International Journal of Project Organisation and Management (32 papers in press)
Adopting an Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) collaboration framework: A case study of the Wastewater Treatment Plant project in Vietnam
by Marina L. Viana, Bonaventura H. W. Hadikusumo, Ehsan Saghatforoush, Thais Sartori, Zahra Kahvandi
Abstract: Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) is introduced as a new delivery system that aims to transform and enhance the current delivery systems. For such accomplishment, the IPD integrates people, systems, and business into integrated platform delivering accurate information and new technologies in a collaborative team environment. In this sense, the current research reviews the IPD principles, benefits, and challenges, and creates a proposed framework that applies a percentage ratio with mathematical weight calculation to classify and identify the IPD collaboration level present in a construction project. For the data validation, a case study is performed, where the information of the WWWTP project is inserted into the proposed framework. The results illustrate that the case study scores a total sum of 30% of IPD collaboration present in the project, where is classified as having a low IPD collaboration level. The significance of this study is that it helps project stakeholders in the construction industry to understand the important factors that lead to IPD adoption and develop the principles of IPD. The current study creates an updated and simple approach framework aiming to support the professional area as well as allowing a solid basis for future research.
Keywords: Keywords: Integrated project delivery; collaboration; framework; classification.
Project portfolio management practices a theoretical base and practitioner guidelines
by Martin Butler
Abstract: The collective practices associated with project portfolio management (PPM) are described with different levels of detail in the academic literature. This study provided a consolidated set of PPM practices synthesized from existing PPM literature. A systematic review was followed by a thematic analysis to extract practice domains. The nine practice domains identified are presented together with the management roles associated with portfolio management that can be studied as antecedents of PPM effectiveness. The findings propose a comprehensive list of PPM practice domains, supported by tasks that define the domains as a guideline for practitioners and for future research.
Keywords: project portfolio management; systematic literature review; strategic project alignment; project management practices.
Absorptive Capacity in Information Technology Projects: A Multiple Case Study in the Telecommunication Industry
by Nadia Pedrosa, Luciana Montoni, Cristina Martens, Luciano Silva, Julio Cunha
Abstract: The aim of the present study is to introduce Absorptive Capacity (ACAP) using in projects developed by Information Technology (IT) departments in four telecommunication firms - hereinafter called Telecom(s) - in Brazil. Data collection was based on interviews. Data analysis was performed in Atlas.ti software by following a three-level encoding stream, namely: open, axial and selective. According to the results, up-to-date Telecoms that follow a more agile project-management methodology are often successful in using ACAP; consequently, they account for shorter time-to-market. The current empirical study on ACAP in project environments was a contribution to the literature, given the scarcity of studies in this field. It also provided a list with five propositions to encourage further research about this topic.
Keywords: Absorptive capacity; Project Management; Telecommunication companies (Telecom); Information Technology; Innovation; Knowledge management.
Adopting Scrum Methodology in the Project of Organizing a Concert
by Ewa Marchwicka, Paulina Tusz, Jan Betta
Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to analyze the possibilities of using the Scrum to manage the organization of a concert. Firstly, the authors show the concert organization process, which is currently used in the selected research object The National Forum of Music in Poland. Then the research that was based on interviews is presented. The main result of the research is a proposal to manage the organization of concerts using Scrum methodology. The authors state that the Scrum methodology may prove to be an effective tool in managing projects of music institutions. The presented proposal requires a deeper empirical verification, but it is undoubtedly an important step towards the application of Scrum in the music industry.
Keywords: Agile project management; Scrum methodology; art project; sprint.
Innovative Governance Strategy to Enhance the Performance and the Efficiency of IT Project Management Activities
by Akbota Akzambekkyzy, Mohamed Ahmed Hamada
Abstract: Information technology (IT) projects have many challenges, risks, and difficulties with a high probability of failure. IT projects failure rate appears to linger around 65% for significant projects. A large amount of research investigated IT project failures and listed an enormous number of project failure reasons, despite these IT projects still have considerably high failure cases. This research aims to develop a new framework based on governance strategy purposed to decrease the probability of IT projects' failures and achieve high performance in doing project management activities by tackling the deficiencies of traditional project management methods, this strategy is focusing on Governance the most critical activities in project management such as project scope, project plan, project cost estimation, project risk management, and project integration management. Also, this research provides the application methodology of the practical and technical aspects of governance supported by evaluating the framework's reliability and efficiency through conducting a practical questionnaire.
