International Journal of Project Organisation and Management (20 papers in press)
Ethical Challenges During Construction Project Handovers
by Jardar Lohne, Atle Engebø, Ola Lædre
Abstract: The paper reports on case studies of handovers in medium-large and large Norwegian construction projects. It outlines an understanding of the ethical challenges experienced during this handover as part of a wider enquiry into the ethical field in the context of the Norwegian construction industry.
In addition to a literature review and document study, 41 semi-structured interviews have been carried out in accordance with a qualitative approach. Four of these were general in nature (with policy makers) and 37 case-specific (with clients, contractors and user representatives).
The paper establishes a descriptive picture of significant ethical challenges at handover experienced within the Norwegian construction industry. The most prominent of these stems from the participants own hidden agendas and power plays. Clients, contractors and subcontractors alike tend to be systematically suspicious of one another. Signs of participants repetitively utilising the complexity involved for their own benefit at the expense of others are identified. The main costs involved seem to reinforce these challenges.
Further research is needed to clarify challenges and develop appropriate measures to address these issues on both operational and policy levels.
Keywords: Handover; Commissioning; Construction; Contract strategies; Ethics; Hidden agenda; Project Delivery.
Leadership in Project Management: A Scoping Review
by Hassan DanaeeFard, Musa Hajiani, Kamyar Fatemifar, Mohammadreza Golchian Khabbaz
Abstract: This scoping review article is a systematic literature review focusing on "leadership in project management" with the aim of enabling future researchers to achieve a better understanding of main foci and topics of state-of-the-art studies, areas requiring further research, and/or limitations and blank or less studied subjects. To do so, we employed the 5-step scoping review method (Arksey and OMalley, 2005) in scanning and analysing pertinent articles from electronic databases. As described in the 2nd section, of 1120 citations, 56 articles matched the inclusion criteria. For each article, the key variables including main foci, research methodology, limitations, suggestions, implications, validity, reliability, conclusions, etc. were extracted in order to answer the research questions, with quantitative analysis for each variable included in the results section and a brief qualitative analysis of the results in the discussion. Finally, future research suggestions and research gaps are carefully delineated as well as a summary of our key findings.
Keywords: Leadership; Management; Project Leadership; Project Management; Scoping Review; Literature.
Critical Factors for Benefits Realisation in Collaborative University-Industry R&D Programmes
by Gabriela Fernandes, Madalena Araújo, Rita Andrade, Eduardo B. Pinto, Anabela Tereso, Ricardo J. Machado
Abstract: This study aims to help academics and practitioners to realise the benefits resulting from collaborative university-industry research and development (R&D), by identifying the most critical factors for benefits realisation. A literature review was conducted allowing us to compile a list of 33 most acknowledged benefits resulting from university-industry R&D collaborations, and a list of 66 critical factors for the realisation of the most acknowledged benefits identified. A Benefit Breakdown Structure and a Critical Factors Breakdown Structure were developed to provide a better description of the variables that are involved in managing benefits. A two-stage Delphi survey method, involving data analysis from seven invited experts, was conducted to identify the critical factors that should be leveraged in order to realise the most acknowledged benefits from collaborative university-industry R&D. The most common types of critical factors that contribute to benefits realisation in general are: strategic, inter-relational and cultural.
Keywords: Benefits realisation; university-industry; collaborative R&D; critical factors; benefit breakdown structure; benefit critical factors breakdown structure.
Emotional Intelligence and Success of Project Management: The Mediating Effect of Interpersonal Skills
by Luiz Fernando Lima, Filipe Quevedo-Silva
Abstract: This article aims at evaluating the relationship between emotional intelligence, project management interpersonal skills, and successful project management; more specifically, analyzing the mediating effect that the manager's skills have on the direct relationship between emotional intelligence and the success of project management. A quantitative study was conducted among 119 respondents in Brazil. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. The results show a positive and significant relationship between emotional intelligence and the project managers interpersonal skills and between skills and the success at project management. The influence of emotional intelligence in the success at project management is completely mediated by the project managers interpersonal skills. The proposed model suggests that there is not a direct effect of emotional intelligence on the success at project management. This effect occurs indirectly, via the interpersonal skills of the project manager.
