if financial inclusion schemes enhance women empowerment i.e social, political and economic dimensions in urban slums of Patna. The data was collected from 275 females in urban ghettoes who have opened their accounts under Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY). The survey was undertaken from January to July 2018 and the results were tested through factor analysis and ANOVA. The empirical examinations support the casual relationship empowerment dimensions and levels of financial inclusion. In addition, the study evidences that low income and conservative family environment are one of the biggest problems to financial inclusion. Current study is one of the few initial attempts contribute towards the long existing debate of women empowerment and study the impact of recently launched financial inclusion schemes by government of India.
Keywords: Financial Inclusion; Women in Slums; PMJDY; APY; PMJJBY; PMSBY.
The Antecedents of Organizational Performance in Lebanese Public Higher Education Institutions
by Hussein Al Jardali
Abstract: Organizational Performance has been examined in a wide array of organizational studies. This study aims to identify the variables that influence Organizational Performance in Public Higher Education Institutions in Lebanon. To answer our research questions, we gathered variables from existing literature. We then generated our hypotheses, which were verified using the survey technique. Structural equation modelling using the Partial Least Square-Path Modelling (PLSPM) method was used to analyse the surveys results. The study found that Work Environment Characteristics and Individual characteristics mediated the relation between External environment Characteristics and Organizational Performance. However, a direct link was found between Individual Characteristics, Work Environment Characteristics, External Environment Characteristics, and the construct Job Characteristics. Remarkably, we did not find a direct link between Job Characteristics and Organizational Performance. The study highlights some recommendations to increase Organizational Performance of the Lebanese University.
Keywords: Organizational Performance; Public sector; Higher Education Institution; structural equation modeling.
An Integrated Framework for Public Service Provision in Smart Cities
by Bernd W. Wirtz, Wilhelm M. Müller
Abstract: Smart cities are currently used as an urban development approach in research and practice to modernize administration, make cities more livable, use urban resources more sustainably and redesign habitats and mobility. To achieve this purpose, it is not sufficient to develop new public smart services for the citizen, but also needs to build a citywide technical infrastructure and redesign the entire value creation process of public municipal administration. In the first step, this study compiles SC service supply as a SC service portfolio through literature evaluation. Subsequently, we map the public value creation process considering different application segments and technical basic functions. Based on this conception, the study at hand develops an integrative framework model for the provision of public services in SCs, which includes a public business model as well as the technological basis of service functions through hardware and software, and the regulation and supervision of these functions.
Keywords: smart city; framework; conceptual study; public administration; public business model.
Students perceptions of online learning during COVID-19 pandemic: A study on Sylhet division, Bangladesh
by Md. Mizanur Rahman, Muhammad Faizal Bin A. Ghani, Md. Saidur Rahaman, Adedeji Babatunji Samuel
Abstract: The pandemic of coronavirus (COVID-19) has already changed in every sphere including the higher educational institution in Bangladesh. It has brought extensive knowledge to all circle of human life; Online Learning (OL) is one of these. The fundamental objective of this paper is to know the students\' perceptions about Online Learning (OL) during COVID-19 in Sylhet division, Bangladesh. The non-probability technique (purposive sampling) has been used to collect the data. We purposively selected 25 students who are currently pursuing either Undergraduate or Masters at private universities in Sylhet, Bangladesh. After getting the feedback from nine (09) students, it was found that the similar types of answers (saturation point) were coming. Thus, these eleven students are considered as sample size. The findings showed that online learning is effective for higher education in Bangladesh though it has some barriers. Besides, faculty members need to play a more important role in online learning during COVID-19 because an efficient teacher must know the ways of online learning better than anyone to complete the academic activities. From the findings of this study, the university authority, UGC and Ministry of Education will be able to know the students perceptions towards the online learning. We only focused on the university students perceptions from Sylhet division, which may not similar to the perceptions of the students of other divisions. So, the generalisation of the findings is not possible thus it is suggested to include more students from other divisions.
Keywords: Bangladesh; COVID-19; Education; Online learning and University.
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TACIT KNOWLEDGE IN INDIAN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR ORGANIZATIONS
by Mohnish Kumar
Abstract: The basic objective of this research paper is to comparatively analyze the prevalence of Tacit Knowledge in the Public and Private sector Knowledge Organizations as well as their differentiation among Power sector, IT sector and Other Infrastructure sector Knowledge Organizations and gender differentiation through a random sample of 204 Knowledge Workers from six Knowledge Organizations. Tacit Knowledge has been measured through the questionnaire given by Maier and Moseley (2003). There is a significant sectoral difference regarding Tacit Knowledge in the Public and Private sector Knowledge Organizations and the Private sector Knowledge Organizations have more Tacit Knowledge than the Public sector Knowledge Organizations. Apart from that, Tacit Knowledge in the IT sector organizations is significantly better than the Power sector organization. However, the Power sector organization shows similar traits like Other Infrastructure sector organizations in the area of Tacit Knowledge. There is a significant gender difference regarding Tacit Knowledge. The female Knowledge Workers perceive that there is significantly more Tacit Knowledge in their organizations than what the male Knowledge Workers perceive.
Keywords: Tacit Knowledge; Knowledge Organization; Public sector; Private sector; Knowledge Worker; Knowledge Management.
An Assessment on the factors affecting E-Banking adoption among customers: An Empirical investigation in West Bengal
by Rituparna Ghosh, Pranay Kumar Roy Barman
Abstract: Globalization has revolutionized even daily life of common people and changed their ways of thinking from legal, social, cultural, economic and technological angles. With the progression of technology, merger of software applications with telephone and internet, ways of receiving, storing, transmitting and disseminating information has entirely changed and become much simpler and easier. An inevitable result of globalization is that it leads to growth in the trustworthiness of the financial system which facilitates global competition. Such technological advancement has brought in numerous business opportunities across globe especially in Banking Sectors. Research in question examines the influencing factors in Internet Banking or E-Banking present in West Bengal for retail bank customers. A sample of 400 customers using E-Banking was selected randomly having accounts in Public and Private sector Banks in West Bengal. For this investigation, the study has used 5-point Likert scale to get primary data. The factors which were discerned to comprise the formation of the primary model were Usefulness, Easy Use, Self-Efficiency, Privacy and Security, Awareness and Bank Support. The study also provides directions for future research and recommendations toward resolving the problems facing e- banking adoption by customers of commercial banks in West Bengal.
Keywords: Keywords: E-Banking; Retail Customers; Factors affecting E-banking; Adoption Rate; Service availability on E-Banking.
PARTICIPATORY BUDGETARY MODEL AND PERFORMANCE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS: AN INDONESIAN CASE
by Ernawaty Usman, Nurhayati Haris, Sugianto Sugianto, Sudirman Sudirman, Ni Wayan Rustiarini
Abstract: The aim of the study is to develop a participatory budgetary model to improve local government official\'s performance in Sigi, one of the local governments in Indonesia. This research is qualitative research by using a phenomenological approach to describe the phenomenon of participatory budgeting. The data of the study was collected from interviews with key financial and administrative officials in Sigi, document sources and observation. The studys results indicate that the participatory budgetary model has been useful to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and economic parameters relating to good public governance practice in the local government. The results also show three important elements that affect local government official\'s performance in participative budgeting practice in Sigi. These elements include: (1) the managerial paradigm used by the actors involved in budget formulation, (2) abilities and competencies of delegations representing the public at the development planning forum (Musrembang) and local parliamentary sessions, and (3) better commitment from local political parties and senior government officials in representing public aspiration in the budget formulation and development process.
Keywords: local government; Indonesia; musrembang; participatory budget.
Quantification System for Key Performance Indicators in R&D Projects
by Priti Bakhshi, Manisha Shukla , Ajit Singh, Sudeep Nayak
Abstract: It is difficult for Research and Development organizations to get desired output in Research and Development Projects pertaining to defence. To overcome this problem, an attempt is made in this paper to develop quantification System for Key Performance Indicators for R&D Projects which is a Flexi Model. The methodology adopted in this work is both qualitative and quantitative. An exhaustive discussion on issues in Project Management was done with the scientists of R & D Institutes in India by visiting the organizations; conducting extensive review of literature; considering the other secondary data for various parameters of Project Management; interacting with around 82 Scientists and 10 Principal Investigators of R&D Institutes in India; conducting detailed Questionnaire survey from Scientists of R&D Institutes to analyze the issues and probable parameters foe evaluation; Analyzing auditors reports of various projects of R&D Institute; Analyzing performance of 5 years plan of R&D Institute, etc. The developed flexi Model has 4 Heads -Input, Process, Output and Outcome. There are 11 Key Performance Indicators (KPI) under these 4 heads and each KPI is again divided into few parameters for which weights can be customized. Rubrics are defined to give rating to each parameter to remove the individual bias and fair evaluation of R&D Projects. The developed flexi-model is applicable for any R&D organization for measuring the Projects performance.
Keywords: R&D Projects; Project Management; Key performance Indicators; Project Evaluation; Defence.
Emotional Intelligence among female hotel employees and their impact On Job Performance.
by RuthSabina Francis, Thangasamy Milton
Abstract: The tourism industry globally is popular and to be the largest and fastest growing commercial segments globally, showing vast diversification and expansion. Being in the service industry one requires to hone interpersonal and intrapersonal skills for an uplifted service culture. Emotional intelligence is an interpersonal skill to handle others successfully by understanding the feelings of self and to be able to understand others feelings. The study aimed at studying the Emotional Intelligence scores among the hotel employees and their direct contribution to their job performance. Data from 343 hotel employees among the Kuala Lumpur were collected. Data was analyzed through AMOS and it was identified that female hotel employees exhibited higher emotional intelligence than the male employees. Results also indicated that Emotional intelligence significantly impacted employees job performance. Results indicated further implications and recommendations to the current human resources policies and strategies for the hotel industry.
Keywords: Emotional Intelligence; Hospitality Industry; Job Performance; Human Resources Management.
Have Social Vulnerability Cases been Considered in The Budgeting Process of Social Charity?: Evidence from Indonesia
by Mahameru Rosy Rochmatullah, Rudy Hartanto
Abstract: This paper explores the budgeting process of social charity and social vulnerability cases such as unemployment, illiteracy, the person with HIV/AIDS, and school dropout by studying the Indonesian provincial government. More specifically, we view the budgeting process of social charity in the realization and allocation process. Employing a partial least square-path modeling (PLS-PM), our results revealed that the budgeting process of social charity had a positive correlation with the cases of social vulnerability, but the effect was weak. Besides, we re-analyzed using the panel data regression-random effect model and the results confirmed that the weak effect between variables indicated was unrelated. Meanwhile, political and government interests are part of the budgeting process of social charity; thereby, they reduce the benefits of the social charity budget in Indonesia. Finally, we conclude that political and government interests are a disturbing factor in the budgeting process of social charity, so the cases of social vulnerability become obscure. A more detailed explanation can be seen in the discussion section.
Keywords: Social Charity; Social Vulnerability; Political Interest; Government Interest; Indonesia.
Municipal amalgamations and service delivery: The case of Kagisano-Molopo and Mangaung
by Godwin Dube, Paul Radikonyana
Abstract: Using a mixed-methods approach, this article assesses whether municipal boundary re-determinations (i.e. amalgamations) resulted in improved service provision in two South African municipalities Kagisano-Molopo Local Municipality and Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality. Quantitative data on the municipalities financial performance and levels of service provision were obtained from National Treasury and the countrys statistical agency (Stats SA). In addition, interviews with key informants were conducted to probe issues around the challenges encountered during the transitional period. The results suggest that context is important. In Kagisano-Molopo, a rural municipality, service provision actually deteriorated in some areas after the merger. While Mangaung continued to provide services after the merger, the results indicate that the pace with which services were being provided was negatively affected. More importantly, there is a need to address issues of service provision that cannot be solved by amalgamations such as poor revenue collection, councillors who fail to provide effective oversight, and corruption.
Keywords: municipal amalgamation; municipal performance; mergers; service delivery; South Africa.
Relevance and Sustainability of Public Enterprises in the African Economy of Today: The Case of Botswana
by Mokaloba Mokaloba, Thekiso Molokwane, Baakile Motshegwa
Abstract: When most African countries gained independence mainly between the years 1960s and 1980s, the absence of economic activity and private sector coupled with other reasons gave rationale to the establishment of public enterprises. Botswana as a country did not escape this trend and established a number of public enterprises in different sectors of the economy either in purpose, management structure and autonomy. To date, a number of such public enterprises exist even though they no longer carry as much hype compared to when they were first established. The changing economic environment that is more accommodating to private entities has also cast doubts on the relevance and sustainability of most public enterprises. Using an intrepretivist and descriptive research, this study seeks to locate public enterprises in the new 21st century Botswana economy and as such establish their relevance and sustainability. The study posits that the economic environment in Botswana today has taken a shift somehow from when the country was still freshly independent but public enterprises have seen very little change in any form. The study also contends that public enterprises in Botswana are increasingly becoming irrelevant and thus a financial burden to the economy of the country. The study concludes that public enterprises in their current forms in Botswana are an economic drag and as such require reform if they are to be sustained for the future.
Keywords: Public Enterprises; Relevance; Sustainability; Botswana; Parastatals; State Owned Enterprises.
GREEN TECHNOLOGY AS A MEANS TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE LIVING AND INITIATIVES TAKEN BY START UP FIRMS IN INDIA.
by Sarah Ahtesham
Abstract: Globalization has lead to technological advancements and vice versa. Such advancements also contribute towards industrialization and placing developments at the top gear. Lately we have realized the extent to which the environment quality is getting deteriorated, mostly as a resultant of over utilization of natural resources. Sustainability is a more talked about topic in any environmental conference today. The fact being realised is the that the key to a normal survival would be a change in our attitudes while not just talking about sustainability but also practicing it. One key aspect of practically implementing sustainability initiative would be Green Technology. Such technologies are characterized by green or clean way of operating that involves recycling, energy efficiency, renewability, health concern etc. This paper reviews green technology from view point of adaptability and makes an analysis of start up firms in India focussed on the idea of green technology as a means of operation and the benefits derived henceforth.
Keywords: Environmental Protection; Green Production; Green Technology, Manufacturing; Start-ups; Sustainability.
Burnout in the human service sector: Causes, consequences and sustainable remedial measures
by Md. Saidur Rahaman, Md. Mizanur Rahman, Syed Muhammod Ali Reza
Abstract: This paper's fundamental objective is to conduct a systematic literature review on burnout and sustainable coping mechanisms among human service sectors. Researchers have conducted an inclusive examination of 4592 studies from PubMed, Taylor & Francis, Science Direct, WoS, and Scopus. Organisational factors (working hours, workload, and relationship with co-workers, supervisor support, job time, insecurity, etc.) and individual factors (professional inefficiency, emotion, clients, the complexity of the task, and resources) are the major causes of burnout. It has significant adverse effects on both employees and organisations in the human service sector. Many symptoms, i.e., emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and de-accomplishment, have been observed before experiencing emotional, behavioral, and physical burnout. Finally, both the individual and organisational effective measures can avoid burnout. The study's findings might work as a guideline for both employees and organisations to keep the level minimum or prevent burnout.
Keywords: Burnout; Emotional exhaustion; Remedial measures; Service Sector Symptoms; and Workload.
Evaluating the Efficiency of the Indian Airports using Fuzzy DEA Method
by D.P. Singh, Mukesh Pandey, Vipul Sharma
Abstract: Conventional DEA model has been extensively used for efficiency measurement of the airports, but it has an underlying assumption and limitation that input and output data are known with absolute precision. Addressing the above limitation and fulfilling the research gap, the current study develops and utilizes the Fuzzy Data Envelopment Analysis (FDEA) model with the purpose to measure the airport efficiency precisely with the imprecise data. As Indian airport industry has entered into the realm of privatization since 2000, the paper has undertaken performance measurement of both privatized and public airports to showcase their implications. The result obtained from the study has identified government owned small airports in combination with a single till regulation has turned out to be most efficient. The findings of the study highlight the managerial implications helpful to decision and policy makers of the airport industry. The paper also demonstrates that the FDEA model is a pragmatic tool for airport efficiency measurement.
Keywords: Airports; Efficiency measurement; Fuzzy Data Envelopment Analysis; ?-cut level.
Influence of Strategic Leadership on Organisational Performance in Hospitals
by Ashraf A'aqoulah
Abstract: In hospitals, the strategic leaders have a responsibility to meet the expanding needs for sustainability patients' demands. They also have a responsibility for aligning the entire hospital to success in the market place. The study aims to examine the influence of strategic leadership on organisational performance in private hospitals. This study used a cross-sectional design. It used a questionnaire to collect quantitative data from the participants. The study found that Jordanian private hospitals implement strategic leadership styles. Moreover, the study results showed that there is an organisational performance excellence in these hospitals. Based on the examination of the main hypothesis, the study also found that there is a statistically significant influence of strategic leadership styles on organisational performance in private hospitals. Strategic leadership is an effective and efficient style that leads private hospitals to excellent performance.
Keywords: strategic leadership style; organisational performance; hospitals.
The Whole-of-Government Approach to Public Policy Integration from the Ethiopian Experience:(Policy analysis with a comparative focus on selected public policies)
by Tewelde Gebresslase, S.P. Signh
Abstract: This paper analyzes the extent of public policy integration with a comparative focus on purposefully selected Social Protection, Agriculture, Education and Health policies of Ethiopia. To determine the extent of institutional integrations, the medium-term programs are part of this policy analysis. It uses the Whole-of-Government Approach (WGA) to analyze the joint impact of these public policies on promoting social protection interventions to address poverty, social vulnerability and inequality. The study observes clear policy gaps in identifying joint and achievable social protection oriented goals in both national and sector-based development programs. Public policies are supposed to connect means and ends in an integrated manner. But, the means public sectors and their development partners required to achieve the stated ends were not well-identified under these policies. These old public policies are expected to disseminate the latest evidence and timely reform to meet the public's ever-growing demand on the cross-cutting issues of livelihood security, healthcare, education, and social protection interventions.
Keywords: Public Policy; Social Protection; Agriculture; Health; Education; WGA.
RESULTS-BASED DEVELOPMENT PLANNING IN VIETNAM: THE IMPACT OF ADMINISTRATIVE LEADERSHIP
by Ha Pham, Evan Berman, Geoff Plimmer, Karl Löfgren
Abstract: Results-Based Planning (RBP) is increasingly used in national development planning to improve many social and economic outcomes. This article highlights the role of middle manager leadership in such processes. Based on empirical data from Vietnamese public organizations, this study finds that (i) combined (full-range) leadership by mid-level public managers is key to RBP use and results; and that (ii) resourcing, employee commitment and training, as well as top leader support further increase RBP use and results. This study finds that (iii) donor and top leaders support are only indirectly associated with RBP use and result, and we provide evidence on the perceived benefits of RBP-based national planning processes. This study identifies specific middle managers transformational, transactional and autocratic leadership practices in this development planning.
Keywords: leadership; public performance; results-based planning; middle managers; Vietnam; performance management.
Implementation of the Entrepreneurial Mentality to Heritage Revitalisation as a Key Enabler for Public-Private Partnerships
by Boštjan Ferk, Petra Ferk
Abstract: The importance of the implementation of the entrepreneurial mentality to heritage conservation projects is relatively understudied compared to the need of the third sector participation in those projects. This paper aims to assess the significance of an entrepreneurial mentality in preparatory heritage conservation activities related to the need for the adjustment of the participatory approach as used and promoted by the heritage conservation doctrine. Although in the paper, we focus on the heritage conservation public-private partnership (PPP) projects, we also argue that the implementation of the entrepreneurial mentality in preparatory heritage conservation and revitalisation activities is of the same importance also if the project is eventually not procured under the PPP model, but within a traditional procurement procedure, paid only from the public budget(s). Primary research methods are literature review and case study presentations in combination with participant observation.
Keywords: public-private partnership (PPP); heritage; cultural heritage; cultural revitalisation; heritage management; innovative approaches; participatory approach; PPP models; entrepreneurial mentality; third sector; multipartite partnerships; Dutch Diamond Approach; financial sustainability; bankability.