Keywords: Project Governance; project activities management; requirement gathering; governance framework; project failure; Quality Function Deployment; project success.
A Conceptual Model for Portraying the Impact of Institutional Elements on Performance of Construction Megaprojects
by Mohammadreza Hajialikhani, Mojtaba Azizi, Mohammad Hossein Sobhyah, Mahdi Mortazavi
Abstract: This study aimed to develop, and present a model to portray a mechanism on how institutional elements would impact on performance of construction megaprojects. To this end, 19 in-depth interviews were conducted with managers and senior engineers with more than 15 years of experience in megaprojects in the field of gas, oil, petrochemical plants, dams and urban tunnels. The data was analyzed using the Glaserian approach of the grounded theory. The results showed how institutional elements created problems during the implementation of megaprojects, how megaproject actors reacted to these problems, and what the final impact of problems and reactions was on the performance of megaprojects.
Keywords: Megaprojects; Construction; Institution; Institutional Impacts; Institutional Elements; Performance.
Managing Small Projects in Large Healthcare Organizations
by Muriel Mignerat, François Durand, Monika Jasinska
Abstract: Healthcare is continuously changing through the means of project work. To our knowledge, no specific project management guidelines exist for small projects in healthcare contexts, conducted by healthcare professionals, who typically lack appropriate project management knowledge and skills. This study examines successful project management practices in small projects in two Canadian hospital settings. A list of 43 project management practices deemed important by the majority of participants is proposed that could serve as basic guidelines for managing small projects in hospitals. Findings also shed light on the value of adapting principles of project management to these settings.
Keywords: project management; healthcare management; practice; qualitative research; small projects; large healthcare organizations; healthcare projects.
Performance Evaluation of Team Dynamics and Team Effectiveness in Projects Using CRITIC Approach
by Sunitha Kumaran
Abstract: The project teams embedded in the organization system are the key driver of a projects success. The extent of the collaborative effort and efficiency of the team relates to the projects success or failure. As project teams face an increasingly complex set of challenges, attention has been paid to the influence of team dynamics and team effectiveness. In their quest to develop high-performance teams, project managers must focus on the team processes and their determinants in order to lay the foundation of a well-directed, collaborative, supportive and shared mindset among the people. This study examines the key domains of project team dynamics and team effectiveness, assigns domain weights and constructs an overall performance index of projects using the CRITIC method. The study has successfully identified the crucial team process factors that team leaders should focus on and has paved a way to construct multi-criterion weightage-based evaluation of projects performance.
Keywords: Project Management; Team dynamics; Team effectiveness; Project team performance evaluation; MCDM; CRITIC.
Combining the best concepts of agile methods with concepts from predictive ones: applications of simulations, scenarios, and logic
by Pinyarat Sirisomboonsuk, James Burns, Ray Cao
Abstract: In this paper, we utilize deductive analytics based on a review of the literature as well as stochastic simulation, and scenarios to perform a comparison between predictive methods like waterfall and adaptive methods such as scrum. We compare these methods using several project management performance criteria such as cost, duration, value delivered, payback (breakeven) period, predictability, project size, criticality, complexity, challenges, etc. Based on these findings, we synthesize a new plan-driven, predictive procedure that will enable it to be competitive with the adaptive/agile methods in situations where it makes sense to use a predictive method.
Keywords: agile method; agile project management; adaptive method; predictive procedure; waterfall method; scrum; breakeven point.
