International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management (66 papers in press)
Evaluation of forming parameters affecting the grooving process for automotive connecting rod: an experimental and statistical approach
by Harshal Chavan, Vijay Wani
Abstract: Forming industries are trying to reduce the cost of product without affecting its quality by minimizing the defects to get-up the globalization, competition and increase demand in the manufacturing domain. Present investigation is focused on identifying and minimising the various defects occur in the grooving operation for connecting rod used to connect recliners of automobile seat. The cumulative approach of Pareto, AHP and Taguchi analysis has been applied to overcome the defects and to improve the productivity. Pareto analysis is used to find out the major intensity of defects, AHP techniques is applied for selection of most appropriate operational parameters. Finally, Taguchi analysis is carried out for optimisation of process parameters and selection of the best range of each parameter. From ANOVA the optimised value of each process parameter for minimization of defects are evaluated and validated by conducting experiments in the industrial unit and found huge reduction in the percent rejection of component.
Keywords: Metal forming; defects; quality; Pareto analysis; AHP; DOE; ANOVA; forming parameters; optimisation; productivity improvement.
QUALITY TOLERANCE DESIGN BASED ON FUZZY BINARY RANGE APPROACH.
by Muthukannan Rajkumar, John Martin
Abstract: Total quality tolerance (TQT) has been widely recognised as a strategic weapon for improving manufacturing performance. The evaluation of quality tolerance efficiency can assist factories in improving their operations across a variety of dimensions. Effective benchmark of high performance in tolerance design, dimension analysis, machinability and assemblability are identified for improving the quality tolerance in manufacturing units. In this paper, drive shaft assembly is considered which is adopted from literature and finding the overall quality tolerance through neuro-fuzzy flow diagram method for different level with minimum inputs are analysed in different fuzzification range values to get optimisation in overall quality tolerance. The characteristics of neuro-fuzzy, multi-stage evaluation and decision making in concurrent product design process are also analysed and a decision support system for tolerance design in concurrent engineering is presented.
Keywords: Tolerance design; Dimension Analysis; Machinability; Assemblability and Weighted binary range method.
Fuzzy multi-objective economic-statistical design of X-bar control chart
by ABHIJEET GANGULY, SAROJ KUMAR PATEL
Abstract: Nowadays manufacturing organizations are aiming towards producing higher quality outputs at lower cost of production to keep stride with the competition. The control charts are the most popular and widely used statistical process control tools that can be used for monitoring the unevenness in quality characteristics of a production process. The economic-statistical design of control chart selects three parameters, namely sample size n, sampling interval h and control limit width k to achieve the lowest cost with desirable statistical properties. However, the cost function and statistical properties are interrelated. Hence, minimizing the cost as the only objective is not an efficient method of designing control charts. In this paper, a multi-objective model for the economic-statistical design of X-bar control chart has been proposed with three objectives i.e., to minimize mean hourly cost, maximize in-control average run length and maximize the power of detecting process shift. A multi-objective evolutionary genetic algorithm is used to obtain the Pareto-optimal solution for this design which are then ranked by fuzzy performance importance index. The performance of the proposed method is compared through a numerical example and observed to be superior to that reported in the literature.
Keywords: Economic-statistical design; Fuzzy logic; Multi-objective genetic algorithm; Taguchi method; X-bar control chart.
The Impact of Foreign Labour on Average Real Wages of Residents: Evidence from Malaysias Construction Sector
by Atif Awad, Ishak Yussof
Abstract: In this study, instead of examining the impact of migrant workers on the real wages of natives, which has already been extensively addressed, we have estimated the impact of migrant workers on the average real wages of residents (both natives and earlier immigrants). We examine whether the impact of migrant workers on the average real wages of residents varies over time as well as varying across occupations. We employ the Pooled Mean Group (PMG) technique on panel data for four Malaysian construction subsectors during the period 1990 to 2010. The results show that over time all foreign labour as well as unskilled migrant workers have considerable and positive impacts on the real wages of all resident workers. However, in the adjustment period, in the short-run, only the wages of unskilled workers respond positively and significantly to foreign workers. Given both the unfavorable work conditions for natives as well as the significance of this sector to the overall economy, policymakers should facilitate the flow of migrant workers to this sector
Keywords: foreign labor; wages; working condition; demand and supply of labor.
FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCTIVITY AND IMPROVEMENT IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SITES
by Ahmed Mohammed Abdelalim
Abstract: This research aims to identify and investigate factors affecting productivity in building construction sites. In addition, the importance of these factors has been studied extensively through a widely spread questionnaire among 183 participants. The research area covers the MENA region, especially Egypt and Saudi Arabia as the main markets there and diversity of mega construction projects and abundance of affecting parameters, in addition to the availability of running direct interviewing and validation. The investments between both countries need a good understanding of the factors affecting the projects productivity and progress of work in each country. The comparison of factors importance will help in making right investment decisions and better understanding of the nature of building construction sites, as well as it applies to a boarder construction environment as most of working construction companies there are international companies coming from different countries all over the world.
Among the large number of factors affecting productivity, 49 factors were carefully selected throughout carrying out extensive search and factor frequency of similar reaerches , these factors were categorized into seven groups to cover the most frequent elements of measuring and enhancing productivity. A structured questionnaire survey was utilized for data gathering from construction sites. The target population is represented by a random representative sample of practitioners related to the Egyptian and Saudi construction sites.
This research also intends to provide simple and comprehensive recommendations and suggested method of determining loss in productivity that can be adopted by construction managers for an effective management of construction sites and higher productivity.
Keywords: : Productivity; Construction sites; effectiveness; importance index; Motivation; Human Factors; Variance and Statistical Analysis.
Reduction in Call handling Time in Transportation service industry using Lean Six Sigma DMAIC methodology
by Ritesh Adhyapak, Sobhan Koppuravuri, Abin Baby
Abstract: The paper reviews the use of DMAIC six sigma methodology in a selected transportation cab service industry to improve customer satisfaction levels. The DMAIC comprises of five phases define, measure, analyse, improve and control. Various tools were used in the five phases starting with the voice of customer (VOC) matrix and project charter. Cause and effect diagram was used to find out the potential factors behind the high waiting time. Brainstorming sessions were also conducted to get a better sense of the high call handling time and suggestions were put forth to improve them. SMED analysis was also done to gauge the different changeover elements in the company. The average queue length for the 1st shift came down to 3.6 from 4.433 resulting in an estimated annual profit of $29250 annually.
Keywords: DMAIC; Transportation; Six Sigma; Voice of Customer; Cause and effect; Brainstorming.
Evaluating the Maturity Level of TQM Benefits in Pakistan
by Muhammad Arslan
Abstract: Previous studies majorly focus on defining TQM and describing relationship between TQM practices and performance. This paper addresses the achievement of post implementation benefits of total quality management (TQM). TQM is highly emphasised from the last decade in industries of Pakistan and this examination shows practical influence after implementation. A survey form was designed and conducted the survey in diversified type of companies in Pakistan. Analysis through descriptive statistics of 61 survey forms represents that organisations, following TQM approach, are realising the positive paybacks of TQM. Consequently, it is a source of inspiration to help the non-TQM industries to implement TQM and understand the actual performance of TQM system so they can achieve the direct and indirect benefits in terms of profit. One of the firms, before implementing TQM, assigned a project to conduct a practical survey which will contribute to know the extent of the industry practitioners about the maturity level of TQM benefits to compete at global market place. Finally, it aims to provide the idea for any industry to initiate the application of TQM.
Keywords: Total Quality Management Benefits of TQM Maturity level of TQM Practical Survey TQM.
A PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS OF MONITORING AND EVALUATION DETERMINANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS DELIVERY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
by Callistus Tengan
Abstract: A data reduction technique is adopted to identify the critical determinants of effective monitoring and evaluation in the construction industry. The views of randomly selected construction professionals from Ghana, Nigeria and South Africa were collected through a questionnaire survey. Adopting a quantitative research approach for the study, extant literature was conducted to identify monitoring and evaluation determining factors. Subsequently, a five-point Likert scale was drawn for respondents to rank the factors. A Cronbach's alpha value of 0.953 was achieved based on standardised items. Similarly, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy and Bartlett's test of sphericity was conducted before the data were subjected to principal component analysis. The study provides a new contribution to knowledge by introducing three new variables of uncorrelated determinants that better explain effective monitoring and evaluation. These variables are described as M&E management and human relation, M&E participation and information and M&E implementation and approach. The study, therefore, recommends consideration of these factors by project managers to ensure M&E is effective and delivers successful construction project.