The Role of HRM Practices on Employee Performance, Engagement and Retention: A Case Study on Public-Oriented Tourism Start-ups
by Hassan Boudlaie, Mohammad Hosein Kenarroodi, Hannan Amoozad Mahdiraji, Vahid Jafari-Sadeghi
Abstract: Retaining employees is one of the challenges for start-ups, and employee engagement affects employee retention. The purpose of this study is to identify critical HRM practices of public-oriented start-ups in employee engagement that improve employee retention. The authors used a qualitative research method with the case study strategy. The research participants consisted of 5 managers and entrepreneurs from a start-up who were selected by non-probability purposive sampling. The data was obtained through interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. The result of using theme analysis method identified seven themes consisted of recruitment and selection practices in employee engagement, training and development practices in employee engagement, performance appraisal practices in employee engagement, compensation and reward practices in employee engagement, role description practices in employee engagement, working conditions practices in employee engagement, and employee relations practices in employee engagement. Because exploratory studies in the field of human resources in public-oriented start-ups are few and limited, therefore, this research is considered as a new work in terms of the application of case studies in public-oriented start-ups in the field of human resources and one of its distinctive results is that Employee engagement and studies in the field of start-ups can be very different from traditional businesses. The results highlight the importance of HRM practices in employee engagement, which improves employee retention in public-oriented start-ups.
Keywords: Performance; Human Resource Management; Employee Engagement; Employee Retention; Public Oriented Tourism Start-ups.
The paradox of grateful slaves revisited: how about female public managers?
by Yongbeom Hur
Abstract: Female employees generally show a higher level of job satisfaction than their male counterparts, although working conditions and rewards for female employees are usually inferior, and this is called a paradox of 'grateful slaves'. This study verified whether or not this paradox occurs among female public managers. With 790 public managers (female managers: 44%) in the USA, gender effects were examined on job satisfaction and work orientations among public managers. According to the results, female public managers showed a similar level of job satisfaction, but they had different work orientations, compared to their male counterparts.
Keywords: gender effect; job satisfaction; work orientations; female public manager.
Will the Indian herbal toothpaste marketers survive against multinational FMCG companies?
by V. Moovendhan, Satish Kumar, Sangappa Angadi, Devsom Dass
Abstract: Numerous researches compare the multinational enterprises to domestic firms on several dimensions such as performance, efficiency and marketing practices. However, there is dearth of research focused on how the domestic and multinationals firms competes each other in the marketing context. In the current scenario, there is an emergence of nationalism, spiritual entrepreneurs entering FMCG business position through the herbal-based traditional Indian Ayurvedic concepts. Though local firms are generally considered as weak players in front of multinational giants, the present positioning as being Indian origin and herbal-based products gathers quick acceptance from the consumers poses a major threat to multinationals enterprises. This study employed a case analysis method that explores the marketing practices of both Indian and multinational FMCG companies in the toothpaste market. The main objective of the research is to compare the STP and marketing mix strategies that MNCs and Indian herbal product FMCGs with toothpaste in their product portfolio. The study reveals that multinationals FMCG companies countering Indian herbal toothpaste marketers with their own version. The study also reveals that Indian toothpaste marketer's first mover advantage may not last long. The strong distribution network of MNCs is placing them in advantageous position is another key observation.
Keywords: toothpaste brands; marketing mix; marketing practices comparison; herbal product.
High performance organisation: the only way to sustain public sector organisations
by Mohd Anuar Arshad, Kalimullah, Shahid Khan, Zakia Shahid
Abstract: This conceptual paper is an endeavour to create high performance value in public sector organisations (PSO) of developing countries in general while particularly in Pakistan. Public sector organisations of developing countries come across with an important and challenging question of "how public sector organisations could be transformed into high performance public organisations?" At the same time, this article proposes research investigations to explore high performance strategies in the context of Pakistan and also in other developing countries. Therefore, this paper proposed application of high performance organisation (HPO) framework survey tool to diagnose the performance status of the organisations. This study also proposed explanatory sequential design of mix methodology to explore performance status of public organisations, identifying the weaknesses and strengths of the organisations, developing strategies to transform the organisations into sustainable high performance public organisations to provide quality services to the public.
Keywords: high performance; public organisations; high performance organisation; HPO framework; Pakistan; developing countries.
The effect of innovation components on organisational performance: case of the governorate of Golestan Province
by Mehdi Tajpour, Elahe Hosseini, Aidin Salamzadeh
Abstract: Innovation is a combination of the overall success of an organisation because of its efforts to modernise, improve and apply various aspects of innovation in the organisation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of innovation components on organisational performance in the Golestan Province. This is an applied research, which is descriptive-correlative in terms of data collection. Thus, a 32-item structured questionnaire was adapted from the literature for hypotheses testing. The statistical population of the research consists of the management and staff members of the Golestan provincial government. According to Cochran's formula, the research questionnaire was randomly distributed among 94 individuals in the research population. The data were then analysed with the SmartPLS 3 software using the structural equation modelling technique. Based on research findings, service innovation, administrative process innovation and technological process innovation have a significant impact on organisational performance.
Keywords: innovation; service innovation; administrative process innovation; technological process innovation; organisational performance.
Market reaction to stock name change announcement in India
by Timcy Sachdeva
Abstract: Increasing global contest possesses managed firms' en-path for higher demand for distinctiveness. Variables that are most eligible to uphold competitive supremacy, lead to emergence of company's image. Companies adopt stock name change strategy with a view to achieve corporate image. Name change signals variety of information that impacts the capital market. The present paper investigates stock name change impact on the shareholders wealth of Indian listed companies during 2008-2015. Using event study methodology, the results of the study suggests that on the announcement day abnormal returns were found and around the announcement with insignificant negative abnormal return indicating disapproval of name change. In addition, the type of industry in which the company lies does not create any value to the shareholders due to corporate name change. Further, it is analysed stock name change has no impact on shareholders wealth.
Keywords: stock name change; shareholders wealth; abnormal return; event study; signalling mechanism; India.
Justice in performance appraisal
by Frøydis Vasset, Marianne Vinje
Abstract: Performance appraisal serve different functions within a university. It helps to identify and evaluate the performance of individual faculty members. The purpose is to explore justices, that is satisfaction with, professional learning from and work motivation generated by performance appraisals. A quantitative research study with a survey in four universities in the west of Norway, 103 employees answered the questionnaire. Employees in universities are satisfied with and experience fair performance appraisal. They experience professional learning from fair performance appraisal, but not work motivation by fair performance appraisal. We found a weak correlation in the group of professors/researchers and administrative staff. There is a significant relationship between procedural justice and satisfaction with the performance appraisal system, and between procedural justice and professional learning. There is no significant relationship between procedural justice and work motivation generated by the performance appraisal system, only small significant relationship for managers and professors.
Keywords: performance appraisal; academia; university; justice; employees.
Supervisory support and organisational citizenship behaviour: the role of self-efficacy as mediator
by Meor Rashydan Abdullah, Sabitha Marican
Abstract: Organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) is important in the organisational behavioural research among scholars since it significantly contributes to the success of an organisation. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between supervisory support as the predictor OCB and the role of self-efficacy as the mediating variable. Data were collected from 270 public administrators at two government organisations in Putrajaya. Data analyses were conducted using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) to test the research model hypotheses. The study highlights a significant positive relationship between supervisory support and self-efficacy as well as OCB. Self-efficacy is proven to be a complementary mediation variable in the relationship between supervisory support and OCB. The results suggest that organisation should be aware of individual characteristics to foster participation and engagement in OCB. The findings of this study contribute to the literature and open new avenues for future research.
Keywords: supervisory support; self-efficacy; organisational citizenship behaviour; OCB; mediation; SmartPLS; public sector.
Exploring policy governance factors using stepwise multiple regression analysis: a case study of solid waste management policy in Malaysia
by Muhamad Azahar Abas, Seow Ta Wee
Abstract: This study was designed to explore the perception of stakeholders on solid waste policy governance in Malaysia. A total of 500 respondents were selected through random stratified sampling. The data of this study were collected via questionnaire distribution and were analysed by applying descriptive statistical analysis (mean, standard deviation and percentage) and inferential statistical analysis (t-test, correlation and stepwise multiple regression). The results of the study show that the perception of respondents on governance factors was varied, depending on the socio-demographic attributes of the respondents. Bivariate analysis reveals that all the policy governance factors are strong and positively connected to good governance elements practiced in solid waste policy implementation. However, multi regression model shows only three policy governance factors, namely resources management, policy implementation system and staff's competency significantly influence good governance practice of the stakeholders.
Keywords: policy governance; solid waste management; stakeholder; good governance; Malaysia.
Construction and validation of public healthcare service quality model - an empirical study of Indian public healthcare facilities in digital era
by Rupal Khambhati, Hiren Patel, Satendra Kumar
Abstract: Measuring service quality is an effort that had been kept by several researchers in past for various services. The present research measures and addresses the service quality gap that exists among the services provided by hospital industry. The major focus of any hospital is the patients and well-being of patients is the fundamental objective of any hospital. In this digital era, consumers are educated and smart and command satisfaction in all services. The present study is not limited to measure the service gap and identify the modified factors affecting the service quality but also confirm the same through confirmatory factor analysis for Indian public hospitals. Also, the study is extended to have separate confirmatory models for rural and urban public hospitals located in Surat, Gujarat, India. The study concludes and confirms medical services, service responsiveness, discharge, admission, hygiene, and visual facility as modified factors for measuring service quality.
Keywords: confirmatory factor analysis; empirical study; public healthcare; service quality.
An empirical study to measure Consumer Adoption of Mobile banking services
by Mallika Srivastava, Semila Fernandes
Abstract: In the highly secured and regulated world of Banking and Financial Services and Insurance (BFSI), mobile banking (m-banking) has emerged as an innovative technological advancement. The consumer adoption of m-banking technologies has not been measured comprehensively. Through the current study, the authors have made an attempt to measure the consumer adoption of m-banking in developing economy. To support this research, Everett Rogers theory of diffusion of innovation is adopted as theoretical framework. An exploratory study was administered through a structured questionnaire. Non-Probabilistic convenience sampling technique was adopted for the study. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to establish the measurement model. Additionally, the study also explores the impact of demographic characteristics like gender, age, income, marital status, duration of using smart phones and duration of using internet banking on consumer adoption towards m-banking services using ANOVA.
Keywords: Compatibility; Relative Advantage; Complexity; Trialability; Observability; Consumer Adoption; mobile banking.
AN INSIGHT INTO THE DRIVERS OF ELECTRONIC WORD OF MOUTH IN TOURISM
by Manju Meenakshy, Mallika Srivastava
Abstract: There is a growing relevance for electronic word of mouth owing to the transformation induced by digital distribution of products and services. With the rising consumer trust on electronic word of mouth, one of the biggest challenges faced by companies is to motivate authentic customers to provide useful information in the form of reviews. This study has examined the various factors influencing tourists intent to engage in electronic word of mouth. The results indicate that, belief in reciprocity has substantial influence on tourists intent to engage in online word of mouth. The other factors which have an effect are tourists sense of belonging to the online community and their satisfaction with destination attributes. Factors such as satisfaction with hotel attributes, pricing of hotel services, tourist personality score on extraversion scale and consumer involvement with tourism activity does not show any significant influence. Managers of tourism based sites and tourism facilities need to focus on building appropriate mechanisms to cater to the underlying factors influencing electronic word of mouth intent to ensure that the sites get sustained contribution.
Keywords: Electronic word of mouth; online word of mouth; tourist reviews; online review sites; Electronic word of mouth intent.
Special Issue on: IICIES 2017 Entrepreneurship, Start-ups and Growing Businesses the Role of Entrepreneurial Education and Nurturing Ecosystems
An Experiment on Negotiation Orientation and Entrepreneurship Education Exposure: Preliminary Result
by Shimaditya Nuraeni, Lidia Mayangsari
Abstract: In the spectrum of negotiation research, scholars have extensively studied the impact of expertise and personality to the actual process and outcome of the negotiation. The objects of study include different groups of experts, but managers have been in the spotlight of negotiation research. Developed from a discussion on how entrepreneurship researchers have majorly treated negotiation behaviour like a black box, this study places confidence in the art of entrepreneurial negotiation behaviour revealing why entrepreneurs are more successful in exploiting business opportunities than others. This study investigates the emerging negotiation behaviour through a framed field experiment in light of negotiation education. The task employed in the experiment is a multi-issue multi-party negotiation case emphasising on the aspect of buyer-seller negotiation. The participants are students of negotiation course from two different departments: entrepreneurship and management. Initial assessment of participants negotiation orientation, cooperativeness or competitiveness, performed as the treatment and basis of group division. The preliminary result of the study confirms negotiation orientation underlies negotiation behaviour and consequently leverages action and reaction of the negotiators. The joint gains resulted differ following the orientation and its composition in a group. Corresponding to a group division, the dominance of collaborative orientation works the negotiation more efficiently with a higher joint gain. Also, the result also reveals that exposure to entrepreneurial practices increases the mutual gains achieved. This result reinforces the distinction of entrepreneurs in their cognition and behaviour from managers and other groups of non-entrepreneurs. Our result showcases the entrepreneurs openness, flexibility, and adaptability to an uncertain situation. This emerging property is relevant to negotiation as the entrepreneurial and managerial context of negotiation differs significantly in term of ownership, information asymmetries, level of uncertainty, and level of role adjustment. This study thus believes that entrepreneurial negotiation deserves more attention to progress the advancement of entrepreneurship in both theory and practice. Implications for our understanding of negotiation dynamics and how to role-play simulation has a positive impact on entrepreneurship education are also our point of discussion.
Keywords: Negotiation Orientation; Multi-Party Negotiation; EntrepreneurshiprnEducation; Behavioral Decision Making; Experimental Study.
Special Issue on: MSBFC 2018 Financial Innovations, Financial Regulations and Structural Changes in Financial Sector
Foreign Direct Investment and Macroeconomic Factors: Evidence from Indian Economy
by Asha Nadig, Viswanathan T
Abstract: Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has helped India attain a great degree of growth and development. The World Investment Report for 2017 released by UNCTAD projected that FDI inflows to developing Asian countries will increase by 15 per cent in 2017, to $515 billion. With a boost in investor confidence in the economic outlook in major Asian economies, India is the second most preferred destination in the world as regards FDI inflows. This is a testimony to the nations robust policies and programmes. Sectors like services, telecommunication, computer software and hardware are the frontrunners in attracting FDI. This paper examines the relationship between FDI and the macroeconomic factors, like, the Gross Domestic Product, Foreign Exchange Reserves, Employment, Exports, and Gross Capital Formation for the period 1978-79 to 2016-17. Besides using the standard techniques such as Augmented Dickey Fuller Test, Multi-variate Regression Analysis, we used advanced econometric techniques such as Johansens Co-Integration Test, Impulse Response Analysis and Chow Breakpoint Test, Multiple Breakpoint Test and Bai Perron Sequentially Determined Breaks Test. The findings suggest that there is a significant amount of correlation between FDI and the macroeconomic factors considered in the study. The results of Johansens Co-integration test reveal that there is a long run causal relationship between FDI and other variables.
Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment; Gross Domestic Product; Foreign Exchange Reserves; Employment; Exports; Gross Capital Formation; Augmented Dickey Fuller Test; Multi-variate Regression Analysis; Johansen’s Co-integration test; Impulse Response Analysis and Chow Breakpoint Test; Multiple Breakpoint Test and Bai Perron Sequentially Determined Breaks Test.
Special Issue on: Recent Engineering Trends and Applied Sciences
EVALUATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOL SUPERVISORY PERFORMANCE IN BENGKULU CITY
by Iswadi Idris
Abstract: The objective of study is to find out the performance of senior high school supervisors in Bengkulu City regency, Bengkulu Province that consists of: (1) composing supervisory planning, (2) carrying out the supervisory planning, (3) evaluating the implementation of the supervisory planning, and (4) guiding and training of professional teachers and school principals. The research was conducted in regencies and cities in central Bengkulu regency, Bengkulu province. The subject of research is senior high school supervisor in Bengkulu City, Bengkulu province (29 persons). The method of research is mixed method. The research design used Provus is Descrepancy Evaluation Models (DEM). The data were collected by using observation, interview, questionnaire and documents. The results of research shows that: (1) the performance of supervisors in composing plannings is very good category, (2) the performance of supervisors in carrying out supervisory planning is good category, (3) the performance of supervisors in evaluating the product of implementation of the supervisory planning is fair category, and (4) the performance of supervisors in guiding and training of professional teachers or school principals in Bengkulu City, Bengkulu province is poor category.
Keywords: performance; planning implementation; evaluation and training.
Special Issue on: Recent Technology Trends and Their Impact on Social and Natural Sciences and Engineering
An empirical evaluation of stress and its impact on the engineering colleges faculty members in Tamil Nadu
by A. Senthil Kumar, R. Seranmadevi
Abstract: The present study examined the specific causes, levels and effects of stress experienced by faculty members who worked in unaided private engineering and technology (UPET) colleges in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Factor analysis and structural model were used to evaluate the relationship between the causes, subsequent effects at different level of stress and the appropriate personal and organisational stress coping strategies. Primary data were collected from 560 faculty members by employing convenience sampling method during the academic year 2017-2018. The study revealed that causes of stress influencing considerably the level of stress and the level of stress explained the high influence on the effect of stress variables. Both effects of stress and causes of stress were negatively influencing the stress coping strategies of personal as well as organisational level strategies.
Keywords: causes of stress; coping strategies; effects of stress; factor analysis; faculty; higher education; level of stress; stress; unaided private engineering and technology; UPET; work environment.
Special Issue on: IJPSPM SAC-MESS 2019 Accounting, Performance Management Innovations, and Responsible and Lean Practices in Public Sector Organisations
IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON PROJECT PERFORMANCE WITH MEDIATING ROLE OF KNOWLEDGE CREATION PROCESS
by Muhammad Arshad Abbas, Muhammad Wasim Akram, Shaza Mahar, T.A.N. OWEE KOWANG
Abstract: Purpose of Study: Present study aims to investigate the impact of organizational culture through consistency and effectiveness culture on project performance directly and indirectly with mediation of socialization and externalization in knowledge creation process. rnDesign/Methodology: In order to investigate the model of study data was collected from software development houses (IT sector) in Pakistan. 136 responses were collected and analyzed with (PLS-SEM) to test the hypotheses studied. rnResults/Findings: Results support the positive impact of consistency and effectiveness culture on project based performance of software development houses and externalization in knowledge creation process significantly mediates the relationship between organizational culture aspects consistency and effectiveness with project based performance. rnImplication/Contribution: This study contributes to organizational knowledge creation theory to assist in process of performance as it affects by adopted cultural aspects which are underpinned by knowledge creation process by providing appropriate evidence to the model.rn
Keywords: Consistency Culture; Effectiveness Culture; Socialization; Externalization; Project Performance; PLS-SEM.
Taxpayers morality and tax amnesty participation
(survey on the individual taxpayer in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia)
by Laxmi Kusuma Wardhani, Arie Pratama
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine whether individual taxpayer morality would influence the taxpayers decision to participate in the tax amnesty programme. In this study, morality was measured by three dimensions: (1) moral cognition; (2) moral courage; and (3) moral identity. Data were collected by questionnaire and was distributed to 165 respondents. The research hypothesis was tested using binary logistic regression. The result showed that morality has a positive influence on taxpayers desire to participate in a tax amnesty programme. All the control variables also influenced the taxpayers decision. This study implied that taxpayers with strong morals would try to atone for their past tax sins by utilizing the forgiveness given in the form of a tax amnesty. Therefore, this research contributes to a better visualisation of taxpayers compliance model that can be used by a government to strengthen the level of tax compliance.
Keywords: morality; tax; tax amnesty; tax compliance; Indonesia; individual taxpayer.
THE TAXONOMY OF DEVELOPMENT IN VIETNAM DURING 2012-2015
by Han Ton, Prapon Sahapattana
Abstract: Vietnam has been known as developing countries with remarkable development after the devastation in Vietnam War nearly 50 years ago by acquiring and adapting development theory. At the present, the development has been not only taken place in Ha Noi capital and Ho Chi Minh city, but also permeating into other provinces with the wave of economic transition, the concentration on human development, the pursuit of enabling government, the challenges on climate change, and the like. Hence, to fully understand development in Vietnam in the nuanced picture, the study built the multidimensional taxonomy of development in Vietnam by using quantitative approach with the panel data from 63 provinces within the period 2012-2015 (i.e., totally 252 samples). Initially, the conceptual framework of development including structural transformation, human development, good governance was adapted from development theory and verified by using factor analysis. Subsequently, the multidimensional taxonomy of development was built on such verified conceptual framework by using cluster analysis. As the results, there are four clusters with their specific characteristics of development. Cluster 1 shoulders the national earnings contributing enormously to the national economic growth; whereas good governance becomes the positively emergent feature with industrial transfer in Cluster 2. Cluster 3 and Cluster 4 have characteristics of largely agricultural economies with low levels in human development and good governance. In addition, the research reveals the development transition in some provinces from positive to negative trends and even messy trends. As the implications, this taxonomy with different development clusters may support the government in designing developmental polices among clusters and provinces in Vietnam.