Keywords: Emotional Intelligence; Project; Project Management; Project Organization; Interpersonal Skills; Performance; Structural Equation Modeling; Quantitative Research; Project Success; Brazil.
Organization, Management and Optimization of Ready Mixed Concrete Delivery for Commercial Batching Plants of Western India
by Debasis Sarkar, Jishnu Gohel, Keval Dabasia
Abstract: This paper is an attempt to organize, manage and develop a delivery schedule model with real time data for a commercial ready mixed concrete (RMC) plant in Ahmedabad city of Gujarat in western India. It has been observed after 101 iterations in MATLAB software that the dispatch scheduling sequence 1,2,2,1,1,3,2,3,2,3,3,3 has the least total waiting time of 155.4 minutes. After validating the same model with real time data, it has been observed that for the above dispatching sequence, the total waiting time is 153 minutes with one obstruction resulting in a delay of 48 minutes for the casting of concrete at site. Furthermore, based on the computations, it is recommended that the plant authorities need to increase the number of RMC truck-mixers from five to seven for uninterrupted and smooth delivery of RMC from plant to site.
Keywords: Readymixed concrete; Dispatching sequence; Construction sites; Truck-mixer; Optimization.
Motivational Paradox: a Delphi study to reach a consensus knowledge regarding individual vs. team motivation in the context of project-based organisations
by Saad Zighan
Abstract: Motivation can have paradoxical effects on the performance of projects and their outcomes. The aim of this study is to develop an effective system of motivation in the context of a project-based organisation in terms of both its performance and outcomes. The Responses were captured by using a four-round of online Delphi to collect data from academia and professionals with expertise in project management. The study finds a strong reciprocal relationship between the motivation at an individual level and motivation at a team level, since the sub-objectives that individuals pursue are likely to be strongly related to each other and contribute to the goal that the team mutually generates and pursues. Motivation at an individual and team level is correspondingly consistent in terms of three main aspects: goal generation, striving for a goal and motivational states (Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations). This research guides project managers in the development of a motivation system. The study delineates that noteworthy practices that could endorse the development of motivation arrangements at an individual and team level in a project-based organisation can only be attained by considering the development of an appropriate project structure and team process, which can motivate and maximize individuals contributions and limit the potential for inter-conflict. The project structure that manages the interface occurs on the individual and team level. Thus, an inclusive conceptualisation of motivation within the project team requires a multilevel-approach. That is, a positive motivational outcome in the project requires horizontal as well as vertical alignments of motivational objectives and practises.
Keywords: Project-based firms; people in project based organisations; motivation.
INFLUENCE OF INDIRECT INTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF STRATEGIC PROJECTS: UNDERSTANDING THE BEHAVIOR OF PROJECTS IN UNIVERSITIES IN BOGOT
by Fernando Muñoz, Sergio Chión
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to discover the effect of the extent, engagement, and empowerment of indirect stakeholders on the performance of internal strategic projects through the moderating effect of complexity. This research was conducted in the city of Bogot
Keywords: Project Management; Indirect Stakeholder(s); Project Performance; Strategic Project Management; Stakeholder Theory; Strategic management; Structural Equation Modelling.