The core functions of project management in an emerging economy: A new measurement scale
by Claudia Inés Sepúlveda-Rivillas, Joaquín Alegre Vidal, Víctor Oltra
Abstract: The development of measurement scales in the field of project management is based mainly on evidence from developed countries using a function-specific approach. Project management in emerging countries is less understood. This paper presents an instrument of measurement for the core functions of project management using a function-general perspective in the context of an emerging economy (Colombia). It incorporates a cross-sectional study using a psychometric approach and confirmatory factor analysis. An online questionnaire is applied to 257 project managers/directors of organizations in Colombia (one per company). The core functions are identified as management of project stakeholders (a second-order factor consisting of effective management of project team, and management of interaction with stakeholders), and project risk management. The scale (11 items) satisfies the criteria of goodness of fit, reliability, and validity, and it is useful for reducing the overall length of previous conceptual proposals. The proposed scale is parsimonious, plausible, reliable, and valid, and could be used for company diagnostics and future quantitative studies in the field of project management. The present study contributes to the literature by clarifying the dimensions, structure, items, and implications of the core functions of project management from a function-generic perspective in emerging economies.
Keywords: Project management; Core functions; Questionnaire; Project management scale; Psychometric analysis; Confirmatory factor analysis; Emerging countries.
Paradigmatic Change of Dissertation Research Pattern: A Qualitative Assessment of Project Management Education
by Mehrdad Sarhadi, Seyed Hosein Hoseini
Abstract: According to previous studies, reflecting the learners experiences, and expectations are not well-addressed in the current literature of project management (PM) education (pedagogy and andragogy). The present study aims to clarify some new aspects of PM dissertation research from the perspective of Ph.D. students. Therefore, an abductive qualitative approach was adopted by applying the case study research method. Confronting theory with the empirical world through two concepts of research methodology and research governance, led to the identification of four major research patterns, two of which arise from the theory including modern and participation (late modern) patterns, while the other two arise from the practice including two distinctive forms of the transitional pattern from modernism to participation, which are directed by drivers and inhibitors, under the two competing discourses. Research findings present new insights on paradigmatic changes of PM academic education in Iran, as well as a qualitative framework for the assessment of PM graduate programs.
Keywords: Paradigm Change; Discourse; Research Methodology; Research Governance; Ph.D. Dissertation; Project Management Education.
Optimizing resource-constrained project probabilistic scheduling problem through a combination of simulation and meta-heuristic algorithm (Case study: Govah Sanat Company)
by Maryam Ghasemifard, Shahab Amelian
Abstract: A project scheduling problem can be identified as scheduling a set of activities and allocating different resources to these activities in a way that optimizes the problem criteria. Each activity consumes a certain amount of required resources and the total resources consumed should not exceed the capacity of available resources. Other problem constraints, including prerequisite relations, need to be taken into account as well. Scheduling determines the allocation of resources to activities and start time of these activities. Applying appropriate scheduling techniques and methods is one of the success factors of a project. The objective in resource-constrained project scheduling problem is the allocation of resources or a set of resources with limited capacity to project activities considering prerequisite relations in order to optimize predetermined goals. In this study, a resource-constrained project scheduling problem has been investigated in the case where times of the activities are probabilistic and a combination of Monte Carlo simulation method and meta-heuristic algorithms has been used to analyze this problem. Finally, an optimal scheduling has been presented to minimize project completion time. In this study, a real sample consisting of 17 activities has been used considering prerequisite relations, with manpower and machinery as its resources. This problem has been explored through Montecarlo-PSO (particle swarm optimization) and Montecarlo-SA (simulated annealing) methods, and the results have shown that the Montecarlo-PSO method converges faster to the optimal solution.
Keywords: project management; optimization; meta-heuristic algorithms; probabilistic scheduling; Monte Carlo simulation.
Analysis of risk as opportunity in the management of software projects: a study of brazilian companies
by Karollay Giuliani Oliveira Valério, Carlos Eduardo Sanches Da Silva, Sandra Miranda Neves
Abstract: Abstract: Context: Risk management is linked to the continuity of the company's business and directly influences the organizations' strategy. Risks can be addressed as threats and/or opportunities. Objective: The purpose of this article is to identify how risks as opportunities, their strategies and approaches are used in the reality of software development companies. Method: The bibliographic research has identified that there is little research on the subject, these are limited to superficial approaches. Risk strategies were identified in the literature as opportunities that were summarized in a questionnaire and later submitted through a survey of exploratory characteristics. It was analyzed how the 92 Brazilian software development companies certified by CMMI-SEI approach risk strategies as opportunities in their projects. Results: The results show that risk-as-opportunities approaches have a strong correlation between the variables: increased project efficiency and proactive action throughout the chain, associated with the sale and after-sales of the product and product differentiation in the market. Through research it is possible to identify risk strategies as opportunity, they are: use of worksheet; benchmarking; variable salary; empowerment; and formalization of accountability. Conclusion: Among the opportunities-seeking approaches, open innovation and the use of the internet and/or technologies were evidenced. Finally, the hypothesis was accepted that the managers and developers of the evaluated software companies do not use risk as opportunity strategies in the management of their projects.