Keywords: development; multidimensional taxonomy; transition; cluster analysis.
The Implementation of 5S as an Organisational Development Practice: A Case Study in a Property Development Company in Malaysia
by Turki Mohammad Alderaan, Shah Rollah Abdul Wahab, Kuganesh Chendrasekaran, Kanakam Anandam
Abstract: Organisational Development (OD) has become a significant aspect in every industry and can be achieved using 5S; a system for organising workspaces such that performance can be done efficiently, effectively, and safely. Property developers such as Government Link Companies in the state of Johor, Malaysia faced some difficulties in organising workspaces. The research aims on studying how the implementation of 5S concept in the organisation contributed to the organisational development. The study adopted a qualitative research and used participant observations and secondary documents as the main source of data mining. The researchers voice recorded all the observations and analysed the data based on the changes observed. The practical implementation of A SWOT analysis of the company was performed, which measured the organisational efficiency and effectiveness to achieve the company goal and highlighted the role of the 5S implementation in the organisational development. The general Model of planned changed was applied to identify the problems in the organisation. In order to solve the problems of the organisation, the four stages in General Model of Planned Change which are Entering and Contracting, Diagnosing, Planning, and Implementing Phase, were carried out in the selected organisation as a model of planned change. The term 5S which comes from five Japanese words, Seiri which means sorting, Seiton means set in order, Seiso means sweep, Seiketsu means standardise, Shitsuke means sustain was used. An external consultant as the OD practitioner which has 10 years of working experience in the consulting firm and expert in management issues was contracted to implement the 5S. Upon implementation of the new strategies, the company transformed into a more different and vibrant environment than it was in 2012 in relatively three years period. The company became more work-encouraging, smooth and promoted improvement of changes. The issues and challenges that the company was having disappeared and they no longer affect the company performance. These findings showed that 5S has been implemented to overcome the issues in the company. The research faced some limitations involving the ability of researchers to have access to some documents related to 5S as some are confidential, the inability for researchers to visit other branches outside the state of Johor.
Keywords: Organisation Development; 5S; Continuous improvement.
The influence of ethical culture on corruption: the public sector perspective
by Afzal Izzaz Zahari, Jamaliah Said, Roshayani Arshad
Abstract: The actions of corruption in society have left material impacts such as economic loss at the expense of the stakeholders (Button, 2016). The concepts of culture are wide in terms of observing its roles in the population. Having ethical cultures in the organisation might bridge the gap towards higher levels of understanding, as to why people are still committing acts of corruption (Kaptein, 2009). This paper is an observation of whether ethical culture can impact corruption in a public sector environment. The overall design is through analysing 251 government employees comprising executives, managers, and directors from the private sector. The questionnaire contains questions on ethical climate and perceived acts of corruption. The data on corruption is based on the perceptions of government employees pertaining to acts of fraud and bribery in the organisation. The data has been collected through an online questionnaire that has been distributed among government agencies. A total sample of 251 government employees had submitted their feedback. The findings indicate that some parts of ethical culture have a role in controlling corruption in an organisation. The practicality of the research provides a further understanding of Asian behaviours towards ethical culture. The viewpoint of whether having an ethical culture is a social norm in an organisation would provide further insight into why people are still committing acts of corruption. The understanding of human behaviour provides different methods of assessment as to which improvements can be made for society.
Keywords: corruption; ethical culture; and public sector.
TRANSACTION COST ANALYSIS IN BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING (BIM) ADOPTION PROCUREMENT: AN INITIAL STUDY
by Toh Ka Bean, Fara Diva Mustapa, Muzani Mustapa
Abstract: Procurement method is the organisational structure adopted by the project client for the management of a project design and construction. Many construction disputes has been arised in construction industry stem from the adoption of fragmented traditional procurement. This scenario has led to higher transaction costs in managing the project, which eventually affects the overall cost and performance of the project. With the aim to minimise high transaction costs due to disputes, Building Information Modeling (BIM) was introduced. The ability of BIM to detect clashes at the early stage of a project is said to be able to minimise the high transaction costs caused by construction disputes. Hence, it is beneficial to study the Transaction Costs Economics (TCE) in BIM adoption procurement to study the extent of effectiveness of BIM in minimising the transaction costs. Studying TCE can be useful, as it can unveil the TCs, which is believed to be capable of improving the project performance. It can unveil the unseen costs associated with a project, and eventually identify the causes of disputes or factors affecting the TCs. Many previous researches have delved on the comparison of TCs in several procurement types, but no study has been done on TCs with BIM adoption so far. Therefore, this research aims to investigate the TCs components in BIM adoption procurement. This research employs qualitative approach through a semi-structured interview with a group of BIM experts. The questions were designed based on RIBA Plan of Work with BIM overlay produced by RICS UK. The data gathered can provide good insights on the TCs components, types of TCs, and requirements for the employment of BIM adoption procurement. The outcome will serve as the basis to developing a framework for outlining the transaction costs in BIM adoption procurement. The framework will assist industry players with a clear and logical understanding of the transaction costs involved in BIM adoption procurement.
Keywords: Transaction costs; Building Information Modeling (BIM); Procurement; Construction industry.
PROFESSIONAL PERCEPTIONS ON THE ROLES OF SKILLED WORKERS IN PERFORMANCE OF CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
by Leje Mohammed Isah, Shamsulhadi Bandi, Fadhlin Abdullah
Abstract: Skilled workers in the construction sector play an essential role in the socio-economic growth and development of the industry, as they are directly involved in construction operations. Despite these concerns, not much research has examined the roles of skilled workers in the performance of the construction industry. Therefore, this research aims to examine the roles of skilled workers, taking into account the construction professionals perceptions. The objectives of this research include; to identify the roles of skilled workers and to determine the most significant roles based on construction industry professionals perceptions. A sample of 40 professionals each were randomly selected from the list of professional quantity surveyors, architects, builders and engineers which gives a total number of 160 questionnaires distributed, out of which the responses rates received were 90 (56.3%). Data were analysed through Relative Importance Index (RII) for ranking comparison among the professionals on a scale range from 1-5 for rating their responses. Rank Agreement Factor (RAF) and Percentage Rank Agreement Factor (PRAF) was used to measure the agreement of the importance ranking among construction professionals. The results of the RII show that improve work quality were ranked as the topmost role by builders and engineers, second by quantity surveyors and seventh by architects. PRAF revealed the ?ve most significant roles of skilled workers as; improve work quality, improve overall project delivery, increase long-term productivity, reduce wastages of construction materials and improve workmanship. Drawn from the results, it revealed that the most significant roles of skilled workers arise from improvement on organisational productivity, performance and profitability. Hence, it was recommended that the constructors and policymakers should ensure the supply of skilled workers for the performance construction industry.
Keywords: Construction sector; Performance of construction industry; Skilled workers; Socio-economic growth and development.
The Impact of Lean Manufacturing Practices on Firms Sustainable Performance of Manufacturing Industry Sector
by Ismail Droup, Ahmad Jusoh, Abbas Mardani, Khalil Md Nor, Adil Dafaalla
Abstract: Recently, the manufacturing industry has integrated Lean Practices into their manufacturing systems to achieve sustainable performance. However, the impact of these Lean Practices on the sustainable performance of the manufacturing industry sector needs to be assessed systematically. To achieve this, we conducted a scoping review to map out research on the antecedents of sustainable performance of the manufacturing industry sector in relation to sustainable performance drivers. The overall conclusion of the review was that the impact of lean practices on firms sustainable performance is mixed findings. However, there is plenty of evidence of a strong relationship between the way in which lean practices are implemented and their impact on the sustainable performance of the firm as the root cause for unsustainable lean practices is stemmed from the challenges posed and paradoxical tension caused by integrating soft and hard lean objectives
Keywords: Lean practices; hard lean Practices; Soft Lean Practices; sustainable performance; economic performance; social performance.
Developing the Modified Accountability Disclosure Index for Local Governments
by Dayang Hafiza Abang Ahmad, Corina Joseph, Roshima Said
Abstract: Citizens desire for a transparent information urges the government to improve its services delivery through information disclosure. High corruption cases reported among public officials are the results of low disclosure of accountability practices among local governments. This paper aimed to explain the development of a disclosure index, the Modified Accountability Disclosure Index (MoADi), for local governments in Malaysia. MoADi acts as a comprehensive checklist and a tool to assess the extent to which accountability practices are disclosed on the official websites of Malaysian local governments. MoADi checklist includes seven categories of information: overview, management, core services, customer management, presentation, delivery and others. Information categories include six non-financial and one financial information with a total of 100 checklist items which adopts dichotomous and unweighted scoring method. MoADis development involves a number of steps. The steps start with an inclusive review of national and international guidelines which are developed through the detailed process and past literature on disclosure practices, followed by modifications and experts validation of the items. MoADi helps local governments to regularly monitor the accountability practices prior to auditing process by the authoritative agencies. Hence, it helps local governments to improve their accountability practices in the future, particularly on the websites. This paper also contributes to the existing literature on disclosure of accountability practices and disclosure practices in public sectors.
Keywords: Disclosure; accountability practice; local governments; index; websites; public sector.
Technical Influence On Knowledge Grid Model to Promote Knowledge Sharing in Big Data Community
by Sara Hosseinioun, Rusli Abdullah
Abstract: The significant role of big data in improving decision making, services and, productivity in organisations is not doubtable, therefore knowledge sharing is necessary to avoid redundancy and reduce time and cost. So a suitable infrastructure such as knowledge grid that can effectively capture, share, publish and manage knowledge resources to answer the questions from masses of data will be essential. This qualitative research aimed to analyses a knowledge grid model from a technological view to facilitating knowledge sharing among big data community. In this way, the study reviews the technology effects in the current knowledge sharing model and it also highlights the connection of knowledge grid, technology, and big data. It narrows the finding by knowledge grid components as node and link, different layers in a knowledge grid architecture and their condition from technical view by analyzing current knowledge grid models and their represented data. As a result, the paper clears the technological factors, their relationship, and effect in designing a knowledge grid model to promote knowledge sharing in the big data community.
Keywords: Knowledge Grid; Big Data Community; Knowledge Sharing.
Uses of electronic catalog in public procurement in Indonesia to more effective mechanism in strengthening economic security
by Syahrul Salam, Arry Bainus, Widya Setiabudi, Tirta Nugraha Mursitama
Abstract: The use of electronic catalogue in public goods and services procurement is a solution to provide more effective procurement mechanism in globalisation era. However, the uses in the developing countries including Indonesia are in doubts and under question. This study aims at researching the implementation of electronic catalogue in Indonesia. Furthermore, this study investigates its strength and weakness of its limitations, and its impacts towards the national goals. The study used qualitative research methods by analysing the data that had been gathered from the government and secondary data from media. The study used the concept of economic vulnerability index as the conceptual input to determines the Indonesian national economic goals and its relations with the electronic catalogue. The study findings show that despite lack of digital infrastructure and knowledge, the uses of the electronic catalogue in Indonesia are more effective mechanism than the traditional forms. The study findings show that the electronic catalogue implementation In Indonesia is able to provide relatively more efficient, effective and accountable procurement even though has several limitations: lack of digital infrastructure, and human resources, and security issues. Therefore, the uses of the electronic catalogue in Indonesia have more advantages than the traditional forms to strengthen economic security that is manifested in the decreasing level of economic vulnerability index.
Keywords: E-catalog; government procurement; economic vulnerability index.
Audit Committee Competencies and Corporate Disclosure Transparency of Malaysian Government Linked Companies
by Muhammad Iqmal A Manap, Nur Shuhada Ya'acob, Bakhtiar Alrazi
Abstract: Transparency through corporate disclosure is crucial especially in a society that demanding for real time information. Underlying this is a belief that competencies enhance the effectiveness of audit committees and, by extension, the corporate disclosure transparency. This study primarily analyses the relationship between audit committee competencies and corporate disclosure transparency of Malaysian GLCs. The competencies examined in details are experience, advanced academic qualification, training and multiple directorships. Regarding experience, it is divided into accounting financial experts, finance experts and supervisory experts. To achieve this objective, a quantitative-positivist approach has been adopted in this study wherein the aggregate disclosure index was designed and annual reports of 10 GLCs for the period of 2009-2017 were used to collect data. Using multiple regression analysis on data collected, the results show that accounting financial experts, finance experts and advanced academic qualification have a significant positive influence on the corporate disclosure transparency. However, there is no evidence that supervisory experts, training and multiple directorships affect corporate disclosure transparency.
Keywords: competencies; corporate disclosure transparency; GLCs; audit committee; disclosure index.
Factors Affecting the Attitude and Intention of Thai Gen Xers to Travel Overseas as Free Independent Travellers(FITs)
by Chalongrat Rattanakhongsuk, Natchapol Lopiroon, Nunsinee Petcharapirat, Peerapum Hemansutthikul, Suprawee Watchararungroong, Thanapol Anangosolporn, Warumporn Terdpataweepong, Guntalee Ruenrom, Apichart Kanarattanavong
Abstract: With the number of Thai free independent travellers from Generation X continuing to increase, this study aims to identify the factors that affect the attitudes and intention of this specific group when independently planning their own travels abroad. The theoretical framework is adapted from Cromptons (1979) concept of travel motivation. The independent variables comprise escape, excitement, relaxation, knowledge seeking, relationship, ego-enhancement, self-actualization, friends and relatives, media influencer, facilities, price sensitivity and foreign language skills. The research used the judgmental sampling with a sample size comprising 365 Thai Gen Xers who were born between 1965-1979. The data was collected by an online survey.
The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, multiple regression analysis and Spearmans correlation. The results showed that knowledge seeking, ego-enhancement, media influencer, facilities and foreign language skills significantly influence the attitudes of Thai Gen Xers towards FIT. Attitude was also found to be positively related to the intention to go free independent travelling. Both significant and insignificant factors are discussed as well as the limitations and suggestion for future research. Both the governmental agencies and the private sector in the destination countries can benefit from the results of this research.
Keywords: Free Independent Travellers (FITs); Generation X; internal motivation factors; external motivation factors; tourist characteristics.
THE EFFECT OF WORK COMMITMENT AND COMPETENCE ON JOB SATISFACTION AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE OF BANK PEMBIAYAAN RAKYAT SYARIAH BHAKTI SUMEKAR
by M.O.H. HAIRUL WAHYUDI, SUWITHO
Abstract: Human resources have become one of strategic issues of Islamic banking in Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of work commitment and competence on employee job satisfaction, the effect of work commitment and competence on employee performance and the effect of job satisfaction on the employees performance of BPRS Bhakti Sumekar. The population in this study amounted to 239 employees of BPRS Bhakti Sumekar Sumenep East Java. A sample of 150 respondents. Data analysis technique is using the Partial Least Square (PLS) method. The result of the study concludes that work commitment does not give significant effect on employee job satisfaction. Competence has a positive impact and significant on employee job satisfaction. Work commitment and competence have a positive impact and significant on employee performance. Job satisfaction has a positive impact and significant on employee performance. The novelty of this study show that work commitment has no effect on employee job satisfaction at the Bank Pembiayaan Rakyat Syariah Bhakti Sumekar. Because according the theory requires that work commitment has an effect on employee job satisfaction (Luthans, 2005). Theoretical Implications. Based on the findings of the research in advance it can produce commitment, competence and job satisfaction will significantly improve the performance of company employees embed commitment and implement these variables to employees. Meanwhile, the implication of this research in science, especially human resource management science, is that this research enriches the empirical research that has been conducted, where the results of the study are very varied. Practical Implications. Practically, the results of this study can be used as input in the implementation of commitments, competencies and job satisfaction of employees in companies, especially companies owned by the region that the commitment, competency and job satisfaction management variables are needed to improve employee performance.
Keywords: work commitment; competence; job satisfaction and employee performance.
Partner Engagement on Universitys Community Service Program in Indonesia
by Fitra Lestari, Budi Azwar, Jonnius Jonnius, M. Arrafie Abduh
Abstract: Universitys community service program in Indonesia is one of facilitator, catalyst and mediator in empowering the community. In addition, the mosque is not only a place of ritual worship but also able serves for empowering the community. Integration between community service program at university and mosque programs is expected to be mosque based empowerment for the community. To implement this program, there are three partner institutions that collaborate to increase the quality of life of society involving village management, non-governmental organizations, and mosque management. The problem of this study shows that there is no known response from partner engagement to activities carried out by the universitys community service program on mosque-based empowerment. Thus, the purpose of the study is to determine the response of partner engagement in order to the implementation of mosque-based empowerment. This case study has a sample of 210 respondents in two universities in Indonesia. Finding found that the response of partner engagement to the implementation on university A was categorized as good with a score of 12234 and university B categorized as excellent with a score of 2118. In addition, mosque management is selected to be the best partner institution in providing the universitys community service program with a mean of 68.69. The implication of this study can be used as a reference for improving the community service program in Indonesia. Further study is suggested to consider the addition of government partner engagement in order to provide community service by the university.
Keywords: Partner engagement; mosque-based empowerment; university’s community service program; Indonesia.
MC-COMET3 as a Learning Strategy to Develop Students Number Sense:
A Theoretical Framework
by ILDA SALWANI AMEER HAMZA, Abdul Halim Abdullah, Sharifah Osman
Abstract: Numerous concerns were revealed to students struggles in Number Sense by Malaysian researchers lately. Nevertheless, in a contemporary Malaysian classroom atmosphere, pencil-and-paper computation, and the application of a calculator that results in the generation of an exact answer are becoming more prevalent. Although the mental computation and computation estimation were long introduced in the Malaysian education practice, yet, students are incompetent in both skills. They still regard that mathematics is about getting a specific answer. This article aimed to suggest a theoretical framework in promoting a learning strategy to support students number sense. The intention of developing a learning strategy is to enhance mental computation and computation estimation skills as a tool in number sense without the use of written computation by developing the MC-COMET3 learning strategy (learning mental computation and computation estimation strategies mentally). One of the components in the learning strategy is the employment of the comparison approach to promote students thinking. This research intended to render information in improvement efforts and beneficial guidance in terms of employing knowledge of facility with numbers and operations to computational settings.
Keywords: number sense; mental computation; computation estimation; learning strategy; comparison approach.
Effect of Job Satisfaction and Emotional Intelligence on Employee Performance at the University of Mayjen Sungkono Mojokerto
by SETYAASIH SETYAASIH
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Job Satisfaction and Emotional Intelligence on Employee Performance partially and simultaneously. This research is also to find out between work satisfaction and emotional intelligence which have dominant influence on employee performance. The population in this study were employee of the University of Mayjen Sungkono Mojokerto. Determination of the sample in this study is using saturated sampling where the entire population is sampled as many as 30 employee. The results of t test of job satisfaction variable (X1) obtained t count = 2.583 greater than t table = 2.051 with a significant value t> 0.05. Thus the direction of the regression coefficient means that job satisfaction has a positive and not significant effect on employee performance. Likewise the emotional intelligence variable (X2) with a value of t count = 3.720. Thus the direction of the regression coefficient shows that emotional intelligence has a positive and significant effect on employee performance. From the results of the t test, it is known that emotional intelligence is scored at 3,720, more dominant on employee performance compared to job satisfaction which is scored 2,583. Based on the results of the research that has been conducted, the researcher suggests to maintain Job Satisfaction and invite motivators periodically to maintain Emotional Intelligence from each individual within the University of Mayjen Sungkono Mojokerto.
Keywords: Job Satisfaction; Emotional Intelligence and Employee Performance.
Knowledge Sharing Based on Organisational Culture and Remuneration Applied to Improve Employee Performance Quality in Public Service Agencies
by Abdullah Jabid, Moeljadi Moeljadi, Nur Indrawati, Sumiati Sumiati
Abstract: This study aims to obtain the relationship between the remuneration system and willingness to share knowledge and its impact on performance in public service agencies moderated by their organisational culture in work in multicultural areas. Previous studies about remuneration and their effect on employees performance have been done before, but it does not include their organisation culture as the variable. The design of data collection uses a survey approach. The hypothesis made using Inter-Variable Path while the calculation using PLS from SPSS 2.0 Software. Remuneration policies can encourage knowledge sharing activities among employees supported by remuneration, clan culture, and market culture applied in the organisation. The methodology used in this study organised to public organisations and other services, but the results of the research require re-testing in each of the organisations studied.
Keywords: Public Service Agencies; Knowledge Sharing; Organisational Culture; Remuneration; Employee Performance.
