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International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management

International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management (IJPQM)

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International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management (119 papers in press)

Regular Issues

    by Divya Prabhu, Vijaya G. S 
    Abstract: Financial inclusion is a global issue that the Indian Government has been striving to achieve in the last five years. Accessibility and ease of banking services in remote villages is one of the requirements to achieve it. The measure taken by the Banks has failed miserably owing to complex and heterogeneous demographics of the country especially the cultural and lifestyle difference between urban and rural masses. To explore the expectations of rural India and to find out the exact needs of the rural banking and its prospects, this paper has studied the possibilities of implementing quality function deployment in banking services which is rarely done in India. The paper explains how precisely the voice of the rural customer has been captured using quality function deployment matrix. The results of the study have evidenced that this tool can be tested, used, and extended for various service-oriented organisations that include banking.
    Keywords: financial inclusion; quality function deployment; QFD; rural banking; services.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10031823
    by Hotniar Siringoringo, E.S. Margianti, Qurrota Ayyun, Ikhwan Arbiyanto 
    Abstract: This research pursued three main goals: 1) to measure the workload of bank teller; 2) To identify the dominant dimension of the mental workloads, and 3) to compare the workload between state-owned and private bank tellers Measuring workloads was performed using NASA-TLX method Data collected using the questionnaire of NASA-TLX that has been deployed in various organizations and the nature of the works Participants in the study were tellers in a state-owned and private bank Identification of the most and the least dominants dimensions that contribute to mental workload was performed using the Pareto diagram Statistics technique was deployed to compare the workloads between state-owned and private bank tellers The result showed that the workloads of bank tellers were categorized as very high The most dominant dimension contributing to the very high mental workload in State-owned banks was effort whilst in the private bank was performance Contrarily, the least dominant
    Keywords: mental workload; bank teller; NASA-TLX; private bank; state-owned bank; subjective methods; performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10031967
    by Leandro Pereira, Renato Lopes Da Costa, Luis Martins, Rui Gonçalves, André Rodrigues 
    Abstract: Today’s business world is characterized by its constant rapidly changing environment, facing a very competitive economic context, making it crucial for the achievement of business success to understand, timely, what drives its results, namely its performance. Organizational performance may be affected by several number of variables and the understanding of these variables are decisive for business management. This research aims to address and measure organizational performance, understanding if and how much it is influenced by organizational culture. For that purpose we applied a questionnaire, preceded by a pre-test procedure, to a sample composed by security professionals, receiving a total of 629 valid answers. Our results evidence that more than one organizational culture type positively and significantly influences both organizational performance and employee work engagement, as well as that employee work engagement partially mediates the influence of all organizational culture types on organizational performance.
    Keywords: Organizational Culture; Organizational Performance; Employee Work Engagement; Security.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10032115
  • Lean Six Sigma in Food Industry: A Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Harsimran Singh Sodhi  
    Abstract: The purpose of present study is for process and quality improvement in food processing units using Lean Six Sigma in food industry. This paper aims to study the application of Lean Six Sigma in a mediumsized confectionary. The results show that the company successfully applied the Lean Six Sigma methodology and saved a considerable sum of money by reducing overfilling of final product (ginger bread). This study proposes a Lean Six Sigma framework to reduce overfill and rework. The proposed framework integrates lean tools and Six Sigma define, measure, analyse, improve, and control methodology to reduce overfill and rework to enhance the bottomline results. The result of this study will help food small and mediumsized enterprises to effectively apply Lean Six Sigma to reduce variability and consequent waste in their production process.
    Keywords: quality; lean production; Six Sigma; operations management; biotechnology.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10032502
  • Design of Experiments and Monte Carlo Simulation based Prediction Model for Productivity Improvement in Printing Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Prathamesh Potdar, Santosh Rane, Nandkumar Mishra 
    Abstract: In today's cut-throat business competition, high production cost is critical concern for any organization, which develops the need of improvement in the productivity. This research aims to improve the material productivity of printing process by implementation of Six Sigma methodology based on Define Measure Analysis Improve and Control (DMAIC) approach with a combination of appropriate tools and techniques in each phase, and develop prediction model based on Design of Experiment and Monte Carlo Simulation. Research identified the start up waste was the vital cause for less productivity. The research concludes that the every organization should reinvestigate the process and explore the opportunity for productivity improvement by using the appropriate techniques. This case study has reduced the print waste by 89064kg per year and electricity consumption by 648000KWh. Also, creates necessary impact on environment by reducing in CO2 emission and chemical waste.
    Keywords: Design of Experiment; Monte Carlo Simulation based prediction model; Six Sigma; DMAIC; Cause and effect matrix; FMEA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10033290
  • Assessment of the Moderating Effect of Performance Contracting on Utilisation of Monitoring and Evaluation Tools on the Performance of Research Projects in Public Universities, Coast Region, Kenya   Order a copy of this article
    by Hamisi Mwaguni, John Mbugua, Charles Rambo 
    Abstract: The purpose of the study was to assess the moderating effect of performance contracting on utilisation of monitoring and evaluation tools on the performance of public universities in the coastal region of Kenya. The study used a pragmatism paradigm. The study found that performance contracting only has a moderating effect on utilisation of budgets. This is because its t test has a p value of less than 0.05. Performance Contracting has no moderating effect on the other three independent variables since their p value is greater than 0.05. The study concludes that improving human capacity for performance contracting at the institutional level will also require appropriate policies, encouraging participation of academic and administrative staff in performance contracting, awareness creation, monitoring of its implementation, as well as utilisation of performance contracting evaluation findings, hands-on experience as well as improving responsiveness.
    Keywords: Performance Contracting; Monitoring and Evaluation Tools; Performance; Research Projects; Public Universities.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10033538
  • Servant leadership a strategic choice for organizational performance. An empirical discussion from Pakistan   Order a copy of this article
    by Ansar Abbas, Muhammad Saud, Dian Ekowati, Indrianawati Usman, Fendy Suhariadi 
    Abstract: Servant leadership style is typically based on positive individual psychology and self-interest. The focus of research today inclines towards the positive psychology of individual leadership styles such as servant leadership. This empirical study ventures on a constructive discussion of the personal inherent desire of servanthood, successful self-management strategies for effective and sustainable performance, and organisational developments in higher education. The natural instinct of serving others needs first was conceptualised and modelled scientifically for organisational outcomes in the context of Pakistani higher education institutes. Data was obtained through random sampling from public and private sectors. Further, PLS Smart 3.0 was utilised to perform a statistical analysis. Results revealed that servant leadership predicts organisational performance only through two desired outcomes tested hypothetically. Insightful discussion on statistical results, key conclusions practical and theoretical implications have been presented.
    Keywords: servant leadership; organisational commitment; organisational performance; higher education; Pakistan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10033579
    by Mohd Adil, Mohd Nasir, Mukesh Kumar 
    Abstract: This study assesses tourists perceived service quality towards budget hotels. It also examines the inter-relationship between the service quality dimensions, tourist satisfaction and tourist loyalty. A structured questionnaire was employed to survey the tourists who visited and stayed in budget hotels of the selected three states of Northern India. An assessment of common method bias and preliminary descriptive analysis was used to examine the item structure and psychometric properties of the original scale adopted in the current study. Findings reveal that all the dimensions of service quality have a positive influence on tourist satisfaction, therefore hotel managers must monitor and assess their offerings on all the seven key attributes of service quality at regular intervals. This may avoid instances of customer dissatisfaction or moments of frustration and, eventually boosts repeat purchases and positive word of mouth. In addition, hotel management should also pay special attention to the employees educational eligibility and desired skill during the recruitment process, to better understand tourists needs and design service which contributes to the tourists overall experience at budget hotels.
    Keywords: service quality; budget hotel; tourist satisfaction; tourist loyalty; tourism; SEM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10033632
  • Quality Improvement with Fault Tree Analysis & Failure Mode Effect Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Elia Oey, Evelyn Soenartio 
    Abstract: : Defect reduction is a constant challenge for quality improvement in any organization. The research was a case study in a small firm performing chroming process for variety of plastic end-cups. The chroming process uses combination of paint spraying and metalizing. To improve their quality assurance process, the study assisted in identifying major failure modes and their root causes using Fault Tree Analysis. It was then continued with Failure Mode and Effect Analysis for quantifying risk priority for each failure modes. The results recommended the studied company to focus on failure mode “Uneven Spraying”, “Incorrect Setting of Paint Output”, “Incorrect Setting of Spray Pressure”, “Dusty production area”, and “dusty oven”, and suggested some control improvements against them.
    Keywords: Fault Tree Analysis; Failure Mode Effect Analysis; Defect; Failure Mode.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10034182
  • Activity based costing in the public sector and non-profit organizations: Towards risk-based approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Bakhtiar Ostadi, Reza Zare 
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to calculate the cost of public sector and non-profit services with ABC according to risk-based approach. It considers cost of risk factors associated with the training process. Firstly, the process of holding training courses was divided into four sub-processes. Secondly, potential risk factors identified and prioritized based on their likelihood and impact on cost factors which is done with FMEA and with expert opinions. Then, the cost of activity centers calculated under consideration risk factors. These were allocated to activity centers before and after the allocation of risk factors. The research findings are experimented in a non-profit training center and institution with one-day training course with 25 participants. The results of this study indicate that there are critical risk factors in the service delivery process which can affect costs.
    Keywords: Cost management; Activity-Based Costing; Risk-based approach; Public sector; Services’ costing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10034186
  • Measuring and Benchmarking Technical Efficiency of Indian Automobile Sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Supran Kumar Sharma, Shallu Sehgal, Vanshika Dubey 
    Abstract: The study seeks to analyse the performance of the Indian automobile industry through a diverse efficiency measure of Data envelopment analysis (DEA). DEA is applied for estimating performance of a set of Decision making units (DMUs) with the help of taking multiple inputs and outputs. The study applied the secondary firm level data of Indian automobile firms and attempted to estimates technical efficiencies and its components of the selected firms of the automobile manufacturing industry. The paper also intends to identify the input and output targets as well as slack and radial movements for the enhancement of technical efficiency. The study adopted solution based approach by framing profitability efficiency matrix through which one can analyse the behaviour of the both profitability and the efficiency combinations of the firms. This study also determines factors responsible for the inefficiency of the selected DMUs and suggests different measures for optimum utilisation of resources.
    Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis; Firms; Efficiency; Profitability; Automobile industry; Slack and Radial movements; DMU; India; Technical efficiency.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10034187
  • Interpretive Structural Modeling to evaluate the key barriers inhibiting successful implementation of Overall Equipment Effectiveness   Order a copy of this article
    by Sandeep Singh, J.S. Khamba, Davinder Singh 
    Abstract: The scope of study is to cover the critical and significant barriers in implementation of overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) through Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM). Based on a common proverb If we cant measure it, we cant improve it, ISM is the competent approach to measure the significance of its various variables (barriers), their hierarchy and interdependency on each other. The barriers affecting OEE implementation may vary as per industrial sectors, but the goal would remain the same, i.e. to embellish the performance. Fourteen critical barriers of OEE implementation were analysed with the directions and guidelines of industrial and academic experts. In addition, ISM model is proposed for the key barriers. ISM may be used to understand the relationship between barriers. Once the behavioural pattern of barriers is determined through ISM, it is easy to predict the issues related to equipments maintenance and efficiency over a specific phase of time.
    Keywords: Keywords - Key barriers; Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE); Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10034306
  • Multivariate Statistical Process Monitoring and Control of Machining Process using Principal Components based Hotelling T2 Charts: A Machine Vision Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Ketaki Joshi, Bhushan Patil 
    Abstract: Machine vision offers imaging-based inspection and quality control. Principal components based multivariate statistical process monitoring and control facilitates monitoring of production, typical involving several quality characteristics, with a single control chart and identifying and diagnosing faults by signal decomposition. The paper presents principal components based multivariate statistical process monitoring and control of the machining process using machine vision for industrial components manufactured on conventional lathe machines. It involves extraction of critical dimensions and surface characteristics using image-processing techniques, data dimensionality reduction using principal component analysis, process monitoring and control using principal components based Hotelling T2 chart. Fault diagnosis involves decomposition of T2 statistic into contribution by individual principal components and their combinations, identification of out-of-control scenarios using decision tree and their physical interpretation to detect possible causes of errors for further analysis and control. The approach potentially offers an industry-ready solution to automated, economic and 100% process monitoring and control.
    Keywords: Inspection and Quality Control; Machine Vision; Multivariate Statistical Process Monitoring and Control; Principal Component Analysis; Hotelling T2 Chart.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10034309
  • Analysing human and system related barriers of TQM in automobile industries using fuzzy DEMATEL Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Ram Nath Yadav, Devendra Kumar, Ajay Kumar Sharma, Naveen Virmani 
    Abstract: Total Quality Management methodology has proved by many researchers to give magnificent results to both manufacturing and service industries. In today’s globalised era, each and every industry is making meticulous efforts to survive in the marketplace. Industries are well aware of the fact that providing quality products to customers and achieving maximum customer satisfaction are the only key to success. In this paper, 17 potential barriers are identified by extensive literature review and the same has been validated by experts. The barriers are Lack of top management commitment, lack of funds, lack of advance manufacturing facilities, Employees resistance to change etc. Fuzzy Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) approach has been applied to analyse potential barriers so as to categorise them into cause and effect categories.
    Keywords: Customer satisfaction; fuzzy DEMATEL; Quality; Value for money; Total Quality Management (TQM).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10034504
  • Process Improvement Using Lean Tools: A Case from Carpet Manufacturing Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Vinod Yadav, Avanish Singh Chauhan, Bhavna Pandey, Ajay Rathore 
    Abstract: Lean manufacturing is widely accepted approach for process improvement and it is considered as universal production system. Although it has enormous application in many sectors; still Carpet industries have not benefited by this approach. Present study aimed to identify wastes in the carpet manufacturing industry and eliminate these wastes by implementing appropriate lean tools. Case study approach is used to identify the process improvement by implementing lean thinking in the case organization. This study will help the practitioners carpet industry, as it provides a framework for lean implementation. The implementation of lean tools has resulted improved operational measures like reduction of lead time, better utilization of workplace, decrease in material handling time and cost and increment in overall profit of supply chain. The study presents the real world case study which shows the theoretical and managerial implication of lean implementation in the carpet industry.
    Keywords: Lean manufacturing; Process improvement; Case study.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10034791
  • The Role of Servant Leadership and Work Engagement in Improving Extra-Role Behavior and Teacher Performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Yustinus Budi Hermanto, Veronika Agustini Srimulyani 
    Abstract: The maximum performance of the teachers is a strategic key for schools to realise their organisation objectives. This study aimed to provide empirical evidence regarding several essential factors that affect teacher performance, i.e. servant leadership, work engagement, and extra-role behaviour. Besides, this study also investigated the direct and indirect effects of servant leadership behaviour on improving the performance of permanent teachers in high schools and vocational high schools in cities in East Java and the eastern part of Central Java. From the p-values<0.050, with all t-values> 2,000. T-test and path analysis, the following results were obtained: the practice of servant leadership principals directly and positively affect work engagement, extra-role behaviour, and teacher performance. The results of the tests proved that extra-role behaviour and employee performance could be improved through the practice of servant leadership and increased work engagement.