Keywords: Construction Projects; Determinants; Ghana; Implementation; Monitoring and evaluation; Participation.
The Impact of Quality Management Practices, Training and Employee Suggestion Schemes on Quality Performance
by Mahesh Prabhu H, Suhan Sundar
Abstract: Quality has become an important competitive priority for manufacturing industries in the globalised scenario and this has resulted in firms benchmarking their quality practices among the best in the world. The purpose of this paper is to look into the impact of quality management practices on quality performance in a manufacturing firm of a public sector undertaking in India and explore the indirect impact of training and employee suggestion scheme on the relation between quality management practices and quality performance. Data was collected from 235 executives and analysed using partial least square. Results indicate that quality management practices had a positive impact on quality performance. Further analysis revealed that training partially mediates the relation between quality management practices and quality performance whereas employee suggestion scheme did not. Recommendations to ensure better organisational performance through quality management practices suggested.
Keywords: Quality Management Practices; 5S; Six-Sigma; Quality Management System; Training; Employee Suggestion Scheme; Quality Performance; Public Sector Undertaking Firm; India.
Benchmarking of Internal Supply Chain Management: Factors analysis and ranking using ISM approach, MICMAC analysis
by Kailash , Rajeev Kumar Saha, Sanjeev Goyal
Abstract: Several qualitative and quantitative techniques are available for factors analysis of benchmarking of supply chain management. Fifteen variable factors of benchmarking of internal supply chain management (ISCM) has been identified and derived theoretically from various literature sources and opinions of experts from 300 manufacturing industries. Mean score and an interpretive structural modelling (ISM) approach is applied to assign the rank of factors. In ISM approach, influence between factors is determined by considering the opinions of experts from relevant field. An industrial questionnaire method is used to collect the opinion of experts. Firstly, analysis of the interactions among factors for benchmarking of ISCM by ISM approach and matriced impacts croises multiplication appliqueeaun classement (MICMAC) analysis. Secondly, to develop the relationship among identified rank of factors. Finally, to do the classification of variable factors into clusters based on their driving power and dependence power. According to social implication and managerial point of view, this research provides help to researchers and managers to understand the mutual influence of factors. This research work is also helpful to identify those factors which support in benchmarking of ISCM of any business organisation.
Keywords: ISCM; ISM approach; Factors of benchmarking of ISCM; MICMAC analysis; Industrial questionnaire survey.
Sustainable benefits of Electronic waste recycling in India: a System Dynamics Analysis
by Karishma Chaudhary, Prem Vrat
Abstract: Despite the fact that 95% of the Electronic waste (E-waste) generated is routed to unorganized sector, India is still struggling to put up an effective E-waste management system. This paper highlights the sustainability link of an efficient and effective E-waste Reverse supply chain (RSC) of E-waste in India. A System Dynamics (SD) model of circular flow of Electronics products from manufacturing stage to recycling stage has been developed using Stella Software version 9.1.3. Seven scenarios have been simulated using the model to study behavior of various variables. Study of trends provides very useful insights to facilitate policy decisions for implementation of E-waste RSC in India. This study also recommends various strategies to improve the collection efficiency of the organized sector.
Keywords: E-waste; Material reserve; Sustainability link; System Dynamics (SD); Causal Loop and Stock and Flow Diagrams.
Risk Analysis of CNG Dispensing Unit by Fuzzy Digraph Matrix and Dempster-Shafer Approach
by Priyank Srivastava, Dinesh Khanduja, Mridul Tulsiyan, Manik Tandon, Mohit Agarwal, Sumit Gupta, Subramaniam Ganesan
Abstract: The CNG dispensing unit is an important investment for taking advantage of CNG fuel, though its handling is not as simple as other conventional fuels. The cost can only be realised if it is operated with maximum availability. In present research work, risk analysis of CNG dispensing unit has been exemplified by applying fuzzy digraph matrix and D-S theory. Forty-three failure causes have been identified, analysed and prioritised using the mentioned approach. The display error and regulator function failure for metering skid, internal valve failure and gasket damage for compressor, internal pipe leakage and PLC failure for priority panel, flow sensor, motherboard and valve failure for dispenser unit, plug and tank leakage have been identified as risk for CNG dispensing unit. The results from both the approaches show synergy. The risk identification and prioritisation results have been forwarded to maintenance engineer for critical analysis and proper maintenance planning.
Keywords: CNG; Fuzzy Diagraph Matrix Approach (FDMA); Dempster and Shafer Evidence Theory.
Planning and scheduling problems of production systems: Review, classification and opportunities
by Zineb Ibn Majdoub Hassani, Abdellah El Barkany, Abdel Moumen Darcherif, Abdelouahhab Jabri
Abstract: Production planning and scheduling are generally treated sequentially. Scheduling largely depends on the production quantities computed at the production planning level. Ignoring scheduling constraints in planning leads to inconsistent decisions, therefore, this generates unfeasible solutions. Moreover, solving these problems in complex manufacturing systems is a big challenge in production management. So, integrating production planning and scheduling is crucial to realize the coherence between objectives and workshops capacities. Thats why, industries are seeking to improve their production systems to make them more flexible, competitive and reactive, through a better production management and integrating approaches. This paper represents a literature review of the production planning, scheduling and the different approaches that have been elaborated in order to solve the main problematic.
Keywords: Production; Planning; Scheduling; Coupling; Constraints; Criteria; optimization; simulation.
Product quality analysis for multi-processes with multiple quality characteristics using capability indices
by Sujeong Seo, Robert Parody
Abstract: To obtain numerical measures on process potential and process performance which meets the pre-set targets of the customer, process capability indices are used widely in the manufacturing industry. Capability measure for processes with a single set of characteristics has been investigated extensively but is comparatively neglected for processes with multiple characteristics. Also, process capability indices are treated effectively wherein the indices identify and measure deficiencies in process capability owing to individual quality characteristics instead of the product level quality. In this paper, we propose a reliable approach to multiple quality components and how components affect the product level quality overall. Relationships between quality components and product level quality process contributes opportunities for continuous improvement on the manufacturing process.
Keywords: Quality engineering; process capability indices; production management; quality control; process capability analysis; statistical process control.
Extension of the Model of Manufacturing Supply Chain Quality Management: An empirical study
by Arash Apornak, Mariam Amiri Hezaveh
Abstract: Supply chain management could flow the quality management from the level of the individual to the entire chain. The cross-compliance with supply chain management and effective relationships between supply chain partners are able to provide the context in which they can play their role in a successful quality management and ultimately improve the quality of the final customer and the profitability and satisfaction, The existing research to develop previous studies that have focused on supply chain quality management, According to this after a survey on different frameworks in the areas of quality management and supply chain from reviewing of literature, the most appropriate framework based on a case study situation has been chosen. Then the data has been gathered from questionnaires and was statistically analyzed. The hypotheses of the study have been confirmed and it also suggests that the eight components of the model influence on supply chain quality management.
Keywords: total quality management; supply chain management; production management; supply chain integration; quality models; structural equation modeling.
Broadening the Lean Six Sigma Concept through Employee Adaptability: A Literature Review
by Michael Sony, Nandakumar Mekkoth
Abstract: LSS is one of the most widely implemented initiatives within the organisations. Employees are one of the most important factors for its success. However, due to the absence of an implementation framework, it creates a complex environment for the employees. The purpose of this paper is to examine the different dimensions an employee must adapt while implementing LSS. An integrative literature review is carried for the last 25 years. This research paper finds eight dimensions on which employee has to adapt while implementing LSS. The eight dimensions along with research propositions for future research are discussed. There are many studies on the implementation aspect of LSS. There is yet to be a study discussing how an employee would adapt to LSS initiatives for a sustainable implementation. This is the first literature review carried out on employee adaptability and LSS. This study will add value to organisations so that they can better recruit and manage their employees. Likewise, the academicians will also benefit from the literature review and research propositions for the future research agenda.
Keywords: Lean; Six Sigma; Lean Six Sigma; Employee Adaptability; Literature Review.