Keywords: Keywords: Project management; risk management; risks as opportunity; CMMI certified companies; software projects.
Leading Factors and Root Causes of Delay and Cost Overrun of IT and Construction Projects in the Retail Industry in Chile
by Nicolás Munizaga, Yakubu Olawale
Abstract: Despite project management practice and training gaining popularity in organisations, many projects continue to suffer delay and cost overrun. Literature has focused mainly on identifying factors causing delay and cost overrun with limited focus on the root cause of these factors. Additionally, the focus of many of these studies have been in relation to construction projects or information technology/systems (IT/IS) projects individually. This study aims to fill this gap by identifying the root causes of delay and cost overrun of construction and IT/IS projects in the retail industry of Chile. It was found that the root causes of delay and cost overrun were actually internal organisational factors and not internal project factors as it may initially appear. Therefore, this study recommends the correct application of the lessons learned approach to identify and establish countermeasures that reduce the impact of these factors in order to improve the performance of projects.
Keywords: delay; cost overrun; retail projects; IT projects; construction projects; Chile; five whys; root causes.
Personality traits of the Project Strategist in different Project Types
by Shima Nikkhou, Mahmood Golabchi
Abstract: Many strategic planning tools have been developed based on the experts judgment, which illustrates the importance of the strategic planning team members viewpoint and opinion about finalizing a strategy. Thus, choosing the right people in the strategic development Committee is a significant challenge in strategy formulation. Considering the impact of this choice on the quality of the strategy formulation process, this research provides a guidance to select the members of this team in the projects environment. The purpose of this paper is to identify and explain the behavioral characteristics of the proper project strategist for any type of projects.rnBy developing a framework for categorizing various types of projects and applying psychological theories about personality types and adapting them together, this paper introduces the personality traits of the project strategist in terms of the eight personality types including 1) organizational mediator strategist, 2) mediator technologist strategist, 3) politician technologist strategist, 4) showman strategist 5) quick decision-maker strategist, 6) opinionated technologist strategist, 7) Inspiring genius strategist and 8) politician bureaucratic strategist.rn
Keywords: project types; project management; project strategy; project strategist personality traits.
Interfirm relationship development in project-based organisations: results of an empirical study
by Janusz Lichtarski
Abstract: This paper aims to identify the specificity and developmental patterns of interfirm relationships between project-based companies. The study follows a case study research design preceded by a systematic literature review on inter-firm relationship development and life-cycle. The study demonstrates the uniqueness of inter-firm relationships among project-based companies, different patterns of relationship development, and characteristic processes and behaviour along the relationship life-cycle. Describing different behaviours and patterns of inter-firm relationship development, the study explains and outlines the basics for predicting the evolution of inter-firm cooperation between project-based organisations. The study contributes to the relationship development literature by reviewing existing relationship life-cycle models through the project lens, and provides a new research perspective focused on project-based companies.
Keywords: relationship development; relationship life-cycle model; project-based organisations; qualitative study.
A Multi-Purpose Model for Optimizing Project Selection and Activities Scheduling by Balancing Resource Allocation
by Behnaz Keynezhad, Ali Goharshenasan
Abstract: This research aims to analyze and solve the problems of project portfolio selection and project scheduling simultaneously based on the resource constraints and specific modeling parameters. The first objective function is to maximize the current value of a particular profit (income) and the second function is leveling the resources. Therefore, a model was presented based on linear programming that had the capacity of expressing different possible situations in this problem. Small problems were solved by the Epsilon constraint method in GAMS whose results are accurate in small scale, and then two platform-independent meta-algorithms were used to check the quality of the proposed answers. Of course, these results show that NSGA-II is more accurate than MOPSO. Big-scale problems were solved by using two platform-independent meta-algorithms in MATLAB software. By testing the results, the quality of the solutions in the two objective functions and the low-level solving time of NSGA- II algorithm was compared with the MOPSO algorithm which had better performance than NSGS-II algorithm. Regarding the C-index, the NSGA-II method provided better answers than the MOPSO method. Also, in the dispersion index, the uniform Pareto border was obtained based on the results of the MOPSO method.