    Keywords: Servant Leadership; Work Engagement; Extra-Role Behaviour; Teacher Performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10034865
  • Green Manufacturing: Detailed Literature Review and Pareto Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Mahakdeep Singh, Kanwarpreet Singh, Amanpreet Singh Sethi 
    Abstract: Indian market is growing globally but with this growth the risk to human life is also increasing as the environment is getting adulterated, this is majorly due to the pollution, this paper focuses on the review on the research of various researchers which is published in prominent journals focused on green manufacturing techniques by manufacturing Industries. Current manuscript focuses to investigate the available literature on green manufacturing (GM) in order to highlight the critical success factors (CSFs) affecting the implementation of green manufacturing. Study shortlists 41 studies that have already pointed the success factors for implementation of green practices. Further, Pareto analysis has been employed to sort and arrange the factors in decreasing order in terms of their occurrences in the literature. After analysis out of total 36 identified CSFs eight CSFs has been named vital few CSFs and 28 as useful many CSFs of green manufacturing.
    Keywords: green manufacturing; GM; critical success factors; CSFs; Pareto analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10035053
  • The relationship between innovation and kaizen culture among electrical and electronics manufacturing companies in Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Siew Mui Kong, Rajendran Muthuveloo 
    Abstract: In the current dynamic business landscape, kaizen culture is crucial for organisations to hone their competitive edge and business sustainability. This study aims to examine the relationship between innovation and kaizen culture among electrical and electronics (E&E) manufacturing companies in Malaysia. The socio-technical systems theory underpins the research framework. A total of 123 responses were gathered from 123 E&E manufacturing companies and analysed with SPSS and SmartPLS. The findings indicated that kaizen culture can be nurtured through process innovation and organisational innovation to create a sustainable competitive advantage. However, it must be embedded into the business strategy if long-term advantage is to be achieved. Results from this study should enable practitioners of E&E manufacturing companies to prioritise types of innovation for nurturing kaizen culture.
    Keywords: kaizen culture; innovation; process innovation; organisational innovation; electrical and electronics; E&E; Malaysian manufacturing companies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10035235
  • Investigating the Impact of Organisational cohesion on Employees' Productivity of Mashhad Bus Organisation, Using the Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference system (ANFIS)   Order a copy of this article
    by Zahra Nikkhah-Farkhani, Alireza Khorakian, Shookofeh Loghmani, Mina Bostani Rad 
    Abstract: Achieving the high levels of productivity is one of the most important ideals of managers. Organisational cohesion as an emerging concept which has many managerial requirements, is expected to contribute to improving employees’ productivity. This study used fuzzy neural networks (ANFIS) to measure this relationship which has more predictive power than other statistical methods due to its networking architecture and learning algorithms. The statistical population was all employees of Mashhad Bus Organisation (58 people). A questionnaire was used for data collection and the results were analysed using the ANFIS. The results indicated that although all aspects of organisational cohesion had an effect on improving employees’ productivity and by improving them, employees’ productivity would be increased, the components of fundamental values, leadership’s style and coordination, would facilitate the impact of other components on productivity. It seems that they should be the prioritised on the top of the list in the organisation’s administrative transformation programs.
    Keywords: organisational cohesion; employees’ productivity; fuzzy neuro network; adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system; ANFIS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10035611
  • An ISM approach for lean implementation barriers in labor intensive Indian ceramic SMEs   Order a copy of this article
    by Dharmendra Singh, Jaipraksh Bhamu, Jagdish Bhadu, Kuldip Singh Sangwan 
    Abstract: Worldwide challenges and competition have urged manufacturing industries and organisations to upgrade their proficiency by implementing lean concept. A demographically suitable and reliable structural model of lean barriers has been developed, through which industries can increase their effectiveness of lean practices in labour intensive SMEs. Twelve critical barriers to lean implementation extracted from literature were analysed and validated after discussion with industrial experts/academicians. Interpretive structural modelling (ISM) technique was employed to observe the relationship amongst the barriers and Fuzzy MICMAC analysis was performed to identify a model based on hierarchy of these barriers. The results revealed that
    Keywords: lean manufacturing; ceramic industries; barriers; interpretive structural modelling technique; ISM; fuzzy MICMAC analysis; labour intensive; small and medium scale enterprises; SMEs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10035980
  • Ensuring Quality in Higher Education Institutions: Going Beyond Quality Assurance System   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: This paper aims to review the literature and clarify the misconceptions of the related quality approaches and quality terminologies to portray the need to go beyond quality assurance system in higher education institutions (HEIs) in Africa. Evidence was attained from the literature concerns the meaning of quality concepts from books and articles obtained from Google Scholar, ResearchGate and online libraries. The paper traces the evolution of quality and quality approaches and explains how the total quality management (TQM) should be the focus in HEIs of Africa. The stakeholders’ knowledge and understanding of the concepts of TQM principles and quality culture will enable them to have a clear picture of the quality management system in their institutions. We are in the era of TQM since the 1980s, however, HEIs in Africa are practicing the TQM with a feeble understanding of the entire quality concepts.
    Keywords: quality concept; quality management system; QMS; total quality management; TQM; quality control; quality assurance; quality improvement.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10036162
  • Enhancement of the Efficiency of Internal Supply Chain Production System through Process-to-Process (P2P) Interaction   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohd Norzaimi Che Ani, Shahrul Kamaruddin, Ishak Abdul Azid 
    Abstract: In this paper, the effectiveness of the internal supply chain consisting of production layout has been investigated based on systematic approach of implementation hybrid production system in automotive manufacturer. Traditionally production layout was designed based on single concept of production system such as product-based, process-based or job-shop. But in automotive manufacturer, the hybrid production is more relevance due to the finished-goods product requires thousands of the child-parts and the integrated system between product-based and process-based is more suitable. However, this hybrid production system raises some of the hidden issues such as miscommunication between processes. This research has been conducted by reviewing these issues, and subsequently a systematic approach has been developed to improve the processes communication. The result shows significant impact where the production wastes were drastically minimised which is waiting time was improved from 14% into 11% and the line balancing had achieved the optimum rate which is 89%.
    Keywords: internal supply chain; production layout; hybrid production; production system; line balancing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10036164
  • The Ecosystem is Triple Helix a Pillar of Developing Entrepreneurship Orientation in the Handicraft Industry in Bali, Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Ni Luh Wayan Sayang Telagawathi, Made Setini, Ni Made Suci, Ni Nyoman Yulianthini, Daru Asih, Ni Made Satya Utami 
    Abstract: The handicraft industry in Bali faces serious challenges in developing entrepreneurial orientation. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to examine the triple helix concept in locally cultured businesses. Data were obtained craftsmen in handicraft industry in Bali, through direct interviews, which showed the absence of entrepreneurial orientation. This study argues that the development of entrepreneurial orientation requires the synergy of the triple helix ecosystem which underpins the handicraft industry in Bali. Furthermore, craftsmen need the collaborative effort of the triple helix concept which comprises of academic, business, and government. However, the triple helix concept is unable to provide the required result due to inadequate capital and poor training. When the government acts as a source of contractual relations with stable interactions and exchange, the handicraft industries become production houses. In addition, the government is also a source of contractual relations that ensures stable interaction and exchange, while universities act as a source of new knowledge and technology. The synergy associated with these three sectors is a generative principle used to build a knowledge-based economy, which enables a tighter economic integration.
    Keywords: synergy; entrepreneurial orientation; business ecosystem; triple helix; handicraft industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10036363
  • Development and Validation of Instrument for Service Quality of TQM Educational Institutions: External Customers Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The study aims to identify quality dimensions, and provide valid and reliable measurement instruments for the service quality of TQM education institutions from the external customers’ perspective. The external customers of three traditional universities in a developing country were involved in the study. A five-point Likert scale 26-item instrument was developed to elicit information from the selected participants. Out of 1,050 questionnaires administered, 834 were returned with 819 being eligible responses with the response rate of 79.4%. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded same five principles with the 26 items which accounted for 71.3% total variance explained. The internal consistency with an overall KMO value of 0.97 indicated higher reliability. The instrument is found to be valid and reliable. Further studies could be done to capture more public and private universities for comparison. The instrument could be used periodically to assess the service quality performances by the education institutions.
    Keywords: external customer; service quality dimension; factor analysis; internal consistency; expectation and perception; validity and reliability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10036445
  • Lean manufacturing practices for enhancing Firm performance in medium enterprises: A case study from Indian context   Order a copy of this article
    by Sachin Saini, Doordarshi Singh 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of adopting lean manufacturing practices for enhancing firm performance in Northern India medium enterprise. Lean manufacturing is a versatile proven methodology for improving the flow and make the system of the organisation an efficient one. This study has been carried out in manufacturing unit of Northern India which was suffering from the high production lead time and enhanced demand for production. The present study assessed and evaluated the implementation status of lean practices i.e. 5s, TPM, supplier management and their impact on overall performance of the organisation. After implementing lean practices, rejections reduced from 7% to 3%, OEE improved by 10%, 20% reduction in inventory, enhancement of training programs from monthly to fortnightly and 100 % timely deliveries achieved for an organisation within period of 30 months. The paper is a perfect example of testing the popular methodology i.e. Lean manufacturing in real manufacturing environments.
    Keywords: lean manufacturing practices; LMPs; cycle time; value stream mapping; VSM; small and medium enterprises; SMEs; waste.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10036454
  • Critical Success Factors of Total Quality Management Practices Using Pareto Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Kashif Ali, Satirenjit Kaur Johl 
    Abstract: In Industry 4.0, the concept of total quality management (TQM) has gained more importance. Because the survival of the organisation depends on better quality management. The objective of this study is to identify total quality management critical success factors (CSFs). To achieve this purpose the empirical articles from 1987 to 2019 were studied. The descriptive results are presented such as publication years, journal and sector-wise distribution, and analysis of methods. A quality tool Pareto analysis was applied to identify the critical success factors of total quality management practices. The thematic analysis of 91 empirical studies identified the 8 vital and 20 useful many critical success factors. Based on findings two research contexts need further attention; Industry 4.0 and sustainability. The outcomes of this study contribute to the total quality management existing body of knowledge that helps the researchers and practitioners to better understand total quality management practices from different perspectives.
    Keywords: total quality management; TQM; critical success factors; CSFs; Industry 4.0; sustainability; Pareto analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10036697
  • Determinants of Sustainable Growth in Indian Banking Industry: An ISM Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Nikhil Dogra, Mohd Adil 
    Abstract: The importance of sustainability for nation building has recently drawn considerable interest from researchers. It is highly acknowledged in the literature that the acceptance of sustainable policy is a tool for the inclusive progress and growth of the economy. Although, manufacturing industry has received considerable attention as compared to service industry, sustainability at banks is the newest approach. The purpose of this study is to the key determinants that affects bank’s sustainability and then investigates the mutual relationships among these determinants. Interpretive structural modelling is employed to investigate the interrelationships among the key determinants. The results show that the environmental concern and social sustainability are one of the critical determinants related to sustainability at banks. The study findings have far reaching implications for bank management, scholars and other stakeholders.
    Keywords: sustainability; banking industry; sustainability determinants; interpretive structural modelling; ISM; financial sustainability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10037068
  • Developing strategies to prioritize and mitigate the risks occurring in Project Management Practices (PMP) for an agile organization   Order a copy of this article
    by Santosh Rane, Yahya Narvel 
    Abstract: The traditional methods of PMP lacked the capability of dealing with fast-moving, complex and varying environments. Later, with the emergence of agility as a concept of faster and flexible way of working emerged towards maximising the positive outcomes and enhancing the performance of the organisation in a highly volatile environment. There are a few risks associated with agility improvement of organisations which have been identified and prioritised in this research for strategising their mitigation. Various risks that agile organisations encounter were identified from the literature and also from the experts’ survey. The identified risks were further analysed using total-ISM and fuzzy-MICMAC analysis. Lastly, strategies were developed to mitigate the risks by leveraging Industry 4.0 technologies. Risk of replicating agile models, insufficient capability building, and intellectual property risks were identified as key risks leading to other identified risks. These risks need to be mitigated for having a flawless agile organisation.
    Keywords: agile organisation; risks of agility; project management practices; business intelligence; Industry 4.0.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10037073
  • A hybrid decision making framework based on fuzzy PIPRECIA-fuzzy EDAS for failure mode and effects analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajesh Attri, Akanksha Mishra 
    Abstract: The main purpose of current work is to propose a hybrid multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) based methodology for the prioritisation of failure modes based on their associated risk levels. In current work, a novel hybrid MCDM approach i.e. fuzzy pivot pairwise relative criteria importance assessment (PIPRECIA) integrated with fuzzy evaluation based on distance from average solution (EDAS) has been used to prioritise the different failure modes based on their risk levels. A case study of engine assembly process of tractor is presented to illustrate the demonstration of proposed hybrid MCDM based fuzzy PIPRECIA-fuzzy EDAS methodology. The results obtained by fuzzy PIPRECIA-fuzzy EDAS methodology are validated by the two different hybrid MCDM approaches i.e. fuzzy PIPRECIA-fuzzy ERVD method and Fuzzy PIPRECIA-fuzzy ARAS method. The results obtained by fuzzy PIPRECIA-fuzzy EDAS are quite similar to that obtained by fuzzy PIPRECIA-fuzzy ERVD and Fuzzy PIPRECIA-fuzzy ARAS method.
    Keywords: multi-criteria decision making; MCDM; FMEA; PIPRECIA; EDAS; ARAS; ERVD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10037076
  • A Case Study on the Service Quality Perception in a University Mall: Customers’ Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Ammar Moohialdin, Muhammad Saiful Islam 
    Abstract: This research addresses the application of an integrated approach for assessing customers’ perceptions and satisfaction of services in the university mall. The case study approach was conducted by surveying the customers’ response to the mall provided services. The gaps between customers’ perceptions and expectations are identified by applying an integrated approach of SERVQUAL and the emotion, cognition and behaviour (E-C-B) model. This study found significant correlations between the mall environment and customers’ perception of the quality metrics, including introduced products, customer arousal, customers’ pleasure and purchase intention. The outcomes of this study facilitate decision making for mall and university quality managers who are engaging in improving the shopping environment as well as product and service quality. This study is also significant for researchers concerned about understanding students’ expectations, satisfaction, and behaviours in university malls or similar service projects considering different environments.
