Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Nanotechnology

International Journal of Nanotechnology (IJNT)

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International Journal of Nanotechnology (28 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • A simulation-based study on the disc brake temperature distribution for optimizing hole geometry
    by Shyam Sunder Sharma, Hariharan Raju, Pranay Singh Tomar, Rajesh Jangid, Rahul Khatri 
    Abstract: Disc brakes used in automotive are responsible for braking to ensure a smooth and safe ride. This study deals with the thermal analysis of a disc brake rotor under various geometry of holes cut on the disc rotor surface. The friction on the disc escapes in the form of heat from the surface of the disc rotor. The temperature observed on the surface of the rotor, because of the friction developed between the brake pads and the rotor is analysed using ANSYS 18.1. The rotor is designed by assuming appropriate parameters in SOLIDWORKS 17. The temperature distribution and total heat flux were observed using ANSYS 18.1. The analysis was carried out on different hole geometries i.e. circular, square, 3/4th circular, straight slots, and rotor without holes. The dissipation of heat was found better in disc rotor with holes as compared to rotor without holes. The simulation study shows that the slotted holes on the disc rotor has surface temperature i.e. 89.356
    Keywords: Automotive disc brake; Simulation; Hole geometry; Heat dissipation.

  • Properties of the nanoemulsions with seed oils
    by Ya.O. Ivanova, M.M. Kostromicheva, K.L. Voronina, M.Yu. Koroleva 
    Abstract: Seed oils contain a significant amount of biologically active substances; however, their use in medicine, cosmetics and the food industry is limited because of low solubility in water and high volatility. In this work, stable O/W nanoemulsions with oils and a mixture of surfactants Tween 60 and Span 60 were produced. Mean droplet diameter in nanoemulsion with mustard oil was ~18 nm, almond oil ~25 nm, grapeseed oil ~35 nm, and sunflower oil ~40 nm. All nanoemulsions were stable for more than 30 days. The most stable was nanoemulsion with mustard oil; no phase separated was observed during this period of time.
    Keywords: nanoemulsions; temperature phase inversion method; grapeseed oil; almond oil; sunflower oil; mustard oil.

  • Synthesis of nanopowders Nd2Fe14 B by chemical method
    by O.E. Abdurakhmonov 
    Abstract: The paper presents a description of a new chemical method for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles of the intermetallic compound Nd2Fe14B, which consists of several stages. At the first stage, nanoparticles of neodymium oxide Nd2O3, iron oxide Fe2O3, and iron borate Fe3BO6 are synthesized by chemical deposition methods. At the second stage, the powders were mixed in the required proportion and reduced using a two-stage diffusion-reduction process: first, at 800
    Keywords: chemical synthesis; deposition; diffusion-reduction process; nanopowders Nd2Fe14B; nanoparticles; morphology.

  • Behavioural programs can function as biological genes participating in the social evolution
    by A.A. Amelkina 
    Abstract: This review aims to answer the question whether it is possible to identify such behavioural patterns or programs that largely determine the trajectory of human civilization. Its proposed to search for an answer in the neuroevolutionary paradigm. That means society being considered as a neural network where people are equivalent to neurons, social bonds are equivalent to synapses, and a social group is compared to computational circuit for making collective decisions. The structure of social groups and the general principles of information processing by the group are influenced by biological programs - genes. Genes determine typical profiles of behaviour patterns in individual group members. Besides, learned or imprinted behavioural programs can influence both the group structure and the information flow pathways. The necessity and sufficiency of three parameters are discussed: linguistic, professional, and cultural identities. They are determined by learned behaviour programs and are involved in setting up a social neural network. Whereas linguistic and professional settings are closely related to the efficiency of the individual and for this reason are under strict evolutionary control on the horizon of one or two generations, cultural code settings can have their effect on the time scale of tens and hundreds of generations, and are not so markedly related to individual efficiency. It is in them that we should look for programs setting the long-term settings of large sociomorphic neural networks - at the level of nationalities and supranational civilizations. One example of such tuning is values - a structure of priorities shared by a significant number of members of a social group. Works devoted to vectorization and quantitative comparison of values in groups are considered.
    Keywords: social groups; social behaviour; neuroevolutionary paradigm; sociomorphic neural networks; cultural identity.

