Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Nanotechnology

International Journal of Nanotechnology (IJNT)

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International Journal of Nanotechnology (38 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Fabrication of super hydrophobic duo-structures
    by X.Y. Zhang 
    Keywords: .

  • Methyltrimethoxysilane silica aerogel composite with carboxyl-functionalised multi-wall carbon nanotubes
    by Kyu-Yeon Lee 
    Abstract: xxxx
    Keywords: xxxx

  • Protonation of quinoxaline-tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) based derivatives: substituent effect on charge-transfer complexes   Order a copy of this article
    by Ravada Kishore, Ramakrishna Bodapati, Jajula Kashanna, Ananda Kumar Jami 
    Abstract: Herein, we synthesised four new acceptordonoracceptor (ADA) based donor tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) fused with different units of acceptors. Absorption studies of the chloroform solutions of the compounds 1-4 have been studied, absorption peaks are exhibiting within the range of 250-550 nm. There is source for the protonation studies in the synthesised molecules; hence we performed absorption studies by adding hydrochloric acid aliquots, after protonation interestingly the absorption band shifts from blue region to the red region (520680 nm) because of the intra-molecular charge transfer. Protonation on the nitrogen atoms of the TTF based units allows for the creation of low band gap between HOMO and LUMO energy level systems and widely useful in NIR optical properties and solar cell applications.
    Keywords: π-conjugated molecules; TTF-quinoxaline; substituent role; red region; electrochemical studies; A-D-A based compounds.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNT.2021.10036855
     
  • Experimental investigations on direct absorption solar flat plate collector using Al2O3 nanofluid
    by Rahul Khatri, Rajesh Jangid, Pranay Singh Tomar, Shyam Sunder Sharma 
    Abstract: Solar flat plate collectors have lower thermal conversion efficiencies due to high thermal losses and lower heat transfer. Direct absorption solar collector (DASC) works on the concept of volumetric absorption i.e. solar energy will be absorbed by a thin layer of fluid flowing over a flat surface. The glass plate with reflective surface was used as base for fluid film formation Experimental investigations were carried out with water and Al2O3 nanofluid. Nanoparticles of size 20 nm was used to prepare nanofluid with ultrasonic mixers. Three flow rates i.e. 2, 3 and 4 lpm were worked out with water and 0.001%, 0.005%, and 0.01% volume concentrations of nanofluid. Improvement in efficiency of the collector with nanofluid was recorded when compared with water as a working fluid. Optimal flow rate of 2 lpm recorded better thermal efficiencies for water and nanofluids both. Higher efficiencies were recorded with 0.01% volume concentration of nanofluid when compared with water, 0.001% & 0.005%. For constant mass flow of 2 lpm, the maximum efficiency improvement i.e. 13% was achieved with 0.01% volume concentration of nanoparticles compared with water. Maximum single pass temperature difference of 2.7
    Keywords: Nanofluid; Al2O3; DASC; Volumetric absorption; Thermal performance.

  • A simulation-based study on the disc brake temperature distribution for optimizing hole geometry
    by Shyam Sunder Sharma, Hariharan Raju, Pranay Singh Tomar, Rajesh Jangid, Rahul Khatri 
    Abstract: Disc brakes used in automotive are responsible for braking to ensure a smooth and safe ride. This study deals with the thermal analysis of a disc brake rotor under various geometry of holes cut on the disc rotor surface. The friction on the disc escapes in the form of heat from the surface of the disc rotor. The temperature observed on the surface of the rotor, because of the friction developed between the brake pads and the rotor is analysed using ANSYS 18.1. The rotor is designed by assuming appropriate parameters in SOLIDWORKS 17. The temperature distribution and total heat flux were observed using ANSYS 18.1. The analysis was carried out on different hole geometries i.e. circular, square, 3/4th circular, straight slots, and rotor without holes. The dissipation of heat was found better in disc rotor with holes as compared to rotor without holes. The simulation study shows that the slotted holes on the disc rotor has surface temperature i.e. 89.356
    Keywords: Automotive disc brake; Simulation; Hole geometry; Heat dissipation.

  • Influence of solvent on morphological texture and catalytic activity of SnO2 nanoparticles
    by Sudakhina Saikia, Pangkita Deka, Lakshi Saikia, Ramesh Chandra Deka 
    Abstract: Tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesised via a direct (one-step) solvothermal route in the presence of ethanol as a solvent. The as-synthesised SnO2 is well characterised by various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and BET surface area analyses. The powder X-ray diffraction study reveals that the synthesised oxide adopts orthorhombic SnO2 crystal structure. The transmission electron microscopic investigation shows the formation of nanoparticles with an average size of 6.44 nm. Moreover, the influence of the solvent on morphological and textural properties of as-synthesised SnO2 is also explained. Further, the as-synthesised SnO2 nanoparticles are employed for Friedel-Crafts benzoylation of anisole to produce 4-methoxybenzophenone. Various reaction parameters viz. effect of reaction temperature, effect of catalyst dosage, effect of solvation, and substrate ratio are also addressed for the acylation reaction. The SnO2 NPs exhibit high catalytic activity for the acylation reaction of anisole. They also show high stability for the benzoylation with good recyclability up to five consecutive cycles.
    Keywords: nanoparticles; solvothermal; benzoylation; acylation; activity; recyclability.