    Keywords: customers; SERVQUAL; E-C-B model; university mall.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10037077
  • Integration of Simulation Modelling and Lean Management to Improve Patient Flow at Outpatient Clinics   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmed Shaban, George Ayad, Neamat G. S. Ahmed 
    Abstract: The outpatient clinics suffer from various inefficiencies such as long queues, long waiting times and low utilisation of medical resources. Simulation modelling and process improvement techniques have been applied separately to tackle such inefficiencies. This paper demonstrates how simulation modelling and lean management can be integrated to improve the patient flow and performance of outpatient clinics. The proposed framework for integrating lean and simulation consists of three main phases where the first phase includes the system description, data collection and analysis, and simulation model development and validation. In the second phase, the value stream mapping (VSM) is used to determine possible improvement scenarios while simulation modelling is employed in the third phase to evaluate the selected improvement scenarios. This framework has been applied to characterise and improve the patient flow in an Internal Medicine Outpatient Clinic (IMOC) in Egypt. The simulation of some improvement scenarios shows that the average patient time in system and average patient waiting time at clinic queue can be decreased by 64.20% and 71.65%, respectively; without the need for additional resources. Accordingly, the presented framework is a useful quantitative decision-making tool that can be adopted to investigate and improve the operating characteristics of outpatient clinics.
    Keywords: healthcare; outpatient clinic; internal medicine; patient flow; waiting time; process improvement; lean management; value stream mapping; VSM; simulation modelling.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10037227
  • European Banking Groups Efficiency in a Decade: an empirical investigation on the Determinants   Order a copy of this article
    by Francesca Pampurini, Anna Grazia Quaranta 
    Abstract: After analysing the determinants of the best efficiency levels achieved by the Euro-Area banking groups, this paper suggests some managerial and policy recommendations. We employ a stochastic frontier model to measure the efficiency levels of the banking groups in the period 2009 to 2018. Then, with a cluster analysis, we identify the most relevant efficiency determinants of the best practice units. The results reveal that the main causes of the high level of efficiency are linked to the business model and to specific managerial choices. These research findings have great micro and macro implications in the light of the structural changes that are transforming the physiognomy of the banking system. Few studies focused on such a particular topic after the 2008 Global Financial Crisis; another strength of this study is that the analysis involves a period able to represent the complexity of the banking and financial markets in the last decade.
    Keywords: efficiency; stochastic frontiers; cluster analysis; banking groups; strategic choices.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10037330
  • Design and validity of a holistic scale for service-quality self-assessments: A case study in service companies   Order a copy of this article
    by Jasmin Herrera-de-la-Barrera, Claudio Romano-Narvaez, María Iglesias-Navas, Alexander Pulido-Rojano 
    Abstract: Several scales are used to measure service quality after the provision of services. Customer evaluation is based on contrasting expectations with the perception of the service. Service companies require instruments to assess their readiness with respect to the quality of the service to be rendered. This paper proposes a construct based on variables defined in international quality models and service measurements. The content validity of the construct was calculated using the content validity ratio and index methods by forming the group of items that the instrument should contain, followed by a reliability test of the construct’s measurement scale using Cronbach’s alpha. The sample comprised 40 service companies. Results were analysed using descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis to demonstrate the instrument’s validity and reliability. The adoption of data reduction techniques made it possible to find homogeneous groups within the variables studied and three typologies or business clusters were identified.
    Keywords: instrument; service quality; quality variables; factor analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10037356
  • National Culture, Trust, Social Networking and Knowledge Sharing Within a Knowledge-Intensive Sector: A Mediation Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Jumana Ziad Al Zoubi, Samer Eid Dahiyat, Ahmad M. Obeidat, Naser A. Aboyassin 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the four national culture (NC) dimensions of uncertainty avoidance, collectivism, power distance and masculinity on knowledge sharing. In addition, this study aims to examine the mediating effects of trust and social networking on the relationships between the four NC dimensions and knowledge sharing (KS). A theoretical model was developed, and a questionnaire-based survey was designed and targeted a knowledge intensive sector, namely the healthcare sector in Jordan. Findings show that collectivism and uncertainty avoidance were the only two dimensions found to have a positive and significant effect on knowledge sharing, trust as well as social networking. Both trust and social networking were found to have positive and significant effects on knowledge sharing. trust fully mediated the effect of collectivism on knowledge sharing and partially mediated the effect of uncertainty avoidance, whereas social networking was found to have a partial mediating effect. In conclusion, the study has contributed to the extant NC and KS literature by complementing studying a nations distinctive cultural traits on an organisational-level routine.
    Keywords: national culture; trust; social networking; knowledge sharing; healthcare sector; Jordan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10037393
  • The Role of Equity on the Relationship between Job Evaluation and Employee Performance in Jordan Industrial Estates   Order a copy of this article
    by MOHAMED KHTATBEH, Anuar Mahomed, Suhaimi Ab Rahman, Rosmah Mohamed 
    Abstract: This study aimed to assess the extent of the mediation effect of equity on the relationship between job evaluation and employee performance. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect data from 646 employees working in the targeted industrial estates. The collected data was analysed using SPSS and AMOS software tools based on structural equation modelling (SEM). The results of the study indicated to a non-significant relationship between job evaluation and job performance. On the other hand, a significant relationship was found between equity and job performance as well as between job evaluation and equity. Moreover, the results of the study demonstrated a mediation role of equity on the relationship between job evaluation and job performance. The results of this study are expected to have a significant influence in filling the gap in the literature and enhancing employees’ performance accordingly.
    Keywords: job evaluation; equity; job performance; Jordan Industrial Estates.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10037453
  • Measuring Level of Performance of Public Transport Sector: A Case of India   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhinandan Khajuria, Supran Kumar Sharma, Dalip Raina 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is not only to estimate the technical efficiency for different state road transport undertakings (SRTUs) in India but also to provide benchmark for inefficient SRTUs in order to push them to efficient frontier. The study also provides comparative analysis in order to estimate efficiency variation among SRTUs across the period of time. Both longitudinal and latitudinal data-based research is made by using input-oriented non-parametric approach of data envelopment analysis in order to estimate the different forms of efficiency scores for SRTUs. The longitudinal analysis concludes that two SRTUs out of 28 are technically efficient across the period of time. Through cross-section data and latitudinal analysis, the present study has estimated that one fourth of SRTUs are technical efficient. Analysis also provided results which are helpful in target settings for inefficient SRTUs by allocating them with peer groups and peers weights.
    Keywords: data envelopment analysis; DEA; public transport; slacks; technical efficiency; non-parametric test.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10037552
  • Applicability of the balanced scorecard (BSC) in higher education institutions: Evidence from Jordan   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamad Al-Dahiyat, Mohammad Altarawneh, Ismail Altkryty, Abd El-Majeed Majali 
    Abstract: This study contributes to the existing limited body of literature on the appropriateness and applicability of the BSC in higher education institutions (HEIs). It is considered among the first studies, at least in Jordan, which aims at investigating the applicability of the BSC in HEIs, with particular emphasis on a public university in Jordan. The case study methodology has been adopted utilising content analysis and questionnaire methods for data collection. The initial BSC model included 77 KPIs suitable for measuring the strategic performance of the case university grouped under seven perspectives. Using principal component factor analysis statistical technique, the study identified 45 KPIs, as the most important indicators, grouped under 15 components. The study recommends that higher education institutions in Jordan apply the BSC as a modern performance measurement system because of its applicability and appropriateness in enabling higher education administrators to manage their strategies, to attain institutional mission and strategic goals, and to improve accountability.
    Keywords: performance measurement; balanced scorecard; BSC; performance management; university; key performance indicators; KPIs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10037603
  • Factors inducing productivity: a qualitative and quantitative view of Portuguese companies   Order a copy of this article
    by Daniel Correia, Pedro Reis, Pedro Pinto 
    Abstract: This research aims to recognise the impact of communication, training, joint commitment, leadership practices, and corporate bonuses as productivity predictors. For this purpose, a questionnaire survey was used to obtain a longitudinal case study involving 147 semi-structured interviews with employees and managers engaging in different roles. Then, factor analysis and multivariate data analysis were used to identify the inductors of labour productivity along the hierarchical chain. The results indicate that regardless of the hierarchical level in which the responsibilities are performed, it was possible to identify labour productivity inductors. This work’s originality remains on a holistic approach of employee recognition, motivation, engagement, compensation, communication, training, leadership style, and company type as global potential determinants for labour productivity for SME’s. The main limitations stem from the statistical technique used (cross-section analysis) and the restricted geographic scope. This study provides management tools that help promote worker productivity and management efficiency regardless of their hierarchical level.
    Keywords: productivity; motivation; human capital; leadership; management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10037687
  • Navigating recruitment paradox towards human resource productivity through ambidexterity   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Ali Mahbod, Arash Shahin, Ali Nasr Isfahani 
    Abstract: In human resource management, the first approach is to select and recruit an employee in accordance with the organisational goals and strategies. This study aims to identify the dimensions influencing the selection of an appropriate employee. It is typically a qualitative research based on grounded theory and in-depth and semi-structured interview. To collect data, 14 human resource experts have been interviewed by applying purposive sampling. Data analysis has been performed in three stages of open coding, axial coding and selective coding; accordingly, the research qualitative model has been designed. Findings indicated 16 core concepts, 25 categories, and 40 sub-categories that have been designed and explained in the form of a paradigm model including causal conditions, contextual factors, intervening factors, strategies, and consequences. Finally, the dimensions of human resource management in the field of recruitment were explained with the ambidexterity approach.
    Keywords: human resource management; ambidexterity; recruitment; grounded theory; GT; Paradox; productivity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10037760
  • Insights into customer online reviews of service quality in hotels: Evidence from Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Ha Thu Nguyen, Anh Tu Thi Le, Hoang Nguyen, Phong Thai Le 
    Abstract: This study used online reviews on a well-known website that allows guests to generate reviews immediately after use of service, to provide a different and more realistic picture of hotel customer satisfaction in the hospitality industry. By combining quantitative and qualitative data, this huge data source was exploited to obtain significant amounts of valuable information for service quality improvement. Customer reviews of 106 hotels from 3-star to 5-star in Khanh Hoa, Vietnam provided additional evidence of the contribution of diverse service quality dimensions to customer overall ratings. Particularly, the main findings also pointed out the variability of customer overall rating and their evaluations of service quality depending on hotel segments and customer’s purpose of stay. From these results, hotel managers could draw meaningful implications of customising service quality aspects to satisfying customers and enhancing customer online scorings. Moreover, we emphasised the insights that online customer feedbacks brought to both researchers and practitioners.
    Keywords: customer online reviews; customer ratings; tourism service quality; hotel industry; tourism service; customer satisfaction; sustainable tourism development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10037762
  • Enablers and Barriers of the adoption of Lean System: A Mix Method Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Zia-ur-Rehman, Mhuammad Hashim, Hakeem-ur Rehman, Shahzad Iqbal, Sajjad Baig, Yusra Khalid, Ayesha Khan 
    Abstract: This study is based on exploring the lean manufacturing practices in Pakistan’s textile industries. This study adopts the triangulation method for deciding barriers to lean’s implementation in Pakistan’s textile sector. We used descriptive analysis for the interpretation of the data for quantitative analysis. We conducted root causes analysis through expert interviews and also identified enablers of lean implementation in Pakistan’s textile industry using qualitative and quantitative analysis. After the interview, we learned that poor leadership, insufficient preparation, unavailability of local experts, confusion, poor communication are crucial barriers to lean implantation. We have also identified drivers of successful lean implementation in lean. 5S is the most used tool in the local textile organisation. This paper examines the current situation of lean implementation in Pakistan. This paper highlights the leading causes in poor implementation of lean that can be addressed through the study’s solution. This study could be a source of inspiration for small and medium-sized enterprises to apply lean in their organisation.
    Keywords: lean practices; manufacturing textile industry; lean hurdlers.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10037883
  • An Empirical Investigation into the Impact of Product Quality Dimensions on Improving the Order-Winners and Customer Satisfaction   Order a copy of this article
    by Haitham Alzoubi, Gouher Ahmed, Muhammad Alshurideh 
    Abstract: The quality of product is a major element through which customers are attracted to purchase and as a result, companies gets in return the sales and profits. This study aims to investigate how product quality dimensions can improve the order winners from the case study of Apparel Group a leading retailer in Dubai, UAE. 155 customers were surveyed to collect the primary data to test the proposed hypotheses. The results show that performance, features, durability and perceived quality have strong relationships with order-winners, and all such elements improving the winning orders for firm.
    Keywords: product quality; order-winners; customer satisfaction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10037887
    by Kushal Kumar Ruia, Utkarsh Daga, Aditya Tripathi, Maruf Nissar Rahman, SAURABH BILGAIYAN 
    Abstract: Nowadays, to optimise revenue, airline uses dynamic pricing techniques. Earlier demand was predicted by retrospective analysis of sales data across various sales channels. This technique becomes less reliable when the volatility of the market and competition increases. In this paper, different models have been built using machine learning techniques like regression which could predict the ticket prices of airlines based on features such as journey route, historical ticket price, etc. Along with this, the dependency of important features on accuracy has also been studied. An experimental study of this paper reveals that Regression algorithms can be used to predict airline price as the highest R2 score achieved on testing data is 0.85 using gradient boosting regressor. The objective of this paper is to understand the key features that affect the Airline price and compare the accuracy of the different machine learning algorithms with the selection of different features.
    Keywords: machine learning; prediction model; air tickets prices; regression; R2 score; cross-validation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10037903
  • Cycle time reduction in multi cavity injection mould through mould flow analysis and runner modification   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Jagadeesan, V. Umasankar 
    Abstract: Productivity in the injection moulding process is driven by the cycle time which is influenced by process parameters, the material being processed and mould design. In mould design, especially the feeding system such as runner and gating decide the flow of molten polymer material to reach the cavities without any resistance and blockage. The effective usage of software and analysis results in exploring the opportunities for reducing the cycle time. This paper is focusing on analysis and thereafter effect of changes in runner modification and mould flow which resulted in improvement in cycle time and increase in productivity. Investigations on the issues in the existing runner profile and filling pattern of the component during injection moulding and the established process of achieving uniform filling are presented. Filling, packing and cooling analysis were taken for the studies with various parameters while setting the mould in the injection moulding operation.
    Keywords: cycle time; mould flow; cavity; filling; packing; cooling time; runner; warpage; optimisation; machine utilisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10037913
  • Application of heuristics for packing problems to optimise throughput time in fixed position assembly islands   Order a copy of this article
    by Thomas Henke, Jochen Deuse 
    Abstract: Accompanied with globalisation, companies are confronted with new competitors and price competitions. In order to meet these challenges manufactures strive to increase their efficiency throughout the value stream. Especially special machine manufactures assembling in fixed position assembly islands show a high non-value adding share, since their assembly and logistical processes are characterised by a low degree of standardisation and maturity. This leads to a high spread of throughput times and increases the risk of delivery delays. To improve this weakness, this paper presents an approach to increase the degree of standardisation and to lower and stabilise the throughput time. The new approach bases on heuristics for packing problems and applies them to the material supply. By that, the allocation of the supplied components is optimised, as a result of which search times and path lengths for walking and transporting are shortened and the value adding time share is increased.