Sustainability Disclosure and Financial Performance: Evidence in Malaysia Public Listed Companies
by NORRAIDAH ABU HASAN
Abstract: The role of information disclosure is important in the capital market as it reflect the business strategies to win the investors confidence and increase the firms financial performance. By adopting Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) estimation approach, this paper aims to examine the relationship between sustainability disclosure and the firm financial performance for Malaysian public listed firms for the period from 2013 to 2017. This paper will refine the theoretical background of stakeholder theory associated with the sustainability disclosure. Stakeholder theory is use to capture the inherent interrelationships of CSR disclosure and firm performance. The findings of this study suggest that the sustainability disclosure have a significant and positively impact on the performance of the listed companies.
Keywords: information disclosure; corporate social responsibility (CSR); financial performance; stakeholder theory.
Special Issue on: VCBMC-2019 Consumer-centric Insights and Organisation Performance
Online Impulse Buying : A Qualitative Inquiry for consumer centric insights
by Pawan Kumar, Ritu Kumra
Abstract: In this present era, consumer behaviour has become very volatile and instant purchased is named as impulse buying. For the marketers it has become difficult to motivate the behaviour of the customer for brand switching and increase the number of unit purchase. In Indian context e-impulse buying is new phenomenon therefore a qualitative approach through conducting focus interview has been adopted to explore it deeply. The population for the study is heterogeneous because it comprised of all types of consumers who often go for online shopping in past six months. Purposive sample technique was be used to collect data. Consumers were interviewed and their experiences were recorded with the pre-approval of the respondents. The study provides insights, add to the knowledge of the researchers, academicians and online strategist to optimise their strategies in a better way.
Keywords: Impulse buying behaviour; online shopping; Qualitative research; consumer behaviour; buyer’s experiences; elements trigger impulse buying.
Online Shopping Site Selection Attributes and Meta Tags: An Empirical Analysis
by Rahul Sharma, Rajesh Verma, Megha Mehta
Abstract: With the availability of better information technology infrastructure in India, there are many national and global online shopping sites that have started to emerge in the Indian online shopping front. India with 400 million internet users, is the worlds 2nd largest internet market and the e-commerce market of India is projected to touch $84 billion by the year 2021. The need of the hour is to identify attributes of shopping Sites that play part in shaping consumers online platform selection intention and also to access the understanding of online shopping site about customer preferences. Prior studies have investigated factors that affect the preference of consumers towards e-retail websites but what attributes of e-retailers attract them to use such services is still an unexplored area. Meta-tag analysis of the major online retailers will help in the assessment of the online retailers knowledge of customer preferred attributes. This study will help e-retailers to understand the kind of attributes that are preferred by customers in selecting a website for online shopping and where do online retailers stand in exploiting consumer preferences in their search engine optimization efforts.
Keywords: online shopping; e-retail; meta-description; meta-keywords; India; online retailer attributes.
Understanding of Consumers Perception toward Select FMCG Products
by Dwarakanath Siriguppi
Abstract: The Indian FMCG sector is in growing at a healthy rate, but this sector is also experiencing several challenges like the balance of product portfolio, quality perception, attractive pricing, innovative promotional strategies. Since FMCG companies are experiencing the various challenges, it is inevitable for the marketers to understand changing consumers perception to serve better than the competitors. The purpose of this stud is to examine the consumers perception toward select FMCG products. It is also another attempt to uncover the antecedents of perception. The study incorporated academic literature, concepts of perception. To test the hypothesis the statistical tools like Factor analysis has been used. A Survey was conducted by selecting a sample of 1150 consumers. The study found that the variables like Brand loyalty, opinion labelling, and purchase decision are not independent of gender, education, occupation, and income of the consumer.
Keywords: FMCG products. Consumer behaviour. Consumers’ perception. Brand loyalty. Product value. Promotion. Product labelling. Packaging. Price.
Special Issue on: SIMSARC 2019 Futurology Moving towards Technologically Sustainable and Inclusive Growth
AI as a Tool in Internal Communication to Reduce Employee Attrition Rate in India
by G. Nikita, Sai Nethra
Abstract: Employees are a powerful tool of communication and are more likely to be viewed as an expert on a brand than anyone else. Employees need a formal program to effectively and appropriately represent their brand (Brito, 2018). As employees are representatives of their business to the outside world, a structured communication strategy can bridge the knowledge gap and create an informed workforce. This research takes into account the role of artificial intelligence in internal communication that delves into the benefits that arise when employees are fully involved in the organizations ethos, values and functioning (Aristotle, 1989). The objective of this research is to understand: 1. the role of AI in increasing employee engagement 2. Application of AI in tandem with work stress for employees and 3. Ease of AI usage w.r.t. up-skilling/ cross skilling, switching organizations etc. rnThe methodology implemented is a mixed method approach. The primary data collection consisted of a pilot study done through a structured questionnaire on among a target audience of 60 working professionals that includes 50 employees and 10 industry experts as a part of quantitative study. For qualitative study, in-depth interviews with 5 industry experts across various fields such as, AI, Corporate Communication and HR was done. This included industry professionals consisting of 2 Corporate Communication professionals, 2 Human Resources professionals and 1 person working for Artificial Intelligence. The employees were from diverse sectors including Advisory services, Analytics, Automobile, Banking and Finance, Communication, Construction, Commerce, Education, Engineering, FMCG, IT and Technology, Oil and Natural Gas, and Shipping. Secondary sources of data collection included previous research papers and studies, annual reports, and other companys earned and owned media. The timeline for this research was across three months i.e. December 2018-February 2019 and the sample size of 60 people were selected purposively. rn
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Attrition; Corporate communication; Employee engagement; Internal Communication.
Special Issue on: ICBM-2019 Disruption in Business
Systematic Review of Emotional Intelligence in Virtual Teams
by Anu Singh Lather, Simran Kaur
Abstract: In recent years, emotional intelligence (EI) has gained growing attention as a driver of team performance. However, the EI literature is still at nascent stage in explaining the impact of emotional intelligence on virtual team performance. Increasing globalisation and the growth of new technology have not only made virtual multi-cultural teams a reality, but also a significant one. Members of the global virtual team infrequently involve in face-to-face interaction with each other and therefore face challenges that do not relate to the traditional team. Thus the purpose of this paper is to review and reconcile the papers related to Effect of EI on Virtual Teams of service representatives. This literature review analysed the relationship between effect of Emotional Intelligence on performance of Virtual Teams. This paper further examines the quality and scope of current research studies related to the importance of EI in Virtual Teams. This study is based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. These guidelines ensure systematic and transparent review and meta-analysis. Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool was used to evaluate the selected research studies in terms of quality of the research methodology. 18 relevant primary studies published since the year 2000 were identified and analysed. These studies emphasized the relationship between EI and the performance of Virtual Teams, although there is a dearth of quality research study specifically, experimental and longitudinal studies, which impedes a better understanding of the underlying theory of EI in Virtual Team members.
Keywords: Emotional Intelligence; Virtual Teams; PRISMA; MMAT; Meta-Analysis.
FinTech Driven Financial Inclusion - The Hype and the Reality of Missed Targets
by Anupam Mehrotra
Abstract: Financial Inclusion and inclusive growth is the clarion call given by nations all across the globe as they become increasingly aware that growth is more sustainable when it is inclusive. Close on the heels of this awakening comes to the FinTech revolution which questions the role of traditional players in promoting the inclusion and fosters the same. While the regulated traditional banking channel has been engaged in meeting the challenges of inclusive growth, the emergence of technology is sweeping across the sub-continent marked by stupendous growth in the electronic market, smartphone penetration, cloud-based solutions and the emergence of financial technology companies providing services and products similar and parallel to banking. Even as FinTech seems to redefine the service quality and product delivery through innovative use of technology in the design and delivery of financial products and services, there is a need to moderate the hype by introducing a robust regulatory framework to strike a balance between innovation and compliance and to ensure a service orientation over and above the pure commercial instinct. The instant paper attempts to examine the phenomenal role of FinTech in filling the wide gap of Financial Inclusion, the need for its reorientation towards poorest of the poor and the road ahead in the light of multiple challenges that it faces and poses to the traditional players.rnrn
Keywords: Keywords: FinTech; Financial Inclusion; Sandbox; G-20; Blockchain; HLPs; Artificial Intelligence rn.
Impact of Digitalization on Youth Consumer Dynamics: A Review of Literature Using R-software
by Manoj Mishra, Sunil Kumar
Abstract: The Purpose of this research is to invade the phenomenal rise of digitalization in India with specific reference to the youth consumer dynamic of India. The paper helps to analyse the influence of digitalization on consumer dynamics. This is a conceptual research paper based on secondary sources of literature. All collected articles were analysed with the help of R-software and results were presented in the form of word cloud and tree map. It is found that digitalization has significant impact on consumer dynamics in previous studies. It will be useful for future studies because previous trends can be understood easily. Unexplored areas can be explored with the help of this study. This paper is an attempt to understand the nature of previous studies on this topic and with the help of this paper future course of action can be decided easily. It will help in understanding the existing gap.
Keywords: Youth; Consumer dynamics; Digitalization; India.
Next generation leadership skill - set for Industry 4.0
by Puja Khatri, Sumedha Dutta
Abstract: Digitisation has influenced all organizations across diverse sectors/industries including SMEs with varying impact. Organizations must understand digitisations effect on their working and draft suitable strategy to capitalize on new opportunities and overcome threats. This impact of digital commotion is surrounded with numerous VUCA operational circumstances characterizing the recent onset of fourth industrial revolution. Welcome Industry 4.0! marked with networking and continuous real time communication of man, machine, products, processes and environment. Researchers uphold the view that current era of digitalisation demands leaders to assume new roles for influencing followers and stakeholders towards realizing an organizations mission. Consequently, it calls for leaders to effectively demonstrate the array of next generation leadership skill set to exhibit management of relationships with empathy. This being our objective, we have conducted an exploratory literature review to elaborate the requisite skill set for next generation leadership needed for setting an example in Industry 4.0.
Keywords: Industry 4.0; Critical thinking; Cognitive readiness skills; Emotional intelligence; Social intelligence; Coaching.
Innovation Capability and Effectiveness in Public Sector Organizations: Knowledge Based Performance Management Practices
by Geeta Rana, Pooja Garg
Abstract: Globalization and advancements in technology have caused a radical shift in political and economic landscapes, forcing companies and business alliances to rethink strategies. In a highly competitive scenario, firms are increasingly investing in technology, software, data and artificial intelligence to enhance capabilities and gain competitive advantage. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how knowledge based organizations perceive effectiveness through innovation and performance management practices. 200 employees in the Indian public sector were surveyed. Hierarchical regression analysis and correlation analysis techniques were used to analyze data. Results show that performance management practices are antecedents of organizational effectiveness. Innovation offers organizations greater competence and advantage over rival companies in the public sector.
Keywords: Performance Management Practices; Innovation; Public sector; Knowledge Economy; Product Innovation.
Predictors of Knowledge Sharing in Public Sector Organizations: A Proposed Model
by Vikas Gupta, Asha Thomas
Abstract: Knowledge is essential for the successful development of any economy. Though only recently, the domain of KM has been identified as an avenue for research and practice. The present paper is aimed at examining various factors affecting knowledge sharing (KS) within public sector organizations as this can be beneficial in creating a knowledge-sharing culture which in turn will facilitate knowledge sharing and innovation within such organizations. The authors have also developed an integrative model, involving the antecedents and consequences of KS from a holistic perspective that will guide the researchers who wish to investigate knowledge management (KM) in public sector organizations.
Keywords: Knowledge sharing ; Public sector ; Motivation.
Affective as Mediator of Normative Commitment to Behaviour Relationship and Professional Commitment as Salient predictor of Citizenship Behaviour: Empirical Confirmation
by Gurvinder Kaur, Urvashi Sharma, Gunjas Singh
Abstract: This study examines the mediating effect of affective commitment on the normative commitment to citizenship behaviour relationship of academics. It studies professional, affective, normative and continuance commitment as predictors of organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB). The data was collected through questionnaires from 112 academics at the University of Delhi. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the model fit, validity and reliability. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to examine the relationships. Results show a significant role of professional commitment. Further, there was no direct impact of continuance and normative commitment on OCB. The mediating effect of affective, on the relationship between normative commitment and OCB towards the organisation, was supported;
while towards students, was not supported. No work, having examined the professional commitment along with affective, continuance and normative as regressors of OCB; nor any work studying such mediation could be found, this study fills gaps through empirical confirmation.
Keywords: affective commitment; professional commitment; normative commitment; organisational citizenship behaviour; OCB.
Special Issue on: The Shifting Goalposts - Disruption in Automation, Computational and Technology Management
An empirical study on benefits and challenges associated with recent Indian government initiative for Women from Bottom of Pyramid on Clean cooking Fuel
by Renuka Mahajan, Richa Misra, Anupama R
Abstract: The government of India has launched various flagship schemes for the upliftment of weaker sections of the society. The governments Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY) was launched with an aim to distribute free of cost liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) connections and thus better quality life of the poor populace. However, after the cylinders were disbursed, though penetration of LPG significantly improved, however it was anticipated, that the poverty stricken people will use LPG minimally, with the common mind set of prolonging its usage. The uniformed Indian women were believed to be reluctant to give up cooking on their cheaper but hazardous traditional fuels. Inspite of the uptake in the number of LPG cylinders connections, there was a need to assess the actual LPG consumption. The basic idea was to gauge, whether the beneficiaries use these connections for all their cooking purposes, on a sustained basis. This paper conducted door to door survey experiment with the aim to assess the effectiveness of this scheme, to identify the current barrier towards the sustained use of LPG, if any, and verify if the programmes objectives have been satisfactorily realized. Since PMUY was considered to be new, ambitious and large scale initiative, the learnings along the way should assist in devising the corrective course of action.
Keywords: Rural; Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojna; PMUY; BPL; Gas Cylinder.
Life Skills as a Game Changer for Job Readiness and Sustainable Employment in Private and Public Sector Industries A Mixed Method Study
by Monika Bansal, Surbhi Kapur
Abstract: Life skills or the positive psychosocial abilities which enable individuals to handle exigencies of everyday life have been widely discussed in education and industry corridors and yet their presence is still relegated to the fringes of curricula with a status of optional, compulsory yet only qualifying or mandatory but the not so important. However, as the uncertain world bordering on the indeterminate ushers new challenges today and the industry tries to sustain the existing and decipher the future, it looks for adaptive agility, empathy, dedication, interpersonal sensitivity as pre requisites to excellence and as attributes in their recruits to handle work demands that arise in a tumultuous corporate environment. Therefore, to assess the veracity of this requirement, the present study tries to explore the importance of life skills learnt at the school/college level for job readiness and for sustaining jobs. It also aims to find out whether life skills become a key deciding factor at the final stage of the corporate selection process. A two-step research process with a mixed method approach was employed for the same. The first stage was an empirical endeavor which included data collection using structured questionnaires for employed youth from private and public sector, who had taken Life Skills training at school or college, social agents, that is, parents and faculty, industry experts from private and public sector who played key roles in their personal as well as professional lives and the quantitative analysis thereof. The second phase of research involved an in depth interview of industry experts from private and public sector who play a vital role as a hiring medium in engineering and business schools. The rationale behind this was to substantiate the results of the quantitative research which could lead to further inroads into a more relevant experiential framework of pedagogy/curricula and a way forward. Also, owing to scant research on the transferability aspect of life skills (despite christening them as transferable skills) and keeping in mind the grounded theory methodology in general and the substantive grounded theory in particular, this study looks at life skills as transferable from one area of action (school/college) to the arena of corporate selection process and finally to the area of action/implementation, the workplace. Additionally, it provides a way forward/tentative framework to prepare the students for a better transition to and alignment with a changing industry setting.
Keywords: Life Skills Training; Employability; Job Readiness; Job Sustenance; Mixed Method Study.
Special Issue on: ENBPGCI 2019 Emergence of New Business Practices for Growth, Competitiveness and Innovation
Determinants of trust on social networking sites and its impact on purchase intention through the mediation effect of customer experience
by Bhuvanesh Kumar Sharma, Pooja Jain, Omvir Gautam, Sunil Mishra
Abstract: High penetration of social networking sites (SNSs) in India, which utilized as an effective way to raise the voice of consumers and helping them in many ways such as; online communities, discussion forums, online recommendations, likes, and comments on products and services. Trust is one of the critical elements which emerges in web-based shopping mainly when customer refers to social media for online shopping. In this way, the motivation behind this examination is to decide the variables which help to build up the trust on social networking sites and its impact on online shopping intention. The research is also determining the mediation effect of customer experience on online purchase intention. A theoretical model developed which specifies the relationship between criterion and predictor variables a total of 642 samples selected from the respondents pursuing a management degree from various b-schools of India. The data analyzed with the help of AMOS v21.0 and SPSS v25.0 software. The study concluded that Perceived privacy, perceived security, perceived value, and perceived risk established as antecedents of online trust on social media. Online trust significantly affects online purchase intention and the effect mediated with customer experience from online shopping. This research contributes to the academics and industry in better understanding the online buying behavior of consumers when they buy products through social media.
Keywords: Social networking sites (SNS’s); Online shopping; online trust; perceivedrnprivacy; Perceived security; Purchase Intention.
Does Perceived Corporate Social Responsibility Improve Customer engagement? - An Empirical Evidence from Indian Banks
by T.Praveen Kumar, M. Kirupa Priyadarsini, K.Soundara Pandiyan
Abstract: In recent years, Banks are trying to embed their corporate social responsibility (CSR) and societal outreach initiatives into their strategic process to improve their competitive advantage and performance. A previous study reveals that CSR initiatives and efforts of the banks will likely to positively influence the customer's attitudes toward that bank and generate favorable behavioral outcomes. This study will provide a deeper investigation of whether the perceived CSR discriminate against the customer engagement level in the bank. This paper attempts to measure the discriminating power of CSR towards customer engagement. Maignan and Ferrell s (2004) scale was used to ascertain the corporate social responsibility, and for measuring customer engagement, the Gallop scale (2001) was used. Primary data was collected through a simple random sampling technique from 612 customers across different banks. The discriminant analysis was carried out to find out the discriminating power of CSR towards customer engagement. Discriminating function model Results exactly predicting customer engagement level based on the CSR initiatives. The findings are supportive and helpful for the banks in formulating effective CRM Strategy to satisfy and engage their customer at a high level through effectively articulated CSR plans and policies
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Customer engagement; Relationship; Discrimination.
Evaluation of India Action Plan for Prevention of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea - A Diarrhoea Management Program in Bihar, India
by Kirti Udayai, Balgopal Singh, Piyush Kumar
Abstract: Globally, with nearly 1.5 billion episodes of Diarrhoea per year, 1.5-2.5 million children succumb to untimely death, before the 5th summer of their existence. Magnitude of the leading cause of paediatric morbidity and mortality in India is indicated by a whopping 3 lakhs deaths per year. Government of India and National Health Mission launched the India Action Plan for Prevention of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea (IAPPD). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of IAPPD in context of awareness and right practises among caregivers of children suffering from Diarrhoea. This study used a structured questionnaire, administered to 737 households selected using cluster multi stage sampling. The findings suggest that the implementation of IAPPD has lead to improvement of overall Diarrhoea management practices in the districts; hence programs should scale up in other districts of Bihar. Conversion of awareness into right practise is the need of an hour for further control and prevention.
Keywords: IAPPD; Diarrhoea; Evaluation; Bihar; Awareness; Treatment; Protection; Prevention; India.
Econometric Investigation of the Relationship of Return on Assets with the Capital Adequacy and Leverage Ratios in Banking System of Turkey
by Furkan Yildirim
Abstract: In this study, the relationship of the return on assets in the banking system with capital adequacy ratio and leverage ratio in Turkey was investigated. The goal of the econometric analysis of the short and long term relationship between 2001-2018 was aimed.Econometric analysis of the short and the long term relationship between 2001-2018 was performed. In the study, ADF and PP tests were used for the unit root test of the series. By using the Johansen-Juselius test as a cointegration test, the long-term relationship between variables was investigated. The Vector Error Correction model was used to determine the short-term effect. As a result of the study, it was observed that capital adequacy and leverage ratios had an effect on the return on assets of the Turkish banking sector.
Keywords: Return On Assets; Capital Adequacy Ratio; Leverage Ratio; Banking Sector.
Concept and Dimensions of Employee Development and Talent Development: Distinctions and Similarities
by Parvati Agrahari
Abstract: Nowadays two approaches, employee development and talent development concepts are interchangeably used by the researchers of human resource development. So in this study, these two concepts are thoroughly discussed through an exhaustive literature review to identify whether they are similar or if not then what the difference between them. To compare them, concepts and dimensions are trying to identify both the approaches of development. The study also exemplifies that, how these words are used interchangeably in articles. With the help of keywords taken from concept and dimensions, the two terms are distinguished from each other. At last, a comparative analysis has been presented in a table form for easy understanding of the similarities and differences. Based on the literature review it can be said that talent development is an updated concept of employee development concept; a personalised development concept. The practices used in talent development are person-specific.