Compensation System and Job Satisfaction: The Application of the Job Descriptive Index in the Public-Sector of Jordan
by Sahem Nawafleh, Mohammad Rawabdeh
Abstract: Current study examined the effect of compensation system in the prediction of employee job satisfaction within the public-sector of Jordan through using the job-descriptive-index (JDI). Data was collected through questionnaire across (314) respondents. Structural-equation-modelling applied and following the completion of the analysis, direct-monetary compensation was found to be partially related to JDI dimensions, whilst, in contrary to expectations indirect-monetary compensation were seen to have no role in achieving job satisfaction, further, non-monetary compensation significantly influenced JDI dimensions of satisfaction, in addition to that, demographic characteristics were found to be significant in affecting job satisfaction. Such results indicate an issue with the provided compensation system that need to be addressed by the public-sector administrative. Further works need to be carried out in order to explore how provided compensation could be effective booster for employee satisfaction especially in the context of Jordan.
Keywords: Compensation system; job satisfaction; JDI; demographic characteristics; public-sector; Jordan.
The relationship between Total Quality Management (TQM) practices and organizational image in the hospital industry: an empirical examination.
by Faisal Babu, Sam Thomas
Abstract: Purposes: The purpose of this paper is to depict the role of leadership in implementing total quality management (TQM) practices in hospitals and their relationship to the formation of the organizational image by investigating the perceptions of hospital leaders in the context of the Indian healthcare system.
Design/methodology/approach: A survey of 265 employees including administrators, managers and heads of departments of 15 NABH-accredited hospitals in Kerala was conducted based on a questionnaire. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was done with the use of WarpPLS 50 to test the structural model.
Findings: This study shows that leadership is acting as the key driver in implementing quality systems in hospitals and the important TQM practices considered in this study were able to explain the major portion of the variance in the dependent variable and organizational image. Management leadership and the other four TQM practices - information and analysis, human resource management, process management and supplier management - were the significant predictors of the organizational image.
Implications: For the effective and efficient implementation of healthcare quality management systems, highly committed and quality oriented leadership style has to be developed. Through practising TQM elements a positive image of the organization can be brought about.
Originality/value: This research effort focuses on assessing to what extent management leadership is related to major TQM practices and organizational image and, also identifies the major predictors of the organizational image. So this study provides a foundation for hospital quality practitioners and management for implementing quality practices aimed at improving the organizational image.
Keywords: Total Quality Management (TQM); Management Leadership; Organizational Image; Hospital; Healthcare/Hospital Accreditation; NABH; Quality Management Practices; Healthcare/Hospital Quality.
Evaluating bikesharing service quality : A case study for BIXI, Montreal
by Mukesh Verma, Anjali Awasthi
Abstract: Public transportation is vital to citys economy and public health. It has always been an important part of human life, which has aided not only in travel time savings but also giving a medium of leisure and health in more ways than one. In this paper, we address the subject of bike sharing with focus on customer satisfaction and quality. A SERVQUAL based approach is proposed to measure bikesharing service quality. Five dimensions namely tangibility, reliability, empathy, assurance and responsiveness are investigated. A questionnaire study with users of bikesharing service called BIXI in Montreal is conducted. 313 responses are received. SERVQUAL and Compliment/Complaint analysis is done to identify areas of improvement or negative gaps where customer perceptions are lower than expectations. Suggestions to cover these service quality gaps are provided.
Keywords: Bike sharing; Service Quality; Gap Analysis; SERVQUAL; Compliment/Complaints Analysis.
Developing a Qualitative Model of Productivity for Service Companies Using Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process: A case study
by Changiz Valmohammadi, Milad Akhlaghi Motlagh, Mahmoud Modiri
Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to develop a qualitative model of productivity, in order to determine the dimensions and measures of efficiency and effectiveness and their related weights of an Iranian leading Internet service provider company Known as of Dadeh Gostar-e Asr-e Novin. The population of the study is comprised of an 8 members of the surveyed company including managers of various functions who are expert in their working domain. In this research three questionnaires were designed and used to collect data in accordance with the objectives of each phase. Also, Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) was used to analyze the data in the final phase and to calculate the weights of the dimensions and measures of the both factors of efficiency and effectiveness based on the proposed qualitative productivity model. The main finding of this study is the qualitative model that was developed to identify various dimensions and their related indicators of efficiency and effectiveness of a service organization. Based the obtained weights for both efficiency and effectiveness factors which are 0.5, it could be concluded that surveyed company needs to improve the identified dimensions of efficiency and effectiveness factors equally to increase its qualitative productivity. This study develops dimensions and various measures of efficiency and effectiveness of Service Company which could help the surveyed company to accomplish their strategic objectives. Also, this model could be used as a guideline for other service organizations to design and develop based on their own requirements and necessities.
Keywords: Qualitative Model of Productivity; Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP); Efficiency; Effectiveness; Service Companies; Case Study.
An FMEA-based integrated framework to quantify and improve operational performance in advanced manufacturing environments: a case study
by CHEN FUNG LIEW, Joshua Prakash, Kok Seng Ong
Abstract: The failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) aims to improve the operational performance in manufacturing processes of a product. Current FMEA practice does not define a specific method for quantifying achievement in operational performances. Risk priority number (RPN) is independent of operational performance. The capability of current FMEA to improve operational performance cannot be validated unless a quantifiable operational performance improvement is demonstrated. This study offered guidelines to quantify the operational performance within the FMEA methodology. Different from traditional FMEA, the new FMEA-based integrated framework ascertains the priority set by RPN with operational performance indicators (OPI) for ensuring the priority is relevant to operational performance. Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) and poka-yoke provide systematic guidelines for optimising design and developing a highly robust error-proofing system. Application of the new FMEA-based integrated framework in a medical device manufacturer in Malaysia demonstrated that the overall defect rate was reduced by 87.2%.
Keywords: failure mode effect and analysis (FMEA); risk priority number (RPN); operational performance indicator (OPI); design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA); poka-yoke.
An AHP based comparison between automated and manual material handling systems in FMS environment
by Vimlesh Kumar Ojha, Sandhya Dixit, Sanjeev Goyal
Abstract: Flexible manufacturing is a process which permits production systems to perform under high customised production needs. The goals of manufacturing systems like minimum inventories, improved quality, enhanced technical performance and reduction of cost can be achieved by implementing the FMS. Material handling system plays a very important role and consumes a significant amount of cost and time in flexible manufacturing system (FMS). Since a lot of factors affect the material handling system, so selection of best suitable material handling system which optimises all these factors is a big problem before any material manager. The purpose of this study is to present a multi-criteria decision making comparison model which would be very useful for choosing better alternative between automated and manual material handling system (MMHS). Analytical hierarchy process (AHP)-based comparison is performed upon these attributes to select the best alternative between manual material handling system and automated material handling system (AMHS).
Keywords: FMS; Material handling system; Attributes; AHP; Weightage.
Performance Benchmarking on Export Credit Agencies: A Data Envelopment Analysis
by Yong J. Wang, Amir Karbassi Yazdi, Mehdi Mohammadi Kahorin
Abstract: Export credit agencies (ECAs) play an important role in a country's export oriented economy. Due to the importance, this research aims to evaluate the performance of ECAs that are members of the Prague Club and the Berne Union, based on four inputs and five outputs. For the purpose of performance benchmarking, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is applied in this research to investigate the performance variables. The results show that, among the selected ECAs, 12 of them are efficient and nine are inefficient. Moreover, we demonstrate how inefficient ECAs can benchmark against efficient ECAs for better performance by prioritising inputs and outputs.
Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA); BCC Model; Firm Performance; Benchmarking; Export Credit Agency (ECA).
Evaluation of TPM Strategies for Manufacturing Performance Improvement of Indian SMEs for Strategic Success
by Abhishek Jain, Harwinder Singh, Rajbir S. Bhatti
Abstract: Performance improvement of Indian organizations plays a vital role to survive in this competitive era. Indian Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are the heart of large organizations because every large organization is purchasing a number of components from SMEs. Now-a-days, it is very essential to find the appropriate improvement strategy to implement in Indian SMEs for their manufacturing performance improvement. In this study, the authors have made a qualitative model to find the preferred improvement strategy (TPM Strategies) for implementing them in Indian SMEs by using an Options field methodology (OFM), Options profile methodology (OPM), Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Fuzzy set theory (FST). For this, first of all find various issues concerning improvement strategies and performance improvement through a questionnaire. OFM has converted these issues into options and then categorize them. The authors have identified 4 improvement strategies as profiles or a Course of actions by using OPM. Pairwise comparison of AHP methodology is used to find the weight of various objectives of manufacturing performance improvement. And finally, the authors have used FST to rank these four improvement strategies by making weighted position matrix and dominance matrix. The present work identified the ranking of TPM strategies for manufacturing performance improvement through multi criteria decision making (MCDM) methodology.