    Keywords: large scale production; fixed position assembly; fixed position assembly island; packing problems; rectangle packing area minimisation problem; RPAMP; strip packing problem; SPP; stack ceiling algorithm; heuristics; throughput time.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10038032
  • Technological development and mitigation of environmental impact through ISO 14000: a review   Order a copy of this article
    by Alejandro Barragán Ocaña, Paz Silva-Borjas, Katya Luna, María Del Pilar Longar Blanco 
    Abstract: The main purposes of the ISO 14000 series of standards are to provide organisations with guidelines to develop environmental management practices and to establish requirements for organisations to accomplish their technological progress goals while exerting the least possible impact on the environment. This study aimed to identify the actors, dynamics, and themes of interest around the implementation and use of the ISO 14000 standards. For that purpose, we carried out bibliometric and network analyses focused on the five-year period. Results showed, on the one hand, the number of publications, countries, and institutions producing related documents, in addition to the academic sources and areas of knowledge where ISO 14000-related studies are published; on the other hand, the network analysis was performed to identify concepts associated with this group of standards based on the keywords used in the reviewed literature. This allowed us to showcase different areas of opportunity related to establishing an environmental management system based on the ISO 14000 family of norms and defining future guidelines to mitigate environmental impact and strengthen sustainable development.
    Keywords: ISO 14000 family; environmental management; technological areas; publication sources; environment; place of publication.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10038033
  • The influence of rewards and the organizational environment on employee retention   Order a copy of this article
    by Álvaro Dias, Sara Barros, Leandro Ferreira Pereira, Renato Lopes Da Costa, Rui Gonçalves 
    Abstract: The loss of a qualified employee reveals itself as loss, once the company has invested time and money in training, attribution of benefits, among others. Thus, understanding employee retention factors represents a key dimension in human resources management. However, the study of factors influencing employee retention still needs further consolidation, especially regarding the role of rewards and the organisational environment. Using survey data to test the hypothesis through PLS-SEM, the findings reveal that rewards are directly linked to the organisational commitment and employee retention. Organisational environment influences significantly and positively organisational justice and organisational commitment. Furthermore, organisational justice was found to have a positive influence on retention, and organisational commitment reveals a positive relationship with retention. The organisational commitment mediation effect was also identified in the relations between rewards and employee retention, and organisational environment on employee retention.
    Keywords: rewards; organisational environment; organisational commitment; employee retention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10038035
  • Smart Services’ Quality Scale (SMART-QUAL)   Order a copy of this article
    by Riham Adel 
    Abstract: Despite the increasing interest on smart industries, but research on smart services quality remains limited and focusing only on technological and engineering characteristics. Until now, little is known about customer expectations of superior smart services performance, which makes the identification of smart services quality from the customers perception an important research topic that is not yet considered in the literature. Therefore, this study aims to conceptualise smart service quality with a particular emphasis on the active role of customers co-creation in smart services. The paper updates the service quality literature by validating SMART-QUAL measurement scale suggested to be used within the smart context. The new developed measurement scale is composed of 13 items consisting of three dimensions namely: functional value, smartness level, and privacy control.
    Keywords: innovation; internet of things; IoT; service-dominant logic; SDL; co-creation; quality; smart services; SMART-QUAL.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10038036
    by WAQAR HAFEEZ, Nazrina Aziz 
    Abstract: A useful technique in statistical quality assurance is acceptance sampling. It is used to take decision about the lot, either accepted or rejected, based on inspection of a random sample from the lot. Experts say that Bayesian approach is the best approach to make a correct decision when historical knowledge is available. Based on Bayesian approach; this study develops a Bayesian modified group chain sampling plan (BMGChSP) by using binomial distribution with beta prior. Two quality regions are found namely: probabilistic quality region (PQR) and indifference quality region (IQR). Acceptable quality level (AQL) based on producer’s risk and limiting quality level (LQL) based on consumer’s risk are used to select design parameters for BMGChSP. The values based on all possible combinations of design parameters for BMGChSP are tabulated and inflection points are found. The results expose that, proposed plan is a good alternative of the existing traditional group chain sampling plans.
    Keywords: binomial distribution; beta distribution; acceptance sampling; quality region; producer’s and consumer’s risks.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10038480
    by Sushree Sangita Ray, SomabhusanaJanakiballav Mishra, Subhashree Dash 
    Abstract: Efficiency and flexibility are the need of the hour and organisations that are part of the dynamic industry need to get them updated and upgraded at every instance. Hence, it is essential for the organisations to bring about integration and synergy in their activities. This is possible through the utilisation of high-end software enterprise resource planning (ERP), is an essential tool that helps in performing all the business functions and processes in an organisation. This study revolves around understanding the perception of the employees of different organisation regarding the satisfaction level towards the implementation of ERP. The statistical tools like descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the collected data. In terms of productivity and growth ERP has a positive impact on the organisation. This integrated system helps the organisation for the smooth functioning of departments and also helps in proper record keeping in a timely manner.
    Keywords: enterprise resource planning; ERP; organisational culture; workflows; industry; customisation process; productivity; tools.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10038495
  • Quality Management System and ISO 9001:2015: a comparison between enterprises certified and does not certify   Order a copy of this article
    by Lucas Schmidt Goecks, Bruna Strapazzon Do Couto, Andre Luis Korzenowsk, Haroldo Macedo Fontoura 
    Abstract: Putting quality first is critical to a company’s survival. To this end, several approaches were adopted by SMEs, highlighting the adoption of a quality management system based on ISO 9000. In this sense, this article aims to analyse SMEs’ differences with the quality certification implemented that they do not have. An exploratory, documentary, and descriptive characterise this study, using the case study to analyse the certifications. The research results supported the existing literature. Noting that SMEs certified by ISO 9001:2015 show improvements in quality management and competitiveness, while non-certified ones still lack standardisation. As a contribution, the research offers an understanding of the improvements associated with applying ISO 9000 quality certification concerning leadership, strategies and plans, customers, people, processes, and results in SMEs in emerging countries, demonstrating the importance of this.
    Keywords: small companies; quality management; ISO 9001:2015; certification.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10038547
    by Pardeeep Gupta, Niharika Gupta 
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to signify the TQM implementation methodology adopted by a leading tractors manufacturing industry namely XYZ Ltd. (name changed) of Punjab, India; examine the issues faced by the company prior to TQM; and investigate the effectiveness of its implementation. The industry started implementing TQM in 2008 with a purpose to counter business challenges for the realisation of its vision, i.e.,
    Keywords: total quality management; TQM; business excellence; productivity; key performance indices; key management indices; quality; competitive; manufacturing industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10038548
  • Bolstering Measures for Adopting Lean Construction in the South African Construction Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Matthew Ikuabe, Clinton Aigbavboa, Douglas Aghimien, Pretty Ramaru 
    Abstract: The South African construction industry has grown in leaps and bounds over the years despite the numerous challenges experienced. However, the perennial issues plaguing the industry still persist and efforts are being made to mitigate their occurrence. Lean construction as a strategic project management tool for construction activities and processes provides some latitude for the abatement of some of the issues facing the construction industry. This study seeks to empirically explore the propelling measures for the adoption of lean construction in the construction industry. With the aid of questionnaires, data was retrieved from the target population of the study which are construction professionals. Retrieved data was analysed with the appropriate method of data analysis. The outcome of the study coupled with the recommendations given provides a guide for the seamless espousal of lean construction in the South African construction industry.
    Keywords: adoption; lean construction; construction industry; lean techniques; waste management; construction optimisation; South Africa.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10038552
  • Service Quality and Public Satisfaction with Indonesia's Tax Amnesty Program   Order a copy of this article
    by Khoirunurrofik Khoirunurrofik, Irfan Nurhadian 
    Abstract: Functional aspects have dominated the measurement of service quality. This paper investigates the perception of taxpayers on the quality of tax amnesty services and the factors influencing the quality of tax amnesty services using multi-dimensional aspects or multi- attribute constructs. Gronroos service quality model is used as the bedrock for the study, and structural equation modelling (SEM) informed the analysis of the data. A research questionnaire was used to collect data from 100 tax amnesty participants, and each latent variable was verified. The results show that both functional quality and technical quality positively and substantially affect image quality. Image and technical quality have a positive and significant influence on service quality perceptions, while functional quality has a positive but insignificant impact upon service quality perceptions. Further, the results reveal that service quality perceptions positively and significantly affect taxpayers’ satisfaction. The results advice policy design in delivering excellent services to taxpayers.
    Keywords: tax amnesty; service quality; taxpayer satisfaction; Gronroos model; Indonesia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10038554
  • The Challenge of Six Sigma DMAIC Project Integration in Tunisian Manufacturing Company: Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Kaouthar Lamine 
    Abstract: The aim of this empirical study is to illustrate the challenge in implementing Six Sigma project as well as the improvement of the manufacturing process through the DMAIC steps integration in Tunisian company. For this reason, a qualitative method based on a case study is employed to provide detailed information about the reality experienced by the company. Hence, the Minitab software is required in order to detect, resolve and improve the company process. The result shows the positive impact of Six Sigma integration on the company process; illustrated by the cut of non-quality costs, the waste of time and rework which leads to an improvement of product quality and boost of company incomes. Furthermore, this study enhances the research theory of Six Sigma due to the real case study outlining the DMAIC integration. Moreover, it presents a helpful guideline for the quality expert facilitating the scope of its integration. This study is original because it the first one which outlines the challenge of Six Sigma project implementation in Tunisian context.
    Keywords: Six Sigma; DMAIC; case study; Minitab; Tunisian context.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10038557
  • An analytical approach of feta-cheese production line based on overall equipment effectiveness   Order a copy of this article
    by Panagiotis Tsarouhas, THEO VARZAKAS 
    Abstract: This paper aims to compute the efficiency of a manufacturing plant on the basis of overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) implementation in a traditional Greek feta-cheese production system. The analysis comprises the calculation of the most significant descriptive statistics, histograms and the boxplots. A practical process flowchart to maximise the OEE of an integrated manufacturing plant has been suggested. Moreover, the inherent availability, quality rate and performance efficiency factors, as well as the entire OEE, have been illustrated for every day and month. Maintenance time ratios at system and machine level have been determined to estimate the current maintenance strategy. The key purpose of the analysis is to locate the main vital machines in the manufacturing plant with the aim of evaluating and improving the OEE using effective management. Then, practical conclusions are made which require urgent intervention to increase the efficiency, productivity and the quality of the cheese industry.
    Keywords: overall equipment effectiveness; OEE; productivity; quality; maintenance; reliability; feta-cheese production line.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10038559
  • Analyzing the Effect of Country of Origin on Customer Perception of Product Quality in Foreign Car Exhibitions in Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Hadi Rezaei, Azarnoush Ansari 
    Abstract: One phenomenon that affects global trade is the concept of country of origin. Understanding the consumer’s assessment of a foreign product has a significant impact on identifying consumer considerations before purchasing that product. Although this process appears to be partly affected by the consumers’ level of familiarity with product features, the country of origin is still recognised as one of the influencing factors. The statistical population consists of the people who visited the exhibition of foreign cars. To analyze the data collected from the questionnaires and test the hypotheses, descriptive statistical tests and structural equation modelling were utilised using Amos 22 software. The results indicated that brand image, the country of origin, and country of origin exerted a positive and significant influence on the customer’s evaluation of car quality. Moreover, the customer’s evaluation of car quality had a positive and significant effect on customer perception of car quality.
    Keywords: country of origin; brand image; car evaluation; customer perception; structural equations; Iran.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10038599
  • Design of Self-starting Multivariate Control Chart for Monitoring Patients Suspected to Bone Marrow Metastasis   Order a copy of this article
    by Mahmood Shahrabi, Amirhossein Amiri, Hamidreza Saligheh Rad, Sedigheh Ghofrani 
    Abstract: Nowadays, statistical process control methods are widely used in healthcare, especially for cancer patients, to help doctors in interpreting and diagnosing medical data. Since adequate data from patients with bone marrow metastasis are often unavailable, the researchers use a self-starting control chart. In this regard, using the self-starting multivariate control chart, we monitor the status of people suspected of bone marrow metastasis in the pelvic region. For this, using a two-dimensional discrete wavelet transformation, we extracted some features from the ADC and T1 magnetic resonance images of ten bone marrow metastasis samples. Out of these features, we selected six ones for final analysis. Then, using the self-starting SSMEWMA and SST2, we performed the simulation studies, as well as a numerical example, on the extracted features and evaluated the performance of the proposed methods in terms of average run length measure. The simulation results verified the appropriate performance of the proposed methods in diagnosing patients with bone marrow metastasis than non-metastasis ones.
    Keywords: self-starting control chart; average run length; bone marrow metastases; feature extraction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10038695
  • QM-Light, a proposed model for Quality Management in SMEs. Part 1: Developing the model   Order a copy of this article
    by Carolien Zegers, Alaa Garad 
    Abstract: Implementing quality management, while beneficial to all organizations, may be challenging for SMEs. Nevertheless, SMEs generate employment and contribute to innovation and sustainability, making them crucial to economies worldwide (OECD, 2017). We propose a model that helps SMEs to benefit from QM. We seek to answer key questions: 1) what makes the BE-models complex for SMEs to apply? 2) how can a QM light model improve the applicability for SMEs? In this part, we introduce the developed model while part II will introduce the empirical evidence after implementing this proposed model, which draws on our extensive practice as quality management senior practitioners, while insights on the effects of implementing QM light were gained from both theoretical perspectives and exploratory qualitative data. We address the low resource intensity, which affects the impact on performance and costs (ROI) for SMEs to implement QM, which should decrease the human and financial barriers.
    Keywords: empowerment; leadership; business excellence; total quality management; SMEs; European Foundation for Quality Management; EFQM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10038696
  • Tableau de Bord and Balanced Scorecard: knowledge dissemination in the hotel industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Maria Joao C. V. Machado, Catarina Rosa Nunes 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to contribute to the knowledge regarding the dissemination of two methods of performance evaluation that promote information quality in the hotel industry: the tableau de bord and the balanced scorecard. As specific objectives, the following can be identified: to analyse the rates of knowledge dissemination about the TB and the BSC; and to identify the variables responsible for the diffusion of such knowledge. The data collection method used was a survey made to the financial managers of 4- and 5-star hotels operating in Portugal, through which we obtained 275 valid answers. The results lead to the following conclusion: the tableau de bord is very little known, while the balanced scorecard is known to most hotel managers; the research for explanatory variables show that the knowledge of these methods is associated with the financial managers individual characteristics, such as age and their academic degree.
    Keywords: performance evaluation methods; hotel features; hotel industry; knowledge dissemination; balanced scorecard; tableau de bord.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10038795
  • Modelling the Enablers of Quality Management Practices Using ISM   Order a copy of this article
    by Mahesh Prabhu H, Pranith Prabhakar, Samhit Nayak, Sriram Pai, Gowrava Shenoy 
    Abstract: Quality plays a vital role in ensuring customer satisfaction in the recent era of globalisation and quality management practices play a crucial role in achieving quality standards. The purpose of this paper is to represent an approach to the effective implementation of quality management practices by identifying the subtleties between various enablers of quality management. A hierarchical model is developed using interpretive structural modelling (ISM) depicting the mutual relationships among the enablers of quality management practices. The analysis indicates that there is a category of enablers with high driving power and low dependency that needs full focus and is of strategic value, whereas another group consists of those variables that are highly dependent and are the resulting behaviour. The classification of enablers into independent and dependent variables would enable quality managers to concentrate on the important variables that are key in building a strong quality management system in the organisation.