Keywords: Employee development; talent Development; Difference; Similarities.
Special Issue on: Digital Innovation, Artificial Intelligence and Economic Productivity Theoretical, Applied and Methodological Case Issues
Work sharing as a metric and productivity indicator for administrative workflows
by CHARLES ROBERTO TELLES
Abstract: Defining administrative workflow events as a nonlinear dynamics that assume a random ordered or disordered growth rate of information processing, a method has been proposed for identifying productivity at large-scale administrative work systems. Defining those systems as a hybrid structure (continuous or discrete variables), the iterated and attracting fixed-point events that constitute the administrative work activities can present asymptotic convergence for all possible metric space solutions. The system modeling from the Lyapunov exponential stability point of view allows the projection of system performance to be oriented, based on collective behavior phenomena, that is, in other words, the relationship between the number of agents (human resources) and the number of administrative works (workloads) within an administrative workflow hybrid environment.
A mathematical method was developed to generate an indicator of the productivity of administrative complex workflows. The indicator can roughly and steadily reveal the definition of productivity as a state of endosectorial (among internal sector agents) and exosectorial (among external sector agents) work sharing. The indicator can be used by public and private managers to measure human resource efficiency in proportion to work requests/inputs of all administrative works occurring in a given workflow.
This definition differs from traditional or differentiated key performance indicators (KPI), such as working hours, medical certificate, per capita productivity, among others and the proposed methodology is only suitable for large-scale administrative activities that have a wide range of activities as well as the number of agents that perform them.
For system management purposes, it is possible to view the possibility of administrating system discretization, computerization and monitoring in order to be able to predict and validate an exponential function as an indicator of nonlinear environment workplace where the results of productivity can be defined by the amount of work sharing effect. For this approach, three main points that affect productivity in a workplace must be considered, that is discretization, computerization and work sharing effect generated as a collective behavior phenomenon. This way, these three points can be used to estimate productivity towards human resources, innovation and workloads of administrative routines.
Keywords: public administration; mathematical modeling; nonlinear systems; public policy; emergent phenomena; stability; collective phenomena in economic and social systems.
A Comparative Analysis of Technical Efficiency, Technological Change and Total Factor Productivity in Selected ASEAN+3 Countries
by Noorazeela Zainol Abidin, Mohd Shahidan Shaari
Abstract: Total factor productivity (TFP) growth in ASEAN +3 countries exhibits varied trends. This is due to the fact that each country has different skills and different levels of technological advancement. This study aims to analyse the trends in technical efficiency (TEC), technological change (TC) and TFP growth using the Malmquist productivity index method. The analysis is based on data ranging from 1981 to 2014 in selected ASEAN+3 countries. The results show that during the periods 19811985, 19861990, 19911995, 19962000 and 20012005, the contribution of TEC to TFP growth was higher than that of TC. However, during the periods 20062010 and 20112014, the contribution of TC to TFP growth was higher than that of TEC. Therefore, it is imperative for the countries to improve the quality of inputs such as labour. Hence skilled workers are indispensable to produce higher productivity.
Keywords: ASEAN+3; technical efficiency change; technological change; TFP growth.
Blockchain for customer transparency in E-commerce - A survival of fittest not fastest
by Nishant Kumar, Geetika Jain, Archana Shrivastawa
Abstract: Blockchain has been envisioned as the most disruptive technology in the landscape of ecommerce. Due to evolution of technology, there has been a rapid change in the consumption pattern of a consumer, where the consumer is skeptical about ethical & environment issues and demand transparency. Blockchain technology is the answer to these seismic changes in e-commerce industry. There has been an array of challenges for e-commerce retailers to handle like transparency, immutability, reliability and disintermediation. Enchanting moral practices will not build a strong relationship with customers; but, the presence of an innovative tool will poise to revolutionize the business. Though, e-retailers have witnessed the evolution of technology in different spheres; but, the ripple effect of blockchain technology has yet to come. The paper is an attempt to understand consumer acceptance towards new technology where the primary focus would be transparency and plans for human salvation by combating the environment and ethical challenges. The study emphasizes the prospective use of blockchain technology in ecommerce industry which has been coupled with the vagueness of these issues. Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) has been used as the base model to understand the consumer behavior towards using blockchain technology as a new platform with special reference to fashion apparel sector. Providing traceability of product with an objective of consumer transparency in this mould will change the way of doing online shopping and have more onus on retailers.
Keywords: Blockchain; UTAUT; Consumer Transparency.
A study to identify the factors influencing Learning Orientation on Service Innovation framework of Delhi Metro Rail Corporation
by Yogendra Pal Bharadwaj, MUKESH SINGH
Abstract: This study intends to identify the factors influencing learning orientation (shared vision, intra-organizational knowledge sharing, open-mindedness, and commitment to learning) on the service innovation performance of employees working in Delhi Metro Rail Corporation. Based on a self-adapted questionnaire using a five-point Likert scale, it used multiple regression analysis with a sample of 650 employees of DMRC through the proposition of a conceptual model and the hypotheses were tested accordingly. Pragmatic testing of this study identified that commitment to learning, open-mindedness and intra-organizational knowledge sharing were the influencing factors affecting the service innovation framework of DMRC employees, on the other hand, the outcome of shared vision was discovered to be insigni?cant. It provides significant ramifications to the metro officials concerning how to improve service innovation procedures for their employees so that they may work effectively through identifying the relationship of the learning orientation on the service innovation procedure of metro employees'.
Keywords: Learning orientation; service innovation; shared vision; open-mindedness; commitment to learning; intra-organizational knowledge sharing.
Economic impacts assessment of saline agriculture on marginal lands in Egypt: Case study
by Sherine Mansour
Abstract: The paper aims to measure how to improve the livelihood of small farmers in the New valley through the levels of dissemination and application of models for cultivation new introduced crops tolerant to salinity, at El-Kharga area , New Valley Governorate. This was done through economic evaluation, identify the level of farmers performance of the rural productive practices at the New Valley in the fields of agro-economic, social and environmental activities in the area, design different scenarios to determine the impact of the womens role on the added value of plant production, taken into consideration an economic assessment of some small scale industrial- agricultural projects . Statistical techniques are used to analyze the data. The results showed that 64.3% of the respondents did not participate in any training courses. So it is clear that the development of women skills in such area of domestic environmental industrialization requires a new approach. All farmers involved in the project activities realized that the salt-tolerant wheat and barley species mature earlier than other species in the region as they are characterized by the high productivity. In addition to the fact that 80% of the respondents saw that such small scale industries based on agriculture could be accepted in the New Valley region.
Keywords: Economic impact; Environment; Saline agriculture; livelihood; Marginal lands.
Special Issue on: BAVT-2019 Special Issue Title Entrepreneurship, Business and Innovation in the VUCA World
Factor influencing consumer purchase intention for private label food products: a cross-sectional analysis
by Pooja Kansra, Pawan Kumar, Babagana Ali
Abstract: Private label products emerged as auspicious industry with huge growth potential. Thereby, present study plans to identify the determinants which influence the purchase intention of private label food products. A primary survey was performed in the state of Punjab, using convenience sampling approach with a sample of 200 respondents. The analysis was made with the help of descriptive statistics and Logit regression. It was documented that majority of the respondents were aware and likely to pay for private label food products. It was exhibited that age, gender, income, quality and price were the significant determinants of willingness to pay. The present study suggest to focus on quality and to build trust among the customers to be viable in the market.
Keywords: Attitude; awareness; private label; young; determinants; willingness; perception; purchase intention; food products; quality.
Extending UTAUT Model to Explore Factors for Online Shopping Acceptance in Kano State, Nigeria: A Qualitative Study
by Pawan Kumar, Mohammad Umar Usman
Abstract: Using an improved Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model, this study investigated factors influencing consumers intention towards the acceptance of online shopping in the context of Kano state in Nigeria, to confirm or contrast with other global findings. The study was designed as a qualitative analysis, data were collected using one-to-one interview. Convenience sampling technique was employed to select a sample of 20 post graduate students. Qualitative content analysis was used for the analysing the interview data. Major factors predicting consumers intention to shop online were explored as convenience, internet accessibility, security issues, delivery and awareness. Theoretically the integration of UTAUT model with awareness and skilfulness will provide a broad theoretical viewpoint of consumer acceptance of technology in the context of online shopping in Kano state. Managerially, the study will be helpful to e-retailers and policy makers in designing appropriate marketing tactics that will promote acceptance of online shopping in the study area.
Keywords: Consumer acceptance; Intention; Online shopping; UTAUT model.
Suggesting Effective SPM Model to Explain, Predict and Close Skills Gap for Front -Line Sales Employees in Retail Sector: An Integrative Review and Research
by Priyanka Chhibber, Kamalpreet Kaur Paposa
Abstract: This review paper provides a proposal to study about skill prevailing in retail sector, which includes kinds of skills required in retail sector for sales profile and discussing about existing skill gap in current situation. Scholars have devoted much attention on identifying various skills required in retail sector and impact of training towards sales performance, yet the literature detailing the skills gap is limited. Although much of the need is on identifying skills required at entry level employees in sales position, it fails to identify the gap between these skills. The scope of this research work is to suggest a theoretical framework by suggesting SPM(skills, proficiency scale, mentoring) model which covers three different areas all together by following a particular process, which focus firstly understanding the skills required, in the retail sector and identifying the skill gap by finding the difference between skills required and actually owned by the employees in the organized retail sector. Further, in this model skill gap analysis is proposed by adopting proficiency scale which includes none, limited basic, proficient, advanced and expert. The model also highlights the role of mentoring functions primarily career and psychosocial mentoring as an indicator towards curbing the skill gap in retail sector. Thus the major contribution of the research work lies in bringing together the extent literature in the field and proposing a theoretical model for measuring the skill (selling skills, sales presentation skills, mentalizing skills), defining the skill level, calculating the skill gap and controlling the same through mentoring
Keywords: skill; skill gaps; selling skills; sales presentation skills; mentalizing skills proficiency scale; mentoring; career mentoring; psychosocial mentoring.
AN EMPLOYEE PERSPECTIVE TOWARDS TALENT MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES IN SERVICE SECTOR
by Megha Mehta, Sanjay Modi, Rahul Sharma
Abstract: In this intensely competitive business era, talented people have the potential to provide a strong competitive advantage. There is an ever existent need of corporates to retain talent and an assessment of challenges associated with talent management as those faced or perceived by employees grow into pertinent importance. The need of the hour is to understand the employee perspective while framing a talent management strategy. For the purpose of the present study, first-hand data was collected from 457 employees across 20 different companies belonging to four verticals of the service sector, i.e. banking, information technology enabled services (ITES), hospitality and retail. Different challenges as perceived by employees like lack of trust and transparency, inadequate supervisory support, unmet employee expectations have been identified. Vertical-wise comparison of the challenges as perceived by employees has offered a more in-depth understanding of the issue in focus. This study would help practitioners in understanding the employee perspective while framing a talent management strategy.
Keywords: Talent management challenges; employee challenges; effective talent management; service sector challenges.
Role of Employee Responsiveness towards Customer Affective Commitment and Customer Satisfaction in VUCA Environment: A Study on Insurance segment
by Kamalpreet Kaur Paposa
Abstract: Huge under penetration has increased the demand of the insurance services for all types of insurance products in the Indian Insurance industry. The insurance segment has faced major reforms in past years, with a gradual decline of public insurers over the years. There is an emergence of a new category of specialist players and fields. Moreover, the competition among the public and private players has increased due to gradual relaxation of regulation, hence the study has focused on these players in insurance segments so as to identify strategies to survive in the VUCA environment. To get competitive advantage, it is crucial to pay huge importance to the service quality of the services being imparted apart from the product quality. To offer better quality services skilling of employees at each level is necessary so as to ensure customer satisfaction because customer satisfaction eventually leads to customer affective commitment (CAC). However, very few empirical studies currently exist in this field. This study investigates the effect of Employee responsiveness on Customer Satisfaction. Additionally, it also tests the effect of customer satisfaction on the CAC. The study also tries to examine whether customer satisfaction mediates the relationship between employee responsiveness and CAC. Based on the data collected from 173 customers the hypothetical operational model has been tested using regression analysis. Outcomes of the study depict that employee responsiveness has a significant positive direct effect on customer satisfaction and an indirect effect on the CAC. Whereas, Customer satisfaction has a positive influence on CAC and fully mediates the relationship between employee responsiveness and CAC.
Keywords: Competitive Advantage; Customer Satisfaction; VUCA Environment; Customer Affective Commitment (CAC); Employee Responsiveness; Insurance Segment; Service Quality; Full Mediation.
Special Issue on: HPMMGBS-2019 Happiness and Performance Management in the Modern Globalised Business Scenario
Multicriteria Approach to Sustainability evaluation of Indian MFIs- A Well-being perspective
by Ethi Jain, Dr. Pankaj Kumar Gupta
Abstract: The unusual level of poverty and well-being of masses is an ongoing concern for developing and less developed countries across the globe. Well-being, in the context of developing countries like India, is defined to include the social and economic empowerment of people. Microfinance is perceived as a powerful solution that enables individuals in effective decision making, improve their income level, improve their living conditions and enhance their quality of life. Therefore, we find a tremendous increase in the size and operations of Microfinance Institutions (MFIs). From a macroeconomic perspective, the sustainability of these institutions is vital to the national agenda in all developing countries. This motivates us to examine the performance of Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) in India and explore the factors that contribute to their sustainability. The study analyzed the sustainability of 50 Indian MFIs using an integration of two techniques namely (a) Technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) and (b) Data envelopment analysis (DEA) using the data obtained from Microfinance Information Exchange (MIX) database. Multiple regressions have been used to identify the factors contributing to sustainability. We derive that sustainability scores range from low to moderate and the determinants that significantly impact the sustainability of MFIs are Number of active borrowers (NAB). However, assets (A), PAR > 30 days (PAR), Operating Profit (OP) are insignificant. We argue that the integrated approach is effective in combining the efficiency and ranking criterion in evaluating the sustainability of Indian MFIs.
Keywords: Well- being; Sustainability; TOPSIS; DEA; Microfinance Institutions.
Are Emotional people more happy? A moderated mediation approach
by Anu Singh Lather, Simran Kaur
Abstract: Purpose: The current study empirically investigated a moderated mediated model of psychological need for relatedness with employees happiness level. This study examined the current gaps in literature and provided an empirical examination of relationships between psychological need for relatedness, emotional intelligence and employees happiness level.rnResearch Methodology: A total of 195 responses were recorded to undertake the current study. Structural Equation Modelling approach along with Hayes Process Macro was used to test the hypotheses.rnFindings: The findings showed that need of relatedness along with emotional intelligence enhanced happiness level of the employees. The mediation effects of emotional intelligence varied between male and female employees.rnResearch Limitations: This study was conducted on the service sector associates in the area of Delhi NCR using cross-sectional data. Hence, the model should be replicated among service sector associates in other geographical locations and with the longitudinal data.rnPractical Implications: This study suggests a moderated mediated mechanism for enhancing employees happiness level, which incorporates initial trust as emotional intelligence and employees gender as a moderator. It applies self-determination theory to link psychological need for relatedness with employees happiness level. Thus, this study enables a better understanding of this theory in the service sector context.rnFuture Directions: This research is an endeavour to comprehend self-determination theory in service sector. The current study is based on empirical study, but a mixed methodology approach may provide a greater degree of understanding in this crucial field of research in future. The effect of various Socio-Demographic factors like age, gender, education, number of years serving the same organisation, etc., can also be analysed in future studies.rnPaper Type: Empiricalrn
Keywords: Emotional Intelligence; Happiness; Relatedness needs; Moderated Mediation.
Impact of Workplace Happiness on Employee Engagement: A Comparative Study of IT & Non-IT sector employee
by Sana Vakeel, Sunita Shukla, Vikas Singh
Abstract: Being happy at workplace is all about enjoying what employees do and admire where they work.rnWorkplace happiness, not only yields positive results for an employee, but also for thernorganization one works for. Since employees spend much of their lives at the workplace, it isrncrucial to understand the impact of workplace happiness on various factors such as jobrnsatisfaction, employee engagement and effective organizational commitment. The current studyrnexamined the impact of workplace happiness on employee engagement for employees workingrnin the IT and non-IT sectors in Delhi-NCR, India. Regression analysis result shows that 22.7% ofrnthe variation in the employee engagement is explained by workplace happiness. The impact ofrnworkplace happiness on employee engagement was found to be almost similar in IT and Non ITrnsector employees. The study uses Karl Pearsons correlation and regression analysis for datarnanalysis.
Keywords: Workplace Happiness; Employee Engagement; Job Satisfaction; Information Technology.
Effect of Synergy Success and Efficiency Gains through Mergers and Acquisitions on Research and Development
by ISHA GUPTA, Nandita Mishra, Naliniprava Tripathy
Abstract: Mergers and Acquisitions remain a dominant business expansion strategy for firms worldwide, despite there is no conclusive evidence whether it creates value or not. This paper analyses the impact of Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) on Synergy Success and Efficiency Gains through trade off matrix and their impact on Research and Development (R&D). The dataset has 64 firms of the Non-financial sector. The data period has been divided into two period of time, i.e. pre-merger period (2012 to 2014) and post-merger period (2016 to 2018). The Panel Data methodology has been applied, which has two techniques of estimation, one is the Fixed effect model and the other is the Random Effect Model. This study concludes that the M&A creates a trade-off between efficiency gains and synergy success, it also suggests that if acquiring company increases expenditure on R&D it can achieve success in synergies which will lead to technological innovation and has impacted technological advancement after M&A of acquiring companies significantly.
Keywords: Research and Development (R&D); Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A); Synergy Success; Efficiency Gains; Fixed Effect Model.
A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT PRACTICES IN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY: AN EMPLOYEE PERSPECTIVE
by Richa Nangia
Abstract: The aim behind the study is to understand the employee perspective regarding employee engagement practices in automobile industry operating in Delhi NCR. This paper gives emphasis on various practices of employee engagement which leads to organizational growth. Both primary and secondary sources have been used to collect the data for the research. Primary sources used for current study are questionnaire and interviews and secondary sources are business journals, newspapers, magazines, periodicals, etc. Random samples of 5 automobile companies were selected and a survey was conducted targeting 20 top manager employees from each company. Correlation and cross-tab chi square test has been used for empirical analysis and interpretation of data. The study shows that the null hypothesis is accepted which says that employees have awareness regarding employee engagement practices followed in their organization. Work environment, rewards and recognition, opportunities, relationship with boss and communication are the most prevalent employee engagement activities.
Keywords: Employee Engagement; Organizational Effectiveness; Employee Effectiveness; Indian Automobile Industry.
Faculty Work Engagement and Happiness: An Empirical Research
by Poonam Khurana, Swati Narula, Parul Manchanda
Abstract: Happiness at the workplace mentions, how contented people are with their work life. The study aimed to examine the level of work engagement of the faculty members working at different institutes in Delhi/NCR region. This study is explanatory in nature aimed to describe the status of work engagement and happiness at workplace perceived by the faculty members of various colleges/ institutes in Delhi/NCR region. Utrecht Work Engagement Scale was utilized to capture the level of faculty engagement. The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire developed by Michael Argyle and Peter Hills was used to examine the level of happiness perceived by the faculty members. The present research has shown that faculty has reported a high or above average level of Work Engagement (WE). The results indicated that there is significant positive relationship between relationship WE and happiness of the faculty members. All the dimensions of WE are significantly and positively related with Happiness. The regression analysis has shown that vigor is a positive significant predictor of happiness.rn
Keywords: Happiness; Work engagement; performance; faculty.
Analysing political opinions using machine learning
by Pragya Joshi, Akash Singh Kunwar
Abstract: In the era of digital world, text is not confined to textbooks or newspapers anymore. People use platforms like Twitter, Facebook, Quora, and other social media platforms to express their opinions over certain products, movies, social, economic or political causes. Huge chunks of textual data is available on these platforms for analysis.rnThis paper tries to leverage deep learning and natural language processing (NLP) to use the publicly available text data to predict outcomes of Indian general elections by analyzing the tweets with hashtags for various parties, using opinion mining to define polarity in the opinions. It tries to adopt a hybrid approach using NLP. The results from the analysis help in highlighting the potential of machine learning in predicting the election results and identifying the political inclination of people towards specific policies thus, indicating the efficiency of using social media to predict real-world outcomes.rn
Keywords: Twitter; Sentiment analysis; machine learning; Decision tree; Random forest.
