International Journal of Nuclear Governance, Economy and Ecology
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International Journal of Nuclear Governance, Economy and Ecology (3 papers in press)
The proposed drafting process for nuclear security regulations: Egyptian case study by Walid Zidan Abstract: Egypts concern is to enhance, maintain, and improve the national nuclear security regime, including the legislative and regulatory framework. Egypt believes that a nuclear security legislative and regulatory framework better enables the state to prevent, detect, and respond effectively to criminal and other unauthorised acts involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. In this work, the proposed drafting process for nuclear security regulations in Egypt will be presented, taking into consideration the International Atomic Energy Authority model regulations and guidance as well as the nuclear security regulations of some selected countries, to show the relationship between the evolution of nuclear and radiation activities and their national regulations. This study presents four different nuclear security regulations to be drafted by the Egyptian nuclear and radiological regulatory authority, covering security of nuclear and radiation facilities as well as nuclear and other radioactive material during handling, use, storage, import, export, and transport. Keywords: legislation; nuclear security; Egypt; drafting process.
Illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials: separating myths from realities by Sergiy Kondratov Abstract: The paper addresses some entrenched myths concerning illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials as well as the associated threats of proliferation of nuclear weapons as well as nuclear and radiological terrorism in terms of insufficient reliability and accuracy of data and information on illicit trafficking incidents contained in relevant databases. Arguments are presented that, at least partly, the problem is derived from the dubious definitions given to the term "illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials" in IAEA documents and national legislations, and domination of a regulatory approach to this definition as well as data reporting and processing procedures. Some measures to improve analytical efforts to minimise deficiencies in this field are proposed. Keywords: nuclear materials; radioactive materials; illicit trafficking; non-proliferation of nuclear weapons; illicit trafficking database; reporting procedures; nuclear security; nuclear terrorism; radiological terrorism; threat assessment; International Atomic Energy Agency.
The state of progress and associated challenges in the global deployment of small modular nuclear reactors by Lauren Boldon, Piyush Sabharwall, Li Liu Abstract: Small modular nuclear reactors (SMRs) represent an innovative class of reactors with the advantages demonstrated through the reliable history of the current fleet coupled with a unique operational paradigm that may facilitate their deployment. This paradigm refers to new markets: nuclear hybrid energy systems; baseload generation to back intermittent renewable sources or process heat applications; decentralised electricity grid generation, where electricity demand may not support large reactors or the water supply is limited; and construction of single modules at a time, allowing new investors to enter the market with lower investment risks. With the increase in wind and solar generation worldwide, the inherent electricity grid and market fluctuations must be addressed. SMRs offer one potential solution; however, the social, political, and economic challenges must be overcome in regions where nuclear power is already prevalent. Other obstacles exist in new nuclear markets, including the development of a regulatory body and supply chain. Keywords: small modular nuclear reactors; regulatory challenges; new nuclear deployment; market potential; international standards; energy security; hybrid energy systems; combined heat and power; intermittent renewable energy; electricity market fluctuations; availability; fuel cost.