Keywords: Project Portfolio Selection; Scheduling Project; Net Present Value; MOPOS; NSGA-II.
Technical Evaluation of Contractor in Public Tendering- A Comparative Narrative of Stakeholders
by Ali Raza Khoso, Aminah Md Yusof, Nur Izie Adiana Binti Abidin, Nafees Ahmed Memon
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the extensive evaluation criteria for technically evaluating contractors in public tendering in Pakistan. The research aim is achieved by gathering an individual view-point of major stakeholders involved in a project, i.e., 3Cs (Client, Consultants, and Contractors). One-way ANOVA and Tukeys test is conducted to investigate the divergence of perception among stakeholders. The study investigated and identified 76 criteria that are prominent for evaluating contractors. The research concludes that extensive evaluation of contractors is immensely valuable for public sector projects where all the stakeholders agreed on the majority of evaluation criteria. The detailed examination found that five evaluation criteria are contradictory according to the individual view-point of 3Cs, i.e., similar nature and complexity projects in hand, enlistment record with government and other agencies, equipment plan for each major task, detail plan of time cost differences with the previous design, and HSE records. This study has multiple implications for public sector stakeholders. The clients and consultants could redesign their evaluation system based on extensive evaluation criteria, whereas the study offers to policymakers and government agencies to restructure the evaluation phase of public tendering. Identification of such extensive evaluation criteria can be a game-changer for the precise evaluation of contractors for medium-sized and mega projects.
Keywords: Contractor; evaluation criteria; stakeholders; construction; performance; public tendering.
Delay Analysis Methods and Statements in Construction Projects
by Abanoub Wasfy, Ayman Nassar
Abstract: Construction projects are usually suffering from the risk of delayed completion. Delay analysis is utilized to evaluate and apportion delays and thus liabilities can be assigned. This research introduces the available delay analysis methods along with their capabilities and limitations. Also, the research provides a guide for selecting the appropriate delay analysis method. Still, some problematic issues may influence schedule delays analysis, revealing that there exists a gap in handling such analysis. Hence, a questionnaire is designed, which intends to propose the idea of standardizing the project decisions when facing such issues. After collecting the 394 participants responses, the contractor should reject to accelerate the work progress until gaining the compensation entitlement as a result of employer-caused delays. Also, the results illustrate the contractors entitlements and project decisions when facing such problematic concerns. Different from previous papers, the findings of this paper propose a standard way of thinking towards these problematic issues.
Keywords: Forensic delay analysis; Schedule delays; Apportioning liabilities; Entitlements; Float Ownership; Decision-making.
Knowledge Creation Cycle Impact Project Success: Work Experience and Position as Moderator Variables
by Farzaneh Yousefi, Ehsan Momeni, Elham Jahanian
Abstract: Background: Nowadays, paying attention to the current knowledge and information in the organization has an important role in strategic planning, so that one of the main problems of organizations has always been the lack of adequate consideration about employees knowledge and information. So, it can be said that the knowledge, information and optimizing them is a critical factor in todays challenges of organizations. In this regard, the importance of this factor in project-oriented firms in terms of project success can be a debatable subject. This article aimed to respond to this debate that how project success can be influenced by the knowledge creation process.
Method: This quantitative study was conducted based on the questionnaire, which was confirmed through face validity and constructs validity. 234 managers and employees from the National Iranian Copper Industries Company as a project-oriented organization, participated in this study.
Results: Analyzing data depicted that there was a positive relationship between the knowledge creation processes (.697) and project success. And also, this positive relationship was proved between all the processes (Socialization, Manifestation, Combination, Internalization) and project success. It is worth mentioning that among two moderator variables of work experience and job position, work experience has a moderator effect on the hypothesis.