  • Al2O3 nanoparticles synthesis, and study its influence on the fire behaviour of nanocomposite materials based on unsaturated polyester resin
    by A. Harhoosh Anmar 
    Abstract: The effect of sodium carbonate on the size formation of Al2O3 nanoparticles was successfully studied, as it was with an increase in the pH of the initial solution from 3.5 to 8, the particle size decrease from 97
    Keywords: nanoparticles; nanocomposite materials; flame retardants; unsaturated polyester resins; polymeric materials; metal oxides.

  • The second quantum revolution: the development of quantum subatomic nanotechnologies
    by S.A. Beznosyuk 
    Abstract: The article analyses the development of quantum nanotechnology based on attosecond physics of the subatomic level of the condensed state. The ways of realizing the main achievements of the second quantum revolution in subatomic nanotechnologies: quantum entanglement, quantum contextuality and quantum dissipativity are considered. A theoretical analysis of the prospects for this direction in the development of quantum subatomic nanotechnologies was carried out within the framework of the theory of thermo field dynamics of a condensed state. The analysis showed that entanglement of subatomic pairs of electrons can be realized using single attosecond pulses. These pairs form the interface between supra-atomic capsules, which localize closed nuclear-electronic subsystems by the Coulomb blockade. The processes of measurement and control of the electronic-nuclear subsystem are carried out by the sensor and actuator control subsystem of secondary low-energy entangled pairs of electrons. Sensory stages of pulsed attosecond measurements alternate with stages of pulsed femtosecond control. In the measurement processes, secondary low-energy entangled pairs of electrons dissipate the energy of the electron-nuclear subsystem. As a result, the process of multiplication of a subsystem of low-energy secondary entangled pairs of electrons in the surrounding dissipative medium of the condensed state occurs. They form a dissipative interface infrastructure at higher levels in the hierarchy of smart quantum materials.
    Keywords: second quantum revolution; quantum subatomic nanotechnology; attosecond physics; quantum entanglement; quantum contextuality; quantum dissipativity; entangled electron pairs; thermofield dynamics; nonequilibrium condensed matter physics.

  • Computer simulation of the neutralization of superoxide radicals by the fullerenol-24 nanomolecular system
    by O.A. Maslova 
    Abstract: This paper presents the results of computer simulation of the process of deactivation of a superoxide ion by a fullerenol molecule 60(OH)24at the level of the semiempirical PM3 method. The electron density distribution for the fullerenol molecule was obtained by modeling at the level B3LYP/6-31G(d,p). To carry out computer modeling, the free available Orca software package was used. The analysis of the presumptive mechanism of the reaction is carried out by simulating different sites of superoxide radical ion docking to one of the carbon atoms of the fullerenol molecule. It is shown that it is energetically favorable for particles of the superoxide ion 2- to dock with the fullerenol surface in neighboring positions. The process of interaction with superoxide radicals of fullerenol with two dissociated OH-groups at the docking carbon atom is energetically more favorable than the process in the case when OH-groups do not dissociate to O-. Understanding such subtleties in the interaction of radical particles and fullerenol in the future will allow the development of effective antioxidant substances of a new generation.
    Keywords: fullerenol; superoxide; radical; computer simulation; interaction; semiempirical method PM3; hybrid functional B3LYP.

  • Planar nanostructures element analysis by use the X-ray radiation emission induced by high energy excitation
    by E.V. Egorov 
    Abstract: The work presents short comparative description of high energy methods applied for characteristical X-ray radiation emission excitation including fluxes of X-ray hard radiation and beams of high energy ions and electrons oriented on the element analysis of planar nanostructures. There are discussed of such analysis possibilities executed in conditions of the hard X-ray exciting fluxes total external reflection on studied surface (TXRF) and in frame of PIXE and electron microprobe methods modified by including into its spectrometric schemes planar X-ray waveguide-resonators. Experimental data confirming high efficiency of these methods for planar nanostructures surface element diagnostics are presented.
    Keywords: TXRF; waveguide-resonator; PIXE; RBS; element diagnostic; X-ray; electron beam; microprobe.

