International Journal of Public Policy (7 papers in press)
Workplace Diversity and Inclusion: Policies and Best Practices for Organizations Employing Transgender People in India
by JOBY PHILIP, DEVI SOUMYAJA
Abstract: Policies and best practices are suggested based on the viewpoints of transgender employees, human resources managers in charge of diversity and inclusion, and activists who work for the welfare of transgender people. Fifteen people were interviewed in depth and their responses were analyzed to obtain insights into transgender employees perception of well-being in the workplace, which will help organizations to develop appropriate human resource policies to protect the rights of their transgender employees in the workplace.
Keywords: Transgender employees; Non-discriminatory workplace; Workplace diversity; Diversity and inclusion; Policies for transgender employees in Indian workplace.
Ensuring the Quality of Basic Service Delivery in Decentralized Local Governments through the Minimum Service Standard (MSS) Policy: How does it work?
by Erwan Agus Purwanto, Agus Pramusinto, Subando Agus Margono
Abstract: This paper discusses the impact of the implementation of Minimum Service Standard (MSS) policy on the quality of basic services district/city governments deliver to their citizenry. One of the expectations of the decentralization policy, which got underway in 1999, was to contribute to the improvement of the quality of public services. The issuing of Government Regulation (GR) No. 65/2005 which outlined guidelines on setting and implementing MSS for all sectoral ministries was very much in line with that process. Study results obtained from a survey of local government officials attest to the reality that most local government have yet to implement the 15 MSS set by 15 sectoral ministries. Some of the factors that have hampered the implementation of MSS include lack of clarity on substance of MSS policy (unclear concept of basic services and of MSS; variety of approaches used in various sectoral ministries such as input, process, output and outcome); and constraints that implementing organizations face (insufficient budget allocation and human resource capacity, unclear functional assignments, and lack of integration of MSS in local government development plans)\r\n
Keywords: Minimum Service Standard; Public Service; Local Government.
On the Relationship of Money Supply, Consumer Demand, Demographics, and Debt
by Stephan Unger, Goekhan Cebiroglu
Abstract: We show that consumer based economies tend to suffer from demand saturation
after an initial and prolonged period of growth. Saturation triggers a Minsky supercycle,
characterized by high debt, high income inequality and financial instability.
We argue that monetary policies such as negative interest rates and yield curve
targeting can be effective in combating recessionary conditions in an unsaturated
economy, but yield to problems in a saturated economy as mis-allocations may
generate bubbles. We find that maintaining a growth rate which corresponds to the
demand growth rate at which consumers replenish their stock of goods, smooths
out the business cycle in an unsaturated economy, while technological development
and demographic modification is the only possible way to prevent or combat the
saturation of an economy.
Keywords: monetary policy; fiscal policy; inflation; money supply; debt deflation; GDP; T-bills.
Beyond Referendums and Austerity: Public Participation Policy Enactment in new UK Governance Spaces
by Martin E. Purcell
Abstract: This article generates new insights into what contributes to the effective enactment of public participation policy. It critiques the implementation of recent public participation policy in the UK, focusing on new local governance spaces created in England by Labour governments (1997-2010), and arrangements subsequently enacted under the Coalition and Conservative governments (2010-2015). It reports on a study conducted in 22 local authority areas in one English region, exploring public participation practices in Local Strategic Partnerships, and again seven years after the policy was rescinded.
Power and agency feature in the analysis, which demonstrates how the intended impacts of public participation policy is diluted by complex context-specific organizational, cultural and professional factors. The article presents evidence of citizens continuing enthusiasm to shape and influence policy, through formal structures and non-traditional processes, and argues that public participation policy during austerity should accommodate the potential for progressive outcomes to emerge from both approaches.
Keywords: Policy enactment; public participation; community development; local governance.
Structural Economic Vulnerability and Public Revenue Performance
by Sena Kimm Gnangnon
Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of structural economic vulnerability (EVI) in developing countries on their public revenue performance. Relying on a sample of 126 countries over the period 1996-2013, the empirical analysis suggests that EVI exerts a negative and significant impact on total public revenue. However, this negative impact reflects differentiated impact of the EVI's components (namely, the degree of exposure to shocks and the size and frequency of the shocks) on public revenue performance: exposure to shocks influences positively public revenue, while the size and frequency of shocks exerts a negative and significant impact on public revenue. These results apply also to LDCs. In this context, governments in developing countries and the international community should cooperate to mitigate developing countries' structural economic vulnerability. This would help increase their public revenue performance, which is needed to address development challenges, and reduce in the long-run, their dependence on international development assistance.
Keywords: Structural Economic Vulnerability; Public revenue; Developing Countries; Least Developed countries.
Business and innovation ecosystems: Innovation policy implications
by Satu Rinkinen, Vesa Harmaakorpi
Abstract: The concepts of business ecosystem and innovation ecosystem have become highly utilized in business and innovation studies. However, research on the innovation policy implications of these concepts and the ways ecosystems emerge and evolve is still rather scant. This study utilized a multiple case study approach to study real-life business and innovation ecosystems in an innovation policy context. Based on the case study findings and other empirical data, the key elements of ecosystem-based innovation policy were outlined. Business and innovation ecosystems are strongly self-organizing and the role of the public sector is to support their self-renewal capacity. Ecosystem-based policy approach consists of elements such as testing and experimentation culture, funding through public procurement and positive questioning of existing procedures and it crosses the traditional policy boundaries. Adopting the ecosystem perspective in policymaking requires interaction between different policy fields and levels.
Keywords: business ecosystem; innovation ecosystem; innovation platform; innovation policy; case study.
National Governance and Foreign Direct Investment Interactions: International Evidence
by Omar Farooque, Sarod Khandaker
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the interactions between foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows and national governance indicators (i.e. public governance) on international data. It also examines the impact of international financial reporting standards (IFRS) and the legal systems of sample countries on national governance and FDI. Building on extant literature, this study applies both single equation (i.e. OLS approach) and simultaneous equations (i.e. 2SLS approaches) on a sample of 173 countries from all continents of the globe for the 12-year period of 1996 to 2007 inclusive, before the Global Financial Crisis. The empirical evidence confirms two-way interdependence between national governance and FDI, i.e. both are interlinked, implying that FDI is determined by the indicators of national governance, and vice-versa. The interdependence remains valid even after controlling for certain macro-economic factors as well as per capita income, and regional and country status groups. In addition, a significant impact on national governance is found by IFRS and the type of legal system of the sample countries, but no such impact is found on FDI. The findings of the study are valuable for individual governments, policy makers and international donor organisations, implying that governments all around the world need to focus on improving national governance indicators in order to attract FDI inflows. To attain macro-economic objectives, policy makers in each country need to strengthen national governance indicators by taking appropriate steps to improve the accountability and transparency of macro-economic measures as well as the overall efficiency of the countrys national governance.
Keywords: National Governance Indicators; Foreign Direct Investment; International Financial Reporting Standards; Legal System.