Keywords: TPM; SMEs; TPM strategies; OFM; OPM; AHP; FST; manufacturing performance improvement.
Dealing with generalized DEA models for input-output estimation
by Mojtaba Ghiyasi
Abstract: This article addresses the inverse DEA models to deal with such a question: if a DMU changes some of its input (output) levels among a group of DMUs, to what extent should the unit change outputs (inputs) such that its efficiency score remains unchanged? The article unfolds some problematic aspect of inverse DEA model with saying that inverse DEA models do not work in some situations which should be considered on process of input or output estimation. This is done by proposing a numerical example and mathematical ratiocination. Additional arguments and theorems are provided to overcome to the currents drawbacks. This revises and improves the existing literature. Proposed models are illustrated using numerical examples.
Keywords: Input and output estimation; Inverse problem; DEA; MOLP.
People Management for Sustainable SMEs
by Sooksan Kantabutra
Abstract: The study identifies people management practices among sustainable SMEs that adopt the Thai philosophy of sufficiency economy. The study adopts multi-data collection methods. 'Grounded theory' is adopted as the approach for data analysis. Emerging people management practices are: 1) identifying core competencies consistent to Thai values; 2) being genuinely concerned for employees; 3) offering life skills training for employees; 4) providing opportunities for employees to suggest ideas and encourage them to take part in decision makings; 5) growing own managers; 6) encouraging employees to contribute to the society and environment. This paper is among the first that explore the relationships between people management practices and corporate sustainability in Thai SMEs and propose theoretical assertions between them for future theory building.
Keywords: sufficiency economy; sustainable people management; corporate sustainability; Thailand.
Quality Management to facilitate product introduction across borders
by Promporn Wangwacharakul, Martina Berglund, Ulrika Harlin
Abstract: This paper explores how quality management (QM) can be used to mitigate managerial challenges in new product introduction (NPI) across national borders. A longitudinal case study involving one Swedish and one Chinese company was conducted. The data were collected through 35 semi-structured interviews and five workshops with employees and managers of several functions before, during and after NPI in a product development project. Several managerial challenges in the cross-cultural collaboration were revealed. The study demonstrated that lack of understanding of cultural differences negatively affected the NPI process and product quality, but these challenges could be handled by a QM approach. Therefore, this paper proposes QM to help mitigate managerial challenges in cross-cultural NPI. The paper contributes to earlier research on the application of QM and the NPI field by suggesting QM as a means to bridge cultural gaps and facilitate NPI across borders.
Keywords: Cross-cultural collaboration; cross-cultural management; managerial challenges; new product development; industrialisation; Sweden; China; quality management; case study; longitudinal case study.
The new conceptual model for print management: Total Production Management
by Nagaraj Kamath, Lewlyn L. R. Rodrigues
Abstract: Purpose: Print companies spend a lot in the maintenance related activities, which can be significantly reduced by focusing more on managing operations. The work presented here contributes towards the development of a conceptual framework for operations management in the printing industry. This study also analyses the implications of using the proposed model (Total Production Management) in a printing press. rnMethodology: This study identifies the constructs available in the best industrial practices through literature review. The proposed conceptual model integrates components, thus identified, with other sociotechnical variables. The soundest practices of Total Quality Management (TQM), Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) with human and contextual factors are the core ingredients of the recommended model. rnFindings: The outcome of this study is to develop a conceptual framework for print operation administration that manages a multi-colour offset machine, by incorporating sociotechnical variables in the traditional approaches. rnResearch Limitation: The model elaborated in this paper deals with the print management of multi-colour sheet-fed offset machine only. However, this model has scope to include other pre-press and post press related constructs also. rnPractical implications: Published studies on the combination of sociotechnical variables for print management are insufficient. The conceptual model proposed in this paper would assist the managers to assess, formulate, a suitable strategy for print management, by the blend of sociotechnical variables.rnrnPaper type: Conceptual paper based on literature review.rn
Keywords: Total Productive Maintenance; Total Quality Management; Human factors; Contextual variables.
Measuring organisational performance using work measurement: Towards improving productivity
by BARNES SOOKDEO
Abstract: Improvements in quality and productivity based on work measurement can be achieved by means of a simple, consistent measurement system. In spite of the ever-increasing importance of performance measurement to monitor outputs and improve productivity, few large-scale empirical studies concern models, characteristics and indicators of performance measurement systems (PMS). The objective of this article is to demonstrate the necessity for a PMS to ensure that performance is measured and operations and employees are managed. The research design of the study consisted of a mixed-methods approach. The output of this article is a PMS designed and based on the work measurement technique. The results indicate that if organisations do not have measurement systems, they will not be able to measure their outputs and improve productivity. The empirical results indicate the essential need for the system. The implementation of this system will ensure that organisational performance is measured and productivity enhanced.
Keywords: Work study; work measurement; performance measurement; time study; basic time; rest allowance; contingency allowance; rating; standard time.
Modeling the Water Supply Service Quality: A Case Study of the Municipal Corporation
by Surendra Kansara
Abstract: The concept of quality recognised as an essential tool in attaining operational efficiency and ultimately performance regardless of whether the product is tangible and intangible like services. Many issues relating to the methodology for measuring the service quality emerge to make it operational. The presented research employs the SERVQUAL scale in gauging service quality of services offered by the Water Supply Department of a municipal corporation. The research also attempts to validate its application. The service dimensions as prescribed by Parasuraman et al. (1985) employed as a measure of service quality. Five-point Likert scale measurement items in a questionnaire used to measure the service dimensions. Data collected through a survey administered to service users. The principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to validate the factor classification. The gaps (Parasuraman et al., 1985) in the service as offered by the Water Supply Department of a municipal corporation calculated.
Keywords: Public Service; Service Quality; PCA; Case Study; Nashik Municipal Corporation.
Development of lean production system using value stream mapping approach: A case study
by NAVEEN VIRMANI, Vikram Sharma
Abstract: Intense competition in global market is encouraging management to search for new ways to reduce cost and improve profits. Manufacturing firms are realizing that cost reduction through waste elimination can improve their competitive potential. Lean production concepts can be employed for waste elimination. However, managers find it difficult to identify the key areas for waste elimination. The field of lean production has offered VSM as a visualization tool to identify waste elimination opportunities. Using this tool, it is possible to map the current state and accordingly analyze for achieving waste elimination. In order to illustrate this aspect, the case study presented in this paper shows the way the firms can apply VSM for identifying the potential areas for applying this waste elimination technique. The purpose of this research is to examine value stream mapping (VSM) implementation in a gear manufacturing company located in national capital region of India. The case study shows that the production time, inventory and defects can be reduced significantly. Thus, VSM assists the managers to envisage the current level of wastes occurring in an organization and the future means of eliminating them.
Keywords: Lean production; value stream mapping; manufacturing firm; quality; customer satisfaction.
Productivity improvement in furniture industry using lean tools and process simulation
by Shyam Murali C, Prabukarthi A
Abstract: The objective of the study is to improve productivity of a furniture manufacturing company. Demand forecasts play a crucial role in productivity, improvement and production planning analysing the problems associated with it and there by tackling over production and shortage. Demand forecasting was analysed using three (Simple moving average method, weighted moving average method, Seasonal regression method) different methods in which seasonal regression was found to be more accurate for the current scenario. This method reduces the deviation of forecast by 17.37% which will result in better visibility thus by improvement in productivity. Preliminary survey showed that there were some processes that lead to overall increase in production lead time and industry is not keen in operating the second shift particularly in painting department, which leads to under-utilization of resources. This research work opted for an exploratory study using the Time study analysis and Value stream mapping(VSM) to identify bottleneck processes. Brainstorming session was conducted to plot cause and effect and there by priorities the causes to tackle. Simulation analysis was performed to understand the utilization of man-machine using the current and alternative method. The proposed methods improve the operator utilization to 54% from 29% and output by 50%.
Optimisation algorithms for improvement of a multihead weighing process
by Alexander Pulido-Rojano, J. Carlos Garcia-Diaz
Abstract: Mathematical optimisation is widely used to find the optimal value for an objective function, subject to constraints that try to simulate reality, and is fundamental to improving industrial processes. In this paper, we compare different optimisation approaches to solve the packaging problem in multihead weighing machines. In this problem, each package is made up from the loads in a subset of the multihead weigher's hoppers. The total weight of the packed product must be as close to a specified target weight as possible. We designed and evaluated a set of algorithms for this problem, considering both single-objective and bi-objective optimisation criteria. A new criterion for creating the packages is considered, and a different way of filling of the hoppers is studied with the aim of reducing process variability. Numerical experiments considering both a set of real data and the most important process performance parameters show the usefulness of our study.