  • The Effect of the Moisture State of Samples on the Change in the Elastic-strength Parameters of Epoxy Polymers During Natural Climatic Aging
    by D.R. Nizin 
    Abstract: The paper provides the results of studying the effect of the moisture state of epoxy polymers on the change in their elastic-strength parameters during natural climatic aging in a temperate continental climate. The object of the study was a polymer material based on Etal-347 modified epoxy resin and Etal-45M hardener. Based on the results of the studies, we determined the similarity of the curves of the change in the tensile strength of the samples under tension in the limiting equilibrium-moisture states (dried and moisture-saturated). Depending on the duration of natural climatic aging, the range of variation in the tensile strength of samples in extreme moisture conditions is from 16 to 34% of the tensile strength in the dried state. The synergistic effect between irreversible structural changes in the polymer matrix under the effect of environmental factors and adsorbed moisture has been identified and quantified, which is expressed both in the expansion and contraction of the reversible moisture range effect. It has been established that for the late stages of natural climatic aging of epoxy polymer samples based on Etal-247 epoxy resin and Etal-45M hardener, a point of maximum elongation under tension does not coincide with the point corresponding to the dried state.
    Keywords: epoxy polymers; moisture content; tensile strength; elongation; reversible changes; irreversible changes; synergistic changes.

  • Composite materials in a binary CuBr SbBr3 system
    by Rustam K. Kamilov 
    Abstract: Simple bromides of copper and antimony are still in a focus of interest as compounds of new complex halides for optoelectronics or possible products of its decomposition. Here the interaction of copper(I) bromide and antimony(III) bromide have been investigated on heating up to 650
    Keywords: Copper(I) bromide; indium(III) bromide; melt crystallization; elemental composition; photoluminescence.

  • Synthesis and perspectives of Ag/In2O3 inverse opal
    by Alisa V. Lyutova 
    Abstract: Indium(III) hydroxide nanopowder has been successfully obtained by hydrolysis of indium chloride in alkaline alcohol solutions. Its suspension has been used to form thick films of In2O3 using a drop-coating method with a following thermal decomposition of indium hydroxide upon the glass substrate. Concentrations of precursors have been varied to influence well a particle size in colloids. The same synthesis has been applied to form In2O3 inverse opals by impregnation of polystyrene opals with an ethanol suspension of In(OH)3 nanopowder of the finest particles. Phase composition, temperature of decomposition and micromorphology of the samples have been investigated by X-ray phase analysis, dynamic light scattering, thermal analysis, transmission and scanning electron microscopies.
    Keywords: indium oxide; nanopowder; inverse opal; impregnation synthesis; indium hydroxide In(OH)3; hydrolysis; thermal decomposition.

  • Experimental investigation on the thermophysical properties and heat storage/retrieval studies of [HMIM]+ cation-based ionic liquids for energy storage application
    by Minjung Lee 
    Abstract: This study aims to examine the thermophysical properties and heat storage/retrieval properties of [HMIM][Tf2N], [HMIM][BF4], and [HMIM][PF6] ionic liquids containing [HMIM]+ cation-based. The experiments involve the analysis of thermal conductivity, specific heat, heat storage/retrieval characteristics, and surface tension. Based on these findings, the molar volume and volatilization enthalpy were calculated. Additionally, a numerical analysis was conducted on [HMIM][Tf2N], [HMIM][BF4], and [HMIM][PF6] ionic liquids, and the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of R-134a to confirm the feasibility of thermal energy storage through evaporation latent heat recovery.
    Keywords: Ionic liquid; Thermal property; T-history; DSC; TGA; Cation.

  • Influence of Convective Heat Transfer on the AC Temperature Amplitude of a Microheater on Glass or Polyimide Substrate
    by Chang-Ui Jeon 
    Abstract: In this study, we address the impact of convective heat transfer on the measured thermal conductivity of a substrate when using the 3 method. The conventional approach assumes negligible convective heat transfer by performing measurements in a vacuum chamber or by regarding the surface as adiabatic. However, if the 3 sensor is exposed to air during the measurement, the convective heat transfer in the air can significantly affect the measured thermal conductivity of the sample. The measurement error is known to depend on the ratio of thermal resistance of substrate conduction and surface convective heat transfer. To quantify this effect, we perform a computational fluid dynamic simulation. It enabled the calculation of temperature amplitude and phase lag of the microheater. An Eagle X glass or a polyimide substrate is considered as the substrate of the 3 sensor. Temperature oscillation at the microheater is calculated depending on the frequency and amplitude of the convective heat transfer coefficient. By comparing the calculated results with the theoretical model considering only one-dimensional conduction heat transfer, we assess the differences and analyze the measurement error of the substrate's thermal conductivity when neglecting the surface convective heat transfer.
    Keywords: 3ω method; convective heat transfer; thermal conductivity measurement; microheater; temperature oscillation.