    Keywords: quality management practices; interpretive structural modelling; ISM; small and medium enterprises; SMEs; modelling; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10038821
  • Designing Chicken Feeder Aids Using Kano-Ergonomic Function Deployment (EFD) in West Sumatra Small and Medium Sized Enterprise   Order a copy of this article
    by Nilda Tri Putri, Nabila Humaida, Hilma Raimona Zadry, Maria Endo Mahata, Elita Amrina 
    Abstract: This study aims to design aids for layer chicken feeders in an ergonomic traditional coop using Kano-ergonomic function deployment (EFD). The integration of Kano model and EFD was used to identify design attributes that affect customer satisfaction and to translate customer requirements into technical requirements that are used to determine the priorities for the design of layer chicken feeder aids. The findings of this study are layer chicken feeder aids that are used with pushing movement to overcome musculoskeletal complaints, speed up work time, and reduce feed wastage. This design product is useful to facilitate the feeding of layer chicken as it can reduce musculoskeletal complaints, speed up work time, and reduce feed wastage so that work productivity can increase. In addition, the design of the resulting aids can be used as a reference by chicken layer livestock entrepreneurs to increase the productivity of their companies and especially their workers.
    Keywords: livestock feeder aids; ergonomic function deployment; EFD; house of ergonomic; HOE; Kano model; musculoskeletal complaints.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10038822
  • Competence in Quality of Pharmaceuticals By Quality Benchmarking: A Conceptual Discussion   Order a copy of this article
    by Narayana Charyulu R, SANDEEP DS, Anupriya NR, Anoop Narayanan V 
    Abstract: Benchmarking is a strategic tool that can be used by companies for the comparison with their competitors for the acquisition of more information for the implementation of new processes for improving the effectiveness of the company. The pharmaceutical companies compete on many different levels from the developmental process of the drug to the marketing of the product. This article provides the applicability of the benchmarking process in different areas of a pharmaceutical company. This includes benchmarking of the product development process, quality management system, strategy, and marketing system, information service, call handling, stability testing studies, efficacy benchmarking, etc. Even though the benchmarking process is an effective method for the improvement of the efficacy of the company, it affects the competitors by reducing their ability to commercially exploit their information and preventing others from acquiring the information. So, the benchmarking process undergoes some legal and ethical issues, which is governed by intellectual property laws and competition law.
    Keywords: quality; benchmarking; pharmaceuticals; quality management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10038858
  • Economic development of housing infrastructure of regions based on formation of building materials cluster   Order a copy of this article
    by Bayan Zhabytay, Nurlan Dosmaganbetov, Gulmira Kabdullina, Ziyat Kozhakhmetov, Ainur Yessenbayeva, Tolendi Ashimbayev 
    Abstract: There is a shortage of research dedicated to the economic link between building materials cluster and efficiency of regional housing cluster development. Our motivation lies in the scientific interest to fill this gap using the example of Kazakhstan as a country with significant volumes of construction. The purpose is to identify problems related to the economic efficiency of the clustering system implementation to ensure the development of housing infrastructure in regional economies and to justify the efficiency of its use. The research framework comprises graphical models of cluster-based development in the construction industry and typologies of associated problems that adequately reflect market conditions in Kazakhstan. The results demonstrate the possibilities of employing a cluster model into the regional strategies for the construction industry development and prove the importance of implementing the clustering system in solving narrower social problems such as housing problems and economic development of urban infrastructure.
    Keywords: building materials cluster; clusters; clustering potential; clustering of regional economies; housing market infrastructure; regional development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10038863
  • International Consensus on Data and Information Quality for Better Quality Decision Making in Higher Education Institutions   Order a copy of this article
    by Faisal Syafar, Halimah Husain, Edy Sabara 
    Abstract: The main objective of this study is to develop a structured and comprehensive framework and strategy for obtaining high quality data and information in Indonesian higher education (HE) institutions. This study employs three research methods. A three-round international Delphi study was used in the first year of the study (reported in this paper). A national survey and a case study will be conducted in the second and third years. The integrated framework and strategy for forming a better HE system will consist of the triangulation of the findings of these three methods. The most significant findings of the Delphi study were the key data and information quality (DIQ) dimensions related to HE; the DIQ together with the factors impacting the problems in HE from technological, organisational, and personal approaches; and a strategic way to identify and correct DIQ problems to develop better decision-making to improve the competitive advantage of the national education system.
    Keywords: data quality; information quality; real-time; decision-making; higher education; data and information quality; DIQ.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10039191
  • Quality Mining: a New Approach for Managing Service Quality   Order a copy of this article
    by Behnam Khamoushpour, Abbas Sheikh Aboumasoudi, Arash Shahin, Shakiba Khademolqorani 
    Abstract: This study aims to propose a new approach for service quality improvement through simultaneous measurement of all data and indicators affecting service quality and related to each service along with each other, and to find the importance and relationship between these indicators and suggesting service quality improvement solutions. The proposed model named quality mining is based on data mining in service quality. As a case study, all the one-year services registered by the information technology service management (ITSM) system of a manufacturing company have been analysed. Clustering, correlation, and rule learner data mining methods have been used in the studied organisation. Findings indicated a direct relationship between the performance of the organisation and satisfaction regarding the services provided. The improvement suggestions presented for the studied organisation were related to the performance improvement of employees/functions. The factors affecting service quality were also determined.
    Keywords: quality mining; service quality; data mining; information technology service management; ITSM; clustering; rule learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10039234
  • A Strategic Assessment of the Twenty Tens Barriers Preventing the Optimal Implementation of Lean Management in the Lebanese Construction Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Mira Thoumy, Atef Harb, Claudette Hajj 
    Abstract: The purpose of this research is to present the major barriers that hinder the implementation of lean construction management (LCM) through a systematic evaluation based on a literature review of numerous journal articles followed by a statistical analysis of data from a survey of 244 observations by and interviews with professionals in the field. Despite their knowledge of the critical success factors, not all LCM adopters are successful in reaping the benefits of the implementation; in fact, several barriers have been minimising the chances of fully prosperous projects. For an effective integration of lean, companies should overcome the barriers faced during the implementation. A survey of Lebanese construction professionals was used to identify these barriers. The findings revealed five groups of barriers hindering the implementation of LCM. This study identified a new barrier that is related to the Lebanese industry which is using relationships to conceal mistakes and tolerate delays.
    Keywords: lean; lean construction management; LCM; construction; barriers; implementation; hinder; success; pitfalls.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10039307
  • The Culture Play a Key Role in Management Consulting Firms   Order a copy of this article
    by Renato Lopes Da Costa, Leandro Ferreira Pereira, Álvaro Dias, Rui A. H. Gonçalves 
    Abstract: Organisational culture assumes a fundamental part of the life of every organisation. The development of human resources management and its increasingly strategic role have shown the importance of organisational culture and its effects on multiple aspects of organisations. With the complexity and competitivity associated with the rapid changes of todays labour market, such importance becomes more determinant to the success of organisations. Therefore, the present article aims to understand the main factors that influence the organisational culture of management consulting firms and to develop an adequate model for such companies. This article is based on data from 15 interviews and 107 questionnaires responded by consultants with a variety of ages, positions, seniorities, from management consulting organisations, operating in Portugal, with several different intervention areas and that offer different types of consulting. The results and conclusions comprise information concerning the main factors behind the organisational culture in management consulting firms.
    Keywords: organisational culture; human resources management; management consulting.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10039417
  • A comprehensive review of the National quality infrastructure framework   Order a copy of this article
    by Mesfin Demissie Woldecherkos, Birhanu Beshah, Frank Ebinger 
    Abstract: Scholars named national quality infrastructure (NQI) differently. However, the basic components and scope refer are similar. Studies also showed NQI is a little-explored topic. Therefore, this paper is instated to provide insight. With this, end the paper reviewed basic concepts, components, and the interrelationship among the NQI components. Moreover, NQI development models, benefits, and challenges are also included in the review. Different literature from different sources dealing with NQI was collected and reviewed. Findings showed that NQI represents the peculiar and joint application of all its components including technical regulation and intellectual property rights. However, the presence, functionality, and international and regional integration of each NQI component determines the efficiency and effectiveness of the system. This, ultimately promotes trade, innovation, and growth. Finally, besides the effort made by different NQI affiliated international and regional organisations to promote the concept, this review also strengthens the efforts to make NQI more visible.
    Keywords: national quality infrastructure; NQI; standardisation; metrology; accreditation and conformity assessment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10039420
  • Continuous improvement practice and the stages of service operations competitiveness: a hospital case study   Order a copy of this article
    by André Luiz Teixeira, Dário H. Alliprandini, Claudia Mattos 
    Abstract: This paper aims to study the relationship between the continuous improvement maturity level and the stages of service operations competitiveness, relating the abilities of each continuous improvement maturity level to the aspects that are inherent to each stage of service operations competitiveness in the hospital sector. This paper was developed by means of exploratory field research using a case study method in three hospitals. The findings of this study are innovative in the research field, as this research proposes a theoretical model that seeks to identify the relationship between service operations competitiveness and its continuous improvement maturity level. As implications, the results of this study suggest that hospitals that decided to implement continuous improvement programs have better capabilities to offer more competitive services and continuously improve their processes to better serve their patients.
    Keywords: continuous improvement; service operations competitiveness; health care service operations; hospital service operations.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10039504
  • The external environment dynamics analysis towards competitive advantage and company performance: the case of manufacture industry in Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Slamet Riyadi, Musran Munizu 
    Abstract: This study investigates the direct effect of external environment dynamics on competitive advantage and company performance. To analyse the direct effect of competitive advantage on company performance, this study also explains the indirect effect of external environment dynamics on company performance through competitive advantage as mediation variable. Primary data is collected by using a questionnaire, while secondary data is obtained from relevant documents. The number of samples was 267 manufacturing companies taken from the population based on proportional random sampling method. This study uses descriptive statistics, and structural equation modelling (SEM) as method of analyses. The findings of the study prove that external environment dynamics can increase competitive advantage. The external environment dynamics also can improve company performance. Then, competitive advantage can improve company performance. Moreover, external environment dynamics indirectly can influence company performance mediated by variable of competitive advantage. Company performance can be improved by improving the competitive advantage variable elements for getting best results.
    Keywords: external environment dynamics; competitive advantage; company performance; manufacture industry; Indonesia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10039699
  • Identifying Service Performance Gap: A Hospitality Management Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Praveen Dhiman, Sangeeta Arora 
    Abstract: Despite a plethora of studies on service quality gaps, the service performance gap has received less academic attention. The previous literature has found the importance of the service performance gap from the management standpoint, yet the independent study on the service performance gap is scant. Thus, the present study attempts to identify the service performance gap by evaluating management’s perspective towards customer-contact employees’ service delivery performance. A field study was employed in the top ten luxury chain hotels of Northern India, targeting 200 management personnel. Using an exploratory factor analysis, this study reveals three dimensions of service delivery performance, namely functional, relational, and tangible aspects. Further, the results obtained from gap analysis show that the most prominent service performance gap identified, is concerning employees’ relational aspect, followed by functional and tangible aspects. The study offers valuable managerial implications to reduce the service performance gap accordingly.
    Keywords: service performance gap; gap analysis; management perspective.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10039707
  • Application of total quality management to improve the quality of battery in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Mr. Tarak Kumar Sahoo, Dr. Priyabrata Mohapatra 
    Abstract: The work incorporated in this article provides a detailed analysis of total quality management done by different models including just in time, Kanban, risk management, system standard, quality circle, kaizen, 5S, etc. Where the main focus is given on the quality circle initiative which is implemented all over in many organisations. The main objective of the quality circle is to increases product quality, involvement in decision making, mutual help, customer satisfaction, etc. It increases employee’s satisfaction level and also increases involvement between inter-department. It helps the organisation to make defect-free products and also helps to reduce the cost by applying the quality circle methodology and it develops a positive attitude and feels a sense of involvement in the decision making processes of the services offered.
    Keywords: quality engineering; total quality management; TQM; gap analysis; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10039751
  • Identifying Customer Perceived Value (CPV) Components and Their Impact on Customer Satisfaction. Using Big Data Analytics   Order a copy of this article
    by Sayed Mohsen Mousavi, Seyed Fathollah Amiri Aghdaie 
    Abstract: Perceived value means the benefit a customer receives for the cost he or she paid. In order to improve the value of the product or service offered to the customer and thus increase revenue and profits, businesses need to understand the factors that improve consumer satisfaction in a better way. In recent years, with the growth of online shopping, it has been possible to access data on consumers’ interests and expected values. This study aims to identify the components of customer perceived value and analyse its impact on customer satisfaction by using content analysis and customer feedback in cyberspace. For this purpose, 14,623 online customers’ reviews about smart TVs analysed by using big data analytics; as well as to extract value components the
    Keywords: customer value; customer satisfaction; big data; latent Dirichlet allocation; LDA; machine learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10039753
  • Evaluating the Impact of Industry 4.0 Technologies on Medical Devices Manufacturing Firm’s Operations During COVID-19   Order a copy of this article
    by Sanjiv Narula, Surya Prakash, Harish Puppala, Maheswar Dwivedy, Vishal Talwar, Rajinder Singh 
    Abstract: There is a strong opinion about the impact of Industry 4.0 (I4.0) technologies on the operations performance of manufacturing firms. However, there are several challenges while evaluating such situations. Determining the significance of I4.0 technologies in the context of the pandemic situation must consider several criteria for exhaustive understanding. This study aims to determine the significance and impact of I4.0 technologies on medical devices manufacturing firms’ operations during the COVID-19 outbreak. The set of technologies of I4.0 is evaluated over productivity, quality, cost, delivery, health, and safety parameters using a fuzzy analytical hierarchy process. The study reveals that the significance of big data analytics, autonomous robotics, and industrial internet of things (IIoT) in the business continuity of medical device manufacturing operations during the COVID-19 outbreak is high. Cloud technologies, digital simulations and augmented reality follow the order.