  • Synthesis of dip coated bismuth vanadium oxide (BiVO4) with iron oxyhydroxides (FeOOH) for photoelectrochemical water splitting applications
    by S.R. Sitaaraman, A. Nirmala Grace, Raja Sellappan 
    Abstract: Bismuth vanadium oxide (BiVO4) was synthesised by dip coating method. The water oxidation property of the BiVO4 photoanode is hindered by high charge carrier recombination and poor electron transport. FeOOH overlayer enhances the overall water splitting capability of BiVO4. The BiVO4 and FeOOH modified BiVO4 was characterised by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), UV-Vis spectrometer, and Raman spectrometer to analyse the material properties. The synthesised BiVO4 showed monoclinic sheelite structure. Photoelectrochemical tests showed the optimised thickness of dip coated BiVO4. The photocurrent of FeOOH modified BiVO4 was found to be higher than BiVO4. The negative shift in onset potential was observed for FeOOH modified BiVO4 due to an improvement in the interfacial charge transfer. The photoelectrochemical measurements proved that the deposition of FeOOH improves the photoelectrochemical activity by reducing the electrode/electrolyte interface resistance.
    Keywords: BiVO4; FeOOH; photoelectrochemical cell; water splitting; solar fuels; dip coating method; photo-assisted electrodeposition; co-catalyst.

  • Protonation of qunioxaline-tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) based derivatives: substituent effect on chargetransfer complexes
    by Ravada Kishore, Ramakrishna Bodapati, Jajula Kashanna, Ananda Kumar Jami 
    Abstract: Herein, we synthesised four new acceptordonoracceptor (ADA) based donor tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) fused with different units of acceptors. Absorption studies of the chloroform solutions of the compounds 1-4 have been studied, absorption peaks are exhibiting within the range of 250-550 nm. There is source for the protonation studies in the synthesised molecules; hence we performed absorption studies by adding hydrochloric acid aliquots, after protonation interestingly the absorption band shifts from blue region to the red region (520-680 nm) because of the intra-molecular charge transfer. Protonation on the nitrogen atoms of the TTF based units allows for the creation of low band gap between HOMO and LUMO energy level systems and widely useful in NIR optical properties and solar cell applications.
    Keywords: π-conjugated molecules; TTF-quinoxaline; substituent role; red region; electrochemical studies; A-D-A based compounds.

  • Solvent composition induced structure control of cadmium sulphide nanoparticles and investigations on photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue
    by Aravindan Natarajan, Mohanraj Shanmuganathan, Ezhilan Jayabal, Venkatesan Rangarajan 
    Abstract: The structural regulation of nanoparticles is a challenging task without any structure determining agents such as templates, surfactants, etc. In the present study, the structure of cadmium sulphide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) has been effortlessly changed from hexagonal to face centred cubic structure under solvothermal conditions by facile volume ratio adjustment of the solvents (water and ethanol). The various CdS NPs prepared have been investigated using different characterisation techniques and their structure, size and morphology vary with respect to the solvent composition. Furthermore, the photocatalytic performance of CdS NPs has been investigated using Methylene Blue (MB) as model organic pollutant. It has been observed that the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of MB is significantly influenced by the structure of CdS NPs.
    Keywords: cadmium sulphide; nanoparticles; photocatalysts; methylene blue; dye degradation; mixed solvent; semiconductor; structure control; cubic phase; hexagonal phase.

  • Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 as promising nanoparticles for arsenic removal from aqueous solution
    by Parwathi Pillai, Swapnil Dharaskar 
    Abstract: Removal of arsenic from water is an important task as it is harmful and toxic. In the current paper, Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 nanoparticles were synthesised, and arsenic removal efficiency was examined from synthetic water. The optimum experiment value was developed by the Taguchi method, and the characterisation of nanoparticles was done by transmission electron microscope, which confirmed the particle. The result indicates that time was considered as an important factor in arsenic removal by ZIF-8 NPs followed by adsorbent dosage, stirring rate, temperature, and pH. The optimum conditions for arsenic removal by ZIF-8 NPs were found as time = 5 min, adsorbent dosage 0.06 g/l, Stirring = 400 RPM, temperature = 15°C, pH = 8. Regression analysis (R2 = 0.90) displayed a better outcome in predicted and experimental values. The outcome estimates that the adsorption of arsenic follows Langmuir isotherm for arsenic removal.
    Keywords: adsorption; arsenic; nanoparticles; Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8; Taguchi method.

  • Effective synthesis of metal loaded nitrogen doped multi walled carbon nanotubes for the degradation of Congo Red dye
    by T.N. Suresh, T. Somanathan 
    Abstract: A simple and efficient way is described to synthesise metal loaded nitrogen doped bamboo shaped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NBMWNT) by tubular furnace technique (TFT) using melamine as the single precursor for nitrogen and carbon, and ferric chloride as metal precursor for encapsulation of metal. The morphology, structure and size of NBMWNT were identified by XRD, TEM, TGA and Raman spectroscopy. The iron filled hollow shaped bamboo CNT were clearly seen in TEM and Raman spectrum indicating that the obtained CNTs are multiwalled with good graphitisation. The analysed sample was tested towards the photocatalytic efficiency of Congo Red dye (CRD). Efficiency of the Fe/NBMWNT as a photocatalyst was studied by changing the conditions such as effect of the catalyst, pH, H2O2, and concentration of dye.
    Keywords: nitrogen doped BMWNT; tubular furnace technique; melamine; photodegradation; Congo Red; XRD; TEM; Raman spectroscopy.