  • Thermal Contact Resistance Measurement between EXG and Polyimide Substrates under Varying Pressure and Thermal Interfacial Material
    by Gwan-Yong Choi 
    Abstract: In this study, we conducted an experimental analysis of the thermal contact resistance between EXG and polyimide substrates using the bi-directional 3 method. The 3 sensors were fabricated on either an EXG or a polyimide film. The same material as the sensor substrate was placed on the sensor, and the thermal contact resistance in between the sensor and the sample was measured with the applied pressure and the thermal interfacial material. The experimental results revealed decreased thermal contact resistance with increasing applied pressure on the substrate and the sample. Moreover, applying a droplet of ethylene glycol at the interface effectively reduced the thermal contact resistance compared to applying pressure alone. Furthermore, when ethylene glycol was used as the thermal interfacial material, the measurement error of the thermal conductivities of the sample EXG and polyimide film became negligible at 15 and 30 MPa of applied pressure, respectively.
    Keywords: 3ω method; thermal contact resistance; thermal interfacial material; applied pressure.

  • In-situ Turbidity Sensor System for Residential Water Quality Monitoring
    by Joohyun Lee 
    Abstract: Remote monitoring of water quality is becoming more widespread and has the potential to fill gaps in facilities, as well as offer tailored assessments of risks related to the quality of water. We developed a residential water monitoring system based on a miniaturized turbidity sensor that is installed on the side pipe branched off from the main pipeline. Our objective is to design the turbidity sensor integrated pipe system via the CFD simulation analysis and manufacture it using ABS material of 3D printing technology combined with stainless steel. The turbidity sensor is assembled utilizing an infrared LED emitter and phototransistor that are positioned at a 90
    Keywords: water turbidity; water monitoring system; NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Units); turbidity sensor; water quality.

  • Wireless sensing for monitoring nuclear power equipment
    by You-Rak Choi 
    Abstract: In the BOP(Balance of Plant) of the existing commercial NPP(Nuclear Power Plant), which did not consider the application of the monitoring system in the design stage, failures occur more frequently than the primary system as the number of years of operation increases. Adding surveillance technology using wired sensors to existing commercial NPPs' BOPs is highly inefficient in terms of installation, cost, and maintenance. These issues can be resolved using wireless technology, but commercializing wireless technology requires solving EMC(Electro-Magnetic Compatibility) issues and battery replacement cycles in wireless devices. EMC issues are codified in international regulations, and the application of wireless devices to date is strictly regulated to apply only to category C in unsafety systems. NPP is very complex and requires a number of wireless sensors to monitor the facilities in the BOP, and wireless devices can only be put to practical use if they can monitor commercial NPP for more than 18 months, which is scheduled for maintenance without battery replacement. In this study, we developed a high-performance, low-power wireless sensing technology that solves EMC problems.
    Keywords: Nuclear Power Plant; Balance of Plant; Wireless Technology; Low-power Sensing; Electro-Magnetic Compatibility.

  • Effect of thermal contact resistance on heat generation in conduction-cooled binary current lead
    by Seunghyun Song 
    Abstract: This article presents a study on the effect of thermal contact resistance on heat generation in conduction-cooled binary current leads used in superconducting magnet systems. The conduction-cooled superconducting magnet system is composed of various components, including the superconducting coil, cryocooler, thermal link, and vacuum vessel. To generate high magnetic fields, the superconducting magnet is energized by current supplied from a power source at room temperature. However, the main heat load in the system is generated during the charging process, making it crucial to optimize the design of the current leads. The article focuses on several key aspects of optimizing current leads, including the shape of the metal lead, the thermo-electrical properties, and thermal contact resistance of materials which cause the joint heat generation based on material type. By optimizing the current lead design, the heat load during the charging process can be minimized, improving the magnet's performance.
    Keywords: Current lead; heat load; joint heat generation; superconducting magnet system; thermal contact resistance.

