Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Project Organisation and Management

International Journal of Project Organisation and Management (IJPOM)

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International Journal of Project Organisation and Management (26 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • On the Performance of Projects under Uncertainty: An Agent-based Simulation Modelling   Order a copy of this article
    by Bijan Jamshid-Nejad, Samira Alvandi 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of environmental complexity on project performance by means of simulation modeling. There are few works that prepare a bottom-up, mechanism-based account of project-environment interactions. Rather, some statistical, top-down models have been developed which fall short of explaining how projects can handle uncertainties. This research is an attempt to fill this gap. The question is how environmental complexity affects project performance. The results of the model show that the complexity of environment can have positive effects on project performance. On the contrary, the results demonstrate that the internal complexity modeled as randomness in the activity times is detrimental to the project performance. To tackle environmental complexity, the model suggests that shorter memory cycles improve project performance in that projects give more priority to recent outcomes to offset effects of uncertainty. The results have been validated by empirical data from 18 infrastructure projects.
    Keywords: Project management; Agent-based simulation; Complexity; Reinforcement learning; Infrastructure projects.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPOM.2023.10046993
  • Aligning process-based knowledge management with competencies behavior: effects of ISO practices   Order a copy of this article
    by NIZAR RAISSI, Anas Hakeem 
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to present a reflection on organizational and individual employee behavior, with its multiple dimensions, before reviewing the advantages and limitations of the knowledge management and process approach alignment. These suggestions will be illustrated and supported by reflections on the particularity of behavioral changes in a particular field, that of ISO certification. Thus, we advanced a research model, making it possible to explain the articulation between the different variables of our study based on the structural equation modeling, which aims to estimate and represent causal relationships between the variables studied. The survey was established among 250 certified companies belonging to the mechanical and electrical industry sector in Tunisia. The findings indicate that companies adopting ISO practices possess a certain organizational maturity, which has enabled them to achieve system performance. As well as employee behavior defined in this case by sense of self-efficacy and the intention which are positively correlated with the process approach. A key implication is that the process approach seeking to improve the competencies behavior based on knowledge management may do well by performing organizational learning, but they can do even better by building perceptions of self-efficacy and intention.
    Keywords: ISO certification; Process approach; employee behavior; knowledge management; self-efficacy; intention.

  • Critical behavioural index for improving collaborative working in projects teams using Fuzzy Synthetic Evaluation   Order a copy of this article
    by Florence Ellis, Samuel Amos-Abanyie, Titus Ebenezer KWOFIE, Samuel Afram, Clinton Aigbavboa 
    Abstract: Understanding the typologies of critical team behaviours that can optimize collaborative working in construction project delivery is lacking in construction management literature. This study uses fuzzy synthetic evaluation from a questionnaire survey to determine the critical behavioural typologies for effective collaborative working in project teams from a behavioural index. The results showed communication behaviours as the most critical followed by proactive behaviours, boundary-spanning behaviours, ethical behaviours, leadership behaviours and managerial behaviours. Given the significance of behaviours in human functioning, the insight given by this study is expected to motivate project teams to adapt, develop and improve on these behaviours towards effective collaborative working. The findings should also be relevant in cognitive behavioural needs and development in complex interdependent teamwork and task functions in project delivery. The index can engender improved team behaviours in collaborative working that is key to behavioural management in teamwork and organizations.
    Keywords: construction project team; collaborative working; human functioning; team behaviours.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPOM.2023.10048755
  • Project Management Office (PMO) Managers Competences: Systematic Literature Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Yesica Yesica, Gregorian Jerahmeel, Mohammad Ichsan, Maharani Syahratu Kertapati, Adji Pradana, R. Brahma Aditya 
    Abstract: In the face of increasingly fierce competition, companies need to have project managers who excel and are successful in each of their projects. The PMO manager plays an essential role in the success of any ongoing project; one of the most important factors supporting the project's success is competence. Given the phenomenon in Indonesia, where projects continue to be active, and the need for PMOs continues to grow, skills development is necessary so that PMO managers can perform their duties effectively. Hence, this study has the objective to find out what competencies are required for a PMO manager. This study uses a descriptive qualitative research methodology by combining the systematic literature review (SLR) method to identify competencies for PMO managers, derived from 60 papers, and subject matter expert (SME) to classify the competencies that have been summarized and match the competencies with the PMO Manager function. This study succeeded in extracting 24 competency dimensions which were grouped into seven core competencies.
    Keywords: competence; managerial competence; PMO manager; PMO manager competence.