    Keywords: Industry 4.0; I4.0; COVID-19; pandemic; multi-criteria decision-making; fuzzy analytical hierarchy process; performance management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10039820
  • Green-Lean Operations Evaluation Framework: A case from Iranian Automotive Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Shabnam Ojani, Soroush Avakh Darestani 
    Abstract: Companies have been forced to find alternatives to balance productivity and the environment in their operations and products as they move to greener operations and products. The result of this action is the balancing of continuous or simultaneous exploration using pure and green designs. The purpose of this paper is to identify green-lean evaluation model in automotive industry. In this study, important criteria of green lean production system were identified from studies conducted in this field. The effects of the proposed criteria and their relationships are examined using a questionnaire. Furthermore, the best-worst method (BWM) has been used for ranking a weight matrix. Also, the causal relationships among each criterion and sub-criteria are obtained by utilising the decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) technique. The results showed that the use of environmental-friendly and recyclable packaging materials and the increase in the useful life of packaged materials ranked as top two in the green-lean in this realm. In operational management, the green lean techniques will be implemented to reduce both waste and pollution. Also, this strategy allows the company to enhance its operational and environmental efficiency.
    Keywords: production system; green-lean; best-worst method; BWM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10040237
  • Impact of Healthcare Service Quality on Patients Satisfaction and Loyalty in a Jordanian Private Hospital   Order a copy of this article
    by Marwan Khaleel, Shiva Ilhkanizadeh, Huthaifah Khrais 
    Abstract: This study was aimed to investigate the effect of quality of healthcare on patient satisfaction and their loyalty towards a private hospital in Jordan. In total, 130 outpatients participated in a questionnaire survey at one of the biggest private hospitals in Jordan. These data were analysed using SPSS and applying approaches that involved frequency statistics, factor analysis, C-alpha, correlation and regressions analysis. The results indicate that tangible and empathy have either a direct impact on patient loyalty or indirect on their loyalty through patient satisfaction. It was also found that patient satisfaction has a significant relationship with patient loyalty in the private hospital. Practical implications are drawn from this research with the emergence of private healthcare; there has been competition by the health institutions to increase their performance and attract the customers, and to achieve this, the private hospitals in Jordan work to enhance quality, satisfaction and loyalty.
    Keywords: healthcare quality; satisfaction; loyalty; Jordan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10040322
  • Comparing Two Ways of Integrating Fuzzy Kano and Importance Performance Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Elia Oey, Grisella Librianne, Elvira Elvira, Damar Aji Irawan 
    Abstract: Understanding and capturing consumers needs is an essential task for every organisation. In the service sector, it is even more crucial as consumer experience is an influencing variable. This research is a case study focusing on a beauty care clinic in Jakarta, with the objective of helping them identify suitable attributes and performing analysis for further improvements. Fuzzy Kano and importance performance analysis (IPA) were used as methodologies in this research. Two approaches on combining both methods were elaborated on to gain insights. The first approach used customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction scores, while the second approach used the three Kano categories. The results showed that the first approach gave more focused improvement suggestions for the company. However, the second approach was suitable in addressing attractive Kano attributes which failed to be addressed by the first approach.
    Keywords: importance performance analysis; IPA; fuzzy Kano; SERVQUAL.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10040538
  • Analysis of Dynamics and Opportunity Cost of SME Operations   Order a copy of this article
    by Virupaxi Bagodi, DEEPANKAR SINHA 
    Abstract: SMEs contribute significantly to the economy but have inconsistent growth and high mortality rates. Authors intend to comprehend the dynamics arising out of product-mix, markets, and governance affecting SME performance. Two hundred responses were obtained using a questionnaire. Cluster analysis was adopted for investigation. For each cluster, Bayesian-Pearson-correlation and Bayesian-linear-regression were carried out to determine the associations that were not explicit (frequentist approach). Results imply that a standard policy does not suit all SMEs and requires different prescriptions. Manufacturers of fixed type-of-products and those operating in the export-market show greater stability. Family businesses have slower growth rates but better customer-relations. Overtime and delay due to changes in production scheduling are two main ailments. None of the SMEs are lean and resilient. SMEs be categorised on their stage in the organisational life cycle, market it operates, ownership, type of product, supply-chain, and operations philosophy for better policy making.
    Keywords: small and medium enterprises; SMEs; cluster analysis; frequentist and Bayesian approaches; opportunity cost; performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10040544
  • Determinants of employee performance in tourism industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Chi Phan, Anh Tu Thi Le, Thu Ha Nguyen, Hoang Nguyen 
    Abstract: In the tourism industry, employees are a significant contributor to providing classy service quality, an unforgettable experience for customers, and determining the organisations success. To find the best way to make the most of this invaluable resource, we examined organisational factors that significantly impacts performance by proposing an integrated research model, taking into account the mediating role of individual factors. Data collected from 822 employees of 65 middle and high-end hotels in one of the most popular tourist destinations in Vietnam was analysed through PLS-SEM. The results show that job characteristics and internal relationships make the employees more engaged, realise meaning in their work, and thereby, improve their working results. By emphasising the bridging role of individual factors, this study provides interesting managerial implications and contributes to the literature by suggesting a different perspective on the topic of improving performance and productivity in the tourism industry.
    Keywords: employee performance; employee engagement; meaningfulness; tourism industry; hotel industry; tourism productivity; organisational factors; organisational cultural environment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10040545
  • Application of Six Sigma Tools in Footwear Industry: An Emerging Economy Case   Order a copy of this article
    by Tamzed Ahmed, Rahela Begum, Sayem Ahmed 
    Abstract: The footwear industry is in a preliminary position to significantly impact the export fortunes of emerging economies like Bangladesh over the next decade. This research indicates the benefits of adopting Six Sigma tools to reduce the significant losses, non-value-added activities, and ensure proper labour utilisation of a sewing line of a renowned local footwear company in Bangladesh. In this study, cause and effect diagram (CED) has been applied to determine the reason behind higher manufacturing cost of the existing process. Pareto analysis reveals the most significant equipment loss, and the fault tree analysis (FTA) identifies the root causes of the most significant loss obtained from Pareto analysis. Value stream mapping (VSM) seeks to recognise and remove the non-value-added activity. Cost reduction can be possible in a range of BDT 1589581 to BDT 2384372, and overall equipment efficiency (OEE) is increased to 61.5% from 51%, by reducing the root causes of significant losses. This study will guide the industrial managers to implement Six Sigma practices in the footwear industries for reducing the non-value-added process, production cost, and significant losses for maximising OEE.
    Keywords: cause and effect diagram; CED; fault tree analysis; FTA; footwear; line balancing; overall equipment efficiency; OEE; value stream mapping; VSM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10040602
  • Text mining, clustering, and forecasting horizons ahead in the field of quality and productivity   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohsen Shojaee, Samrad Jafarian-Namin, Din Mohammad Imani, Abdorrahman Haeri 
    Abstract: Investigating research trend in a scientific field during different time periods can provide a better understanding for researchers. They can properly plan for future research and allocation of necessary resources. The primary purpose of this study is to focus on the field of quality and productivity (QaP). In this regard, the data mining technique is used for clustering. Moreover, the general trend of each research is discussed in this study from different aspects. To extract the data, the Scopus database has been used as a complete database of scientific articles. Clustering is applied to the abstracts of 17,302 valid articles during the last 20 years (2000 to 2019). After using various techniques to prepare textual data, clusters are created using the k-means technique that can assign thematic labels in the field of QaP. Box-Jenkins approach is applied to select a model on Qap data.
    Keywords: text mining; clustering; quality and productivity; QaP; forecasting; ARIMA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10040603
  • Representative Bias and Investment Decision: The Moderating Role of Accounting Disclosure. An Empirical Study Using Structural Equation Modelling Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Jafer Alsawalhah  
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between representative bias and investment decision, along with the moderating role of accounting disclosure, as most literature conducted studies in well-developed financial markets, whereas less is known about investors in emerging-markets. The study proposes a novel model that suggests accounting disclosure as a moderating construct and is expected to moderate the negative effect of representative bias in shaping investment decision of investors during the investment-decision process. Collecting data, response from 258 active investors in the Amman Stock Exchange, through adopting a purposive convenience sampling was collected using a questionnaire-based-survey. To conduct a statistical analysis, structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied, and the result reported that representative bias negatively influenced investment decision, whereas accounting disclosure was a positive determinant for investment decision. Moreover, the proposed moderating role was able to reduce the negative effect of representative bias on investment decision. Accordingly, discussion and directions were provided.
    Keywords: investment decision; representative bias; accounting disclosure; stock market; structural equation modelling; SEM; Jordan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10040604
  • Work-from-Home during Pandemic of COVID-19: An Investigation Study on Managers in Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Elkana Timotius 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 forced organisations to change. To stop the outbreak, employees who work in offices turned to work-from-home. This study identifies the actual work-from-home conditions that managers are experiencing in Indonesia. One hundred and sixty managers from 74 companies in Indonesia who work-from-home during the pandemic were investigated in this qualitative analysis. Their condition while they are working from home was synthesised as the empirical findings. They indicate that working from home has the potential to change managers productivity, professionalism level, and work quality. However, particular steps need to be taken to avoid negative impacts. Work and life integration is the key to working from home. The practical model of work-from-home is very useful for keeping professionalism, maintaining productivity, and optimising the performance of managers while working from home. It could be adapted by other countries that have a similar experience.
    Keywords: work-from-home; professionalism; productivity; performance; work-and-life integration.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10040690
  • Exploring the Interrelationships between Green Manufacturing Practices and Malaysian Green sustainable Performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Amjad Khalili, Md Yusof Ismail, Siti Norhafiza Abdulrazak 
    Abstract: Green manufacturing (GM) is deliberated an integral part of green operations management. However, little is reported about the empirical investigation of GM practices and the associated sustainable performance within Malaysian industries. This paper aims to develop a conceptual multi-dimensional GM model and explore the relationships amongst these practices in order to eliminate the existing gap in operations management contemporary literature. To accomplish this, a structured questionnaire designed and sent to key respondents’ managers. Two general hypotheses are postulated based on the developed model. Results were performed through techniques utilised from both advanced programs namely SPSS 23 and AMOS 23. Findings show that both hypotheses are supported as these are significant and there are positive linkages between GM and both financial and green performance. This paper is considered a portfolio and guide for Malaysian manufacturers in their trend to be sustainable.
    Keywords: sustainability; model; questionnaire; structural equation modelling; SEM; green manufacturing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10040758
  • Identification of Learning Organization Key Elements Leading to Successful Implementation of Six Sigma: An Empirical study   Order a copy of this article
    by Anthony Bagherian, Mark Gershon, Vikas Swarnakar 
    Abstract: The objective of this research is to investigate what elements of the learning organisation (LO) culminate in the success of Six Sigma initiatives in the automobile sector. The study is driven by a research survey incorporated with a questionnaire crafted on a Likert scale of 1 to 7 and a simple random sampling (SRS) method. The survey was disseminated to 2,325 potential participants; across Europe, 573 displayed interest and ultimately, 260 answered questionnaires were returned. Based on various assessment tools of descriptive statistics, the study identified two essential key ingredients: 1) leadership behaviour that supports learning; 2) employees competencies help in Six Sigma implementation success. The study reveals inherent insights into the successful execution of Six Sigma in conjunction with the learning organisation in the automotive industry in Europe, where exploitations of Six Sigma in this context are still in their nascent stage, and little research has been pursued.
    Keywords: Six Sigma; learning organisation; key elements; empirical study; simple random sampling; SRS; mixed method approach; factor analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10040977
  • Empirical survey on key technologies and enabling factors for Industry 4.0 innovation in the manufacturing sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Dheeraj Nimawat, B.D. Gidwani 
    Abstract: The contemporary era has observed expeditious and astounding transitions, mainly from doing business to technological advances. Manufacturing industries have tried to adopt a new concept change, i.e., Industry 4.0, where scientific myths have become a scientific reality, and the primary catalyst is technological convergence. Therefore ensures that every technical development meets and improves everything is an excellent chance for almost all. The research intends to examine the status of the adoption of Industry 4.0 in manufacturing industries by taking into account its key technologies in the Indian scenario sense. In this paper, a survey has been presented about the status of innovative Industry 4.0 technologies and enabling factors and quantified in recognition of their number of appearances in manufacturing industries. The findings indicated the correlation among the key technologies and enabling factors to ensure the readiness of Industry 4.0 in manufacturing industries. This research indicates the requirement of implementing the principles of Industry 4.0 throughout the existing systems of manufacturing.
    Keywords: fourth industrial revolution; cyber-physical systems; CPSs; Spearman’s correlation analysis; industrial internet of things; IIoT; cybersecurity; system integrations; autonomous robotics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10041081
  • Comparison of the Use of ICT Resources of ISO 9001 Certified SMEs and Non-Certified SMEs in Hungary   Order a copy of this article
    by Roland Schmuck 
    Abstract: Digitisation and the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) is a must for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to keep up with the global competition. ICT is part of the ten pillars of competitiveness. Quality management systems need information and analysis of data. The adoption ladder approach shows how a company can introduce ICT to its operations. The current research is based on a survey of 1,381 Hungarian SMEs according to their use of ICT and their implementation of ISO 9001 certified quality management systems. The results show a clear advantage of SMEs with ISO 9001 certified quality management systems in the use of ICT. This advantage includes the higher likelihood of using computers in networks, having internet connections, using e-mail, having websites, and using specialised software. The biggest advantage of ISO 9001 certified companies was found in having English language websites and using specialised software.
    Keywords: information and communication technology; ICT; small and medium enterprises; SMEs; resources; quality management; ISO 9001; Hungary.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10041082
  • Factors influencing the implementation of ISO 9001:2015 in the cement industry in South Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Thebe G. Z. Ngwekazi, Bheki Makhanya, Hannelie Nel 
    Abstract: The paper examines the underlying factors driving the implementation of ISO 9001:2015 in South Africas cement manufacturing sector. Despite widespread adoption of the ISO 9001:2015 quality management standard in South Africa, the countrys cement manufacturing sector remains plagued by quality issues. Purposive sampling was used to conduct a survey from 18 November 2019 to 7 February 2020, and 38 responses were obtained from ISO 9001:2015 accredited companies. Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors, namely improve business performance and gain competitive advantage, as reasons for ISO 9001:2015 adoption from 12 items. The research identified two major challenges affecting ISO 9001:2015 adoption: poor management commitment and a lack of cooperation. The study offers a variety of theoretical implications for scientists wishing to advance the field, as well as practical implementation for businesses embarking on a journey to implement ISO 9001:2015.
    Keywords: continuous improvement; cement industry; ISO 9001:2015; quality management system; South Africa.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10041328
  • Deployment of Lean Six Sigma DMAIC methodology to improve productivity of a can manufacturing industry   Order a copy of this article
    by M. Shamsuzzaman, Nadin AlHerimi, Salah Haridy, Ahm Shamsuzzoha, Farah Abumadi, Rasha Al-Jabban, Haya Rami, Joumana Asem 
    Abstract: This study proposes and follows a specific and systematic define-measure-analyse-improve-control (DMAIC)-based Lean Six Sigma (LSS) implementation framework for improving the productivity of a can manufacturing industry. A case study research methodology is adopted and implemented through the proposed LSS framework. The effectiveness of the LSS framework is evaluated in a metal fabrication industry producing metallic cans. It is found that the implementation of the LSS project improves the annual productivity of the company by about 511,992 non-defective products which can successfully lead to an increase in the annual sales of about $25,600. This improvement is expected to maintain an efficient production process, increase customer satisfaction, and enhance companys goodwill and profit. This study is expected to help improving the understanding of how LSS methodology can be implemented in solving quality related problems and offer valuable insights for practitioners in metal can manufacturing industries.