Keywords: optimisation; mathematical modeling; exhaustive search; reduction of variability; process improvement; packaging; multihead weighing process.
Optimal Maritime Transportation and Ocean Shipping Transaction for Containerized Goods among BRICS Countries
by Pravendra Tyagi, Gopal Agarwal
Abstract: This paper explore the basic elements of maritime transportation, which are the mandatory parts in planning and control activities among BRICS countries, starting from hinterland transportation to port of origin and further to port of destination and end customer in container terminals. It also includes the detailed explanation of the documents needed in on carriage and pre carriage for custom clearance and provides the awareness for minimising the time window of demurrage and detention to avoid or reduce the penalties, followed by terminal operator and ocean carrier responsibilities to arrange fast picking the full loaded containers and returning of the empty containers to depot, decided based on prior discussion held between carrier, terminal operator, freight forwarder and buyer besides this it also encompass the overall managerial activities at each level from supply end to delivery end, resulting managed manoeuvre of cargo containers with least delay in legal and handling processing and achieving satisfactory level.
Keywords: Maritime Transportation; Freight forwarder; hinterland; detention; demurrage ocean carrier.
Unified Process Monitoring Strategy for a Facility Engaged In the Production of Multiple Portfolio of Products
by Anupam Das, Swarnambuj Suman
Abstract: The process monitoring strategies have not kept pace with the development in the production systems. Most of the multivariate statistical process monitoring methods deals with single product portfolio. The current article attempts to devise a unified monitoring strategy for monitoring of multiple products or at least different grades of the same product. A case study from an integrated steel plant producing multiple products has been deliberated to validate the monitoring strategy devised. A comparative evaluation of the unified strategy based on the multigroup variant of principal component analysis (PCA) and the individual strategy based on the conventional PCA was carried out on the basis of three parameters viz. the model fit values, fault detection and the fault diagnosis. In all the three parameters, barring some trifling differences, the unified monitoring strategy seems to replicate the individual strategies well.
Keywords: Principal Component Analysis; Multigroup PCA; Fault detection; Fault diagnosis; Multiple product portfolio.
by SHIVA PRASAD H. C, Giridhar B. Kamath, Shaun T. Menezes
Abstract: The Japanese housekeeping 5S methodology added with safety has constituted in 6S principles. Implementing the 6S to enhance the productivity of machine, component maintenance, reduction in unnecessary waste, that costs, the safety of workers and overall production efficiency by effective workplace management. This paper attempts to highlight challenges in implementing 6S in a shop floor based on the pre-implementation and post-implementation data and compared on parametric industrial accidents, process time and cost. After 5S implemented, investigating on unorganised production sections, uncomfortable working environment, excessive inventory and lack of safety practices. The results of pre-implementation and post-implementation exhibits a reduction in process time, reduction in costs and industrial accidents reduced with effective safety training to employees. This study shows that 6S implementation has created a positive effect in uplifting the morale of workers by reducing the cost and time of the production process.
Keywords: Cost; Industrial Accidents; Safety; implementation; 6S.
Integrity of Food Supply Chain: Going beyond Food Safety and Food Quality
by Siti Norida Wahab, Eric Kaiyue Ling
Abstract: As consumers trust and confidence in food have been shaken by food incidents that could be intentional (crime) or unintentional (negligence). This paper examines the issue of food integrity in a holistic approach that goes beyond food safety and food quality. The concept of farm-to-fork from supply chain management being adopted to review the extant literature concerning integrity of food supply chain. From the extensive literature review, food safety system such as HACCP is argued to be insufficient in assuring food integrity because it does not prevent deliberate contamination, while traceability and technology are recognised as important communication linkages that provide transparency and evidence on food integrity across the supply chain. This paper has developed the house of food integrity framework to provide novel insights on the food supply chain by illustrating food integrity as a multi-dimensional concept, which incorporates food defence in addition to food safety and food quality.
Keywords: Food Supply Chain; Farm-to-Fork; Food Safety; Food Integrity; Food Defence.
TQM IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES: A CASE STUDY OF A BUILDING MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT OF AN INSTITUTION OF HIGHER LEARNING
by Mariam Akinlolu, Ruben Ndihokubwayo, Fredrick Simpeh
Abstract: The standards of maintenance management of buildings at many higher institutions, need improvement. TQM has proven to be effective in the improvement of quality in the maintenance of building facilities, although many higher institutions are still grappling to implement TQM in the maintenance of their buildings. This study examines the perceptions that maintenance workers have about the challenges they face during the implementation of TQM in the maintenance of buildings of institutions of higher learning (IHL), assessing whether there are statistical differences based on workers affiliated campuses and their positions. A case study approach utilising quantitative data was used in the study where a questionnaire with closed-ended questions was distributed to purposively sampled maintenance workers in an IHL in South Africa. A significant difference was found in the responses provided by workers positions as regards the impact of TQM challenges in their building maintenance activities.
Keywords: buildings; challenges; institution of higher learning; maintenance; total quality management.
Exploring the Applicability of SERVPERF Model in Indian Two-wheeler Industry: A CFA Approach
by Mohd Adil, Mohd Nasir
Abstract: Over the years, after-sales service (ASS) has assumed its importance in the automotive industry. Although, an adequate number of scales and models exist to measure ASS quality, yet extant literature provides evidences in support of two established and well known models/scales viz. SERVQUAL and SERVPERF. But, researchers have raised concerns related to its applicability in a multi-cultural business environment like India. Thus, this study attempts to examine the applicability of original SERVPERF model in Indian two-wheeler industry. Combinations of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) techniques have been used to understand the item structure, dimensionality and psychometric properties of the scale. Results in this study fail to support the item structure of original SERVPERF model as proposed by Cronin and Taylor (1992). We strongly suppose that this variation is context specific and less generic as originally contended. These results suggest that relying service quality assessment on the original SERVPERF items can be misleading in Indian context. As such, context-specific 18-items are therefore needed to assist Indian automobile companies in their service quality improvement programs. If this fit is achieved, the general welfare of consumers vis-
Keywords: After-sale service; service quality; two-wheeler; SERVPERF; CFA; test-retest; India.
A modified control chart for monitoring non normal characteristics
by Boby John, Subhani S. M
Abstract: A process in control and capable of meeting customer requirements can enhance the survival and growth of the business. The systematic use of process improvement methodologies like lean, six sigma, etc., can improve the capability of the process significantly. When the process is highly capable, sometimes it may not make business sense to monitor the process using traditional control charts. It may be better to allow the process mean to vary over a small interval provided the fraction non-conforming is within a pre-specified value. This can be achieved by monitoring the process using the modified control chart. Most of the research on modified control chart discuss the case of normally distributed characteristics. In this paper, the authors extend the modified control chart methodology to monitor non-normal characteristics. The approach is based on Johnsons system of distributions. The suggested methodology is also demonstrated using two case studies in the paper.
Keywords: Statistical process control; modified control chart; process capability analysis; non normal characteristics; Johnson's system of distributions.
Modelling the barriers of green supply chain practices in Jordanian firms
by Abbas Al-Refaie, Dina Al-Momani, Rawan Al-tarawneh
Abstract: This research investigates ten barriers to adoption of green supply chain management (GSCM) adoption in Jordanian firms using interpretive structural modelling (ISM). Twenty experts from academia and 18 industry were interviewed. Structural self-interaction matrix (SSIM) is developed and then adopted to construct the reachability matrices. The results of ISM model revealed that lack of support from government barrier achieved the highest driving power followed by the barrier cost implications and lack of customer awareness. Moreover, the linkage barriers were the IT implementation problem, resistance to technology advancement adoption, market competition, lack of management commitment, supplier reluctance to change towards GSCM, and lack of sustainability of certificate ISO 14001. These findings suggest that government authorities and top management should resolve barriers at the strategic level by developing effective regulations and incentive policies that enhance customer awareness, supplier commitment to the application of GSCM practices. Further, top managements should ponder on evolving strategies that generate awareness about GSCM adoption. In conclusion, the developed ISM model may provide a valuable guidance to decision makers to understand interdependence of the barriers, determine the required actions to overcome their impacts, and adopt efficient methodologies for effective implementation of GSCM practices in Jordanian firms.