  • Iron oxide slag nanocomposites in removal of hexavalent chromium
    by J. Baalamurugan, V. Ganesh Kumar, P. Senthilkumar, K. Govindaraju, T. Stalin Dhas 
    Abstract: Hexavalent chromium is the most toxic form of chromium and causes various environmental impacts. The present study highlights nanocomposite metal oxides in the removal of hexavalent chromium. Especially, the role of iron oxide in the form of hematite (ε-Fe2O3) in slag nanocomposite in chromium removal is revealed. Metal oxides of steel slag are sintered at 600°C and the removal of chromium is studied using diphenyl carbazide (C13H14N4O) method by UVvis spectrophotometer. Cr (VI) forms pink colour with DPC in acidic condition and is studied at 540 nm. Cr (VI) removal is studied with various factors including initial Cr (VI) solution concentration, metal oxides dosage, contact time and pH. Elemental composition of steel slag nanocomposites (metal oxides) is characterised using EDAX and XRF analysis. Surface morphology of slag nanocomposites has been characterised using SEM analysis. Structural bonding of slag nanocomposites before and after chromium removal is studied using FTIR analysis. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is emphasised for the total chromium content before and after removal. The results can be developed as a conventional technology in treating chromium removal.
    Keywords: nanocomposites; metal oxides; steel slag; hematite; calcination; heavy metal removal; waste water treatment; clean technology.

  • Removal of anionic dye Eriochrome Black-T using nanocomposites derived from slag
    by J. Baalamurugan, V. Ganesh Kumar, C.G. Anjali Das, B.S. Naveen Prasad, K. Govindaraju 
    Abstract: The present investigation highlights slag based nanocomposites in the removal of anionic dye Eriochrome Black T (EBT) an anionic dye with azo group (N=N-) that is used as an dyeing agent in textile industries. Induction Furnace (IF) steel slag is generated form steel manufacturing process and has mixture of inorganic elements mainly of silicon, iron, aluminium, and calcium. Slag nanocomposites are sintered at 600°C for 4 h. Removal properties of slag nanocomposites on EBT dye is determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy pH, concentration of dye, amount of slag nanocomposite are the parameters were studied with various contact time. Surface morphology of slag nanocomposite before and after dye removal has been analysed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). FTIR analysis is used to analyse the structural bonding of slag nanocomposites with dye molecules. Formation of core-shell structure in slag nanocomposite with dye molecules is revealed and the removal efficiency of inorganic elements present in slag nanocomposites is explored.
    Keywords: steel slag; metal oxides; nanocomposites; thermal treatment; Eriochrome Black-T; ion exchange; core-shell structure; waste water treatment.

  • Synthesis of ZnO-Ni flower like nanostructure for gas sensing application
    by V.S. Siril, K.N. Madhusoodanan 
    Abstract: Hierarchical Ni-doped ZnO flower like structures are fabricated by novel hydrothermal route without any capping agents or toxic organic solvents. Characterisation techniques of the prepared ZnO nanostructure include SEMEDAX, FESEM, TEM in addition to the standard methods such as XRD. Crystallographic structure studies confirm that Ni-doping does not alter the hexagonal structure of pure ZnO. Presence of Zn, O, Ni is confirmed from the elemental compositional analysis. Morphological evolution of ZnO nanostructure reveals the formation of flower shaped aggregated nanorods. The morphology of as prepared Ni doped ZnO nanorods is symmetric with length of 1 m and diameter of about 84 nm. We further investigated the application of Ni-doped ZnO films in NH3 gas sensing. The sensitivity, operating temperature, response time and recovery time of Ni-ZnO nanorod sensors towards ammonia were conducted and made a detailed analysis of their gas sensing performance. Ni doped ZnO flowers can detect NH3 concentration in the range 3.5-140 ppm at an operating temperature 220°C. They exhibit a rapid response (40 s) and recovery (2.5 min) time for test gas concentration of 140 ppm. The Ni-ZnO flowers revealed better ammonia gas sensing characteristics. To understand the performance of Ni-ZnO sensor, the gas sensing mechanism is explained. All the measurements were done using the automated system with LabView software.
    Keywords: metal oxide; Ni-doped ZnO; facile method; hydrothermal synthesis; morphology; nanostructures; flower shaped nanorods; gas sensing; NH3; gas sensor; sensor response.

Special Issue on: Intelligent Nano-Biotechnology for the Future Emerging Challenges and Advancements

  • Experimental and theoretical validation studies of ASnO3 (A = Ba, Ca, Sr) nano fibers for bioactivity applications
    by BRADHA MADHAVAN, Suvitha A, Anand Steephen 
    Abstract: Barium, Calcium and Strontium Stannate nano strands were blended through electro spinning process. The as prepared samples were underwent the calcination at 1000°C. In order to classify their structural and morphological properties, the Stannate nano strands were characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The findings show that the nanofibers obtained are 200 nm that have undergone diameter changes at 700 ° C after annealing. The XRD analysis reveals that the nanofibers have a strongly crystalline single-phase structure. From the AFM images of fibres, it was evident that these perovskite have high surface roughness and the three-dimensional image conveys that the strands uniform nature. In addition, in order to measure molecular descriptors as well as to survey atomic elements, ADMET parameters, physicochemical calculations and bioactivity are calculated using Swiss ADME and ADMET indicators.
    Keywords: Barium Stannate; Perovskite; Nanofibers; Bioactivity

  • Research on the application of new nanomaterial -Al2O3 in industrial product modelling design   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei Bi, Zidong He 
    Abstract: Gamma-Al2O3 is one of many aluminas. It has a series of remarkable characteristics, such as porosity, large specific surface area, high activity, and good thermal stability. Therefore, -Al2O3 is often used as adsorbents, catalysts and catalyst carriers, and has extremely wide applications in petrochemical industries, environmental protection and other fields. In industrial design, owing to its different physical properties, it is often widely used in different design products. In this research, aluminium nitrate and glycine were used as raw materials, and nano--Al2O3 was synthesised by low-temperature combustion. XRD and TEM test methods were used to analyse and characterise the reaction products, investigate the pH value of the solution, the molar ratio of the reactants, the calcination temperature, and the calcination time of the formation, particle size, crystal transformation and morphology of the reaction product and other aspects. Relevant data were obtained through experiments.
    Keywords: nano-γ-Al2O3; environmental protection materials; new nanomaterials; industrial product modelling design.