  • Using Scenarios for the Development of Personal Communication Competence in Project Management   Order a copy of this article
    by Elisa Tinoco, Rui M. Lima, Diana Mesquita, Mariane Souza 
    Abstract: Personal communication is one of the factors having high impact on the success of projects. This work aims studying the usefulness of the application of scenarios for development of personal communication competence. Based on literature review, and considering the professional experience of the researchers, three scenarios were developed and applied. The data collection process was carried out in two moments with 24 participants: during a 3-hour training, with observation and a questionnaire to collect the participants perspective; after the application, through a focus group and narratives. The results suggest that, according to the participants, the scenarios enhance the development of personal communication competence, but also that it may depend on a good conceptual background support, and that learners demonstrate availability and openness to this type of approach. This exploratory study presents scenarios as an innovative approach to increase the knowledge related to the development of personal communication competence in project management.
    Keywords: Scenario Based Learning; Personal Communication; Competences Development; Project Management.

  • R&D project evaluation at a university with knowledge acquisition and Knowledge Engineering   Order a copy of this article
    by Gabriella Haász, Katalin Czakó, Zoltán Baracskai 
    Abstract: Significant research on R&D project evaluation methods is feasible when we have clear data and conditions for measurement. In university projects it is unwise to use directly the reference points and practices of industrial or independent labs. As a result, the method and the model introduced in this paper are adapted to find the most informative success factors for engineering R&D projects when the non-professional project managers experience is the primary source of data. The model was developed using Knowledge Acquisition (KA) while 21 projects within the same domain were recorded in the knowledge-base by semi-structured interviews with experienced project managers during a fine-tuning process. The contribution of this paper is the logical rules and the attributes by which we can understand the project managers mindset in R&D projects of a higher education institutions. The paper includes an evaluation of the projects as a case study.
    Keywords: university laboratories; R&D projects; project evaluation; Knowledge Acquisition; Knowledge Engineering.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPOM.2023.10052211
  • Human resource allocation in engineering projects: a stepwise approach using learning curve for predicting the required man-hour   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmad Ebrahimi, Mohsen Nozohouri, Rouhollah Khakpour 
    Abstract: This paper recommends a stepwise method employing learning curves (LCs) to predict the man-hour for performing activities in engineering projects. It goes beyond existing applications of LCs and debates what specific neglected issues should be included and how they can be predicted through LCs. Focusing on man-hour prediction in engineering projects through LCs is not limited to improve the human resource allocation for performing activities, where, it has significant impacts on the improvement of different issues such as labor costs, quality of engineering services, time management in engineering projects, productivity, and competition capability in tenders. This paper identifies the best-known and widely used LCs in the literature and provides analysis in a real-life engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contracting company. Hence, the actual man-hour data for a specified engineering activity is gathered in a number of consecutive projects and analyzed to select the best fit LC for prediction.
    Keywords: Learning curves; engineering projects; log-linear model; human resources; stepwise method.

  • A Taxonomy of Software Technologies for Empowering Managing Projects   Order a copy of this article
    by Marvin Opiyo Ambala, Amir Hossein Ghapanchi 
    Abstract: This paper studies software technologies that are offered to empower project managers. A qualitative approach using hermeneutics research method is employed herein. Thematic analysis of data from several software company websites identifies 66 unique software features, categorised into 11 themes. The themes revolve around the management of schedule, communication, governance, finance, resource, risk, tender, collaboration, documents, work and workflow. The paper then draws a link between the themes and their practical application to project management. The paper also identifies opportunities to further this research in studying industry specific software technologies that would provide insights into uniquely available software technologies within those industries.
    Keywords: Software technologies; software features; software functions; project management; project manager.