Study of Customers Satisfaction Towards Internet Banking Services
by MANISHA GUPTA
Abstract: This is a research to study customer satisfaction with the internet banking services. The factorrnof customer satisfaction with internet banking was identified by review if literature and pioletrnstudy. Three variables were identified efficiency, safety and responsiveness in internet bankingrnservices. It is descriptive type of research and based on primary and secondary date. The resultrnof percentage proved customers are satisfied with internet banking services. The satisfaction isrnhigh with cost of transaction is low, easy to use & instant message after every transaction andrnthe satisfaction is least with requests are handling promptly and error free transaction. Thernresult shows that level of education has negative correlation with customer satisfaction. Itrnmeans that highly educated respondent was less satisfied then less educated respondent. Thernresult shows that there is no significantly difference in customer satisfaction between publicrnand private sector bank.
Keywords: Customer satisfaction; banking; internet banking services; e-banking.
IMPROVING INTERPRETIVE STRUCTURAL MODELLING FOR AGILE METHODOLOGY USING TWO WAY ASSESSMENT
by Rajbala Singh, Deepak Kumar, Bharat Bhushan Sagar
Abstract: There are various challenges in software industries which has been raised due to unpredictable advances in technology and globalization. In the 21st century, software engineering is focused on giving a quality product on time along with coping with the on-going market demand and its conditions. Hence, there is a technique of Interpretive structural modelling (ISM) which is highly established and recognized and used world-wide in the field of research to mark interrelationships among different attributes. ISM uses a step by step technique as identifying all the related attributes to address the issue. Based on the relativity for pairwise comparison of variables and analysing criteria Structural self-interaction matrix (SSIM) is established. Reachability Matrix (RM) is developed from (SSIM) and its transitivity are evaluated based on various attributes for their effective execution in the changing environment. This research paper identifies the interrelationship amongst various attributes as well as its driving power that points out the dependent attributes. Primarily, focus is on the ISM model in order to distinguish important features and then apply Two-Way Assessment which considers the perspective of Management as well as Testers and thus highlights the importance of various traits to measure the overall utility considering the threshold scenario in an organization.
Keywords: ISM; RM; transitivity; SSIM; Two-Way Assessment.
RISK CHARACTERISTICS AND SPEED OF ADJUSTMENT OF FIRMS: A STUDY OF SELECT INDIAN COMPANIES
by Rajni Joshi, Asheesh Pandey, Karamjeet Singh
Abstract: Purpose: The paper intends to investigate whether the risk characteristics have any role in explaining rate of adjustment speed (RAS) towards target debt ratio of firms listed in BSE 500 index. The study presupposes that if risk characteristics can affects the capital structure of a firm, then it could also affect the RAS at which firms adjust their actual debt level towards target debt ratio. \r\n\r\nDesign/methodology/approach: The study utilizes generalized methods of moments (GMM) estimation technique for BSE 500 index. A balanced panel data from the period April 2009 to March 2018 is considered for analysis.\r\n\r\nFindings: The results clearly evidenced that macroeconomic risk and micro risk significantly affects the RAS of firms towards its target level evidencing that both micro and macro risk affects the SOA differently. The paper explains variations in RAS across firms and over times due to risk characteristics. \r\n\r\nResearch limitations/implications (if applicable): The authors suggest that managers should consider both economic conditions and the solvency position of their own firm for firms financing decision.\r\n\r\nPractical implications (if applicable): The results bear important implications for academic, managers as well as regulators. For academic, we provide an out of sample study for an emerging market which contributes to the existing body of literature. Managers must identify the barriers involved in achieving target debt ratio which would promote the growth of the firms. . Regulators should devise policies that can help firms to modify their existing capital structure by making financial institution more accountable and autonomous. \r\n\r\nOriginality/value: The current study considered both company characteristics and macroeconomic risk characteristics to examine their effect on RAS towards target debt ratio for Indian listed firm which has negligible literature for emerging markets, including India.\r\n
Keywords: Dynamic Capital Structure; Speed of adjustment; GMM estimation; micro- risk characteristics; macro-risk characteristics.
Robustness of Sharpe Single Index Model in Indian Market: A unique approach to identify gems
by Dr.Sudhi Sharma, Miklesh Yadav
Abstract: The current stock of knowledge based on Sharpe Single Index Model (1963) is the pure manifesto of the model, i.e. selecting stocks, and finally, weights have allocated according to z values. However, the real question is that the securities filtered with the application of the model are actually showing healthy financials. High yields may be because of insider trading that creates a bubble in the market and thus departs from its real fundamentals. The underlying gap motivates the author to analyze further the selected stocks filtered by the application of the Sharpe Model. The paper is not only the mere application of the method and model but also supported with fundamental analysis to substantiate the strength of the model. The identification of value buying stocks has been achieved effectively by the application of Sharpe Single Index Model in multiple layers.
Keywords: Sharpe Index; Indian Market; Random Walk.
Special Issue on: ICSGR 2020 Sustainability, Governance and Responsibility
An Empirical Investigation on Mitigation of Bullwhip Effect: Practices Perspective
by Sachin Gupta, Anurag Saxena
Abstract: The globalization creates a competitive situation in markets due to which firms strive for optimal establishment of supply chain. Change in technology, response time and shrinkage life cycle of product, constant change in need of customer creates a complex situation in implementation supply chain to gain competitive advantage. One of the major identified phenomenon by virtue of which there exists a hindrance in optimal functioning of supply chain, occur mainly due to operational decisions is identified as bullwhip effect. The present study identifies the factors which mitigate bullwhip effect on the basis of extensive literature review. The study conceptualizes six-dimensional model for mitigation of bullwhip effect based on identified factors. The impact of these factors on mitigating the bullwhip effect is measured empirically using the higher-order confirmatory factor analysis model. The factors viz. information system, inventory management, promotional effect, flexibility have a direct positive significant impact on mitigation on bullwhip effect whereas operations is found to be having a negative impact on the mitigation of bullwhip effect.
Keywords: Bullwhip effect; Supply chain management; Factor affecting bullwhip effect; higher order confirmatory factor analysis.
The Impact of Customers Awareness level on the Sustainability of Payment Banks in India
by Nitin Bansal
Abstract: Payment Banks is a buzz word in Indian banking sector now. Reserve Bank of India has granted licenses to 11 entities to enhance the financial inclusion in India. The objective of the research paper is to analyse the awareness level regarding payment banks in India by low income group people, and the impact of payment banks on acceptability of banking services by low income group in spite of existing commercial banks. Exploratory factor analysis has been administered for the applicability of scale before the use of stepwise method (forward selection) of multiple linear regression. Primary data has collected on 5 point Likert scale using stratified random sampling technique from the Delhi region with the help of questionnaires. 391 useful schedules were considered for analysis of data using SPSS version 23. The results of the study show that there is a low awareness level regarding payment banks in India among low income group people, and also having positive impact of payment banks on acceptability of banking services by low income group in India.
Keywords: Payment Banks; Low income group; Awareness level; Financial inclusion.
Forecasting The Stock Return of Emerging Economies: An empirical study based on ARIMA
by Miklesh Prasad Yadav, Aastha Khera
Abstract: Investors become jittery when they do not earn return on their hard earned money. In the same time, they want to make their investment in safe place rather than losing it. They can predict the return and accordingly they invest it. The basic purpose of the present study is to forecast the stock return of emerging economies. For the same, the adjusted daily closing price of eleven countries is considered for five years. The Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) has been used to forecast the stock return of these countries. The different orders of ARIMA have been applied in predicting the stock return. The stock return of Korea, Philippines and Turkey are not forecastable as their autoregressive and moving terms are zero. The policy makers use it in order to analyze and generate extra return of different countries.
Keywords: Emerging Economies;rnStock Return; rnTesting of Stationarity;rnARIMA'rnAutocorrelation function;.
Role of University Libraries in Sustainable Development Goals Realization
by Mithu Dey
Abstract: As enunciated by UN 2030 Agenda, with 17 core goals, it has been accentuated to eradicate poverty and to protect our planet, ensure prosperity for the benefit of the people, ensure quality of life by conserving national and environmental resources for the future generation by achieving sustainable development worldwide.
On 25th of September 2015, unanimously accepted by all over the world and the tone has been set to accomplish the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which is a globally adopted developmental plans, with the common opinion that the world must have awareness, knowledge and willing to contribute with a positive frame of mind.
For any countries to prosper and progress one should have fundamental aspects with adequate, updated and relevant information on health, education, food security, environment, democracy, gender equality etc. Thus, libraries can play a pivotal role by offering access to information with new ICT assistance that enable people to skill at recognizing, acquiring, organizing, providing for use and visibly conservation of resources to be packaged in such a way that it encourages to fulfill the realization of SDGs. Cornish (2018) has appropriately articulated that, the good thing about the library is we cut across various government jurisdictions; were a bit about education, were a bit about breaking the poverty and its cycle through literacy. Were about health and well-being to help people live better and more fulfilling lives and we are about culture and preservation. So it's important for us to talk to government.
This paper depicts the characteristic and prominence of university libraries and to evaluate the level of awareness, knowledge and attitude towards the attainment of the SDGs globally.
Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; SDGs; UN 2030 Agenda; Libraries; University Libraries; ICT.
Competitive advantage through sustainable supply chain management: an insight into Indian automotive sector
by Neeraj Khera, Rakesh K. Mudgal
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine how the quality, flexibility, cost, delivery impacts the competitive advantage. Research on the relationship of supply chain variables and competitive advantage is highlighted in studies on responsiveness, efficiency and lean and not much focus is been provided to contributions of quality, flexibility, cost and delivery. Therefore, the authors have attempted to compile the literature from these streams. The compilation of exhaustive literature review is grounded with a well-structured empirical study that utilizes best research methods of previous studies on the linkage. A cross-sectional survey sample of 30 Indian manufacturing organizations have been analysed with hierarchical SEM. The findings show that quality, flexibility, cost, delivery, leads to higher competitive advantage. These results imply that supply chain variables are precursors to competitive advantage.This paper contributes to the interrelationship between various supply chain variables and its competitive advantage.
Keywords: Supply Chain Management; Competitive Advantage; Automotive Industry.
Achieving Sustainability through GST: A Step Towards Economic Growth
by Timcy Sachdeva, Swati Narula
Abstract: The Goods and Services Tax (GST), a comprehensive indirect tax imposed on goods and services implemented on July 1,2017, has been regarded as a major taxation reform. GST aimed at creating a single, unified market that will benefit both corporate and the economy. Through implementation of GST, the government tried to move a step towards economic growth and achieving sustainability. Any change in government policy creates a cascading impact on economy which further impacts the stock market of the country. With little literature available on impact of GST on Indian Stock market, the present study tries to bridge the gap and provide a new horizon to explore the aspects of GST implementation in India. The study examines the announcement effect of GST on the wealth of the shareholders in India. Further, the study investigates the impact of GST on different industries listed on S&P Sensex by applying event study methodology. The results suggest that GST announcement has no impact on shareholders wealth.
Keywords: Goods and Services Tax (GST); Abnormal Return; shareholders wealth; Cumulative average abnormal returns.
Special Issue on: MUCET 2019 Sustainable Development Issues and Initiatives in Small and Emerging Industries
Study of Success Factors of Micro-Entrepreneurial Women of Emerging Economies
by Amandeep Dhaliwal
Abstract: Governments worldwide are focusing on development of women microenterprises as they contribute to employment generation, social upliftment and economic development of a nation. Despite their efforts, women owned businesses do not perform well and have high failure/closure rates. This study therefore, firstly identifies the factors which influence the success of women owned microenterprises in emerging economies and then measures the impact and importance of each of these factors using SEM- PLS (Structural equation modeling) technique. The results of the study reveal that in case of women micro-entrepreneurs personal factors and social factors such as Family support, Access to Capital, Marital Status, Need for Work Life Balance, Access to Mentors and Professional Support networks have a high impact on the success. Surprisingly, past work experience and personal motive were found to have no impact. This study would guide policy-makers, practitioners and women entrepreneurs in focusing on the important aspects for success.
Keywords: Women Entrepreneurs; Success Factors; Micro Enterprises; Structural Equation Modelling; PLS-SEM; India.
Fatigue, Sleepiness, and Daily Sleep of Shift Workers in Electronics Manufacturing Industry
by Mohd Shahril Abu Hanifah, Norazura Ismail
Abstract: This paper aims to investigate fatigue, sleepiness, daily sleep, and their association among 416 shift workers in the electronics manufacturing industry. Fatigue, sleepiness, and daily sleep were assessed using the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, and Sleep Diary, respectively. This study found that the prevalence of fatigue is 54.8% and sleepiness is 1.7%. There were 25.7% of workers who did not have an adequate amount of daily sleep. Significant associations (0.158 ? r ? 0.451) were found between all fatigue dimensions with sleepiness, and significant differences were found between night shift and morning shift workers in daily sleep. This study concluded that shift workers were prone to get fatigued and sleepiness and they also tend to get less sleep compared to non-shift workers. Thus, appropriate control measures should be implemented by the management to ensure that these issues could be curb.
Keywords: fatigue; sleepiness; daily sleep; shift work; shift workers; manufacturing; Malaysia.
Special Issue on: GLOBUSS-2019 Driving Excellence through Digital Transformation
AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF JOB ASPIRANTS PERCEPTION TOWARDS E- RECRUITMENT PRACTICES
by Chand P. Saini, Ritu Yadav, K.Tara Shankar
Abstract: This study is primarily directed to identify the significant factors that are considered necessary during e-recruitment practices and their perceived significance level among job aspirants. Design/Methodology/ Approach: This is an empirical investigation and a sample of 200 job aspirants form National Capital Region (Gurugram, Delhi, Noida) was taken. The study used Exploratory Factor Analysis to identify factors. Identified factors are ranked on the basis of using the mean scores of the factors by using one-sample T-test and independent sample t- test was used to compare the identified factors of e- recruitment practices on the basis of gender. Findings: The study identified five factors named perceived usefulness, performance expectancy, perceived privacy risk, perceived ease of use and perceived enjoyment significant among job aspirants during e-recruitment practices. Performance expectancy factor was found to be the most contributing factor that influences the perception of job aspirants towards e-recruitment practices. Results of independent sample t-test found that perceived usefulness has significant difference on the basis of mean value among males and females. Research Limitations: This study is conducted only on job aspirants form National Capital Region (Gurugram, Delhi, Noida). To generalize the results, the study can be further conducted in other geographical locations. Practical Implications: This study may help the recruiters and e-recruitment web site developers to frame strategies.
Keywords: Recruitment; E-recruitment practices; Job aspirants.
Impact of Capital Structure on Indian Banking: An Empirical Analysis
by Archana Malik, Harjit Singh
Abstract: Multifarious studies and researches conducted across the globe to ascertain the impact of capital structure on financial performance of various sectors and industries. Most of the studies are carried out on a thin sample size, but the present study is conducted to ascertain the impact of capital structure on the financial performance of leading Indian public sector banks listed on the National Stock Exchange , having relatively large set of data. The conduction of this study scrutinizes the impact of the capital structure on the profitability of public sector banks in India. The primary attributes on which the study is conducted are debt equity ratio, return on equity, EPS and return on investment (RoI). A quantitative analysis is done using secondary data taken from the source-EBSCO database; the period considered for analysis is from FY (12-13) till FY (18-19). The study is conducted with the help of descriptive statistics including standard deviation, mean, and financial ratios along with regression analysis. The findings conclude that EPS has a negative correlation, whereas ROE has a positive correlation. The study has implications to investor community, academia and future researchers as it raises the question as to what extent there is a relationship between capital structure and profitability of the banks.
Keywords: Capital structure; Return on Equity (RoE); Return on Investment (RoI); Correlation; Regression Analysis.
RETENTION SWIRL: Tool creation to understand factors effecting employee retention in entrepreneurial firms
by Shivangi Saxena
Abstract: In this technological era, human minds and the employee in the organisations are the biggest assets. An entrepreneurial firm have this talent pool in limited number and the completion of the goals, realization of the vision and the mission of the firm solely depends upon the dedication, hard work and loyalty of the employees. The key employee in any firm plays the most crucial role in the smooth sailing of the business and so in this cut-throat competitive environment, it is very important to retain those key employees. This paper extracts the list of factors that affect the employee retention in the entrepreneurial firms in service industry. These factors are further explained through a model termed as Retention Swirl. The framework is developed using 5 factors effecting retention, which are further divided into 10 attributes. This tool can be used in further defining and designing of retention strategies in entrepreneurial firms.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial firms; Retention strategies; Human resource management; service industry; Small firms; Employee retention; Factor Analysis.
Factors impacting digital buyers decision: Role played by Virtual Store and Social Networking sites (SNS) as selling medium for Consumer Electronics.
by MALVIKA TOMAR, AMIT KUMAR PANDEY
Abstract: This Paper is an attempt to give meaningful insights into the Changes that have occurred over recent years into decision making method of digital patron due to frequent usage of E-Store and high Involvement with Interactive websites called Social Media effect. In Todays scenario on an average a user spends at the least two hours on Internet to carry out numerous activities and comprises of populace from Generation Y and Z in majority having intellect and purchasing power. Their shopping decision isn't confined and driven by Need for the items instead these days its immensely impacted by activities run on or by Ecommerce and Social Networking Sites thats works as selling and consumers mind shaping medium indirectly. This paper tries to discover all those elements from E-Store and Social Media impacting consumer thoughts and frame conceptual model. Additionally, it tries to generate verticals of online purchasers and subsequently gives insights into the marketing strategy to be used to capture them by the companies.
Keywords: Online shopping; Internet shopping; Digital marketing; Social Media shopping; Social Media Marketing; Virtual shopping; Digital shopping; Digital buying; Decision making; Consumer Behaviour.
PREDICTIVE ROLE OF QUALITY OF WORK LIFE ON EMPLOYEE WELL BEING: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF SELECTED SOLAR POWER ORGANIZATIONS OF INDIA
by Divya Goel
Abstract: Employee well-being is an important concern for any organization to ensure high performance and productivity from the employees. The present study thus focused on understanding and exploring the predictive role played by quality of work life in ensuring employee well-being. The rationale behind the current study was to explore the association between employee well-being and the different dimensions of quality of work life (QWL) as given by Richard E. Walton (1973). The paper used quantitative approach using the data from a set of 117 employees of chosen organizations from the solar power sector. The variables were assessed using a self-designed tool for measuring the eight dimensions of QWL based on model of Walton R.E. (1973) and The General Health Questionnaire (Goldberg and Williams,1988) for measuring employee well-being. The Cronbach alpha value was observed as 0.79. The findings support the hypothesized relationships and indicate that QWL does predict employee well-being. Present research has some practical implications for the HR professionals as it suggests the organizations to focus on improving the quality of work life of employees in order to enhance their well-being which in turn would lead to increased employee performance. The present study suggests that ensuring good quality of work life will lead to self-driven and vigorous talent base, thereby leading to enhanced employee performance.
Keywords: Quality of Work life; Employee Well-being; Solar Power Organizations; India.
Determinant Factors Influencing Green Purchase Intention of Millennials in Delhi/NCR and Green Consumer Needs
by Samriti Mahajan
Abstract: Green consumption is witnessing an exceptional escalating trend among the millennials--the educated lot who are more conscious or progressively aware of their natural and social responsibility. This study attempts to understand green Purchase Intentions of young educated millennials on theory of planned behaviour (TPB) with the two additional constructs--i.e. Eco- consciousness and Socially responsible consumption. Alongside that we will aim to ponder the significant issues in green consumer behaviour about identified with green needs and segmentation. As how green products be designed to upgrade consumers utility. Using cross-sectional descriptive research design, data were collected from 250 millennials from Delhi/NCR. The factors were identified through Exploratory Factor analysis and then validated through Confirmatory factor Analysis (CFA). The model was finally tested with structural equation modeling (AMOS-SEM). Thus, the study saliently validates and extends TPB framework in a unique way linking 3 constructs-- Eco-consciousness, Attitude for green purchase and most importantly, Socially responsible consumption that has been untouched in extant studies.
Keywords: Eco-consciousness; TPB; Theory of Planned Behaviour framework; Green Consumer Needs; Socially responsible consumption; Green Purchase; Attitude; Green Segmentation.
An Empirical Research On GAIL
by Chanchal Chauhan, Hem Shweta Rathore, Satish Kumar Matta
Abstract: Abstract-Ratio analysis is simply the process to examine the intrinsic worth of the company to find the best market price for investment purposes. This paper analyzes the performance of GAIL by using ratio analysis and ANOVA. GAIL (Gas Authority of India Limited) is taken for this study because it is a government sector company and deals in various products like natural gas, petrochemical, etc. it also shows a very good image in the stock market in terms of earning profit. GAIL trading profit is expected to remain constant because of its exposure to the US. Secondary data is used for the study. Ratio analysis is the process of analyzing the performance and cost-effectiveness of the company. For analyzing performance Liquidity Ratio, Activity Ratio, Profitability Ratio, Market Based Ratio, Mean, Standard Deviation, Coefficient of Variation, ANOVA, and spread is calculated.