  • Image-based automatic segmentation of leaf using clustering algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Shubham Mahajan, Shivalika Sharma, Davinder Paul Singh, Chinmay Chakraborty, Dr. Amit Kant Pandit 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a productive strategy to separate the leaf area from different plant images. The image analysis in plants plays a critical job in reasonable and gainful farming. Plant image analysis is mainly used to record the plant development plant area and leaf zone etc. Plant leaf segmentation has become a significant task to be examined among these plant characters. For this reason, a strategy for leaf area segmentation from different plant images is made. In this paper we have proposed an algorithm which will segment plant on the basis of L*a*b colour spaces and cluster formation. When our proposed technique was compared with the rosette tracker it was found that our proposed algorithm was more efficient in plant leaf segmentation. The results of our proposed algorithm are: accuracy is 79.23%, sensitivity is 85.84%, and specificity is 97.40%.
    Keywords: colour space; leaf segmentation; plant development; plant image analysis.

  • Protective effect of nano-electrostatic composite material on miners skin and its influence on working state   Order a copy of this article
    by Shuicheng Tian, Ying Chen, Yuan Zou 
    Abstract: A nano-electrostatic composite material is proposed to promote the rapid healing of miners skin injuries and maintain their good working state in the harsh underground environment. The poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nano-particle therapy has a strong effect on maintaining the biological stability of the drug, so it is undertaken as a carrier to load the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) into PLGA. The electrospinning technology is adopted to form a nano-electrospinning composite material (NECM), which is obviously interwoven into a network with uniform thickness. Sixty miners with skin injuries were treated with different dressings. It was found after 10 days that the wound-healing rate of miners using NECM reached 86.67%, which is much higher in contrast to that of the traditional medical dressings (43.3%). The main reason is that bFGF can promote the proliferation of wound granulation tissue, and loading it into nanofibre dressings can increase its bioavailability and promote wound healing. Therefore, the application of bFGF/PLGA NECM has a significant effect on promoting the healing of miners skin injuries, so it plays an important role in alleviating the psychological pressure of miners and enhancing their enthusiasm for work.
    Keywords: nano-electrospinning composite material; skin protection; miner; working state.

  • Preparation of hydrophobic honeycomb films with an amphiphilic copolymer via the breath figure method   Order a copy of this article
    by Dejie Zhou, Qingzhao Wang 
    Abstract: Fabrication of honeycomb films with amphiphilic fluorinated ABC-type triblock copolymer via the breath figure method is introduced in this paper. The triblock copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polystyrene-block-poly(perfluorohexylethyl acrylate) (MeOPEO-b-PSt-b-PFHEA) was synthesised by atom transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP). The film with ordered honeycomb structure was fabricated under selective solvent, controlled humidity and polymer concentration. We analysed the influence of different factors on the film morphology. The triblock polymer we prepared exhibited a regular honeycomb surface structure in a carbon disulphide solution at 5 g/L concentration and 75% humidity. Surface wetting properties indicate that the amphiphilic triblock polymer can achieve high hydrophobicity by varying the concentration and humidity. The obtained polymer of the honeycomb pore structure is expected to be used in hydrophobic materials.
    Keywords: honeycomb film; amphiphilic block copolymer; hydrophobic effect; ATRP.

  • Characteristic analysis of discontinuous function modelling-based nano-biosensor and its detection for hyaluronidase   Order a copy of this article
    by Fangfang Zhang 
    Abstract: This study draws attention to the characteristics of a nano-biosensor based on a discontinuous function algorithm and its application in hyaluronidase detection. The discontinuous algorithm model is introduced in the construction of sensor. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and nanocomposite materials of Nation-Ru(bpy)32+-AuNPs and Nation-Ru(bpy)32+-AuNPs-TTX are prepared for chemical modification of the electrode. Finally, a new nano-electrochemical immunosensor is successfully constructed. Twenty ICR male mice aged 6-8 months were selected as research subjects. They were randomly divided into control group and observation group, with their sperm protein extracted for Western blot and enzyme activity detection. The results show that AuNPs nanomaterials have good biocompatibility and conductivity, and demonstrate good sensitivity in the detection process. The enzyme detection results show that the enzyme activity of the observation group is higher than that of control group, indicating that the prepared sensor system has relatively high accuracy, with the detection being simple, more sensitive, and quicker.
    Keywords: discontinuous function; nano-biosensor; HAase detection; nano-particle.

  • Nano-drug release control microchip combined with biomaterials in the recovery of shoulder joint movement and contraction   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhigang Tong 
    Abstract: This study explores the effect of a new type of biological tissue engineering stent of kartogenin (KGN) loaded with polycaprolactone (PCL) combined with a microarray polylactic acid (PLA) nano-drug release (NDR) microchip based on magnetic nanoparticles to promote the healing of rotator cuff injury (RCI). Firstly, the ferroferric oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared and applied to PLA-loaded microchips to realise the remote magnetic control (RMC) of 1% lidocaine. Secondly, the directional PCL stent loaded with KGN (KGN-PCL) was prepared using the electrospinning technology. The results showed that the KGN-PCL biomaterial showed excellent in vitro drug release ability. The microarray PLA NDR microchip based on Fe3O4 MNPs combined with the KGN-PCL biological stent can promote the regeneration of cartilage in the tendon bone structure of the rotator cuff, and elevate the healing quality of rotator cuff tendon-bone by improving the biomechanical properties of the rotator cuff.
    Keywords: Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles; nanodrug release microchip; kartogenin; biological tissue engineering stent; rotator cuff injury; biomechanical properties.