Conclusion: By implementing the knowledge creation cycle, in the way of paying attention to the current knowledge and information, project-based organizations can enhance the success of projects. And also, the employees with below than 5 years of work experience believe that each phase of the knowledge creation cycle can significantly and strongly impact project success.
Keywords: Keywords: Project Management; Project Success; Knowledge Management; Nonaka and Takeuchi's Knowledge Management Model; Belout Success Factors.
Project knowledge sharing mechanisms:an exploratory analysis
by Sylva Žáková Talpová, Petr Smutný, Jakub Procházka
Abstract: Knowledge is a key asset of companies; therefore knowledge sharing is vitally important. Knowledge sharing is no less important for project-oriented organizations: project team members often come from different departments and knowledge sharing enables them to work more efficiently. Although there is no doubt about the importance of knowledge sharing mechanisms (KSMs) and a number of tools and techniques for project knowledge sharing are available, to the best of our knowledge there is little information on the real use of such tools and factors affecting them. Therefore, the main goal of this paper is to empirically examine KSMs in projects, and through the exploratory analysis, to identify possible factors associated with KSMs as well as to outline the key areas where future research might help to improve knowledge sharing in projects. The results of this study shall contribute to better understanding knowledge sharing mechanisms and their functioning in project-oriented companies.
Keywords: project knowledge; knowledge sharing mechanisms; project management; knowledge management; project manager; exploratory study; knowledge sharing.
A Complexity Scoring Model for Evaluating Complexity of Software Projects
by Vyron Damasiotis, Panos Fitsilis
Abstract: This research identifies project factors that contribute to project complexity based on the analysis of ten project management subject areas (e.g. scope management, time management), and of one subject area which is focusing on software development process (SDP) factors. Subsequently, a project complexity model based on these factors that can be used for assessing the project complexity is presented. This enables organisations to evaluate projects complexity at early phases, providing important knowledge that may be used for project selection. The followed approach acknowledges the endogenous character of complexity in projects but instead of trying to identify complexity characteristics in project results, it focuses on the complexity of project management processes. The proposed framework can be used for highlighting the most significant complexity areas at each organization or at the project level acting as an important tool for better, more efficient, and more effective project management. The final step of this research is the validation of the proposed model using case studies.
Keywords: Project management; Project Complexity; Software project complexity; Complexity measurement; Software development complexity; management complexity.
MODERATION EFFECT OF FLEXIBILITY IN PROJECTS ON SENIOR MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT IN ACHIEVING SUCCESS IN FINANCIAL SERVICES IT PROJECTS
by Pankaj Tiwari, Suresha B
Abstract: Senior management commitment and flexibility improve project responsiveness to volatile and high-impact scenarios, especially in large projects and programs. The aim of this study is to determine how project flexibility interacts with and affects the relationship between senior management commitment and success in IT projects. A cross-sectional survey of 166 managers was used to derive empirical data from the financial services industry and used to test the conceptual framework based on recent project management literature. Ordinal regression analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between senior management commitment and success in projects which is influenced by significantly positive moderations established through flexibility in projects. The study findings can assist project managers and senior leaders to accomplish their short-term and long-term project goals and achieve success in projects by reducing the chances of failures. This paper adds value to existing research in the context of IT projects and the role of project flexibility on their performance.
Keywords: senior management commitment; project performance; business success; project success; project flexibility; financial services; project size; IT projects; risk mitigation.
A conceptual framework for scaled Agile success
by Lucas Khoza, Carl Marnewick
Abstract: This article presents a conceptual framework to determine the success of organisations scaled Agile endeavours. Different processes and perceived indicators from the three main levels of Agile scaling frameworks were studied. The processes were examined to determine whether they contribute in achieving the perceived success indicators. A quantitative research method was employed for data collection and analysis. Pearsons correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to test and construct the final conceptual framework. Key findings revealed that there are processes currently implemented that do not contribute to the achievement of the perceived indicators. Strategy and investment funding is the driving process at the portfolio level, continuous exploration drives the programme level while building, testing and deploying of a software product drive the team level. This research contributes to the body of knowledge with regards to scaled Agile, specifically on how to measure scaled Agile success.
Keywords: Scaled Agile; Agile methods; Software project success; Multiple linear regression.