  • Thermal analysis of a 3 T cryogen-free superconducting magnet for electromagnetic property measurement system
    by Yojong Choi 
    Abstract: The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) is currently developing a conduction-cooled electromagnetic property measurement system (EMPS) utilizing a cryocooler, thereby eliminating the reliance on liquid helium or liquid nitrogen. The primary objective of this system is to achieve a magnetic field strength of 3 T at the center of the room temperature bore, which serves as the measurement space for the samples. To ensure the stable operation of the NbTi coil, an analysis of the required cooling temperature was conducted to enable the magnet to charge the current and generate the target magnetic field. The analysis revealed that the NbTi coil can operate with a safety margin of 68% at 6 K, and a central magnetic field of 3 T is generated at temperatures below 7 K. Through comprehensive thermal analysis of the entire system, we have confirmed that the system can provide sufficient cooling below 3 K to the superconducting coil prior to operation. Additionally, considering the Joule heating of the metal lead and the heat generated by AC losses in the structure during current application, the temperature rise of NbTi is predicted to be below 5.5 K, thus ensuring the stable generation of the magnetic field. The analysis results demonstrate the feasibility of a cryogen-free, low-temperature superconducting magnet system for conducting electromagnetic property measurement experiments.
    Keywords: cryogen-free; electromagnetic property measurement system; NbTi coil; superconducting magnet; thermal analysis.

  • Development of thermal conductivity measurement system based on cryocooler for broad temperature range
    by Duk Hyung Lee 
    Abstract: Thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperature is one of the important parameters in aerospace, nuclear fusion and superconducting facility. Therefore, broad temperature and continuous measurement are necessary for accurate cryogenic thermal conductivity. Using a cryocooler, the system was designed and fabricated for measuring thermal conductivity from cryogenic to room temperature.To obtain the lowest temperature, the measurement system was optimized and the radiation shield was thermally connected to the second stage for intermediate cooling. The amount of heat leak at first and second stages were predicted based on the calculation and compared with experimental results. Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) sample was cooled by a cryocooler and thermal conductivity was measured from 10 to 100 K. The experimental results showed that the measurement values agreed well within 1% deviation comparing withliterature values.
    Keywords: Thermal Conductivity; Cryocooler; Broad temperature range; Heat leak.

  • Evaluation of the glass transition temperature of EPDM using a dynamic mechanical analyzer
    by Daeho Kim 
    Abstract: The glass transition temperature characteristics of polymer materials as a function of temperature are very important issues in sealing between various components.It is essential to establish techniques and measurement procedure to evaluate their thermo-mechanical properties. In this study, the glass transition temperature evaluation procedure and experimental results of the ethylene propylene diene monometer(EPDM), a highly functional special synthetic rubber, arediscussed using a dynamic mechanical analyser (DMA). The relative standard uncertainties of repeatability and reproducibility in the glass transition temperature measurement of EPDM were evaluated by extrapolation method of the sample heating rateaccording to the ISO standards. For commercial EPDM, 10 specimens in the same batch were processed in vertical and horizontal directions to measure the reproducibility of the glass transition temperature measurement. The relative standard uncertainties for the repeatability and reproducibility of the glass transition temperature were 1.4% and 1.7%, respectively. In addition, the glass transition temperature was measured for 5 types of samples while increasing the addition of plasticizer to the EPDM samples (from 0phr to 40phr). As the addition of plasticize increased, the glass transition temperature decreased by 75% effectively. In conclusion, Tg evaluation can be performed well in a very low temperature range (about -70
    Keywords: DMA (Dynamic mechanical analyzer); Glass transition temperature; EPDM (Ethylene propylene diene monometer); Plasticizer.

  • Temperature and enthalpy of fusion calibration of Calvet calorimeter from -150C to 156C   Order a copy of this article
    by Daeho Kim, Suyong Kwon, Sungjun Lee 
    Abstract: To calibrate a commercial Calvet calorimeter and promote accurate measurement for an unknown sample, a calibration method using reference materials was studied within a wide temperature range of 150 ~ 156 C. We present the results of two experiments that we conducted to calibrate the calorimeter for temperature and enthalpy of fusion measurements. The calibration materials included cyclopentane and n-heptane in the low-temperature region, in addition to water, gallium, and indium, which are fixed-point realisation materials specified in ITS-90 at temperatures above 0 C. We determined the onset temperature and enthalpy of fusion at a heating rate of 0.10.4 K/min by analysing the heat flow signal and calculating the area under the corresponding curve. For each material, we obtained calibrated temperatures that showed a valid range with a maximum deviation of 0.17 C from the fitted line. We successfully calibrated enthalpies of fusion with relative uncertainties ranging from 0.38% for water to 3.56% for gallium. We found that the overall uncertainty of the Calvet calorimeter was within 5.3%. Future research efforts will aim to further reduce the uncertainty by using a heating cell with Joule heating to enable continuous data collection over the entire temperature range.
    Keywords: Calvet calorimeter; temperature calibration; onset temperature; heat flow calibration; enthalpy of fusion.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNT.2023.10060801