  • Cytological mechanism of nanowire reinforced biological bone cement in the treatment of vertebral osteoporotic fractures   Order a copy of this article
    by Sheng Xu 
    Abstract: This study analyses the effects of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) with magnetic composite nanomaterials on the adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis, and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in vitro. In this study, CNTs/Fe3O4 composites were prepared using different surfactants, and the best materials were selected through characterisation and analysis and then added to CPC to prepare the magnetic CPC (MCPC). The bone marrow MSCs of rats was selected to culture with CPC (CPC group), MCPC (MCPC group), and MCPC under 60 mT static magnetic field (MS group), respectively. Subsequently, the differences in the proliferation, apoptosis, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of MSCs in each group were detected. The results showed that the CNTs/Fe3O4 nanomaterials prepared by the combination of sodium acetate + polyethylene glycol 2000 surfactant had excellent properties; MCPC prepared with 9 wt% CNTs/Fe3O4 addition had the best stress-strain performance. Compared with the CPC group, the MSCs adhesion rate, proliferation activity, and ALP activity of the MCPC group and the MS group were obviously increased (P < 0.05), while the apoptosis rate was greatly reduced (P < 0.05). In contrast to the MCPC group, MSCs adhesion rate, proliferation activity, and ALP activity in MS group increased greatly (P < 0.05), and cell apoptosis rate was observably decreased (P < 0.05). It showed that CPC with magnetic composite material can promote MSC adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation in vitro and reduce cell apoptosis, and the effect was more obvious under 60mT static magnetic field. The above results could provide an important cytological mechanism for the treatment of patients with vertebral osteoporotic fracture (VOF).
    Keywords: magnetic composite nanomaterials; calcium phosphate cement; mesenchymal stem cells; vertebral osteoporotic fracture.

  • Effect of sodium hyaluronate-based nanoprobe in rehabilitation of tendon injury and tendon adhesion   Order a copy of this article
    by Siqi Lv 
    Abstract: This paper aimed to investigate the effect of nanoprobe fibres based on sodium hyaluronate in the rehabilitation of tendon injury and adhesion. A desolventisation method was adopted to prepare nanoparticle-encapsulated hyaluronic acid chitosan nanoprobes. There was an analysis on the cumulative release of basic fibroblast growth factor in different nanoprobe fibres, the difference in mechanical properties, its effect on the proliferation of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells, and the difference in expression of tenomodulin and scleraxis proteins in hAMSCs cells. It was found that the NPs/HA-CS had a smooth surface with an average particle size of 136
    Keywords: sodium hyaluronate; nanoprobe; tendon injury; tendon repair.

  • Graphene oxide nanomaterials in the recovery of shoulder joint movement Contraction   Order a copy of this article
    by Yayun Zhu 
    Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) and pure titanium (Ti) samples were adopted to prepare the titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube films based on GO (GO-TiO2) by electrochemical anodisation. Then, the drug loading capacity, the drug releasing capacity, and the antibacterial ability of the GO-TiO2 nanotubes were analysed. The results showed that the number of MSCs on the surface of GO-TiO2 nanotubes was higher than that of pure Ti; the MSCs on GO-TiO2 nanotubes surface were in the form of polymerised colonies, while the MSCs on the surface of pure Ti were in the form of dispersed particles. Compared with pure Ti, the GO-TiO2 nanotubes could effectively prolong the drug release time. The antibacterial ability of pure Ti, GO-TiO2 nanotubes, and drug-loaded GO-TiO2 nanotubes was compared as pure Ti < GO-TiO2 nanotubes < drug-loaded GO-TiO2 nanotubes. GO-TiO2 nanotubes could promote the differentiation of MSCs such as osteoblasts, and also had a strong drug loading capacity for macromolecular drugs.
    Keywords: graphene oxide; titanium dioxide nanotube; antibacterial ability; mesenchymal stem cells; shoulder joint.

  • Electrospinning nanofibres in exercise rehabilitation after fracture of anterior cruciate ligament   Order a copy of this article
    by Haiying Wang 
    Abstract: This study aimed to analyse the application of electrospinning nanofibres in the rehabilitation of fracture of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). In this study, the polycaprolactone fibres were prepared by dissolving the PCL in a mixed solution of dichloromethane and N,N-dimethylformamide through an EP machine. The silk fibroin and PCL were dissolved and blended to prepare a nanofibre stent. Ninety patients with ACL injury were selected as the research objects and randomly rolled into a blank group, a control group, and an experimental group, with 30 cases in each group. The ACL was reconstructed through exercise rehabilitation therapy, ozone therapy combined with exercise rehabilitation therapy, and EP nanofibre stent, respectively. Results showed that the nanofibre stent was successfully prepared, which had good mechanical properties and hydrophilicity. The EP nanofibre material could effectively promote the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells, thereby increasing the rate of tissue regeneration at the injured site.
    Keywords: electrospinning; anterior cruciate ligament fracture; polycaprolactone; silk fibroin.