Keywords: GSCM; Interpretive structural modelling; Barriers; Supply chain; MICMAC analysis.
Enhancement of the competitiveness and the financial capability of a manufacturing process through a new Value Stream Mapping approach.
by Soltani Mohyiddine, AOUAG Hichem, MOUSS Mohammed Djamel
Abstract: The organisations having a futuristic look and aiming to impose their presence in the industrial field for a long possible term, are seeking for finding solutions linked to controlling their cash flow and assessing their competitiveness performances. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to propose a new quality and cost value stream mapping for monitoring the costs consumption and assessing the competitiveness of a company. We use three key concepts namely life cycle costing for estimation of the most influential costs on the manufacturing process, the weighted DPMO and Sigma level for assessing the quality level and the competitiveness of the company. Finally, the data obtained are mapped using value stream mapping method for enabling the determination of dysfunctions in the cost and quality context.
Keywords: Defects Per Million Opportunities; Life Cycle Costs; Sigma level; Value Stream Mapping,.
AHP-VIKOR based methodology for determining maintenance criticality
by Nitin Panwar, Sanjeev Kumar, Rajesh Attri
Abstract: The paper aims to develop a new methodology based on integrated multi-attribute decision making approaches, i.e., analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and vlse kriterijumska optimizacija kompromisno resenje (VIKOR) technique for finding the maintenance criticality of the system by ranking its failure causes. The ranking is framed by considering five criteria namely likelihood of failure occurrence, likelihood of non-detection, downtime length, standby part criticality and safety risk. In the proposed methodology, first the priority weight of each criterion is calculated by using AHP approach and then VIKOR method is applied for finding the ranking of failure causes in order to select the proper maintenance strategy. An actual case study of pulping system for a paper production industry is performed to select the maintenance strategy in order to demonstrate the use of the proposed methodology.
Keywords: Maintenance; AHP; VIKOR; FMEA; MCDM.
Productivity enhancement of assembly line by using Maynard Operation Sequence Technique (MOST) after identification of Lean wastages
by Raj Kumar, Parveen Kalra, Suman Kant
Abstract: The proper utilisation of available resources and appropriate time to complete a task play a crucial role to define the productivity of a line-based manufacturing industry. The high productivity is essential to meet customer demand. If the company fails to meet customer demand, it measures in terms of utilisation of available resources and time required to complete a task. An assembly line includes non-value-added activities and other wastages which lead to lower productivity. Keeping these views in this study, Maynard operation sequence technique (MOST) has been used to reduce cycle time, operation cost and maximise the utilisation of manpower after identification of lean wastages by using Toyota 3M model. The combination of lean manufacturing and MOST has been used as a technique which improves the efficiency of line by 11.23%. The statistical test has been performed by using R programming language to check the significance of applied technique.
Keywords: Maynard Operation Sequence Technique (MOST); Predetermined Motion Time System (PMTS); Productivity; Lean wastages; Non-value-added activity; Assembly line; Standard time; Line layout.
Personal Values, Cultural Competence, Self-confidence: Comparation among Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Indonesian Employee
by Rusman Frendika, Sri Suwarsi, Dudung Abdurrahman
Abstract: The role of personality in work-related behaviours and values has gained renewed attention over the past decade. As the opening of the free trade era, many local employees feel less confidence to compete with expatriates. This research investigates the differences of the influence of personal value and cultural competence towards self-confidence whether directly or through personal branding. Based on cross cultural analysis among expatriate of Korean, Japanese, Chinese and local employees. The ANOVA and SEM AMOS multiple group analysis used and the empirical finding indicate that the personal branding have negative impact to self-confidence. Cross cultural analysis found that cultural competence more dominant influence towards self-confidence than personal values between expatriates and local employees.
Keywords: Personal values; Cultural competence; Self-confidence.
Prevalent General and Preventive Maintenance Practices in Indian Process Industry
by Amit Chopra, Anish Sachdeva, Arvind Bhardwaj
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of general and preventive maintenance practices in the process industries of India. Data for the analysis was collected through a structured questionnaire from the reputed process industries of India. Statistical techniques cluster analysis and one-way ANOVA were used to investigate the maintenance scenario in the Indian process industry. The study highlighted the status of important practices related to the General maintenance and Preventive maintenance (PM) in the process industry and emphasised on strengthening of maintenance activities in Indian Process industry especially in the changing needs of the Industry 4.0.
Keywords: Maintenance Scenario; Process industry; Preventive maintenance; General maintenance; Indian Industry.
Exploring the factors to make E-Commerce and M-Commerce ubiquitous and pervasive to improve national productivity of India
by Sujata Deshmukh, Prashant Deshmukh, Goppakumaran Thampi, Bhushan Patil
Abstract: Electronic commerce (EC) and mobile commerce (MC) are leading edge technologies-based practices for doing global, local and context-based business But percentage of retail e-commerce sale in India in 2018 is expected as 1.4% (Retail Ecommerce Sales in India 20142018: Disappointing 1% of Total Retail Sales, https://dazeinfo.com/2015/01/07/retail-ecommerce-sales-in india-growth-2014-2018-report), which is very low as compared to total commerce transactions, and it shows that it is not ubiquitous, though wide penetration of ICT (internet and PC, mobile penetrations) (IAMAI, 2016). So the aim of this study is to find the ways and means to make EC-MC-based practices pervasive and ubiquitous to improve national productivity in India. This study is an attempt to specify mathematical equations using regression modelling, to describe the relationships between factors to make EC-MC-based practices ubiquitous and pervasive in India and productivity improvements as proposed by theory. The design methods and procedures used in this study are based on statistical theory to obtain representative samples from the real world.
Keywords: E-commerce in India; M-commerce U-commerce; PCA; ANOVA; National productivity; multivariate analysis; regression modelling.
The determinants of women's entrepreneurship development: an empirical study in Tunisia
by Salim Morched, Anis Jarboui
Abstract: This study has set itself the main specific objective to identify the obstacles and determinants of female entrepreneurship in Tunisia. Despite the obstacles encountered by women entrepreneurs (family, social, etc.) the ambition of women entrepreneurs in Tunisia is successful at the professional level while maintaining a certain flexibility to be able to fulfil their other responsibilities. So the main rules of womens success are self-fulfilment, a sense of risk and a willingness to be independent, and today women entrepreneurs are optimistic, confident in the future, comfortable with administrative formalities and the relationships.
Keywords: Women entrepreneurship; Tunisia; Empirical study.
Transformational Leadership as an Antecedent for Organizational Commitment and Job Performance in the Banking Sector of Jordan
by Mohammed Iqbal Al-Ajlouni, Nawaf Alghusin
Abstract: Guided by social-exchange-theory, present study examined transformational leadership (TL) as an antecedent for organisational commitment (OC) and its subsequent influence on job performance (JP). Through using a structured self-administered questionnaire, data were collected surveying (439) non-executive employees operating in (15) banks listed in Amman-Stock-Exchange through non-probability purposive sampling. Structural-equation-modelling using SMART-PLS was utilised and the result reported that TL components achieved 44%, 42.5% and 35.4% of the variance in affective, continuous and normative commitment respectively. Idealised influence did not have any significant effect on any level of OC, whereas intellectual stimulation influenced the three levels of OC. Individualised consideration influenced only affective and continuous commitment, and inspirational motivation influenced only normative and continuous commitment. Moreover, only affective commitment was significant in influencing JP and accounted for 82% of the variance. Following the results, discussion and implication were provided. Also, directions and suggestions for future researches were presented.
Keywords: Transformational leadership; organizational commitment; job performance; Social Exchange Theory; quantitative; Banking Sector; Jordan.
Characteristic Evaluation of SkSP-T with Special Type Double Sampling Plan as Reference Plan
by Pradeepa Veerakumari, SUGANYA S
Abstract: Acceptance sampling is one of the imperative methods used in statistical quality control through judgement a lot concerning its quality of 100% inspection and no inspection. Acceptance sampling plan is able to minimise the inspection cost and sampling error. It is a technique that deals with accepting or not the lot to be found on sampling inspection that delivers the quality of products manufactured by industries. This paper portrays designing procedure and development of skip-lot sampling plan of type SkSP-T with special type double sampling plan (STDSP) as reference plan which is designated as SkSTDSP-T. Operating characteristics and performance measures are derived, evaluated and tables involving incoming and outgoing quality levels are constructed for SkSTDSP-T plan. Tables are simulated by changing various parametric values of SkSP-T and STDSP plan. Table values are calculated, operating characteristic curve is drawn by using R (programming) language. Additionally, the efficiency of the proposed plan is discussed.