Impact of Authentic leadership on project success through the explanatory mechanism of psychological capital and psychological empowerment in the contextual setting of Pakistan.
by Jabran Khan
Abstract: The primary purpose of the present study is to explore the effect of the perceived authentic leadership of project manager on project success. Furthermore, the present study investigated the role of perceived psychological capital and perceived psychological empowerment as intervening mechanisms. A time-lagged design was used to obtain individual responses from employees working for project-based organizations in Pakistan. Data was collected through adopted questionnaires from 271 employees about the variable of interest. Moreover, then different tests are performed for model fitness, correlation, and drawing inferences. The current study finds out that the authenticity of leadership in project-based organizations plays a vital role in the successful completion of projects. Moreover, the result also proves that psychological capital and psychological empowerment significantly mediates the relationship between authentic leadership and project success. The present study was carried out in two-time lags, multiple time lags are desirable. Furthermore, the present study is limited to the context of Pakistan, cross-cultural studies are proposed. Scholars are encouraged to study the different style of leadership in the project-based organization to find out critical success factors.
Keywords: Authentic Leadership; Psychological Empowerment; Psychological Capital; Project Success; Project Base Organizations.
Challenges and Solutions across Project Life Cycle: A Knowledge Sharing Perspective
by Omid Haass, Neda Azizi
Abstract: Implementation of knowledge sharing frameworks within project-based organisations often fails due to numerous challenges and obstacles. This study focuses on identifying the challenges and solutions of knowledge sharing within project life cycles. Particularly, this research investigates the challenges and solutions of knowledge sharing via a single case study conducted in an Iranian consulting engineers firm. By doing so we designed a questionnaire in developing the concept of knowledge sharing and moving toward a more comprehensive knowledge sharing framework based on systemic literature review. The analysis of the case study assisted us to develop a conceptual framework to overcome the identified obstacles and challenges of knowledge sharing. This study also aims to provide a practical framework to assist knowledge management professional in successful implementation of knowledge sharing initiatives within project-based organisations.
Keywords: Knowledge Sharing; Knowledge Management; Project Management; Project-based Organization.
Considering representational gaps - How subsidiaries' relationship affects multi-location project management
by Fanny Seus, Marion A. Weissenberger-Eibl
Abstract: Our study of project cooperation between two company subsidiaries addresses everyday challenges in project management with a new focus on shared cognition. By conducting 36 in-depth interviews, we found that the relationship between the subsidiaries is an important factor when analysing the collaboration of engineering teams working at different locations. Different perspectives on the joint project arise from having different roles; due to this incompatible mental models, or representational gaps, are produced. Grounded in inconsistent assumptions, goal conflicts and divergent expectations are created. We advance project management research by identifying the relationship of the working groups in question that results from the respective roles the subsidiaries play in the companys strategy to be an important driver of typical challenges in project management. Consequently, we propose a model that acknowledges the influence of the site strategy on project cooperation, an aspect of everyday project management, rather neglected so far.
Keywords: International project management; distributed teams; headquarters - subsidiary relations; representational gaps; shared cognition.
Exploring the Determinants of Client Opportunism: A Study of IT Service Projects
by Smita Chaudhry
Abstract: Project literature has paid limited attention to opportunism in service relationships. Service relationships are characterized by intangibility, dependence for value co-creation and misalignment of partner goals. Considering this distinctiveness, a multiple case study method was employed to identify determinants of client opportunism in IT service projects. Results of content analysis showcase organizational and project level factors that can promote opportunity, propensity and incentive for client opportunism. They also highlight the role played by client maturity and client project manager in influencing opportunism. Besides, the study underscores the importance of vendor perception of client opportunism. Research directions and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: client maturity; client opportunism; client project manager; multiple case study; IT service projects.
M&A integration: In search of a mega-project lens
by Jeffrey Voth
Abstract: Through a multi-case study investigating mergers and acquisitions at three leading Aerospace & Defense firms, I propose adopting a mega-project delivery model for navigating large-scale post-merger integration activity and introduce an empirically based conceptual framework identifying five synergistic success factors that support the integration team and capture deal value. In alignment with a mega-project management approach, these factors include an integration strategy aligned with the deal rationale and organizational context; adaptive, engaged leadership that remains accountable through progress metrics; a comprehensive communications plan addressing all stakeholders; successful management of cultural integration; and identification of an appropriate speed for the specific integration activities.