Keywords: Liquidity Ratio; Activity Ratio; Profitability Ratio; Market Based Ratio; Mean; Standard Deviation; Coefficient of Variation; and ANOVA.
Leveraging Technical Analysis & Artificial Intelligence - Optimization of Global Portfolio Management through World Indices
by Nitin Kulshrestha, Vishal Kamra, Shalini Aggarwal
Abstract: The motivation of this research is to analyse portfolio optimization through Technical analysis & Artificial Intelligence through stock indices of the world market. Technical report, include RSI, MACD, Moving Average & other indicators. The present research based on Technical analysis, more precisely, Exponential Moving Average Crossover on three world indices, i.e., Nifty(India), Dow Jones (United States), Nikkei(Japan) from 2016 to 2019, with the help of Ami-broker software to develop investing & trading model through AFL code language 6.20 version. After comparing Technical analysis(AI) & Buy & Hold results, our results show, technical trading strategy, along with AI, outperforms the results. All the selected indices generate more returns & less Risk to compare with Buy & Hold strategy.
Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Technical Analysis; Indicators; backtest; EMA crossover; Nifty Index; Portfolio; Nifty; Dow Jones; Nikkei.
Investigating and analysing critical factors for the adoption of Green Banking practices.
by AKANKSHA UPADHYAYA, Shikha Dua, Smita Mishra
Abstract: To reduce carbon footprints from all the banking activities and to stimulate environment-friendly practices, the concept of Green Banking came into light. Gradual scarcity of natural resources, increase in global warming, ecological imbalance, population growth, and many other reasons caused clenching such type of initiative by government and financial institutions in one of the significant sectors of the society i.e. banking sector. Since banking activities are indirectly related to the environment and cause indirect but substantial impact, hence to reduce carbon footprints banks must aid such products, process, and technology that reduces environmental damage and mechanized constructive relation between environmental and financial performance. The aim of this study to investigate various factors that directly or indirectly affect the practices of green banking. These factors create a positive impact on the rise in green banking practices if adopted by the banks. The study includes internal and external factors that create a direct and indirect impact on the rise of green banking practices. The internal factors positively contributing towards an increase in green banking are Reduced cost, ease and convenience, social responsibility, reputation, environmental sustainability, and external factors include Internet penetration, e-payments, government initiative and technology awareness among people.The framework purposed in the study contains novelty in the sense that few types of research have emphasized internal & external factors with special reference to a particular country.
Keywords: Green banking; financial institution; environment sustainability; global warming; e-payments; online banking green coin rating; social responsibility; CSR.
Special Issue on: Public Policies and the Development of Entrepreneurship
Public policy changes in public funding of family doctors in Slovenia
by Katja Triller Vrtovec
Abstract: In Slovenia, patients report difficulties registering with a family doctor (FD), since the patient-to-FD ratio is well below the EU average. Public primary healthcare providers (PCP) report difficulties with the financial liquidity that endangers the regular payment of employed FDs' salaries and constantly call for additional budget funding, especially after the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. It is therefore questionable, whether or not the PCP respect human rights of all the stakeholders in the healthcare sector. In this paper, I analyse the existing regulations on the public financing of FDs and discuss some better alternative solutions that would promote the patients' right to effective primary healthcare, attract more medical students to specialize in family medicine and consolidate the fiscal sustainability of the primary healthcare sector, which is at grave risk of collapse due to a dysfunctional healthcare payment and delivery system.
Keywords: family medicine; general practitioners; family doctors; primary healthcare; healthcare providers; Slovenia; National Health Insurance Institute; public funding; patients' rights; health insurance provider; healthcare reform; public policy change; administrative burdens; bureaucracy; bureaucratization.
Business and Human rights in state owned enterprises the case of Slovenia
by Jernej Letnar Cernic, Gorazd Justinek
Abstract: This article screens recent developments of public policies in Slovenia towards respecting human rights in state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Business and human rights (BHR) policies have gained momentum in recent decades, especially among the OECD countries and also globally. This topic is even all the more important for SOEs, where it is often emphasised that they should play the role of BHR trendsetters. States are through their human rights obligations responsible for ensuring and supervising that its SOEs respect human rights in their own business operations and also in their global supply chains. Throughout this article we are thus analysing Slovenian ownership and governance policies of SOEs over the last decade. Additionally, we are screening the global BHR policy agenda and presenting the latest developments in this field in Slovenia (the legislative and policy fundamentals). Nevertheless, the value-added of the paper is represented in the niche comparison of the BHR policies in SOEs in Slovenia. The research also points out the latest Slovenian sovereign holding (SDH) activities in the field of BHR recommendations and policies towards SOEs.
Keywords: State owned enterprises; Business and Human rights; rule of law; Slovenia.
Reform of European personal data protection legislative framework Main changes
by Miha Dvojmo?
Abstract: In 2016, with the aim of updating the provisions of the Data Protection Directive from 1995, a reform of personal data protection was carried out. The new legislative package contains two main novelties, addressing different data subject categories, specifically the Regulation (EU) 2016/679 (General Data Protection Regulation GDPR), and Directive (EU) 2016/680. The article presents an overview of the legislative package on data protection, with an analysis of the main changes in some key areas.
Keywords: personal data protection; reform; Information Commissioner; guidelines; GDPR.
Normative legal regulation of private detective services in Slovenia research-based proposals for legislative changes
by Andrej Sotlar, Maja Modic, Miha Dvojmo?
Abstract: The article initially presents an overview of the development of private detective services in the Republic of Slovenia and the current state of normative legal regulation of the field. The emphasis of the analysis is on the key points of the legal regulation of private detective services. The findings of the research are presented, which is also based on the conducted interviews with relevant stakeholders from various fields. The findings represent the starting points for changing the legal regulation of private detective services. Based on interviewees answers, we identified six content sets of the current regulation of private detective services in the Republic of Slovenia, where changes are needed: forms of private detectives organisations, potential additional work areas of private detectives, entitlements of private detectives, supervision of private detective and investigation services, professional training and a private detective exam, and private detective internship and apprenticeship. For the consolidation and future development of private detective services, taking into account the principle of respect for human rights and freedoms, and at the same time efficient provision of private detective services and thus the protection of legitimate interests of clients, it is necessary to adopt normative legal changes in the field of private detective services. We proposed a definition of private detective services in the Standard Classification of Activities (SKD), a change in the scope of work of private detectives and private detective companies, a definition of personal detection and supplementing entitlements in terms of adding new (such as identification) and expanding existing ones (e.g. obtaining data from records in the field of real property), regulation of the field of internal supervisors, contractual supervisors, and lay controllers in relation to private detective services, where there are several options of regulation, but where the protection of public interest and ensuring the protection of human rights and freedoms are crucial.
Keywords: private detective services; normative legal regulation; change of legislation; Republic of Slovenia.
New digital public health tools: privacy by design in contact tracing mobile apps for COVID-19
by Peter Merc, Boštjan Koritnik
Abstract: The technology adoption cycle in the public sector is usually much longer than in the private sector. The COVID-19 pandemic caused an acceleration in the adoption of various digital tools which serve as a bridge between the public and private sector. These digital tools include instantaneous contact tracing mobile applications (apps) used to alert individuals who have recently been in contact with an infected person and used by governments to manage public health policies. From the perspective of individuals data storage there are two general possible approaches, namely centralized and decentralized. Each approach has some legal and ethical considerations, mostly related to finding the right balance between the individuals privacy and public health. In this paper we will outline how privacy according to the design principle should be applied as a minimum standard when developing government approved contact tracking apps.
Keywords: Digitalisation; public sector; data privacy; technology; contact tracing applications; digital surveillance.
Special Issue on: Sustainable Performance Management Systems in Public Sector Developments and Future Directions
SCOR model for Measuring Performance of Halal Supply Chain
by Fitra Lestari, Mawardi Mawardi, Dewi Diniaty, Syamsurizal Syamsurizal
Abstract: Halal food business unit serves to provide products with the best quality for customers. This study aimed to evaluate the supply chain performance of the halal food business unit. The supply chain operations reference (SCOR) approach was adopted to be used in this study. Data collection in this study was carried out in four cities in Indonesia. The results of 28 indicators were found in this study to evaluate the supply chain performance of halal food business units. In addition, there were 6 categories including integrity, responsiveness, flexibility, quality, reliability, and efficiency found in this study. This study also obtained that the upstream sector of the halal food business unit in proposing halal certification still needs further handling. Further study is suggested to conduct good manufacturing practice in the halal business unit to investigate in depth the business process in providing halal products to costumers, especially for the upstream sector.
Keywords: halal; supply chain; performance measurement; SCOR model.
The impact of the China Stock market on global financial markets during COVID-19
by Khakan Najaf, ALICE CHIN
This study aims to investigate the reasons behind the world stock markets fastest fall on 13th March 2020 (Black Friday) by using global data. We argue that the event of Black Friday takes place due to investors' fear of the COVID-19 pandemic and China stock market.
We gather the daily time-series data of the stock market indices covering the one-year period from 14th March 2019 to 13th March 2020. A graphical representation is used to show the trend of global indices. Also, the pool OLS regression model is applied to estimate the impact of COVID-19 and China stock market on the world financial markets.
The empirical results show that the lagged value of the China stock market and COVID-19 are significantly affecting the foreign indices. The findings depict a unidirectional relationship between China and global stock markets, meaning that the volatility of global stock markets at the time (t) is explained by China stock market closing value of yesterday (t-1).
The single most important contribution of this study is to reveal the fact about the steepest one-day fall of stock markets on 13th March 2020, which takes place since October 1987 (Black Monday) .
China stock exchange, COVID-19, unidirectional, and Black Monday.
Keywords: China stock exchange; COVID-19; unidirectional; and Black Monday.
Special Issue on: ICRTBEV 2020 Recent Trends in Business and Entrepreneurial Ventures
Organizational Culture and Climate: A Conceptual study from Different perspectives
by Arnab Kumar Samanta, Pranam Dhar
Abstract: With the worldwide globalization trend, studies on organizations and their culture and climate have gained more importance. This study examines the concept of organizational culture and climate from a variety of perspectives. This study sheds the light on the definition, conceptualization of organizational culture and climate and its impact on organizational performance and its measurement. Beginning with the problems of defining culture and the various ways in which it has been studied and analysed, the study goes on to examine the association between organizational culture and organizational performance. The study showcased number of previous studies that linked with organizational culture, climate, evolution, components and above all, it's impact on organizational behaviour and performance.
Keywords: Organizational Culture; Climate; Employees; behaviour; performance.
Key issues of Organisational Governance An empirical analysis
by Deepak Harlaka, Suresh Chandra Padhy, A. Ameer Hussain
Abstract: The research article studies the possibility of involvement of larger group of stakeholders including includes employees, vendors and customers in ensuring better corporate governance and providing a proper platform for the same. It analyses the merits of inclusion of these stakeholders in organisational governance in addition to management group and auditors. A survey was conducted among a sample of 70 stake holders of a manufacturing company including employees, vendors and customers. The outcome of the survey concludes that the enlarged group of stakeholders involvements in governance process has significant positive association in ensuring better governance and enterprise risk management. It was also observed in our study that awareness of corporate governance among stakeholders is positively related with unethical practices of the organisation. Where ever the awareness is high on corporate governance, the possibility of identifying and reporting the unethical practices is high. Meanwhile, it was also found that there is a significant negative linear relationship between unethical practices in the organization and platform to report, representing that if any stake holder reports unethical practices of their organisation they dont get proper platform to report. Hence additional stake holder plays a greater role in the corporate governance of the organisation and their hidden potential should be unleashed. The company also needs to take necessary steps to provide proper secure platform for these new stake holders to report any unethical issue related to corporate governance.
Keywords: Corporate Governance (CG); Audit Committee (AC); Enterprise Risk Management (ERM); Internal Audit (IA); Risk Based Internal Audit (RBIA); Board of Directors (BOD); Chief Audit Executive (CAE).
Special Issue on: NCCIDS 2020 Cognitive Enterprise Information Management
CLASSIFICATION OF SKIN LESIONS USING DEEP LEARNING NEURAL NETWORK
by GODLIN JASIL, V. Ulagamuthalvi
Abstract: In recent years, skin cancer is one of most deadly disease in the world. Early detection of skin cancer leads to the advanced treatment. Skin cancer is diagnosed by dermatoscopic analysis, histopathological assessment and biopsy. Since the skin lesion appears very similar when comparing with the surrounding skin, classification becomes a challenging process. Due to the development in automated system, classification of skin lesion can be done with the higher accuracy. This paper presents a deep learning neural network architecture used for automatic skin classification. Our dataset consists of 1456 images of seven classes which is taken from HAM1000 dataset. Preprocessing such as data argumentation is done to improve the performance. The proposed architecture gives the higher classification rate with accuracy.
Keywords: skin cancer ; dermatoscopic ; histopathological ; biopsy ,skin lesion; deep learning; neural network; data argumentation.
Modified MapReduce for Efficient Data Management: An Task Scheduling Technique
by Rajeswari Devarajan, Jawahar Senthilkumar Veerabadran, Prakash M, Ramamoorthy S
Abstract: High performance computing efficiency depends on distributed systems. Task scheduling is important key factor in distributed environment to reduce the amount of time used to obtain the optimal schedule. Genetic algorithm (GA) is the efficient technique to schedule task for distributed resources. MapReduce is used to develop distributed applications and it provides the efficient way to implement genetic algorithm scheduler for heterogeneous environment. Due to some specific characteristics, some application cannot be efficient in map reduce, because it follows the two phase pattern. Genetic algorithm is iterative process. To fit GA in MapReduce, Parallel GA (PGA) is used. This paper presents modified MapReduce model for genetic algorithm to schedule an independent job which reduces makespan and flowtime. The outcome shows the efficacy of proposed method in the observation with existing techniques on benchmark instances.
Keywords: Genetic algorithm; heterogeneous environment; modified MapReduce; multi-objective; task scheduling.
Special Issue on: ISCBE 2019 Emerging Challenges of Public Sector Management in Transition and Emerging Economies
DETERMINANTS IN THE PREVENTION OF BAD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT: CASE STUDY REPUBLIC OF KOSOVO
by Gresa Mjaku, Abdylmenaf Bexheti
Abstract: Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the main determinants for preventing bad financial management in the public sector in the Republic of Kosovo. Therefore, public institutions and audit agencies in our country need to work more than ever before to promote law enforcement, fight against corruption, honesty, the efficient use of public funds and the increase of government competencies and responsibilities. rnWe employ primary data due to lack of data by the State Statistics Agency and other relevant institutions. The data set includes a sample of 400 internal auditors, covering the entire auditor region in the Republic of Kosovo. An IV-GMM model is implemented to measure the impact of determinants in the public sector. Since the reliability of the data is proven, we think that this research has presented the current state of the institutions of the Republic of Kosovo and determining the main factors of the progress of this system. rnThe results show that the implementation of legal criteria, the independence of the internal auditor, skilled workers and those who have good relations with staff and clients, prevent mismanagement of financial management. Moreover, the results show that the implementation of recommendations by internal auditors has an impact on preventing bad financial management.rn
Keywords: Control; auditing; managing; efficiency; governing public sector; Kosovo.
ROLE AND IMPACT OF PUBLIC DEBT IN FINANCING BUDGET DEFICIT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH - WITH SPECIAL STUDY IN KOSOVO
by Refik Kryeziu
Abstract: In this paper, we present the processes of public debt development in Kosovo for the period of its functioning, respectively from 2009 until 2018. There is no long history of it, but there is a dynamic constant growth. rnDesign/methodology/approach: The methodology used in this paper is based on empirical study analysis, and the scientific literature we have elaborated has found that many thinkers who support public debt support. With arguments justify this non-fiscal instrument to finance the budget deficit and some of them even object.rnFindings: In addition to the international debt with 42% share, in 2012, the domestic debt began to function, with securities issuing at 58%. Along with the country's economic growth, we have also increased budget, and GDP growth. While every year we have an average economic growth of 3.2% to 3.5%. In 2013, compared to 2012, the budget increase is 1.96%, in 2016 compared to 2015 is 7%. In 2017 compared to 2016 we have a growth of 8.31%. In 2009, the debt-to-GDP ratio had a share of 6.12%, in 2014 it reached 10.65%, in 2017 the share of debt to GDP (GDP) was 16.63% and in Q3 of 2018 it was 16.92 %. In the countries of the region and the European Union we have different levels. Most states have a high level of debt to GDP.rnResearch implication/limitations The study of the literature review was carried out using selected four databases containing publications. Research has been done to find out how much the public debt level is based on the specifics of the economy and fiscal policy in Kosovo, in addition to the dynamics of public finance development, public debt has also been realized. rnOriginality/value/contribution- Subsequently, we analyzed the debt structure in relation to the budget and GDP for the period from 2009 to 2018. Also, in this study, we will compare the level of public debt to GDP of Kosovo with the countries of the region and the European Union.rnrn
Keywords: Public finances; public debt; deficit; economic growth.
Informal Street Vendors Behaviour at Car-Free Day in Indonesia
by Dini Alamanda, Abdullah Ramdhani, Grisna Anggadwita, Anggraeni Permatasari, Nisa Sa’adah
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to discover what factors encourage someone to sell during Car Free Day in Indonesia. By using an explorative quantitative method, data collection was carried out through interviews with 40 sellers and questionnaires given to 450 sellers in 9 major cities in Indonesia. The results of the interviews in the stage 1, 10 factors were found that encourage someone to sell on Car Free Day. The results of stage 1 then became questionnaire inputs, where the sampling method was purposive distribution. The results of the study show that the 10 factors examined through the factoring process can be reduced to four factors. These factors are: leisure activity, marketing, legality, and public participation. The dominant factor that drives someone to sell on Car Free Day is the consumer factor, or the existence of prospective buyers. The implications of these findings are explored.
Keywords: car free day; street vendors; entrepreneurship; selling; policy study.
Kosovo's Nation Branding Through Private and Public Sector Cooperation
by Emira Limani, Shqipe Gerguri-Rashiti, Selma Kurtishi-Kastrati, Dina Sabry
Abstract: Nation branding is becoming a necessity for every modern state that desires to be competitive in the field of economy and politics regionally and more. This can be possible only through a narrow cooperation between the public and private sector of a state. First, through the specialized products that are being exported and are well known regionally and broader, and second by using the public diplomacy to improve the image of the state abroad. This paper aims to the discussions on the interconnectedness between local products and nation branding. Moreover, the combination of the mix-marketing elements as a positive influence on the nation branding joined by the domestic products qualified as the SUPERBRANDS, are determinants of the Kosovar nation branding. There is a positive correlation between the increase of the domestic exports of Kosovo and the creation of the nation branding which goes beyond the Young Europeans campaign.
Keywords: nation branding; Kosovo Young Europeans Campaign; local products.
Total Quality Management (TQM) for Changes of Staff Capacity in Higher Education: a Model to Follow in the Public Sector
by Veronika Kareva, Xhevair Memedi
Abstract: Changes of institutional features and increased effectiveness at all levels in higher education institutions involve activities related to quality enhancement in the core academic areas and in the administrative operations. The aim of this paper is to present an approach for measuring the administrative performance at the South East European University (SEEU) in North Macedonia through the principles of total quality management (TQM). Data gathered from three instruments are analyzed and discussed: student and internal staff evaluation surveys of administrative services and a job skills inventory from the first phase of the project for performance management and optimization. Recommendations are expected to contribute to creating a model for staff capacity change that can be followed by other higher education institutions and the public sector in the society, undergoing reforms in its integration processes.
Keywords: total quality management; administrative; optimization; reforms; public; sector.
Labor Market Transition of Youth in Developing Economies: The Case of Countries in South East And Eastern Europe
by Avni Arifi, Besnik Fetai, Stefan Qirici, Selajdin Abduli
Abstract: The goal of this research paper is to examine the influence of various factors on the migration of young people between the ages of 15 and 29 from school to work in five transition countries in the South East and Eastern Europe region, with similar institutional and economic framework. Using probit model, researchers examine the role of each of the variables and what their impact is in the transfer of young men and women and what influences the probability of being working or unemployed after the school is completed. The authors conclude that the elements such as age, gender, household financial situation, mother's education and working experience while studying play a role in the probability of an individual being hired, while other factors such as the field of education, living area and marital status do not affect.