  • The Effects of Project Management Certification and Project Complexity on Project Quality in Information Technology Projects: An Organizational Information Processing Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Jenifer Robertson, Gregory Stock 
    Abstract: The demand for professionally certified project managers in information technology projects has grown significantly since the mid-1980s, and managers associate certification with project manager competence. However, there is little evidence that certification is related to the project quality. We therefore focus primarily on testing whether there is a positive relationship between project management certification and project quality. We also consider how project quality is related project complexity, and we employ organizational information processing theory to examine contingent relationships between these variables. Our results from a sample of 1,444 information technology projects in an international consulting firm show that contrary to expectations, certification was significantly related to poorer project quality. Complexity, as hypothesized, was negatively related to project quality. What was more surprising was a finding that project management certification amplified the negative relationship between project complexity and project quality. We conclude with a discussion of implications for practitioners and researchers.
    Keywords: Project management; certification; complexity; project quality; organizational information processing theory.

  • Tailoring Project Management Practices for Decision Making: An In-depth Comparative Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Wiem Zaouga, Lilia Rejeb, Latifa Ben Arfa Rabai 
    Abstract: The efforts to successfully complete projects lead to the development of various Project Management (PM) standards, best practices and guidelines, issued by different organizational bodies. These PM practices, when appropriately implemented, lead to a better project performance. However, studies on how to adopt and adapt such practices according to management needs, remain limited. In this paper, we are going to focus on how to map the project requirements with the suitable PM practices to support the PM decision making. To respond this question, we put forward an in-depth comparative study amongst the well-established PM practices considering a set of features to pick out their challenges, limits as well as their applicability. Through this comparison, we extend the discussion of PM practices features by contrasting them to three distinct categories of requirements which are technical, contextual and behavioural. This analysis allows us to map each category to its corresponding practice(s). Our finding provides comprehensive recommendation guidelines to both practitioners and researchers in order to improve their decision making in line with the project environment.
    Keywords: Project Management; PM Best Practices; PM Standard; PM Guideline; Recommandation guidelines.

  • Elements of client capabilities in integrated projects   Order a copy of this article
    by Laura Saukko, Kirsi Aaltonen, Harri Haapasalo 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to elaborate the elements of client capabilities in integrated project deliveries. In particular, the interest is to identify the capabilities through which the client facilitates achieving integration among project partners during the course of the project. A qualitative research method is applied, and data analysis is based on inductive reasoning. The empirical context is industrial engineering projects conducted in a Nordic country. This study presents a framework of the elements of a clients capabilities in complex industrial engineering projects. The framework elaborated in the study summarizes 10 elements of client capabilities. In addition, five implications of client capabilities in facilitating the achievement of integration are discussed. The elements presented are ones that project practitioners from the client organization must pay attention to in orchestrating integrated project deliveries. This study enhances the understanding of client capabilities in organizing industrial engineering projects.
    Keywords: Client capability; project capability; relational project delivery; integration; interorganizational project; project network.