Keywords: mega-project management; post-merger integration; contingency theory; temporary organizations; acquisitions; aerospace and defense.
A framework for conceptualizing the organizational communications of a project management office
by Mahmoud Ershadi, Marcus Jefferies, Peter Davis, Mohammad Mojtahedi
Abstract: The project management office (PMO) plays a key role in linking the strategic and operational levels of a project-based enterprise. Fulfilling this mission requires effective collaboration with stakeholders since PMOs can no longer operate in organizational silos. This research aims to tackle the knowledge gap regarding the conceptualization of the content of PMO communications in project-based organizations. A critical literature review and qualitative synthesis were conducted to draw conclusions concerning the existing theoretical discussions on the topic. The results are presented in the form of a framework explaining eleven categories of stakeholders and respective potential communications with them in four directions; horizontal, vertical upward, vertical downward, and external. This study extends the literature by introducing a new theoretical framework of PMO communications and providing an insight into the main constituents required for maintaining effective relationships with stakeholders in practice.
Keywords: project management office; PMO; organizational communication; stakeholders management; project-based organizations.
Special Issue on: Discussing Business and Social Issues of Project Management from Interdisciplinary Perspectives
SOCIOCULTURAL ANALYSIS OF MEANS OF INFLUENCE ON SUBORDINATES BY MANAGERS PRONE TO MANIPULATIONS
by Liubov Ryumshina
Abstract: With the advent of transnational organizations, research aimed at finding psychological universals common to various cultures and their differences has become extremely relevant. Of great interest in this regard are sociocultural studies of the characteristics of the psychological influences of managers, ensuring the coherence of the work of the production group. The aim of our study: using the example of Russian and British managers to study the characteristics of their manipulative influences on subordinates. The paper lists and explains sociocultural differences in the choice of manipulation tools by managers and the attitude of their subordinates towards them. The study confirmed that the choice of a manipulative way of interaction is determined by a combination of internal and external causes, including cultural differences. The presence of internal causes of manipulation makes possible the emergence of manipulators in any culture, and sociocultural differences determine the characteristics of the implementation of their manipulative inclinations.
Keywords: organization; manager; manipulations; internal causes; external causes; sociocultural differences.
Identification of Tourists image factors for the tourism large scale projects planning: A case study of Bangnamphung floating market, Samut Prakan Province, Thailand
by Adisak Suvittawatt, Napaporn Janchai
Abstract: Project cost and time overturns of tourism management have been influenced by many factors. This research identifies some specific parameters for large scale tourism project. Floating Markets are uniquely; Thai and tourists from all over the world come to experience the buzzing live on the water and shop until they drop. There have been numerous studies of farmer markets and night markets as well as destination shopping and cultural tourism. This quantitative research project focused on the tourists perceptions of the Bangnamphung Floating Market in the Samut Prakan Province just outside of Bangkok, Thailand. The research concentrated on the so-called tourism components of the floating market that the impressions of the tourists are based on and created the mental image of the floating market in questions. It includes tourist attractions, tourist activities, products sole at the market, floating market accessibilities, facilities and services as well as the participation of the local community in the floating market. All these factors scored high among the participants. The main purpose for going to the floating market was shopping for reasonable local products while supporting the local economy. The tourist attractions were of secondary nature with a focus on preserving local culture and heritage. Accessibility and parking were the key decisive factors for going to this particular market. It hopes to replicate this study at other markets. This research has significant implication for tourism development and project management practices. It contributes to enhance discussions about participatory tourism project management in the global context.
Keywords: destination tourism; floating market; project management; tourism components; tourism large scale project.