Special Issue on: Eco-Friendly and Sustainable Cognitive Green Nano-Technologies for the Mitigation of Emerging Environmental Pollutants

  • Preparation of titanium dioxide composite nanomaterials using copper catalysis and their dynamic adsorption and photocatalytic performance in water treatment   Order a copy of this article
    by Ye Tian 
    Abstract: The aim is to investigate the dynamic adsorption performance of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposite materials in water treatment, providing direction for water purification. The copper-catalyzed living free-radical polymerization method polymerizes the prepared TiO2 particles with tertiary amine polymer to manufacture the TiO2 polymer nanocomposite materials. The prepared TiO2 nanocomposite materials are then modified to obtain the quaternised TiO2 polymer nanocomposite materials (quaternised TiO2@poly(DEAEMA)), which are characterized and analysed. Finally, the water treatment performance of quaternized TiO2@poly(DEAEMA) is judged through photocatalysis and adsorption experiments, while the antibacterial performance of the prepared materials is judged using the common Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Results demonstrate that the quaternised TiO2@poly(DEAEMA) polymer nanocomposite materials are completely and tightly wrapped, presenting a flower-like appearance, with a significantly-increased diameter and an average size of about 600nm, which can be utilized as the pollutant adsorbent. Water treatment simulation reveals the fastest adsorption rate and the highest adsorption capacity of quaternised TiO2@poly(DEAEMA), reaching 265 mg/g given the same reaction time. The catalytic removal rate in ultraviolet and visible light reaches 94%, and the photocatalysis of visible light reaches 69%. Until the reaction lasts for 45 minutes, its antibacterial activity is optimal, and the diameter of the inhibition zone against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus exceeds 16 mm. Therefore, the prepared TiO2 nanomaterials have high adsorption properties, good photocatalysis performance, and excellent antibacterial properties, which can provide an experimental basis for the treatment and purification of water resources in the industry.
    Keywords: titanium dioxide; water treatment; dynamic adsorption; photocatalysis; nanocomposite material.

Special Issue on: Smart Bio-Signal Acquisition System

  • Smart approach to the impact of cumin powder on obesity among adults in the urban area of Puducherry, India   Order a copy of this article
    by J. Suganya, S. Singaravelu Ramasamy, U. Dinesh Babu, R. Vijayaraghavan, K. Emayavarman, T.P. Latchoumi 
    Abstract: This research study aimed to discover the effect of cumin powder on physical and biological parameters among adults with obesity in the urban area of Puducherry. Cumin may be effective in lowering cholesterol and in weight loss. Cumin may be helpful for people trying to lose weight and lower total cholesterol, LDL or "bad" cholesterol, and triglyceride levels with type 2 diabetes and also to help the body to handle stress. The following experimental design is used. A total of 40 adults with obesity for control and experimental groups, BMI value of 25, total cholesterol >200 mg/dl, and age group of 20 to 60 years were selected. After evaluating the lipid profile, a bag of cumin powder with warm water was administered for 70 days (10 weeks). Prior to and post action, all anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. Warm water and cumin powder decreased serum and total cholesterol, and slightly reduced BMI (p<0.05). In both anthropometric and biochemical parameters of overweight in adults, cumin powder with hot water showed a drop.
    Keywords: overweight; obesity; cholesterol; body mass index.

  • Bioanalytical method devolpment and validation of a novel antiseizure agent Canobamate, using LC-MS/MS   Order a copy of this article
    by Yamarthi Venkateswara Rao, Rasheed Ahemad Shaik, Jithendra Chimakurthy 
    Abstract: To quantify Ceobamate in human plasma, a precise and sensitive electroionisation procedure in tandem mass spectrometry has been developed. The study was successfully confirmed by using Cenobamate-D4 as the internal norm and tert-butyl methyl ether in the testing of several positive ionic reactions. It has been used in liquid-liquid extraction to prepare samples as an extraction solvent. Cenobamate and Cenobamate-D4 (internal standard) were separated on an Eclipse C18 column (150 mm, 4.6 mm I.D., 5
    Keywords: Cenobamate; human plasma; epilepsy; robustness; validation.

  • Analysing behavioral and academic attributes of students using educational data mining   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Umer, Saima Sadiq, Arif Mehmood, Imran Ashraf, Gyu Sang Choi, Sadia Din 
    Abstract: Educational data mining has attracted significant consideration over the last few years. Information that is stored online using educational systems is increasing tremendously. The online learning environment can be improved by analysing and mining this information to extract representative features about students' behaviour and academic skills. Various classifiers are investigated to analyse the prediction of students' academic performance based on the attributes from the Kalboard360 learning management system (LMS). The selection of significant features can substantially improve the prediction, hence, ANOVA and chi-square filter approaches and forward feature selection and backward feature elimination wrapper approaches are examined for their efficacy. Results reveal that an extra tree classifier can achieve an accuracy of 0.8755 when trained on backward feature elimination selected features. Wrapper approaches prove to be effective in determining the most significant attributes for student performance prediction. 'Visited resources', 'raised hands', 'relation', 'parent answering survey', and 'student absent days' are regarded as the most significant attributes to determine student performance. Education specialists and institutions can leverage these findings to improve the student learning process and enhance their academic performance.
    Keywords: metadata; educational data mining; feature extraction; ANOVA; chi-square filter; forward feature selection; backward feature elimination; extra tree classifier.