Keywords: Acceptance sampling; Continuous Sampling Plan; incoming quality level; outgoing quality level; Skip lot sampling plan of type SkSP-T; Special Type Double Sampling Plan.
Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE): a review and development of an integrated improvement framework
by Chew Keat Cheah, Joshua Prakash, Kok Seng Ong
Abstract: The paper reviews the background of OEE and various improvement frameworks and explores their limitations. The review found that there is a lack of improvement frameworks with systematic steps specifically developed for OEE implementation. In addition, it was found that improvement frameworks of different methodologies do not fully capitalise on the use of performance measures as benchmarks and improvement drivers although they provide structured improvement steps/guidelines. These findings show there is a need for a new integrated OEE improvement framework that incorporates the advantages of both OEE and improvement frameworks. By encompassing the core characteristics of OEE and synergising the strengths of improvement frameworks, the new framework will provide OEE practitioners a systematic guidance in carrying out improvement implementation. It will also provide overall directions on how to carry out OEE improvements and allow the practitioners to make better decisions regarding project management.
Keywords: OEE; improvement frameworks; manufacturing; performance measure; benchmark; prioritization; implementation.
Productivity Improvement of a Eco Friendly Warehouse using Multi Objective Optimal Robot Trajectory Planning
by Mahalakshmi S, A. Arokiasamy, Fakrudeen Ali Ahamed J
Abstract: Production of environment is one of the top rated objectives of all countries. 10% emission of CO2 in the world is from logistics industries due to freight transports and warehousing operations. Green logistics is an important step to minimise ecological impacts of the logistics operations. Green environment in a warehouse plays a mandatory role in green logistics. Automation, robotics and smart systems give a good contribution in making the warehouse environment clean and green. A method for productivity improvement of a green warehouse using multi objective optimal trajectory planning of a warehouse robot is proposed in this paper. Mixed load palletising operation (build-to-order palletising) is considered. Two multi objective optimisation algorithms such as multi objective particle swarm optimisation (MOPSO) and multi objective differential evolution (MODE) are used. A numerical example on an Industrial robot (MTAB ARISTO 6XT robot) is presented. An economic and productivity analysis is carried out. The obtained results proved that the multi objective optimisation on warehouse robot trajectory planning enhances supply chain productivity and profits.
Keywords: Green Supply chain; Green Logistics; Productivity improvement; Mixed load palletizing; Eco friendly warehouse robot; multi objectives; optimal trajectory planning; MOPSO; MODE.
A framework for analysis of the supplier selection in green supply chain
by Blanka Tundys, Andrzej Rzeczycki, Yudi Fernando
Abstract: The main purpose of the article is to build the framework of the supplier assessment model in the green supply chain. To achieve this purpose, specific objectives were taken to consideration: 1) an indication of the basis for the analysis of supplier selection in green supply chain; 2) identify of the gaps that exist in this respect, in the literature; 3) the identification of the criteria catalogue for the supplier selection with the particular emphasis on the needs of green supply chain; 4) develop a model to assess the green supply chain, taking into account the sustainable aspects; 5) using AHP method to the investigation and analysis of the meaning of the selected criteria, on the example of companies operating in the Polish economy; 6) indication which of them are the most important and which of them did not play an important role in the selection process of the suppliers.
Keywords: supplier selection; green supply chain; polish economy.
Optimal autonomous mobile robot motion planning for green logistics
by Sathiya V, Chinnadurai Murugaiyan
Abstract: In 2017, CO2 emissions from logistics activities is 0.82 million tons across the world. Introduction of low exhaust emission vehicles, reduction in transportation distance, introduction of electrical vehicles, improvement in load factor, reduction in cost, fast delivery are goals of green logistics. To accomplish these goals, Autonomous mobile robots are good choice. This paper proposes a good method for improving the performance of a warehouse robot by a multi objective optimal motion planning. Wheeled mobile robot is considered. Two multi objective optimisation algorithms [elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) and multi objective differential evolution (MODE)] are used. A cubic NURBS curve constructs the robot path. Four multi objective performance metrics and two methods are utilised to examine the performance of MODE and NSGA-II algorithms. The results from a numerical simulation proved that the suggested method is a good idea to improve the green warehouse operations and to do necessary automation.
Keywords: Green Logistics; Green warehouse; Autonomous mobile robot; Multi Objective optimal motion planning; NSGA-II; MODE; Fuzzy logic.
Bi-objective optimization model with societal constraints for green closed loop supply chain network
by S. Umar Sherif, P. Asokan, J. Jerald, P. Sasikumar
Abstract: Scrap-battery collection, recovery and new-battery production activities in the battery industries have increased a large quantity of materials and products distribution between the facilities. This situation leads to the sustainability issue in terms of higher transportation cost, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and drivers fatigue (long driving). In order to address the sustainable issues, the present closed loop supply chain network (CLSCN) is customised. The objective of this paper is to develop bi-objective multi product multi echelon multi period green CLSCN model with societal constraints (GCLSCN-SC) to minimise: 1) the sum of distribution centres' (DC) storage capacity expansion cost and transportation cost; 2) the GHG emission (CO2 and NOx). The storage capacity expansion strategy and the transportation strategy are established in the proposed model to stimulate the bi-directional flow of the products and materials between facilities and the model is solved by using GAMS-23.5. The performance of proposed model has been compared with the present model and the evaluation demonstrates that the proposed model is efficient. The analysed results of the proposed model under different scenarios are presented in this paper.
Keywords: Green closed loop supply chain network; battery industry; societal issues; bidirectional flow; capacity expansion; GHG emission.
Improving the Formulation of the Industrial Paints Using FMEA and Taguchi Approaches
by Hamid Reza Peikari, Gholamreza Salehi, Arash Shahin
Abstract: The aim of this study is to explain how the quality of industrial paints can be improved by failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) and Taguchi design of experiments. For this purpose, a paint manufacturer was selected and FMEA was applied to identify and prioritise the paint problems. Taguchi was also used to identify and determine the levels of the factors influencing the quality of products. L18 array was selected for designing the required experiments and linear graphs were applied to identify interactions among factors. Findings indicated that the best quality was obtained for the experiment with the characteristics of granule size higher than 10, peak metal temperature (PMT) of 232 degrees centigrade, pigment of high quality, resin content of 55%, catalyst content of 4.1%, using plate with medium quality and maximum content of additives. Results also indicated a decrease of average RPN in all of the identified problems.
Keywords: Taguchi; failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA); paint; risk priority number; orthogonal array.
Integrating Kano's Model into Quality Function Deployment to Facilitate Decision Analysis : A case study at a Medium Enterprise of Export Garment Manufacturer in Bali
by Elia Oey, Eunike Gabriella
Abstract: Capturing, understanding and acting towards customer needs are a constant challenge to any firm. With globalisation, this need become complex, overwhelming, yet necessary. This research was a case study in a medium size specialty-garment manufacturer in Bali, Indonesia. The studied company sells high quality sarong and beach wear to export markets. To improve their marketing and operation management toward their customers, this study helped to identify and quantify the customer attributes using combination of gap and Kano model. The result was then followed up by generating technical attributes and possible action plan using quality function deployment (QFD) methodology. The result showed top three customer attributes are on time delivery, reasonable price, and fast production lead time, and recommended to improve in post-manufacture quality inspection control, laundering control, dyeing and printing control, hiring more lease sewing operator, and periodical design update based on season. The study was also able to apply systematic methodologies that can be applied even to a medium size firms for them to improve their management.
Keywords: Kano; QDF; customer attributes; technical attributes; medium enterprise.
Dynamic Slicing of Aspect-Oriented Software: An UML-based Approach
by Jagannath Singh, Abhishek Ray
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a technique to compute the dynamic slice of UML models for aspect-oriented software. The UML architectural model for aspect-oriented software represents the core components, aspectual components and the relationship between them. Firstly, we construct aspect-oriented model dependence graph (AOMDG) as an intermediate representation of the UML model for aspect-oriented software. AOMDG is a combination of aspect-class dependence graph (ACDG) and aspect-sequence dependence graph (ASDG). ACDG is constructed by using a set of class and set of aspect class diagrams and ASDG is constructed by using a set of sequence and aspect sequence diagrams from the UML architectural model. Then, we propose an algorithm to compute the dynamic slice by traversing AOMDG by marking and unmarking the nodes for a particular scenario during run-time.