An Integrated Project Management Methodology under a Social Perspective in Industrialization Projects
by Anabela Tereso, Gabriela Fernandes, Madalena Araújo, Catarina Oliveira, Teresa Ruão, Ana Isabel Lopes, João Faria
Abstract: This paper presents an integrated methodology for managing industrialization projects combining know-how, abilities, instruments, and project management tools and techniques to fulfil more efficiently and ef-fectively industrialization requirements. Different research methods were used during an in-depth case study involving seven researchers over three years at an automotive industry company. Firstly, internal documents related to the organization's specific set of rules for project management were analysed. Sec-ondly, the organization project managers' activities were observed. Thirdly, unstructured interviews were conducted to assess the organization's project management awareness and the actual usage of tools and techniques. Finally, workflows were designed to represent the AS-IS model and the proposed TO-BE mod-el. The methodology integrates a social project management approach, with social media tools, to improve communication between the industrialization project management teams. Social project management is used to smoothly increase the projects awareness and management within the global social ecosystem of the organization.
Keywords: Project Management; Industrialization Projects; Social Media; Automotive Industry.
On the Performance of Projects under Uncertainty: An Agent-based Simulation Modelling
by Bijan Jamshid-Nejad, Samira Alvandi
Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of environmental complexity on project performance by means of simulation modeling. There are few works that prepare a bottom-up, mechanism-based account of project-environment interactions. Rather, some statistical, top-down models have been developed which fall short of explaining how projects can handle uncertainties. This research is an attempt to fill this gap. The question is how environmental complexity affects project performance. The results of the model show that the complexity of environment can have positive effects on project performance. On the contrary, the results demonstrate that the internal complexity modeled as randomness in the activity times is detrimental to the project performance. To tackle environmental complexity, the model suggests that shorter memory cycles improve project performance in that projects give more priority to recent outcomes to offset effects of uncertainty. The results have been by empirical data from 18 infrastructure projects.
Keywords: Project management; Agent-based simulation; Complexity; Reinforcement learning; Infrastructure projects.
Aligning process-based knowledge management with competencies behavior: effects of ISO practices
by NIZAR RAISSI, Anas Hakeem
Abstract: The aim of this article is to present a reflection on organizational and individual employee behavior, with its multiple dimensions, before reviewing the advantages and limitations of the knowledge management and process approach alignment. These suggestions will be illustrated and supported by reflections on the particularity of behavioral changes in a particular field, that of ISO certification. Thus, we advanced a research model, making it possible to explain the articulation between the different variables of our study based on the structural equation modeling, which aims to estimate and represent causal relationships between the variables studied. The survey was established among 250 certified companies belonging to the mechanical and electrical industry sector in Tunisia. The findings indicate that companies adopting ISO practices possess a certain organizational maturity, which has enabled them to achieve system performance. As well as employee behavior defined in this case by sense of self-efficacy and the intention which are positively correlated with the process approach. A key implication is that the process approach seeking to improve the competencies behavior based on knowledge management may do well by performing organizational learning, but they can do even better by building perceptions of self-efficacy and intention.
Keywords: ISO certification; Process approach; employee behavior; knowledge management; self-efficacy; intention.
Critical behavioural index for improving collaborative working in projects teams using Fuzzy Synthetic Evaluation
by Florence Ellis, Samuel Amos-Abanyie, Titus Ebenezer KWOFIE, Samuel Afram, Clinton Aigbavboa
Abstract: Understanding the typologies of critical team behaviours that can optimize collaborative working in construction project delivery is lacking in construction management literature. This study uses fuzzy synthetic evaluation from a questionnaire survey to determine the critical behavioural typologies for effective collaborative working in project teams from a behavioural index. The results showed communication behaviours as the most critical followed by proactive behaviours, boundary-spanning behaviours, ethical behaviours, leadership behaviours and managerial behaviours. Given the significance of behaviours in human functioning, the insight given by this study is expected to motivate project teams to adapt, develop and improve on these behaviours towards effective collaborative working. The findings should also be relevant in cognitive behavioural needs and development in complex interdependent teamwork and task functions in project delivery. The index can engender improved team behaviours in collaborative working that is key to behavioural management in teamwork and organizations.