Does Cooperative Participant Strengthen Small & Medium Enterprises Competitiveness in East Java?
by Eddy Suprapto, Dwi Budi Santoso, Girindra Mega Paksi, Muhammad Kholisul Imam
Abstract: Since 2008, the numbers of cooperatives in East Java have almost doubled, which expected to increase Small & Medium Enterprise (SME) competitiveness through easier access to financial aid. Likewise, the number of SME in East Java is also increased. However, its growth rate is still lower than that of cooperatives. Therefore, this research aims to learn whether cooperatives in East Java can improve SME competitiveness by understanding the impact of cooperative participation towards SME revenues. Here, the treatment effect is conducted not only to estimate the magnitude of that impact, but also to identify the factors determining SME perceptions of entering cooperative. This research uses primary data, collected from 75 cooperative-participant SME and 75 of non-cooperative participants SME.
The result shows that SME revenues for the cooperative participant are higher than that of the non-cooperative participant, indicating the cooperative significantly contributes to increasing SME revenues. Moreover, supported by SME perception for joining cooperative, the interest of SMEs participates in cooperative mainly due to its capability in widen market shares and providing resources for SMEs production in competitive ways. From SME perspectives, cooperative should be able to strengthen SME networks in both input and output markets; thus, SME competitiveness may be increased.
Keywords: Cooperative Participation; SME Competitiveness; Treatment-Effect Model.
A Novel Change Impact Model for Enhancing Project Management
by DEEPA BURA, Amit Choudhary
Abstract: Software systems changes constantly with time. Changing the software affects all the classes associated with it. For effective project management it becomes important to predict change impact classes in earlier phases of software life cycle.This paper aims to develop a novel model using dynamic metrics and several behavioral dependencies. Using code analyzer trace events 30 different metrics are analyzed which are further used for refining the degree of change impact feature of a class. Further the model is validated using K Means clustering technique, Naive Bayes classification and Logistic Regression in WEKA tool. Validation of the model is done using open source sofware Art of Illussion (AoI).
Keywords: Change impact; Notability; Frequency; Change Prone Classes,Project Management.
Interaction between project management processes: a social network analysis
by Rodrigo F. Herrera, José Matus, Carlos Santelices, Edison Atencio
Abstract: The PMBOK
Keywords: PMBOK; PMI; Project Management; Social Network Analysis (SNA); process group; knowledge area; network metrics; node; integration; edges.
EFFECTIVE PROJECT MANAGEMENT APPROACH TO ATTAIN PROJECT SUCCESS, BASED ON COST-TIME-QUALITY
by Chaher Zid, Narimah Kasim, Ali Raza Soomro
Abstract: The project management has been described as managing resources on a given activity of an organization unit dedicated in order to meet the attainment of a goal and a successful completion of development project. Many researchers have been endeavored to develop the best practice of project management in conformance with predetermined performance specifications to avoid delays, overrun cost, quality reduction and to meet the specific requirements of stakeholders as well. This research paper reviews the literature on the project management relevant to the project success and determines these specific success criteria and the value of the iron triangle cost-time-quality to better practice for the project management. Moreover, this paper proposes that the project success can be defined in terms of the integration of the project management and success criteria Cost-Time-Quality to meet the satisfaction and the expectation of the stakeholders.
Keywords: Project Management; Success Criteria; Cost-Time-Quality; Project Success; Satisfaction of Stakeholders.
Development of Integration Risk on Integrated Management System in Order To Increase Organisational Performance of Construction Company
by Ringgy Masuin, Yusuf Latief
Abstract: Globalization makes all organisation must have a robust management system to manage their organisation. The implementation of integration management system (Quality, Health and Safety, Environment management system) begins in the manufacturing industry, then develops in the health industry and so on currently being researched for its application in the construction industry. There are various risks in the standard management system. These risks are very influential on the operational process of an organisation. The integrated risks involved in an organisations operations include quality risk, environmental risk, occupational health and safety risks, information system risks, and so on. If the risk can be recognized and managed well, will become a strategy for improving organisation performance. So, this research discusses how integrated risk can be well managed so that improving organisation performance. This research has survey method analysis by RII to know the possible dominant risk. Results that explain variable/clause to improve organisation performance must are scope of organisation and leadership.
Keywords: integration risk; integrated management sysem; organisation performance; construction company.