  • An integrated framework for diversified project portfolio selection   Order a copy of this article
    by Ghizlane EL BOK, Abdelaziz Berrado 
    Abstract: This paper presents an integrated category-based Project Portfolio Selection (PPS) framework for multi-project organizations. The purpose of this study is to help mitigate the gap outlined in the PPS literature, with regards the lack of integrated frameworks which recognize different project categories in the PPS approach. We review the literature of existing PPS methods and develop guidelines for using them in a comprehensive approach. Considering the objectives of an effective PPS framework revealed from the literature, we propose an integrated category-based PPS framework and structure it into distinct stages. Some relevant and well-founded techniques are integrated into our framework according to project categories at hand and Decision Makers preferences. Our approach helps build a well-balanced project portfolio, maximize the portfolio value and preserve its consistency with strategic priorities throughout the PPS process. A case study is conducted in the automotive industry to analyze the feasibility and usefulness of our model.
    Keywords: Project portfolio management; project portfolio selection; integrated framework; project categorization.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPOM.2023.10051353
  • Eliciting and Exploring Large-Scale Group Preferences to Gain Insight into Group Representation and Convergence   Order a copy of this article
    by Kristin Weger, Sheri Leder, Bryan Mesmer 
    Abstract: In real-world heterogeneous large-scale group decision-making (LSGDM) problems, reaching a consensus that is supported by all or almost all decision makers (DMs) is crucial. Preferences are important to inform decision-making and aid in projecting decision outcomes when stakeholders are prioritizing project activities. This study employed a survey research method to elicit and explore preferences in LSGDM. The researchers used thematic analysis to name and categorize patterns of preference themes across open-ended survey data. Preferences on the individual level were then aggregated with the Majority-based Strategy to statistically evaluate the specific priorities of the stakeholder groups. With the use of mixed methods, preferences amongst stakeholder groups could be explored. Consensus towards the most visible project concepts and activities as well as diverging preferences on factors such as technical risks and project cost were found. We discuss the importance of preference elicitation and exploration in large-scale projects to inform LSGDM.
    Keywords: Preferences; large-scale projects; large-scale group decision-making; consensus; exploration and elicitation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPOM.2023.10056537
  • Ongoing performance, resource slack and risk perceptions in projects   Order a copy of this article
    by Helene Delerue, Helene Sicotte 
    Abstract: A project may be conceived as a coalition of absorbed and unabsorbed resources that are allocated by the organization. As such, a project may be subject to constraints in terms of certain resources combined with excesses (i.e., resource slack) in terms of others. This paper builds on the behavioral theory and the prospect theory to understand the role of resource slack in projects by exploring (1) how distinct bundles of absorbed and unabsorbed slack influence project managers risk perceptions; and (2) how the impact of slack on risk perceptions differs according to ongoing project performance. Hypotheses are tested by regression analysis in a sample of 106 project managers. The results show complex effects of project slack on project managers risk perceptions.
    Keywords: Ongoing performance; Absorbed resource slack; Unabsorbed resource slack; Risk perception.

  • The Importance of Auditing as a Success Factor for Oil and Gas Joint Venture Projects   Order a copy of this article
    by Delanyo Quayson, Yakubu Olawale 
    Abstract: Joint venture (JV) projects stakeholders rely on auditing at various stages to provide assurance on the performance of projects (Oakes 2008). However, there is limited research on the importance of auditing to the success of these JVs. This study explored the key roles of auditing in oil and gas JV projects, the stages of the JV lifecycle where auditing is important and their relative importance, the impact of auditing on JV projects and the challenges of auditing JV projects. The study found among others that auditing is not just important but also a critical success factor to Oil and Gas JV projects.
    Keywords: Project auditing; joint venture projects; project success; project success factors; oil and gas.

  • Does Temporal Distance (Still) Affect the Performance of Virtual Teams?   Order a copy of this article
    by Idan Roth, Dov Te'eni 
    Abstract: Many were optimistic that virtual collaboration in distributed projects would eliminate distance and, furthermore, enable work around the clock to achieve high performance. We ask whether this optimism has held up over the past two decades, in the face of changes in technology and changes in the workplace. Using an adjusted measure of temporal distance (ATD), the paper models the perceived decision quality in a project as a function of ATD, mediated by communication richness and moderated by project analyzability. The model was tested in 2009 and again in 2019 with a combined quantitative and qualitative field study. The results suggest that the relationship between ATD and perceived decision quality is non-linear and is mediated by communication richness. In 2019, projects engaged in significantly richer communication compared with 2009, yet temporal distance still made a difference. The results did not show an interaction effect between communication richness and project analyzability. We argue that despite substantial IT progress, temporal distance is not dead and should be managed.
    Keywords: virtual teams; communication richness; CMC; project analyzability; project management; perceived decision quality; time zone; temporal distance; adjusted temporal distance (ATD).