  • Multi to binary class size based imbalance handling technique in wireless sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Neha Singh, Deepali Virmani, Gaurav Dhiman, S. Vimal 
    Abstract: Wireless sensor networks are used various disciplines including healthcare, banking, transportation, ocean and wildlife monitoring, earthquake monitoring, and numerous military applications. Now-a-days, there is escalation in size of data which makes it unfeasible to analyze it with accuracy. There are numerous problems that are faced when detecting patterns between structured and unstructured data that are unworkable by humans, so to make computation fast, easy and accurate, Machine Learning came in existence. Machine learning is extensively used in Wireless sensor networks. To make a machine learn, a training dataset is required and output is predicted by testing the dataset. A dataset in wireless sensor network has multi-class in its dependent variable. This multi-class classification causes class imbalance problem. This paper proposes MBSCIH (multi to binary class size based imbalance handling) technique in wireless sensor networks to solve the class imbalance problem in multi-class classification. MBSCIH converts multi-class classification into binary-class classification. MBSCIH is applied on WSN-DS, NSL-KDD and KDD-Cup 99 datasets and is tested with five major machine learning algorithm: Naive Bayes, Random Forest, Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and k-Nearest Neighbour (KNN). The test method used for testing is 10-fold cross validation. Results indicate that the proposed method increases the existing efficiency by 15.13%, 0.28%, 0.01%, 0.01%, 0.12% for Na
    Keywords: wireless sensor network; multiclass classification; binary classification; intrusion detection; WSN-DS dataset.

  • A dynamic programming approach for accurate content-based retrieval of ordinary and nano-scale medical images   Order a copy of this article
    by Jinhong Sun, Liang Qi, Yinglei Song, Junfeng Qu, Mohammad Khosravi 
    Abstract: Recently, with the explosive growth in the number of available medical images generated by medical imaging systems, content-based retrieval of medical images has become an important method for the diagnosis and study of many diseases. Most existing methods find medical images similar to a given one based on the extraction and comparison of crucial image features. However, similarity values computed with low level visual features of an image generally do not match the similarity obtained from human observation well. The overall performance of these methods is thus often unsatisfactory. This paper proposes a dynamic programming approach for content-based retrieval of medical images. The approach represents an image with three different histograms that contain both crucial intensity and textural features of the image. The similarity between two images is evaluated with a dynamic programming approach that can optimally align the peaks in the corresponding histograms from both images. Experiments show that the proposed approach is able to generate retrieval results with high accuracy. A comparison with state-of-the-art approaches for content-based medical image retrieval shows that the proposed approach can achieve higher retrieval accuracy in both ordinary and nano-scale medical images. As a result, higher retrieval accuracy may lead to more reliable results for the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The proposed approach is thus potentially useful for improving the reliability of many applications in health informatics.
    Keywords: medical image retrieval; similarity; alignment of histograms; dynamic programming.

  • Deep learning-based feature extraction coupled with multi-class SVM for COVID-19 detection in the IoT era   Order a copy of this article
    by Auwalu Mubarak, Sertan Serte, Fadi Al-Turjman, Rabiu Aliyu, Zubaida Said, Mehmet Ozsoz 
    Abstract: The deadly coronavirus virus (COVID-19) was confirmed as a pandemic by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in December 2019. Prompt and early identification of suspected patients is necessary to monitor the transmission of the disease, increase the effectiveness of medical treatment and as a result, decrease the mortality rate. The adopted method to identify COVID-19 is the Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), the method is affected by the shortage of RT-PCR kits and complexity. Medical imaging using deep learning has proved to be one of the most efficient methods of detecting respiratory diseases, but efficient deep learning architecture and low data are affecting the performance of the deep learning models. To detect COVID-19 efficiently, a deep learning model based feature extraction coupled with Support Vector Machine (SVM) was employed in this study, Seven pre-trained models were employed as feature extractors and the extracted features are classified by multi-class SVM classifier to classify CT scan images from COVID-19, common pneumonia and healthy individuals. To improve the performance of the models and prevent overfitting, training was also carried out on augmented images. To generalise the model's performance and robustness, three datasets were merged in the study. The model with the best performance is the VGG19 which was trained with augmented images: it achieved an accuracy of 96%, a sensitivity of 0.936, a specificity 0f 0.967, an F1 score of 0.935, a precision of 0.934, a Yonden Index of 0.903 and AUC of 0.952. The best model shows that COVID-19 can be detected efficiently on CT scan images.
    Keywords: artificial intelligence; COVID-19; SVM; feature extraction.

  • Small cell lung tumour differentiation using fluorine-18 PET and smoothening using Gaussian 3D convolution operator   Order a copy of this article
    by J. Vijayaraj, D. Loganathan, T.P. Latchoumi, M.V. Pavan, P.J. Lakshmi 
    Abstract: Nowadays, the most common disease for smokers is lung cancer. The deadly type of lung cancer is Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC). Tumour identification is complicated. It is only in the final stage that this form of lung cancer can be detected. When the patient has some of the earlier symptoms of SCLC, they can be subjected to preliminary tests for cancer. Two composite images, the maximum intensity projection and artificial intelligence, were automatically generated from the 4D image datasets. So, this paper presents the part of the identification of lung cancer by differentiating identified tumour cells using fluorine-18 Positron Emission Tomography (F-18 PET) and that can be smoothened using the smart Gaussian 3D convolution operator. The performance analysis shows the lung image dataset showing differentiation of tumour cells by applying this technique and simulation graphs for accuracy, sensitivity, and precision.
    Keywords: small cell lung cancer; tumour cell; fluorine-18 PET; Gaussian 3D convolution operator.