Special Issue on: Smart Bio-Signal Acquisition System

  • Predictive protein module based on PPI network and double clustering algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Sicong Huo, Quansheng Liu, Tao Lu 
    Abstract: Protein-protein interaction (PPI) is a kind of biomolecular network which plays an important role in biological activities. In order to improve the accuracy of protein function module prediction, obtain the protein function module and run timely, this paper proposes a predictive protein module based on PPI network and double clustering algorithm (ISCC), which considers the characteristics of PPI network and considers nodes as two-dimensional data points. First of all, improved Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (IDBSCAN) determines the central cluster, and then uses Spectral Clustering (SC) to redivide the weight; secondly, CFSFDP and chameleon algorithm are used to filter the similarity of the central cluster, and Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used to get the final clustering result. Finally, the experiments are compared with CDUN, EA, MCL and MCODE in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, F value and the number of protein functional modules. The experimental results show that the F value of ISCCD is 70% higher than that of EA, the number of recognition modules is 257 higher than that of CDUN, and the running time is 494 s faster than that of MCODE
    Keywords: PPI network; protein function module prediction; clustering; SVM; IDBSCAN.

  • Intelligent overlay algorithm for medical data management based on wireless communication technology and feature fusion   Order a copy of this article
    by Changrong Peng, Xiaodong Zhang, Qian Liu, Xiaofang Zhao, Chenyang Dai 
    Abstract: Medical data management through wireless communication system become essential to make data available at all time. To address the problem of poor quality of management, a intelligent overlay algorithm based on wireless communication technology and feature fusion is proposed. The algorithm first uses sensors remote sensing equipment to collect patient data and transmit them by wireless communication, followed by image and data filtering, then feature extraction and feature fusion, and finally seamless overlaying by projection model. The results show that the spatial frequency and average gradient of the superimposed patient data management meets the requirements, indicating that the resultant data after the application of the sensing data is superimposition algorithm based on wireless communication technology and feature fusion retain the detail components of the patient data more realistically, with good clarity, and the image information is better maintained.
    Keywords: wireless communication technology; feature fusion; medical data; sensors; intelligent overlay algorithm.

  • Evaluation method for colour matching using artificial intelligence technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Lijuan Yao, Ling Tang 
    Abstract: The existing colour matching evaluation methods have the problem of fuzzy colour attributes, which leads to high image distortion. This paper designs an evaluation method of public space indoor landscape colour matching based on artificial intelligence technology. The method quantifies the colour layout of the public space, determines the main colour of the space, identifies the colour attributes of the indoor landscape, deploys the combined colour phase ring, uses artificial intelligence technology to extract the colour matching features, calculates the colour distance combined with the transition colour frequency information, and adopts the colour quantisation algorithm to set the evaluation model. The experiment results show that the average distortions of the evaluation method and the other two evaluation methods is 30.12, 38.96, are 38.87, respectively, which proves that the colour matching evaluation method combined with artificial intelligence technology has higher use value.
    Keywords: artificial intelligence technology; colour layout; colour matching; evaluation method; public space; interior landscape;.

  • Stereoscopic display of architectural design images based on virtual reality technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Ling Tang, Lijuan Yao 
    Abstract: The current image stereoscopic display method mainly displays images stereoscopically from the perspective of human left and right eye visual imaging, which not only displays images with distortion and missing details, but also makes it difficult to realise interaction for complex image stereoscopic display. This paper proposes a stereoscopic display method of architectural design images based on virtual reality technology. The images are drawn using DIBR technology and the depth images are processed using Gaussian filtering and so on. After designing the virtual interaction of the image stereoscopic display scene, EON is used to analyse the lighting of the building exterior and realise the stereoscopic display of the image. The simulation experimental data of the stereoscopic display method show that the proposed image stereoscopic display method relatively improves the display effect by about 66.7% and has good adaptability for different grey value images.
    Keywords: architectural exterior; design images; image presentation; stereoscopic presentation; virtual interaction; virtual reality technology.