Keywords: labor market; transition; youth; education level; transition countries.
Impact of the Fiscal Policy on Economic Growth: An Analytical Approach from the Republic of Kosovo
by Donat Rexha, Abdylmenaf Bexheti, Kosovare Ukshini
Abstract: The aim of the paper is to analyses the impact of fiscal policy on economic growth in the Republic of Kosovo for the period after its independence. In this regard, several models and techniques have been used in order to test the impact of fiscal policy on economic growth in the Republic of Kosovo for the period 20062016, using a series of monthly timetables. In addition, initial estimates were used to determine the time lag based on three main criteria such as AIC, HQIC and SBIC, and time series were also tested for stationarity by applying augmented Dickey Fuller and Phillips Perron. Then VAR model was applied unlimited or just known as VAR. In addition, for the purpose of analyzing the causal link between public expenditure and revenue in Kosovo for the period 20062016, the Granger test of causality has been applied. Moreover, the results show that there is a positive and significant link between public spending and economic growth, but on the other hand the link between public revenue and economic growth is positive but not significant. Regarding the causal link between expenditure and public revenues, the results testify that there is a two-way correlation between them, assuming the hypothesis of fiscal synchronisation.
Keywords: Key words: Fiscal policies; economic growth; government spending; public revenues; VAR model; causality test.
Financial Stability of Pension Systems in Transition Countries
by Shpresa Alija, Besnik Fetai, Abdylmenaf Bexheti
Abstract: The aim of this study is to identify the crucial factors (beside demographics) influencing the public expenditure on pension in 10 transition countries during the period of 2000-2015. During the review of literature, we observed a lack of empirical studies for the latter, in terms of the intensification of other factors affecting the old - age pension expenditures. The content of this paper is divided in two parts: the theoretical - which includes a literature review and theoretical justification for the choice of independent (or explanatory) variables affecting old-age pension expenditure, and the second part which includes the empirical part. As of the empirical part, we used dynamic panel data GMM in order to assess the effect of the factors affecting old - age pension expenditure in transition countries.
Keywords: pensions system; public policy; solvency; panel regression.
Perspective of Counselling in Social Services: The case of Republic of North Macedonia
by Hyrije Abazi-Alili, Shenaj Hadzimustafa, Remzije Rakipi, Teuta Veseli-Kurtishi, Blerta Abazi Caushi
Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the need of counselling in social services in the Republic of North Macedonia. Specifically, the research aims at assessing any important differences in the size of the particular counselling need across settlement type (rural/urban) and regions. The following basic social services are considered: counselling for working age inactive poor, debt counselling and day care for children and elderly. The main source of information is the SILC survey of 2016, which provides data on a large representative sample of Macedonian households. Based on the findings the paper presents some recommendations related to the government services implying to improvements of the current social services provided. In other words, the government should promote (i) less formal types of institutions to provide childcare and (ii) the expansion of early childhood development centres that offer parental advice as well as part-time childcare.
Keywords: economic vulnerability; counselling; social services; children/elderly day-care.
Special Issue on: SIMSARC 2018 The 4 Cs Communication, Commerce, Connectivity and Culture Implications for Business and Society
A Global Examination of Country-Level Factors Impacting Corruption
by Mohammad I. Merhi, Punit Ahluwalia
Abstract: Corruption is a widely discussed phenomenon in news media, public policy debates, among social activists and within governments. In recent years, it has been suggested that greater use of digital technologies can lower corruption. This paper attempts to explore this question and find out some of the relevant relationships between macro-level factors and country level levels of corruption. Secondary data published by the United Nations, Transparency International, and other similar organizations is used to analyze and confirm the proposed relationships. The results show that telecommunication, freedom of press, and e-participation are critical antecedents to corruption. The paper also examine indirect relationships between macro level actors and corruption. The results and their implications are discussed for research and practitioners.
Keywords: cross-country analysis; corruption perceptions; information and communication technologies; e-participation; human capital; freedom of press.
Pleasant experience in Indian academic libraries: Shopping mall centric and phenomenology approach
by Rajiv Divekar, Komal Chopra, Dipali More
Abstract: The study compares academic libraries and shopping malls with respect to pleasant experience achieved through infrastructure and technology. Phenomenology approach was used to capture user expectations on pleasant experience in an academic library which was then compared to consumer experience in shopping mall through published literature. The results showed that common experiences in mall and academic library include pleasure and satisfaction, recreational experience, experience of socialization, experience of convenience and experience with technology. The study shows that academic libraries can adopt a shopping mall centric approach to attract users and increase usage of library resources.
Keywords: library;pleasant experience;phenomenology; shopping mall.
Enterprise Architecture Implementation In Indian Banks: A Content Analysis
by Pramod Damle
Abstract: Enterprise architecture (EA) consisting of four architectural components of business, data, application and technology and the related architectural development method has been gaining ground for about a decade. Banks in India do not seem to have adopted full-scale EA, however, they have gone ahead with some basic building blocks. The aim of this project is to provide an insight about that prevalent piecemeal implementation so that banks would get help in organizing this existing work under an overarching EA.
Ten large banks were selected and their annual reports for past three years were studied. Content analysis method under qualitative research was used to scan these reports for EA and related concepts. As envisaged, the banks were found to have taken some steps in piecemeal toward EA. The year-wise, function-wise and sector-wise patterns were also studied. The paper concludes with some directions for future research in this area.
Keywords: Enterprise Architecture; Indian Banks; Bank Architecture; Content Analysis; Qualitative Research; Business Architecture; Data Architecture; Application Architecture; Technology Architecture.
Impact of four components of money supply on GDP growth using ARDL: evidence from India
by Karthikeyan Chandramohan, Ramasamy Murugesan
Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between the money supply components Demand Deposits, Time Deposits, Other Deposits with RBI and Currency in Circulation each expressed as a percentage of GDP, inflation and Nominal GDP growth. Granger Causality test and ARDL bounds test are used to investigate this relationship. These money supply variables have an impact on nominal GDP growth in the long run. A change in inflation seems to be the major determinant of change in nominal GDP growth in the long run. This study also finds a bidirectional relationship between change in Currency in Circulation to GDP ratio and change in Nominal GDP growth.
Keywords: ARDL; auto regressive distributed lag; GDP growth; gross domestic product growth; money supply; granger causality; India.
AN IMPACT OF BANK RATE AND INFLATION RATE ON VOLATILITY OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATE IN INDIA
by Fatemabibi Abubaker Salehbhai, Purnima Pradipkumar Jariwala
Abstract: Foreign Exchange Rate, Inflation Rate and Bank Rate are important macro-economic factors that determine the growth of Indian Economy. The main purpose of this study is to analyse the effect of two important macro-economic factors viz Bank Rate and Inflation Rate on fluctuating Foreign Exchange Rate. This study is based on secondary data and the time period from 2009-10 to 2017-18 is considered for this study. Bivariate correlation and regression model are used to investigate and analyse the effect of both variables on Foreign Exchange Rate. It is found that the relationship between Bank Rate and USD/INR is positive while the association between Inflation Rate and Foreign Exchange Rate is highly negative. Besides, there is considerable effect of both factors on USD/INR. Hence, efficient monetary policy by the government and RBI need to be initiated to reduce and stabilize both rates and alleviate the value of Indian Rupees.
Keywords: US DOLLAR/INR; Bank Rate; Inflation Rate; Correlation; Regression Analysis; Forex Market.
Role of Fundamentals in Evaluation of IPOs: Evidence from Indian & USA Textile Sector
by Diwahar Nadar, Bharti Wadhwa
Abstract: If the success of Initial Public Offer in an economy is based on the markets unpragmatic expectation instead of strong fundamentals it could possess a high risk of a future bubble burst. Hence, it is essential to verify whether the market is evaluating every Initial Public Offer on the basis of its fundamental strength or not. For fundamental strength, empirically identified sector specific representative financial ratios were derived using inter-correlation matrix & factor analysis from the database created by computing twenty-four ratios for sixty Indian textile companies and twenty-seven USA companies across eleven years. The empirically identified sector specific representative financial ratios were used as an independent variable in Logistic Regression Analysis to analyze its impact on thirty-two Indian Initial Public Offer and eleven USA Initial Public Offer performance which was indicated using listing gain or loss.rnFindings The study was able to confirm the existence of fundamental strength in Initial Public Offer success for both the economies, though the influence was restrained.
Keywords: Financial Ratios; Fundamental strength; Indian textile sector; Initial Public Offer; USA textile sector.
Role of Citizens Knowledge about E-Governance Initiatives in framing Citizens Satisfaction
by Shubhanshu Naik, Poornima Tapas, Mallika Srivastava
Abstract: The Government, for the betterment and upliftment of the standard of living of citizens, undertake multiple initiatives simultaneously. These initiatives exhibit actions of the government and also act as Goodwill ambassador of government. In order to simplify the process and extend its reach government launched E-Governance initiatives. In order to create citizens knowledge and stimulate citizens engagement. Government extensively promotes these initiatives. Apart from the convenience and reach, E-governance practices ensure service quality. So, it may generate citizens trust and citizens satisfaction. This research investigates the influence of E-Governance initiatives in building citizens satisfaction. Study findings will not only reveal the perception of public towards the E-Governance initiatives but also establish the relevance of such initiatives by government. Foundation of the research was based on extensive review of literature by authors. Additionally, keeping the purpose of study in mind authors collected public responses against self-administered questionnaire. Study outcome proposed relevance of governments E- Governance initiatives in India. This can be further used by government to design and to implement innovative E- Governance initiatives. The present study ventures in to new domain i.e. it may act like a feedback mechanism for E- Governance practices of the government in India.
Keywords: Key Words: E-Governance initiatives; Citizens’ Engagement; Citizens’ Satisfaction; Service Quality; Citizens’ trust; Citizens’ Knowledge; Government.
Distilling Factors Influencing International Mobility: International Students perspectives
by Kishori Kasat, Swati Sahasrabudhe, Naim Shaikh
Abstract: In todays world to meet the challenges of globalization, countries are stressing the need to internationalize their institutes and education system. Student mobility has always been an integral component of internationalisation of higher education(IHE). The objective of this paper is to analyse the available factors which influence promoting IHE in the existing literature and find a reliable and valid measurement model of these identified factors for promoting IHE from perspective of the international students. International students who are pursuing education or have completed education from institutes in Pune have been taken as research sample. Based on extensive literature review, a structured questionnaire asking their experience or perception of the identified distilled factors at 5-point Likert Scale was prepared and the reliability and validity of these factors have been performed to suggest a frame work. The paper is written considering the views of students who have been pursuing higher education in India, however the identified factors may also be implemented on a wider geographical platform.
Keywords: Internationalization; Higher Education; student mobility; globalization.
Dynamic interaction between historical and implied volatility in Indian Option Market
by Viswanathan T, R. Sriram, Prathana Mukherjee
Abstract: Forecasting volatility plays a key role while trading in the futures and options market. An accurate estimate of future volatility would facilitate the traders to determine the intrinsic value of options. In the spot market, volatility is estimated based on the variance of historical returns. However, the volatility of stocks and market indices in the options market is estimated based on implied volatility. This paper investigates the dynamic interaction of historical volatility and the market estimate of future volatility, which is termed as implied volatility (IV). We examine the performance of the Nifty index options implied volatility and determine its power to predict future market volatility. The study is based on the implied volatility of Nifty call and put index options for the period between 2010 and 2018. We apply the co-integration test to examine the causal relationship between the historical and implied volatility. We apply ARIMA and GARCH models to examine the forecasting ability of implied volatility. The results of the study indicate that implied volatility has the power to predict future volatility of market returns.
Keywords: Historical volatility; Implied volatility; Volatility forecast; ARIMA; GARCH.
Kitchen in Cloud: an analysis of Food Tech industry in India
by Jeevesh Sharma, Suhasini Verma
Abstract: Changing lifestyle, the advancement of information technology and the wider use of the smartphone have greatly increased the ordering of food from online platforms in India. This opportunity is attracting many start-ups and established companies in the food tech industry making this segment very competitive. This growing competition along with the fact that the segment is in its nascent stage calls for guidance to the companies on how to remain competitive, strengthen their position and increase their market share. To answer such questions, the research paper has analysed the business model, strategies, scalability, and funding of the prominent companies of the food tech industry in India. The research is descriptive and analytical in nature and based on the secondary data. The study compares the selected food tech companies, operating in India, in terms of their annual turnover, funding and valuation to assess the impact of these on the market share of food tech companies.
Keywords: food tech; market share; valuation; business model; India.
Are the non-agricultural Commodities Markets Efficient: An ARDL Model Approach?
by Vaishali Jain
Abstract: Purpose: This study is done with a purpose to study whether the markets for non-agricultural commodities are efficient or they present opportunities for arbitrage earnings. We also explore and provide evidence about the nature of short run causal relationship along with the promptness of adjustment towards long run equipoise between prices of crude oil, gold and USDINR exchange rates. Design/Methodology: The methodology is divided into two parts. In the first part, the paper makes use of Runs test to study the randomness of the observations along with ADF test, PP test and KPSs test to check for the stationarity. In the second stage Auto regressive distributed lag (ARDL) model is used to study the causative association between the three variables. The study makes use of the day-to-day closing prices of the near month futures contracts on all the three assets for the purpose of analysis. Findings: Runs test and stationarity tests reveal that the market for three commodities is inefficient. The ARDL model shows a long run causal relationship between the crude, gold and USDINR exchange rates. The model also envisages the existence of a unidirectional causal association of gold with crude oil and exchange rates where gold prices were found to granger cause the prices of crude oil and USDINR exchange rates were found to granger cause the prices of gold. Practical Implications: Findings about inefficiency of the market gives an opportunity to the arbitragers to earn intraday profits using the information about the long run and short run equilibrium relationship and speed of adjustment. The results also indicate that USDINR exchange rates are leading the gold prices and gold markets are in turn leading the prices of crude oil in the short run. This will help potential investors and hedgers take their positions and design their portfolio in the three assets. Also, matters pertaining to price discovery process in Indian financial markets are issues of interest for financial thinkers, traders, investors and financial analysts. Originality/Value: There is a quantum of literature available that studies the efficiency of equity and bond markets in different countries of the world. However, there is a paucity of literature when it comes to studying commodity markets, especially for a fast growing economy like India. This paper is an original piece of work as an attempt towards evidencing the efficiency and causative association between the prices of crude oil, gold and USDINR exchange rates using their futures contracts.
Keywords: Commodity derivatives markets; Autoregressive distributed lag(ARDL) model; Cointegration; Granger Causality; Bounds testing.
Special Issue on: Digital Transformation in the Public Sector
Decision Support System for flood risk assessment and public sector performance management of emergency scenarios
by Yovan Felix A
Abstract: Natural calamity causes an enormous destruction to the human beings as well as to their properties. Continuously the earth has been threatened and affected by different calamities such as Flood, Earthquake, Tsunami, etc. Human beings dont have the supernatural power to go against the calamity whereas the huge destruction caused by the calamity can be reduced by taking the right decision. When the calamity causes a severe damage to life and property a right decision has to be taken to avoid and reduce the level of loss. The appropriate decision that is taken during this critical situation reduces the aggravation of the damages caused by the calamity. A support is very much required to take the right decision during the emergencies. In this technically advanced age, possible measures have to be taken to safeguard the people and their belongings. The present paper consists of various studies from every part of the world on Decision Support Systems. This paper focuses on the execution, advantages, constraints, and scope of applying the decision support system during the calamities.
Keywords: flood disaster management; decision support systems; flooding; GIS,.
AI Transformation in Retail Sectors
by Sivaram M
Abstract: The retail industry is growing vastly with large volumes of resources and increase challenges from new technologies. Today world is witnessing the occurrence of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology which provides solutions to many complications faced by individuals in various sectors. Novel ways to organize economic activities are emerging which is facilitated by Artificial Intelligence. AI presents the advantages of increased safety and lowers costs in international as well as domestic payment transactions. It can reinstate paper-based and manual purchase orders and other trade documents, using smart contracts. AI makes a dramatic impact on the retail sector. The use of AI technology has the potential to change the retail industry by introducing new ways of transacting that are expected to change the traditional ways in which enterprise exchange data and money. With the innovation of AI, the retail industry is developing vastly and has also paved the ways for seamless accessibility of processes anytime and anywhere.
Keywords: Artificial intelligence; retail sectors; supply chain management; Retail Use Cases.
Promoting digital innovation in the public sector: managerial and organisational insights from a case study
by Davide Giacomini, Caterina Muzzi
Abstract: The world of public administration, particularly in countries characterised by a Napoleonic administrative culture, is unwilling to self-renew. However, the reduction of funds linked to austerity policies, the demand for better services, and the numerous opportunities linked to digitalisation, impose a rethinking of public administration. The case of the Digital Transformation Team (DTT), launched in Italy, yet contrary to what usually happens in Italian reform processes, provides interesting indications of how it is possible to innovate in a context usually resistant to change.
Keywords: public sector reform; organisational change; digitalisation; change management; organisational development.
Feasibility of Conventional Neural Networks for Content-Based Image Retrieval in Big Data
by MUTHIAH M.A, Logashanmugam E
Abstract: In recent years, large volume of images (petabytes and exabytes) is generated and processed in areas like telemedicine, defense, bioinformatics, Remote sensing etc. In real time applications, Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) has to be done with high level of accuracy and less latency. Steps involved in CBIR include image preprocessing, feature extraction and retrieval. In this paper, feasibility of conventional neural networks for image retrieval is studied. A research database consisting of 8000 images in 102 different categories is considered. Moments (shape descriptors) are chosen as the statistical parameters for aggregating the image coefficients. Four sets of image features are obtained i.e moments (up to order 6) from the intensity of the images, moments from the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) co-efficients of the images, moments from each of the four subbands of the wavelet decomposed image (reverse biorthogonal wavelets) and moments from the Discrete Walsh Hadamard Transform (DWHT) co-efficients of the images. These features are then used to generate four different sets of exemplars. These exemplars are then used in three different conventional neural networks. Different sets of the dataset are used for training, testing and validation of the networks. Performance is measured in terms of accuracy. From the analysis, it is found that PNN provides the highest accuracy for DWT features.
Keywords: CBIR; DCT; DWHT; DWT; BPN; GRNN; PNN; Pattern recognition network; Probability of Detection.
Architecture and Use Cases of Digital Twins towards Smart Manufacturing
by Nibhrita Tiwari, Maninder Jeet Kaur, Ved Prakash Mishra
Abstract: Digital Twin has been recognized by many developed companies. IBM, Cisco and GE are focusing more on developing CPS related technologies and utilization of platform. These companies are next generation core infrastructure. IoT and Artificial Intelligence in smart manufacturing was the initial step to recognize the sensors pre-requisite into the machine parts from where the real-time analytics will get the data. Fusion of human, information and smart/intelligent algorithms has far-accomplishing outcomes on manufacturing performance. However, the in-depth communication and excessive amounts of facts involved also brings in new demanding situations. In this chapter, we discussed the architecture of the digital twins and a few use cases of cyber physical structures. It also discusses the associated work in the area of machine learning, artificial intelligence in the field of smart production. It is important that the adoption of IoT and machine learning embed security from the start, integrated with functionality in smart manufacturing systems. Therefore, the convergence of IoT and Machine Learning with Digital twins will improve productivity, uniformity and quality of the products.
Keywords: Digital Twin; Cyber-Physical Systems (IoT); Internet of Things (IoT).
CONSTRUCTING CORPORATE BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION MODEL FOR INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY
by SELVARANI MARIAPPAN, JEBANANDHINI MASILAMANI, SAKTHIVEL RANI S
Abstract: Steel Industry is undergoing the hardest time in India. The reports of IBBI 2017-18 revealed that out of 525 cases were admitted under Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) 45 cases were from the steel sector with the default worth of Rs.57,001 crores and 39 corporates are in the Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process (CIRP). The steel industry in India is at present experiencing a consolidation phase and debt-ridden bankrupt companies now become attractive buys. Identifying the reasons for bankruptcy is the foremost step to revive the Indian Steel Industry. In this paper, the monetary condition of the Indian steel industry is analyzed by taking 15 companies as a sample. Financial data from 2008 to 2017 is taken for this study. Traditional Altmans Z score and logistics regression are applied to derive the financial distress model for the steel industry. Factor analysis is applied to 44 ratios and 22 ratios were identified as relevant for the study. This study found that the financially indebted steel companies which made a substantial investment during the last three years with souring profit and high financial cost lead to bankruptcy within a short period of time.
Keywords: Bankruptcy; Steel Industry; Altman Score; Logistics Regression; Financial Distress Prediction Model.