  • The supporting role of the project management office in the transfer of knowledge between projects   Order a copy of this article
    by Brighton Tshuma, Corro Van Waveren, Herman Steyn 
    Abstract: Project management offices (PMOs) play both mediating (facilitating) and moderating (supporting) roles in knowledge transfer (KT) between projects. The mediating role of the PMO has been addressed elsewhere while this article investigates the supporting role of the PMO in the transfer of tacit and explicit knowledge. The article thus contributes to the scant literature on the supporting role of PMOs in KT. Cases of five PMOs were investigated through 15 semi-structured interviews and three KT enablers were identified namely: a) creation of awareness and importance of KT; b) establishment of trust amongst project personnel; c) creation of an organisational KT culture. Their embedment into organisational routines ensures a sustainable and seamless KT process through the PMO’s supporting role. This improves the transfer of knowledge with different levels of articulability and the usability of the transferred knowledge and can provide a competitive edge for PBOs.
    Keywords: knowledge articulability; knowledge management; knowledge transfer; knowledge usability; supporting role of the project management office; case study research; PMOs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPOM.2024.10053181
  • Assessing Project Management Maturity in Sweden
    by Gunnar Dahlin, Olof Molinder, Raine Isaksson 
    Abstract: Baseline Management has since 2013 conducted project management maturity (PMM) measurements in Sweden using a model called the Swedish project index (SPI) which consists of seven perspectives. SPI is influenced by the P3M3 maturity model. This study is based on data from 3,953 individual questionnaires, including both private and public organisations, for the period 2013
    Keywords: maturity model; performance measurement; project management; PM; project management maturity; PMM; project management performance; project success.