    Keywords: productivity improvement; Lean Six Sigma; LSS; metal can industry; define-measure-analyse-improve-control; DMAIC; Pareto chart; control chart; cause and effect diagram; 5-why analysis; simulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10041331
  • Planned Preventive Maintenance (PPM) Effects on Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE): A case study in Malaysian Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Amjad Khalili, Md Yusof Ismail, Muhammad Arif Ruzman 
    Abstract: Total productive maintenance (TPM) and planned preventive maintenance (PPM) has same drive of implementation. This paper focuses on evaluation of the effectiveness of batching plant machine, the overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) before and after implementation of PPM was compared to show the effect of planned maintenance to the effectiveness of the machine. The primary data reflected before and after implementation issues for breakdown time was gathered from selected industry to show the effect on availability of the equipment, performance efficiency of the process and rate of quality products. Both SPSS 25 and Excel were utilised for analysis. Results implied that OEE display an improvement by the reduction of the OEE percentage from 68.3% to 57.5%. These indicate that implementation of PPM does have an effect on availability of the equipment, performance efficiency of the process and rate of quality products and does improve the OEE at the selected company.
    Keywords: preventive maintenance; total productive maintenance; TPM; equipment; effectiveness; case study; Malaysia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10041483
  • The Effectiveness of Quality Management System ISO 9001:2015 in Saudi Arabia   Order a copy of this article
    by Sohaib Warsi, Hemaid Alsulami, Abdulaziz Alkabaa 
    Abstract: The latest International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) survey showed that 878,664 ISO 9001 valid certificates exist in Saudi Arabia. Thus, the Saudi expends 71 M. Saudi Riyals on ISO 9001 renewal certificates. Several studies conducted in Saudi Arabia have studied ISO 9001 from different perspectives and mostly focused only on manufacturing organisation. In comparison, this research studies the overall effectiveness of ISO 9001 applied in Saudi Arabia, considering both public and private sectors and non-profit organisations (NPOs). Twelve hypotheses were employed to answer the research questions, which were tested using the binomial test. The results revealed that ten out of twelve hypotheses were rejected (i.e., indicating that the standards were not effectively applied). The research concludes that ISO 9001 is not effectively implemented in Saudi Arabia and can be utilised to help the Saudi Standards, Metrology and Quality Organisation (SASO) to investigate and analyse this issue on a massive scale.
    Keywords: quality management; International Organisation for Standardisation; ISO 9001; performance management; Vision 2030; KSA; non-profit organisations; NPOs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10041520
  • Model for estimating productivity for the manufacture of aluminum formworks used for the construction of housing with the Concrete Wall constructive method   Order a copy of this article
    by Ricardo Tolentino, Miguel L. R. Ferreira 
    Abstract: In this article, the feasibility of using a model of estimating overall productivity in the production of aluminium formworks in a factory located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for the building of popular housing my home, my life program developed by the Brazilian Government is evaluated. It stands out, that the concept of overall productivity, considers the productive and unproductive times, when production is stopped for some reason. The proposed model is composed of the process productivity and idleness functions. Process productivity involves all production activities of the products studied in this article. The idleness function includes all events that cause production to stop at the factory. The data collected during the production were processed via Monte Carlo simulation, using Palisade Corporations @Risk 7.6.1 software. The results revealed that the proposed model was successful, indicating that it can be used in industry.
    Keywords: overall productivity; aluminium formworks; process productivity; unproductive times; idleness; productivity model; productivity estimating; manufacturing productivity; Monte Carlo simulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10041521
  • The Efficiency of Hospitals before and after the Implementation of Health System Reform Plan: a case study of Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Bahram Nabilou, Alireza Ghorbani, Siamak Aghlmand, Parviz Salem Safi, Hasan Yusefzadeh 
    Abstract: Hospitals need to regularly assess their performance to improve the quality of their services. This study was aimed to investigate the status of hospitals of Urmia University of Medical Sciences before and after the implementation of the health system reform plan, by stochastic frontier analysis method. This was a descriptive-analytic study performed in 24 hospitals affiliated with Urmia University of Medical Sciences before and after the implementation of the health system reform plan during the years 20132017. The average efficiency score in the investigated hospitals during the study period was 0.802 based on the estimated technical efficiency. Therefore, the capacity to enhance the efficiency of these hospitals was calculated to be 0.198. Our findings showed that managers should pay particular attention to planning issues to increase the efficiency and management of resources, and to be able to enhance their efficiency level in hospitals as well as minimise their costs.
    Keywords: health system reform plan; stochastic frontier analysis; SFA; hospital; efficiency; Iran.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10041539
  • The Effectiveness of Lean Management Applying Process: Case Study on Jordan Electricity Distribution Company   Order a copy of this article
    by Osama Khaled Alkhlaifat, László Koloszár 
    Abstract: This study sought to determine the efficacy of applying lean management (LM) principles by measuring the efforts made in application, then comparing these efforts with the perceived effectiveness of the application process from the employees’ point of view in the Jordan Electricity Distribution Company (EDCO). The current study deals with the main principles of LM: customer focus, standardisation, waste elimination, workflow and continuous improvement. Descriptive analysis was used for the data collected from 234 randomly selected employees using a questionnaire. The results indicate that the effectiveness of LM principles ranged from mid to high in all of the company’s branches. There is also a gap between the efforts made and application effectiveness; the achieved effectiveness is less than the invested efforts, which indicates wasted resources.
    Keywords: lean management; lean principles; effectiveness; implementation processes; implementation teams; organisational culture; lean implementation; process improvement; strategic orientation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10041563
  • Absenteeism Among Nurses: Costs, Working Conditions, and Related Factors   Order a copy of this article
    by Emad SHDAIFAT, Main Alolayyan, AHRJAYNES ROSARIO, Najla Al-Ansari 
    Abstract: This paper determines productivity loss due to nursing absenteeism, identify causes and frequencies of absenteeism, describe working conditions, and determine predictors of absenteeism. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out amongst 306 nurses in a university hospital using stratified random sampling. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify the predictors of absenteeism. The study found that productivity loss due to absenteeism in the studied teaching hospital was 425,749 USD annually. The most common cause of absence was minor aliment, followed by fatigue related to working overload. The predictors of absence among nurses were: nurses working in A shift, having children, working in ICUs, having normal BMI. The study indicates that the impact of absenteeism on productivity loss is high. More research is required to develop a deeper understanding of the relationship between absenteeism and its related factors.
    Keywords: absenteeism; productivity loss; nurses; work condition.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10041564
  • Impact of HRM Practices on Employee productivity in times of Covid19 pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Prachi Jain Aggarwal, NITYA Khurana, Shefali Khurana 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of various human resource management practices in contributing to employee productivity in remote work environment during the lockdown restrictions imposed because of COVID-19 pandemic. In order to achieve objectives of our research, we have used descriptive research design and have used a survey method to collect responses of salaried employees working from home during lockdown period. The results of the study suggest that the human resource practices relating to job description, training and development, job security, equal opportunity, performance linked compensation, competence linked compensation, employee welfare all together had a significant positive effect on the maintenance and enhancement of the employee productivity. It helps the organisations to promote healthy communication, participative decision making and strategic planning for current and future growth.
    Keywords: productivity; employees; HRM; workplace; pandemic; COVID-19; lockdown; work-from-home; HR-practices.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10041588
  • Development and validation of an equipment cost efficiency framework for integrating financial and operational performance assessment in manufacturing: a case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Chen Fung Liew, Joshua Prakash, Kok Seng Ong 
    Abstract: Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) measures the effectiveness of equipment in terms of availability, performance and quality but not financially. The OEE increment has little meaning to the organisations’ management without quantifying financial achievement. Although the high investment can sustain OEE, organisations gain no financial benefit by having such equipment that operates at high OEE. This study introduced a new metric, namely, equipment cost efficiency (ECE) metric, which relates the OEE to costs of equipment, maintenance and improvement by comparing the difference of cost per good quantity between the current and 85% world-class OEE. To increase the practicality of the ECE metric, it is integrated into a framework, namely, ECE framework, which provides systematic problem-solving steps to increase the ECE metric. Application of the ECE framework in a tyre flap manufacturer in Malaysia demonstrated that the OEE and ECE metric were improved by 16.4% and 66.8%, respectively.
    Keywords: overall equipment effectiveness; OEE; equipment cost efficiency; ECE; equipment acquisition cost; operating cost; maintenance cost; improvement cost.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10041618
  • The scope of the total quality management applications of the personnel according to Pareto chart in private hospitals in Abu Dhabi   Order a copy of this article
    by Marwa Hussein Al-Subehat 
    Abstract: This research aims to identify the scope of TQM applications problems faced by Dar Al Shifa Private Hospital in Abu Dhabi in the application of TQM (the extent of influence of the senior management, the extent of the impact of monetary and moral incentives, the impact of the training factor, the impact of employee participation, and the effectiveness of communication between senior management and employees on the implementation of the concept of TQM. These problems are identified by Pareto chart to prioritise problems in addressing problems through continuous improvement processes to achieve patient satisfaction and better expectations through organised management processes that are free of errors and minimise waste. To achieve the objectives of the research was designed questionnaire for the personnel. The researcher identified nine problems in the five areas that affect the implementation of the concept of TQM in the hospital based on the Pareto chart.
    Keywords: total quality management; TQM; personnel; Pareto chart; hospitals; training factor; employee participation; communication.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10041619
  • Towards sustainability in SMEs post recovery from COVID-19 crisis: the influence of intellectual capital and cost strategy   Order a copy of this article
    by Zaid Jaradat, Omran Ahmad Al-Ibbini, Mohannad Obeid Al Shbail, Ahmad Adel Jamil 
    Abstract: A framework to determine the key factors impacting the economic sustainability post COVID-19 crisis recovery is proposed in this study for SMEs. The study was supported by resource based-view (RBV) theory. Questionnaires were distributed to the study sample comprising SME financial managers and heads of accounting departments, and 190 returned copies were valid for analysis. The impact of human capital, social capital, and relational capital on the economic sustainability in SMEs appeared strong, positive and significant. A significant positive relationship was demonstrated between cost leadership strategy and economic sustainability, and between differentiation strategy and economic sustainability. SMEs could benefit from the study framework as it can guide SMEs in identifying early survival strategies in COVID-19 crisis recovery. For regulators, the framework could assist them in dealing with SMEs post COVID-19.
    Keywords: sustainability; COVID-19; intellectual capital; cost strategy; resource based-view; RBV; SMEs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10041620
  • A Pert model based on the Dampster & Shafer’s Theory of Evidence - application to product development   Order a copy of this article
    by Francesco Lolli, Antonio Maria Coruzzolo, Matteo Zironi 
    Abstract: The epistemic uncertainty affecting the estimates of lead times in new product development may have significant side effects over the management of the said projects, and nowadays an effective tool to manage this kind of uncertainty is still missing for new product development projects. In this paper we propose a new project evaluation and review technique (PERT) model based on lead times defined by the theory of evidence. The main advantages of our proposal come from the inclusion and measurement of the epistemic uncertainty lying into lead time estimates along the PERT network, which is further analysed by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The work is completed by applying this model to a real instance of new product development process within a company, and the results so obtained are analysed by investigating how different combination and transformation rules affect the probability distribution of the activity lead times.
    Keywords: project evaluation and review technique; PERT; Dempster and Shafer theory; new product development; uncertainty management; project management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10041693
  • Integration of financial performance measure with overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) for assessing operational performance: a structured literature review   Order a copy of this article
    by CHEN FUNG LIEW, Joshua Prakash, Kok Seng Ong 
    Abstract: Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) measures the effectiveness of equipment in terms of availability, productivity and quality, but not financially. Without quantifying financial achievement, the increase in OEE has little meaning to the management. OEE can be sustained by high investment. However, organisations gain no financial benefit despite having equipment that operates at high OEE. This study reviews and classifies financial metrics that quantify the financial impact in OEE initiative into profit, revenue, equipment acquisition cost, operating cost and maintenance cost. Results suggest that equipment acquisition cost and maintenance cost are more relevant to OEE than profit, revenue and operating cost. The systematic review also reveals that all financial metrics omit the importance of improvement cost invested for enhancing OEE. The review proposes to assess the financial impact of OEE in terms of equipment acquisition cost, maintenance cost and improvement cost.
    Keywords: overall equipment effectiveness; OEE; financial metric; profit; revenue; equipment acquisition cost; operating cost; maintenance cost.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10041798
  • Performance Evaluation of Insurance sector using Balanced Scorecard and Hybrid BWM-TOPSIS: evidence from Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Sahar Rahmati, Soroush Avakh Darestani 
    Abstract: Improving the performance of insurance industry can have a huge impact on other manufacturing and service sectors. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of insurance companies using balanced scorecard (BSC) and Multi Criteria decision-making (MCDM), with case studies on three companies based in northern Iran. The outline of our approach is as follows: First, via theoretical studies, the primary criteria in four BSC performance dimensions were identified and provided to experts. Then, nine criteria were chosen to measure the performance based on BSC and Best Worst Method (BWM) was used to weigh them. Results showed, increasing service quality is the most important criterion, followed by, improving quality of services for attracting new customers in addition to existing customers, flexibility in the service system and investing in customer education. Consequently, a decision matrix was developed to measure the performance. Companies were ranked using TOPSIS method.
    Keywords: performance measurement; insurance companies; balanced scorecard; BSC; multi-criteria decision-making; MCDM; Iran.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10041836
  • The Role of Organizational Learning, Entrepreneurship and Innovation towards Firm Performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Álvaro Dias, MIchelle Gayo, Leandro Ferreira Pereira, Renato Lopes Da Costa, Rui Gonçalves 
    Abstract: Dynamic capabilities enable companies to change and reconfigure their strategies in order to adapt to the ever-changing business environment and maintain a sustainable competitive advantage. Given the importance of dynamic capabilities in today’s economy, the purpose of this study is to understand the role of strategic flexibility as a dynamic capability in the development of organisational capabilities. This study aims to explore the indirect effect between strategic flexibility and firm performance through three organisational capabilities: organisational learning, entrepreneurship and innovation orientation in SMEs. In order to test the conceptual model, we conducted quantitative research using survey data from 180 SMEs. The contributions are twofold. First, we developed a unique and distinctive model to assess the indirect relationship between strategic flexibility and firm performance. And second, we realised the value of organisational learning as a mediating variable as it strengthens the relationship between strategic flexibility and firm performance.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; organisational learning; innovation orientation; firm performance; dynamic capabilities.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10041849
  • Root cause analysis using extended cause-effect chain analysis plus (CECA+) method for cleanroom relative humidity problem in the semiconductor industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Sri Rahayu Salehan, Rosmaini Ahmad 
    Abstract: This study presents a systematic root cause analysis (RCA) to investigate the relative humidity (RH) problem. The RCA method, known as extended Cause-Effect Chain Analysis (CECA+) is proposed. The method provides a systematic and attractive manner to manage multi-inter relationships of causes and effects of a problem. Based on the solutions idea generation and verification processes, a final solution idea was obtained. The cleanroom RH trend showed significant improvement that it met the specification of fewer fluctuations at
    Keywords: root cause analysis; RCA; extended cause-effect chain analysis plus.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10041852
  • Optimizing the costs of quality combination in the product life cycle by Taguchi design of experiments   Order a copy of this article
    by Nassibeh Janatyan, Arash Shahin, Mahya Khodaparastan 
    Abstract: This study aims to show how to optimise the combination of costs of quality in the product life cycle towards achieving robust product design. The Taguchi design of experiments and prevention, appraisal, failure (PAF) model of costs of quality applied for determining the optimal combination of the costs of quality in the product life cycle. Four product life cycle phases at four levels of quality cost considered as control factors. Also, the signal to noise ratio (S/N) calculated. Data collected on the fridge product in a home appliance manufacturer. Findings indicated internal failure costs policy for the introduction and growth phases, prevention costs policy for the maturity phase, and appraisal costs policy for the decline phase. The proposed approach helps firms to manage their quality costs and their total costs more effectively.