  • Network security analysis of diseases reporting in wireless sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhang Yanling, Zhang Ting 
    Abstract: In order to solve the problem of low security in the process of direct reporting of traditional infectious diseases like ring worm, chicken pox, flu, cold etc, the corresponding network direct report security model is established by wireless communication technology. On this basis, the security risk level of wireless communication network is divided. This paper analyses the negative factors that affect network security from hacker attack, high risk vulnerability of software and user information tampering. Combined with the analysis results of multiple security mechanisms of the direct report network of infectious diseases, the quantitative evaluation of network security is realized, that is, the modelling and analysis of the network direct report security of infectious diseases is realized. Compared with traditional security model, it is found that the network direct report security model can reduce the loss and error of infectious disease data, which has a high application value. The proposed work computes less error rate of minimum 0.04 MB to maximum 0.14 MB. This error data is very less when compared to traditional techniques.
    Keywords: direct epidemic reporting; epidemic network; infectious diseases; security model; wireless communication technology.

  • Deep learning-based feature extraction coupled with multi-class SVM for COVID-19 detection in the IoT era   Order a copy of this article
    by Auwalu Mubarak, Sertan Serte, Fadi Al-Turjman, Rabiu Aliyu, Zubaida Said, Mehmet Ozsoz 
    Abstract: The deadly coronavirus virus (COVID-19) was confirmed as a pandemic by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in December 2019. Prompt and early identification of suspected patients is necessary to monitor the transmission of the disease, increase the effectiveness of medical treatment and as a result, decrease the mortality rate. The adopted method to identify COVID-19 is the Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), the method is affected by the shortage of RT-PCR kits and complexity. Medical imaging using deep learning has proved to be one of the most efficient methods of detecting respiratory diseases, but efficient deep learning architecture and low data are affecting the performance of the deep learning models. To detect COVID-19 efficiently, a deep learning model based feature extraction coupled with Support Vector Machine (SVM) was employed in this study, Seven pre-trained models were employed as feature extractors and the extracted features are classified by multi-class SVM classifier to classify CT scan images from COVID-19, common pneumonia and healthy individuals. To improve the performance of the models and prevent overfitting, training was also carried out on augmented images. To generalise the model's performance and robustness, three datasets were merged in the study. The model with the best performance is the VGG19 which was trained with augmented images: it achieved an accuracy of 96%, a sensitivity of 0.936, a specificity 0f 0.967, an F1 score of 0.935, a precision of 0.934, a Yonden Index of 0.903 and AUC of 0.952. The best model shows that COVID-19 can be detected efficiently on CT scan images.
    Keywords: artificial intelligence; COVID-19; SVM; feature extraction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNT.2021.10040115

Special Issue on: Eco-Friendly and Sustainable Cognitive Green Nano-Technologies for the Mitigation of Emerging Environmental Pollutants

  • Preparation of titanium dioxide composite nanomaterials using copper catalysis and their dynamic adsorption and photocatalytic performance in water treatment   Order a copy of this article
    by Ye Tian 
    Abstract: The aim is to investigate the dynamic adsorption performance of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposite materials in water treatment, providing direction for water purification. The copper-catalysed living free-radical polymerization method polymerizes the prepared TiO2 particles with tertiary amine polymer to manufacture the TiO2 polymer nanocomposite materials. The prepared TiO2 nanocomposite materials are then modified to obtain the quaternised TiO2 polymer nanocomposite materials (quaternised TiO2@poly(DEAEMA)), which are characterized and analysed. Finally, the water treatment performance of quaternised TiO2@poly(DEAEMA) is judged through photocatalysis and adsorption experiments, while the antibacterial performance of the prepared materials is judged using the common Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Results demonstrate that the quaternised TiO2@poly(DEAEMA) polymer nanocomposite materials are completely and tightly wrapped, presenting a flower-like appearance, with a significantly-increased diameter and an average size of about 600nm, which can be utilized as the pollutant adsorbent. Water treatment simulation reveals the fastest adsorption rate and the highest adsorption capacity of quaternised TiO2@poly(DEAEMA), reaching 265 mg/g given the same reaction time. The catalytic removal rate in ultraviolet and visible light reaches 94%, and the photocatalysis of visible light reaches 69%. Until the reaction lasts for 45 minutes, its antibacterial activity is optimal, and the diameter of the inhibition zone against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus exceeds 16 mm. Therefore, the prepared TiO2 nanomaterials have high adsorption properties, good photocatalysis performance, and excellent antibacterial properties, which can provide an experimental basis for the treatment and purification of water resources in the industry.
    Keywords: titanium dioxide; water treatment; dynamic adsorption; photocatalysis; nanocomposite material.