Keywords: construction project team, collaborative working, human functioning, team behaviours
Transportation infrastructure cost underestimation: investigating the front-end debate
by Alolote Amadi, Dominic D. Ahiaga-Dagbui
Abstract: The underestimation of the final cost of transportation infrastructure projects has attracted significant scholarly attention and media coverage. While strategic misrepresentation and optimism may have gained recent notoriety for explaining the underestimation problem, traditional schools of thought insist the root sources lie principally within the domains of technical issues and poor conceptual project shaping at the front-end. Given this ongoing dialectical debate, this study investigates the front-end estimating practices of three highway agencies in Nigeria to establish the validity of these dichotomous theories. The findings show that although political motives strongly underlie the project appraisal practices of the highway agencies, there was not much evidence to support strategic misrepresentation/optimism bias. Rather, the study reveals that apart from the deployment of simplistic methods of conceptual costing, there is a discernible lack of control gateways at the front-end of project shaping and decision planning stages, which has fostered dysfunctional project practices.
Keywords: cost overrun; cost underestimation; developing countries; front-end processes; highway agencies; project appraisal; public projects; technical explanations; theoretical explanations; transportation infrastructure.
A flexible operating tool to provide an efficient project's staffing and resource allocation
by Massimo Bertolini, Mattia Neroni, Francesco Zammori
Abstract: Resource allocation is paramount for the success of complex projects; many allocation and staffing models have been proposed in the literature, but none of them has found its way into practice yet. Hence, we propose a tool to provide an efficient project's staffing and resource allocation, with the goal to create cohesive teams, and an almost perfect matching among time/quality requirements and resources' skills. To achieve this objective, the tool makes use of a specific heuristic that reproduces the reasoning of the project manager, using logical rules based on sorting and prioritising criteria, both for tasks and resources. To validate the tool, we applied it to a comprehensive set of past projects, completed by a consultant company over the past five years. Solutions provided by our tool were assessed by a team of experienced project managers, and they were found superior to the ones originally implemented by the company.
Keywords: constructive heuristic; multi-skilled workforce; project management tool; resource allocation; resource levelling.
The relevance of project management software's features in the United Arab Emirates
by Ilija Stojanović, Adis Puška, Nasiha Osmanović
Abstract: Project management is unthinkable nowadays without the use of appropriate software. We compared different features of Asana, Basecamp, Microsoft Project, Smartsheet and Oracle Primavera software to investigate which of these solutions has the best characteristics in the opinion of the project managers in the UAE. In this study, a multicriteria analysis was used to evaluate selected software solutions. Entropy and multi-attributive border approximation area comparison (MABAC) methods were used. The entropy method was used to determine the weights of the criteria, while the MABAC method was used to determine the software ranking. Data for the purposes of this study were collected from the five top-ranked project management software by the g2.com user community. The results obtained showed that Asana software was rated the best, while Oracle Primavera was rated the worst from selected software solutions. These results were confirmed by the performed sensitivity analysis.
Keywords: project management software; software features comparison; Asana; Basecamp; Microsoft Project; Smartsheet; Oracle Primavera; UAE.
Project managers' capacity-planning practices for infrastructure projects in Qatar: a multiple-case study
by Ojo Emmanuel Opeyemi, Michael Neubert
Abstract: Infrastructure project delays and cost overrun are often caused by ineffective use of organisational skills, processes, and resources. Cost overrun and schedule delay in Qatari have had damaging effects on the national economy. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of project managers regarding how they utilise capacity-planning practices to manage government-funded projects in Qatar. This study was framed by three conceptual models developed by Gill to outline capacity management needs within a construction company: the time horizon model, individual-organisation-industry levels model, and capacity development across components model. Data were collected from semistructured interviews with eight participants. Fifteen themes emerged through thematic analysis of textual data and cross-case synthesis analysis, across five conceptual categories: resources to meet performance capacity, knowledgeable and skilful staff, short- and long-term planning strategy, cost overrun issue, and time management. Findings may promote timely completion of projects, and improve the economy of Qatar.
Keywords: capacity planning; project management; project management theory; infrastructure project delay; schedule delay; cost overrun; GCC; Middle East; Qatar; capacity-planning concept and models.