    Keywords: product life cycle; Taguchi design of experiments; cost of quality; prevention costs; appraisal costs; failure costs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10041968
    by Guilherme Bergmann Borges Vieira, Carlos Honorato S. Santos, Gabriel Vidor, Roberto Birch Gonçalves, Cintia Paese Giacomello 
    Abstract: This study aimed to comparatively evaluate the efficiency of cooperatives and wine industries located in southern Brazil, using data envelopment analysis (DEA). The input and output definitions were based on literature review about DEA application in the wine sector. Data was collected based on the information available in the sector, resulting from a census research, and complemented by a field study. The results indicated an average efficiency of 0.318, ranging from a minimum of 0.011 to a maximum of 1. The standard deviation was 0.241, showing a coefficient of variation of 75.7%. From the 280 analysed companies, only ten showed efficiency rates equal to 1, which shows a considerable room for improvements. The efficient DMUs were younger and leaner companies. These companies had higher revenues and net profits 2.5 times higher than the total sample. The findings of this research can assist both in the definition of public policies for the wine sector and in the identification of actions to improve less efficient companies.
    Keywords: food industry; agricultural performance; data envelopment analysis; DEA; wine sector; Southern Brazil.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10042102
  • The Relationship between Street Food Attributes, Tourist Attitude and Satisfaction towards Revisit Intention: Empirical Evidence from Bangladesh   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Rashed Hasan Polas, Asghar Afshar Jahanshahi, Mosab Tabash 
    Abstract: The key purpose of the present study is to investigate halal street food attributes which enhance tourist’s intention to revisit those destinations and to discover whether these relationships are mediated by the tourist overall perception and overall satisfaction towards local street food in Bangladesh. The study employs a quantitative method, with stratified random (probability) sampling used to compile a sample of 379 final responses from tourists in Bangladesh. The deductive hypothetical observational method was used in the positivism research approach. Sixteenth hypotheses were formulated to explore the research objectives. Smart PLS 3.2.9 and SPSS V.25 were used to analyse the data gathered from respondents. The results of the study will enable practitioners and researchers to consider the factors that affect the selection of local street food by tourists, which increase the long-term economic benefits of the halal tourism sector in Bangladesh.
    Keywords: street food attributes; attitude; satisfaction; food tourism; halal tourism; Bangladesh.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10042105
  • The Role of Yamazumi Chart in Lean Standardization: Modeling and Analysis using Performance Loss Function   Order a copy of this article
    by C.H.I. O.N. CHAN, Henry Lau, Youqing FAN 
    Abstract: Yamazumi chart plays an extremely important role in balancing workload and meeting customer targeted demand in Lean standardization. This paper develops a comprehensive measurement index, Performance Loss Function (PLF), based on the Yamazumi Chart on standard work, in which the workload balance and meeting targeted demand can be measured together in general U-line and cross U-line condition. In addition, the analysis of the related tools and its flexibility to response the market demand changes are also discussed. By using PLF, it can be evaluated more quickly to find the best way in the iterative process of task allocation. This paper contributes to fill up the academic gap in the literature of the application in Yamazumi Chart, provides the theoretical basis and metrics.
    Keywords: Lean Tools; Line Balancing; Yamazumi Chart; Layout; Standardization.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10042138
  • Three-phase method to assess the logistics service using Six sigma metrics, Hotelling's T-square control chart and a Principal component capacity indicator   Order a copy of this article
    by Tomás Fontalvo, Roberto Herrera, Jesus D. Zambrano 
    Abstract: The purpose of this article is to identify and apply a methodology that allows measuring the quality of the individual merchandise distribution service of a Colombian delivery company under the Six Sigma metrics. This was developed from the identification of the context of the service quality dimensions, defining the Y performance and the sigma Z level as the metrics of the Six Sigma methodology to be used for the evaluation of the performance of the quality dimensions in a period annual divided into quarters. Results show that when evaluating the Six Sigma metrics, average values between 3.47 and 4.13 were obtained, so it can be said that the performance was good. From the T-square Hotelling multivariate control chart, it was found that the process is stable in 10 out of 12 periods. And through the evaluation of the multivariate main components indicator, it was found that the process had a performance of 0.669. From the integral analysis it can be affirmed that the global performance of the logistic service is good.
    Keywords: Six Sigma; quality; service; performance; logistics; multivariate capacity indicator; multivariate control chart.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10042140
  • Assessing Technology Banking Service Providers using Fuzzy MCDM Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajiv Sindwani 
    Abstract: The objective of this research is to identify key dimensions of technology banking service quality (TBSQ) and to evaluate technology banking service providers on the basis of these dimensions. Based on systematic literature review and discussion with an expert, four key dimensions of TBSQ are proposed. Fuzzy TOPSIS technique is applied to appraise and rank three major private sector banks considering four key service quality dimensions. The dimensions proposed in the paper will enlighten banks about the quality factors that need sincere attention. Focus on these critical electronic banking quality dimensions will lead to fewer service failures and cost reduction in long term, resulting in better productivity for the banks. The fuzzy TOPSIS approach discussed in this paper will help technology banking service providers to compare them with their competitors. This will help managers to develop strategies to further improve their quality of services for gaining and sustaining competitive advantage.
    Keywords: technology banking; service quality; fuzzy TOPSIS; prioritisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2021.10042188
  • Managing arrival variability in healthcare services: case of an out-patient department   Order a copy of this article
    by Piyush Gupta, Piyush Pranjal, Amit Sachan, Punam Prasad 
    Abstract: Similar to other services, healthcare is also experiencing an evolution of patients into sophisticated customers with high expectations from the service providers. This has led to the application of operations research tools such as discrete event simulation modelling in delivering improved healthcare services. The present study is conducted in an obstetrics and gynaecology out-patient department of a multi-specialty hospital. Process related data is collected from the department and is used to build a discrete event simulation model. Scenarios are developed considering strategies suggested in literature to manage arrival variability, the most crucial form of customer-induced variability. Based on the results obtained, the most optimal solution is highlighted. This study shows that with recent research advancements in simulation modelling, scepticism towards methods adopted from other sectors can be reduced which is beneficial for both, the modern-day healthcare service provider and the patients.
    Keywords: arrival variability; healthcare services; discrete event simulation modelling; DESM; key performance indicators; KPIs; out-patient department.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10030466
  • Resource allocation for implementing strategic quality management strategies in pharmaceutical industry in India: a case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Harjit Kaur, Sanjay Kaushik 
    Abstract: In the pharmaceutical industry, quality is an essential element for the success of the organisation. Over the last few years, the pharmaceutical industry has faced severe quality issues resulting in worldwide product recalls and drug shortages. Quality and management of quality is a key strategic issue in the pharmaceutical industry. Many pharmaceutical companies adopt the strategic management of quality through various quality strategies across the world. Alidrisi (2010) view quality management from the strategic perspective that allows the resources to form the core from which it operates known as strategic quality management. The present study assesses the allocation of resources is evaluated using an operation research technique called as analytic network process (ANP) considering the interactions within the resources as well as between resources, quality strategies and the ability of each strategy to enhance quality. The case study approach has been used for assessing the allocation of resources in two pharmaceutical companies that have valid quality certifications from various international regulatory authorities. The findings of the study suggest that various resources are not optimally allocated among various quality strategies, and human resources are considered to be the most critical resource for the implementation of selected quality strategies.
    Keywords: strategic quality management; SQM; resources allocation; firm resources; analytic network process; ANP.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10033430
  • The mediating effect of business ethics in the relationship between total quality management and sustainable performance: perspective from 4- and 5-stars hotels   Order a copy of this article
    by Kit-Yeng Sin, Choon Ling Sim, Yi Jin Lim, Damien Lee, Joanne Shaza Janang 
    Abstract: Sustainability and ethical issues in hotel industries have received great attention in recent years. This report is the outcome of a field research, which aimed to determine the relationship between TQM, business ethics and sustainable performance. The focus of this research is 4- and 5-stars hotels in Malaysia, in which 162 4- and 5-stars hotels are sampled. Quantitative approach is adopted in which structural equation modelling is employed to assess the relationship between TQM practices, business ethics and sustainable performance. The findings of this study indicate that TQM has positive impact on sustainable performance. Hence, it is concluded that the hoteliers in Malaysia are vigorously focusing on implementation of TQM practices in order to achieve sustainability. Besides, these research findings show that business ethics play as the role of mediator in the relationship of TQM and sustainable performance. The proposed framework serves as a guideline to verify the significance of TQM practices as well as business ethics in order to leverage the hotels' sustainable performance.
    Keywords: total quality management; TQM; sustainable performance; business ethics; structural equation modelling; SEM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10041590
  • Necessities of employee productivity in garment industries: challenges and effects of harassment, abuse and discrimination   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Nurul Alam, A.K.M. Manirul Bahar, Manimekalai Jambulingam, M.D. Mahamudul Hassan 
    Abstract: Harassment and discrimination are the common phenomena in human resource practices in the ready-made garments (RMG) industry. At the context of the research, in the Bangladeshi RMG industry, employees' productivity became lowest compared to her competitors like China, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Cambodia. This RMG industry of Bangladesh would be a challenge to survive in the world market unless they improve employee productivity. Therefore, the primary purpose of this research was to observe the relationship between harassment and abuse, discrimination, and employee productivity with the view of employee work motivation as a mediator. The study was conducted under the positivism philosophy, a deductive approach, explanatory research design, quantitative methodology, and cross-sectional data were used. In a questionnaire survey, 25 items were taken from existing literature to measure the variables. By a systematic probability sampling technique, 500 viable samples were collected from the population for generalising the study. SPSS and smart-PLS were used for analysing and developing the model. However, the results revealed that all seven hypotheses were supported. These findings will help the policymakers, the government, factory owners, managers, and other stakeholders to formulate the policy and practice. Future research directives were also derived from this study.
    Keywords: employee work motivation; EWM; harassment and abuse; discrimination; productivity; ready-made garment industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10041589
  • Public service motivation and job performance: an exploratory study in Jordanian municipalities   Order a copy of this article
    by Sahem Nawafleh 
    Abstract: This paper studies how public service motivation (PSM) among employees influences their job performance (JP) in the context of Jordanian municipalities. The quantitative descriptive cross-sectional approach was adopted with a structured questionnaire. Employees operating in the municipalities of Amman and Irbid-Jordan were targeted as a population and the sample included (382) respondents. SPSS and structural equation modelling (SEM) through AMOS was applied, the results reported that PSM dimensions achieved R2 = 45% of the variance in job performance. Two dimensions of PSM were not significant in influencing job performance, namely, attraction to policy making and self-sacrifice. Following the results, implications were provided, moreover, limitations and directions for future researches were also provided.
    Keywords: public service motivation; PSM; job performance; municipalities; structural equation modelling; SEM; Jordan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10031670
  • Process institutionalisation crowds out innovativeness? An empirical analysis on the relationships between ISO 9000 adoption and R&D expenditure   Order a copy of this article
    by L.M. Daphne Yiu, Hugo K.S. Lam, Andy C.L. Yeung 
    Abstract: Much research from an organisational perspective suggests that process certifications such as ISO 9000 constrain firms' explorative capability, crowding out research and development (R&D) activities. Yet, from an operations management (OM) perspective, process certifications like ISO 9000 should provide a well-established system, strengthening firms' capabilities for both exploration and exploitation. In this research, we examine the impact of ISO 9000 certifications on R&D expenditure of firms and investigate how such an impact is moderated by different operating environments. We find that firms actually increase their R&D expenditure after ISO 9000 certifications. Our results further indicate that ISO 9000-certified firms are more responsive to the changing operating environments for their R&D investments. ISO 9000 certifications reduce R&D expenses more swiftly under turbulence but expand more significantly with operational slack. Our research indicates that ISO 9000-certified firms seem to be more responsive to external environments in controlling their R&D expenditure.
    Keywords: R&D expenditure; recession; market fluctuation; operational slack; ISO 9000.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10037449
  • Productivity analysis of education and research fields in universities of medical sciences: a case study of Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Bahram Nabilou, Hassan Khorsandi, Ali Reza Chavshin, Aram Feizi, Hasan Yusefzadeh 
    Abstract: The present study aimed to assess the productivity of Urmia Medical Sciences University (UMSU) in the fields of education and research. In this descriptive-analytical study, changes in the total factor productivity of UMSU in the fields of education and research were analysed using data envelopment analysis technique during 2011-2017 by Deap2.1 software. Mean changes in the total factor productivity of production in the field of education were calculated to be 1.026, representing an increase in the productivity growth of 2.6% during the study period. Furthermore, the mean of total factor productivity in the research sector equalled 1.071, indicating productivity growth at a rate of 7.1%. In general, the total factor productivity of faculties covered by university in the research and education fields has increased. The major causes for this increase were total technical efficiency and managerial efficiency changes in the research and education sectors, respectively.
    Keywords: productivity; Malmquist index; data envelopment analysis; DEA; education; research; Iran.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10032116
  • Determinants of the performance of insurance companies   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdelkader Mohamed Sghaier Derbali, Ali Lamouchi 
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to assess empirically the determinants of the performance of Tunisian insurance companies during the period of study from 2002 to 2018 using the panel data methodology. The sample used in our study is made up of 13 resident insurance companies listed on the Tunisian Stock Exchange during the period of study. We employ microeconomic and macroeconomic variables. The empirical results show that only the microeconomic factors are determinants of the performance of insurance companies. The macroeconomic factors do not have significant effects on performance. Capital structure, solvency, risk capital management, premium growth, volume of capital, age and financial investments are the determinants of the performance of Tunisian insurance companies with a different sign positive and negative.
    Keywords: financial performance; performance determinants; Tunisian insurance companies; panel data.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2020.10031973