  • Analysis of high-dimensional data using feature selection models   Order a copy of this article
    by Shubham Mahajan, Shubham Mahajan 
    Abstract: The determination of features assumes a significant part in the enhancement of output of AI models, limiting the computational time taken to make a learning model and improves the exactness of the learning cycle. Hence, the analysts give more consideration to the determination of features to expand the exhibition of AI calculations. The choice of the proper technique for the determination of features is significantly for a specific AI task through high-dimensional information. It is consequently important to complete an examination of various strategies for character determination for the exploration network, specifically with the end goal of improving effective techniques for choice. The method for choosing features improves the effectiveness of AI undertakings for high-dimensional information. To accomplish this target, this paper surveys the many different techniques for the choice of features for high-dimensional information.
    Keywords: feature selection; signal processing; artificial intelligence; high-dimensional data; classification.

Special Issue on: Nano Impact on Next-Gen Biomedical and Environmental Research

  • Application of energy saving and environmental protection material in landscape construction of urban landscape wetland system   Order a copy of this article
    by Yifei Zhang, Yi Liu 
    Abstract: with the strengthening of energy saving and environmental protection requirements of buildings in China, the limitations of traditional landscape construction in energy saving and environmental protection in China are becoming more and more obvious. Based on this, this paper studies the application of energy saving and environmental protection materials in the landscape design of urban garden wetland system, and constructs a material performance analysis model based on logical regression algorithm. From six aspects, the information collection of materials in energy conservation and environmental protection is realized, and the logical regression algorithm is used for comprehensive analysis and evaluation. The material analysis model can make the construction of urban garden wetland system more ecological by comprehensive analysis of different types of materials, according to the environmental protection requirements of landscape construction and the planning scheme of urban garden wetland system. The experimental results show that the material analysis model based on logical regression algorithm has the advantages of quantifiable evaluation and good stability, which can improve the application efficiency of energy saving and environmental protection materials in landscape construction and strengthen the ecological nature of garden wetland system.
    Keywords: logical regression algorithm; urban garden wetland system; energy saving and environmental protection materials; landscape construction.

  • Application analysis of green building materials in urban three dimensional landscape design   Order a copy of this article
    by Hongji Yue, Xuchen Jia 
    Abstract: The current urban three-dimensional landscape design process is mainly based on the three-dimensional simulation of an urban landscape for the overall design. How to achieve the innovation of urban three-dimensional landscape design process with the help of green building materials is the current development trend. Based on this, this paper studies the application of green building materials in urban three-dimensional landscape design. Firstly, the three-dimensional model of urban landscape based on SFM (Structure From Motion) algorithm is proposed, and the autocorrelation function is used to simulate the landscape signal. Through the maximum value of autocorrelation function curve in the process of three-dimensional reconstruction, the restoration of three-dimensional landscape is realised, and then the error of three-dimensional model is analysed. Secondly, the fuzzy evaluation method is used in the simulation evaluation, and the improved SFM three-dimensional reconstruction model is used to analyse the results of the three-dimensional landscape design. Finally, the application value of different types of green building material in urban three-dimensional landscape design is analysed through the design of three-dimensional simulation experiment.
    Keywords: urban three-dimensional landscape design; environmental protection materials; SFM algorithm; three-dimensional model.

  • Effect of surfactants on mechanical and environmental geotechnical properties of loess and bentonite   Order a copy of this article
    by Kui Liu, Kangze Yuan 
    Abstract: In recent years, research on the influence of surfactants on the mechanical and environmental geotechnical properties of loess and bentonite has become a focus of the environmental geotechnical field. Based on this, this paper proposes a mechanical analysis model of loess and bentonite based on the mixed washing leapfrog algorithm, and studies the influence of surfactants on the mechanical and environmental geotechnical properties of loess and bentonite and its quantitative evaluation. Firstly, the data of mechanical strength, composition change, permeability, density change and load-bearing change of loess after adding surfactant are analysed, and then the comprehensive comparative analysis and evaluation of environmental geotechnical characteristics with or without surfactant are carried out by using the mixed washing frog leaping algorithm. Finally, the mechanical analysis model is verified by design experiment. The results show that the mechanical analysis model of loess and bentonite based on the mixed washing leapfrog algorithm has the advantages of high feasibility, high data accuracy and high analysis efficiency, which can realise the quantitative evaluation of the influence of surfactants on the environmental geotechnical characteristics.
    Keywords: shuffle leapfrog algorithm; surfactant; environmental geotechnical characteristics; loess and bentonite; mechanical analysis model.

  • Application of micro and nano bubble technology in water level recovery of water conservancy construction engineering   Order a copy of this article
    by Dongling Zhang, Yuzhen Wang, Fei Luo 
    Abstract: In order to improve the removal efficiency of groundwater pollutants, and improve the ability of groundwater restoration and water level recovery, a micro and nano bubble enhanced remediation technology is proposed. A micro and nano bubble micro observation system was designed, including camera, micro lens, laser and image processing software. Combined with a particle size analyser and interface potential analyser, the basic physical characteristics and migration characteristics of micro and nano bubbles were analysed. According to the obtained characteristics, the particle size distribution and interfacial potential characteristics of micro bubbles are obtained, the existence time and gas mass transfer effect of microbubbles in water body are verified, and the migration rule of microbubbles in water bodies and porous media is obtained. The numerical simulation results show that the micro and nano bubbles have high mass transfer efficiency and long existence time, which can effectively improve the dissolved oxygen of groundwater, improve the activity of microorganisms, achieve the effective removal of pollutants, and promote the in-situ remediation of polluted groundwater.
    Keywords: microbubble technology; water conservancy construction engineering; water level recovery; mass transfer effect; ozone; observation system.