  • Analysing the stakeholder networks in collaborative project using network theory: Implications for coordination and control   Order a copy of this article
    by Farooq Ali, Harri Jouni Olavi Haapasalo 
    Abstract: Our article aims to investigate network relationships from the perspective of a network of stakeholders involved in a complex and dynamic environment. We adopt the social network analysis approach to explore the structural characteristics of different types of networks and their implications in terms of the coordination and control of project stakeholders. A large hospital construction project in northern Finland was analysed in terms of structural characteristics, associated complexities, and the dynamics of different types (contractual, supply, information) of network relationships. We adopted the mixed methods approach by complementing quantitative research with qualitative research methods. Our findings show how different types of networks in projects influence the coordination and control of project stakeholders. Project management needs to intentionally consider managerial actions along the networks in question. Our study relates different theoretical perspectives to the networks of project stakeholders and their relationships, which constitute our main contribution.
    Keywords: stakeholder networks; collaborative project; network theory; network relationships; construction project; social network analysis; SNA; coordination; control; mixed methods approach.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPOM.2024.10053620
  • COVID-19 - Project success through a global pandemic, what changed for Project Managers?   Order a copy of this article
    by Jacob A. Darlison, James Prater 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the global economy in unprecedented ways since early 2020; a catalyst for changes across every sphere of business and workplace, project management included. This research, via a series of interviews, demonstrates how systemic responses such as localisation, stakeholder assurance, over-ordering and shortened re-sequencing horizons were most effective at alleviating symptomatic issues including supply chain disruption, schedule delay, an altered stakeholder environment, and contractor liquidity.
    Keywords: Covid-19; project management; project success; supply chain; adaptation; lessons learned; construction management; lockdown; social restrictions; globalisation; virtual teams.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPOM.2024.10054858
  • Evaluating and prioritizing decision-making factors in construction project management to select the best constructor   Order a copy of this article
    by Hamed Gheibdoust, Shahram Gilaninia, Mohammad Taleghani 
    Abstract: This study aims to evaluate and prioritise the decision-making factors in construction project management to select the best constructor. The step-by-step weight ratio analysis (SWARA) method was used to prioritise the decision-making factors of construction project management to select the best contractors in Rasht City Municipality, Iran. Ten experts participated in this research to make decisions with the SWARA, and data were collected in 2022. Results show that the most significant sub-criteria among 28 sub-criteria of decision making in construction project management is the experience of the manager, and the least sub-criteria is resource planning. The present study helps construction managers to enhance their knowledge and have the best performance to choose the best contractor for construction projects and improve their weaknesses by influencing factors. Also, managers can significantly enhance the success of construction projects by focusing on the most significant decision-making factors.
    Keywords: construction; construction management; construction projects; decision-making; contractor; management project; construction project management; step-wise weight assessment ratio analysis; SWARA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPOM.2024.10055026
  • Successful stakeholder engagement in not-for-profit projects: A systematic literature review   Order a copy of this article
    by Stephanie Lim, Samer Skaik 
    Abstract: This study explores available literature on successful stakeholder engagement (SE) in not-for-profit (NFP) projects and identifies evidence-based factors that can help achieve successful SE. Using a systematic literature review, a total of 34 records, published in the last decade, were identified and analysed. Common themes that emerged include the role of social media, role of public relations, significance of frameworks and barriers encountered. The study also identified key factors for SE, with supportive and skilled management being the most visible factor. Findings of this study can assist researchers understand gaps in this area, and NFP project practitioners for successful SE.
    Keywords: not-for-profit; NFP; project management; stakeholder engagement; success factors.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPOM.2024.10055028
  • Should one nominate an internal or external project manager?   Order a copy of this article
    by Baruch Keren, Yossi Hadad 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to examine the differences in performance between internal and external PMs and to identify the advantages and disadvantages of each employment type. An organisation that employs project managers (PMs) must consider which is better: an internal or an external PM. Internal PMs are usually employed with a monthly salary, while external PMs get a retainer or a percent of the project budget. The paper used a multi-criteria decision analysis model, (the super efficiency ranking method), that objectively compares the performance of PMs according to their past performance. The model was applied in a case study with 150 projects managed by 57 internal and external PMs, all executed during 201882021 in one water infrastructure company in Israel. The results show that the average performance of internal PMs is statistically significantly higher than external PMs.
    Keywords: project organisation; external project manager; PM; internal PM; multi-criteria decision analysis; MCDA; super efficiency; SE.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPOM.2024.10055909
  • Hybrid Project Management Models: A Systematic Literature Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Miroslav Krupa, Jiří Hájek 
    Abstract: Hybrid project management (HPM) combines traditional and agile methods, fusing predictive and adaptive approaches. There is only fragmented knowledge about the appropriateness of the hybrid approach and the differences between existing HPM models. To deepen and expand an understanding of HPM, our systematic literature review analysed the advantages, disadvantages, drivers, and barriers of HPM, synthesised the results, and proposed five themes (methodology, project, team, customer and organisation) based on 4,623 abstracts and 72 full papers. The main original output of our review is a comprehensive overview of HPM models described so far in the scientific literature featuring 22 different hybrid models including the identification of their design patterns and nine additional metamodels. The critical challenges for future research are better methodological support of HPM, evaluation of the success of the hybrid approach, and further empirical research to broaden insights into the usage of HPM.
    Keywords: hybrid project management; HPM; methods; project management approaches; models; change management; systematic review.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPOM.2024.10056237
  • A Framework for Drivers of Stakeholder Mis-Management in Construction Projects   Order a copy of this article
    by Lahiru Kushan Gunawardena, Amir Hossein Ghapanchi 
    Abstract: This paper discusses stakeholder mismanagement in construction projects and identifies the factors that lead to it. This empirical study adopts a secondary data analysis method. Six main themes were identified for stakeholder mismanagement, namely: poor communication and stakeholder relationships, unethical practices and corruption, lack of skills and experience, regulatory issues and complexity, poor organisational and project practices, and inadequate implementation of project management processes. The qualitative analysis undertaken shows that unethical practices and corruption play a significant role in stakeholder mismanagement, and they have ripple effects on many aspects within projects. The drivers found herein will allow practitioners to identify stakeholder mismanagement early in the project and maintain project integrity.
    Keywords: project management; stakeholder management; construction project; stakeholder mismanagement.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPOM.2024.10056278
  • Strategies to Improve Communication Among Multicultural Teams involved in Construction Projects   Order a copy of this article
    by Jessica Justin Sundeep, Amir Hossein Ghapanchi 
    Abstract: The globalised construction environment necessitates the formation of multicultural teams (MCTs), with significant levels of collaboration. Although literature recognises the importance of communication strategies, it does not explicitly provide a structured taxonomy of strategies for improving communication in construction projects with multicultural teams. Therefore, this research explores the question What are the possible strategies to improve communication in multicultural teams involved in construction projects? Herein, a qualitative research approach was used to sift through data from ten case studies in the construction sector. The findings led to the development of a framework that may be used to enhance engagement and control conflicts. The approaches covered the necessity of a global communication mindset, the significance of localisation, and the use of adaptive, intercultural, and Interactive communication strategies. There are suggestions for specific practitioners for interpersonal communication and cultural sensitivity.
    Keywords: multicultural teams; construction projects; communication; strategies; local culture; cultural sensitivity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPOM.2024.10056790