Keywords: Aspect; Advice; Aspect-class dependence graph; Sequence-class dependence graph; Aspect-Oriented Model Dependence Graph.
Assessment of Sand Reclamation Techniques and Sand Quality in Thermal Reclamation
by Suyog B. Rayjadhav, Digvijay A. Mhamane, Vasudev Shinde
Abstract: In foundry, sand-moulding takes maximum share of production than other moulding methods. So the foundry requires huge quantity of sand daily. To safeguard environmental issues it is necessary to reuse the sand repeatedly otherwise it also increases disposal cost. In view of increasing demand from environmental and economic aspects, the assessment of sand reclamation systems becomes outmost importance. This study illustrates the various sand reclamation techniques like dry, wet, thermal, cryogenic and microwave reclamation in term of their procedure and assessment. The thermal sand reclamation system is developed comprising of sub units like fluidised bed combustor and fluidised bed sand cooler for 20 kg sand capacity and tested for chemically bonded sand casting. In the present study, developed thermal sand reclamation system is tested and results are compared with different sand reclamation systems. The no-bake-sand can be satisfactorily reclaimed by newly developed thermal sand reclamation technique with appropriate sand quality.
Keywords: Sand molding; Binders; Sand reclamation; No-bake; ADV; LOI; Grain Size.
Statistical Investigation of Lean Six Sigma For Waste Reduction in Indian SMES By Identify Rank Define Analyze Improve Control (IRDAIC) Model
by P.N. Ram Kumar, K.P. Satish
Abstract: Lean manufacturing is capable of reducing the existing rates of production to a reasonable amount and also to raise the productivity by improving the quality of the material, and hence to maximise the number of customers. In this research paper, the LSS is practiced in the small and medium scale industries for improving the productivity of the firm. For that, a new statistical method named identify rank define analyse improve control (IRDAIC) model is actualised in the Indian SMEs for handling the survey. For optimising the industrial parameters multiple nonlinear regression analysis and enhanced grey wolf optimisation is used in this paper. The proposed hybrid statistical assessment and optimisation process is executed and evaluated in the working platform of MATLAB in terms of production cost. Ultimately, from the evaluation the proposed novel statistical optimisation technique is optimal for improving the productivity of the Lean Six Sigma manufacturing firm respectively.
Keywords: Lean Manufacturing; Lean Six Sigma; Small and Medium Industries (SMEs); Identify Rank Define Analyze Improve Control (IRDAIC); Multiple Non-Linear Regression Analysis (MNLRA).
Performance Assessment of Talent Management System Via Using System Dynamic Approach and Scenario Planning (Case Study: Iran Falat-Qhare Oil Company
by Aliakbar Hasani, Saeid Aibaghi Esfehani, Abolfazl Lotfi
Abstract: Nowadays, talent management becomes more complicated as a consequence of a dynamic business environment and facing with extensive and delayed feedbacks of various economic and social factors. Therefore, there is a need to design an appropriate human resource management to attract, employ, develop, and retain talented staff. The aim of this study is to propose a comprehensive model for talent management via using a system dynamics approach. In addition, fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making method is used to assess the considered improvement strategies. The proposed model is applied to Iranian Falat-Ghare Oil Company. Obtained results indicate that talent management process plays a key role in the organisations performance. Improvement opportunities to increase the total efficiency of the talent management system are identified. By using scenario analysis, key process indicators of talent management system are investigated to achieve the organisation goals. Organisations efficiency can be significantly increased by adopting appropriate talent management strategies.
Keywords: Human resource; Talent management system; Performance assessment; System dynamics; Scenario planning.
Special Issue on: Green and Sustainable Practices in Supply Chains
Literature Review: Continuous Improvement through Lean Six Sigma
by Narottam Yadav, K. Mathiyazhagan, Krishan Kumar
Abstract: Six Sigma is a business metric used in manufacturing, service and healthcare sectors. The purpose of this paper is to uncovering existing literature gaps in the field of Lean Six Sigma. From the literature review, 2461 papers were identified based on publication period of 2003 to 2018. It is concluded from the analysis of the results that no framework available in the literature for successful implementation of LSS. There is a need for the empirical study that how to create a continuous improvement culture in the organization and specific barriers for conducting improvements. Lean Six Sigma can be integrated with other improvement philosophies to achieve overall excellence. The thorough review of existing literature reveals that adoption of LSS plays a vital role in process improvement, variation reduction and defect reduction.
Keywords: Lean; Six Sigma; Literature review; Problem-solving; Manufacturing; Process Improvement; Indian Industry.
Inventory Reduction using the Optimal Policy Curve approach: A Case study
by Ravindra Ojha
The current trends in Indian Automotive manufacturing industry indicate a rapidly increasing socio-technical complexity of its manufacturing systems. The industry is striving to meet the ever-changing behavior of the market demand. This has led to considerable increase in variety of products manufactured under one roof. Increasing variety requires high attention to control the high inventory levels of parts and aggregates. This paper focuses on understanding and analyzing causes of high inventory levels of a leading Tier-I automotive supplier and recommending the way forward using a structured methodology. The Quality Control (QC) tools, the EOQ (Economic Order Quantity) and the Optimal-Policy curve (Exchange curve) approach have been utilized effectively to funnel the key issues and finally optimize the inventory level of the key parts. The application of the QC tools and the Optima- policy curve approach has resulted in a healthy 25% reduction of the high inventory in the industry under taken as a case study.
Keywords: Optimal Policy curve; Exchange curve approach; Economic Order Quality; Pareto analysis and Cause and Effect diagram.
Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Discomfort Glare Due to Artificial Indoor Lighting
by Deevesh Sharma, Awadhesh Bhardwaj, Monica Sharma, Ashraf Mirza
Abstract: The research evaluated the effect of the change in position of the observer and luminance of light source on discomfort glare. There were two approaches taken in this study, one was qualitative and other was quantitative approach. The quantitative approach was based on unified glare rating. If the value obtained from the UGR formula is more than 10 then according to CIE (International Commission on Illumination), discomfort glare will be there. In this study, 11 experiments have been conducted to get degree of glare at different places of room. The qualitative analysis performed over 15 participants and on the basis of questionnaire, degree of glare has been evaluated. A participant has to answer that he finds particular field of direction comfortable or not by marking it on a scale (De-Boer) of 1-4. The result obtained from both approaches were compared to get the comfortable range of illuminance and the angle between the luminaire with line of sight.
Keywords: Discomfort Glare; UGR; Guth Position Index; Luminance; LED; CFL.
Determinants of Green Supply Chain Practices of Manufacturing Companies in Sri Lanka
by Chamari Jayarathna, Nalaka Wickramasinghe
Abstract: Most of the organizations tend to accept the green practices as a concern to environmental sustainability. Therefore, this study aims to identify the key drivers that influence to adopt green supply chain practices of manufacturing firms in Sri Lanka. For this purpose, quantitative approach was followed, and data collected through structured questionnaire were analyzed using Structural Equation Model. Theoretical scope of the study includes identifying external factors based on institutional theory and internal factors based on resource-based view for adopting green supply chain practices while empirical scope narrows down to the manufacturing companies in western province of Sri Lanka. The study found that normative pressure and mimetic pressure as external factors and tangible resources and capabilities as internal factors are significantly influenced to adopt green suply chain practices while coercive pressure and intangible resources are not. These findings will guide manufacturers and suppliers when implementing green supply chain practices in their organization and help government to make some policies regarding green supply chain management.
Keywords: Green Supply Chain Management; Resource Based View Theory; Structural Equation Analysis; Internal Factors; External Factors; Sri Lanka.
Exploring the relationship between dimensions of Quality Management Practices and Business Performance
by Deepinder Singh, Harwinder Singh, Jagwinder Singh Pandher, Raman Kumar
Abstract: Quality management practices (QMP) can be either explorative or exploitative and these can benefit organization with both orientations. In this research work, an attempt has been made to explore the dimension of QMP with respect to business performance. A path model is developed which exhibit the relationship between QMP and business performance. The SPSS software package and AMOS 21 was used to perform confirmatory factor analysis. The second order confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the considered six hypotheses. The finding showed that top management support (TMS), supplier relationship (SR), workforce commitment (WC), people management (PM), workplace organization (WO) are directly related to business performance. Moreover, leadership is not directly associated with business performance. The outcome of this study offer theoretical as well as practical managerial implication to improve business performance.
Keywords: QMP; business performance; path model; CFA.