Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Nuclear Energy Science and Technology

International Journal of Nuclear Energy Science and Technology (IJNEST)

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International Journal of Nuclear Energy Science and Technology (10 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Comparison of TRIGA reactor steady-state thermal-hydraulic predictions by COMSOL multiphysics with experimental data   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmed K. Alkaabi, Jeffrey King 
    Abstract: This paper presents United States Geological Survey TRIGA one- and multiple-channel thermal hydraulic (TH) models developed using the COMSOL code to examine the effects of coolant cross-flow on coolant, cladding, and fuel temperatures. There are considerable variations in the profiles of the coolant axial temperatures and outlet temperatures as predicted by multiple-channel model from those predicted by the one-channel model. The one-channel model forecasts that the temperature of the coolant within the fuel rings increases axially with the height of the core, whereas the temperature of the coolant predicted by the multiple-channel model increases as a function of core height in the B-, C-, and D-rings, peaks and then reduces within the E-, F-, and G-rings. Within the multiple-channel model, the coolant appears to flow from the cores outermost opening at the lower side to the centre of the core. Finally, predictions of all models are benchmarked with the experimental data.
    Keywords: TRIGA reactors; multiple-channel models; thermal hydraulic analysis.

  • Spallation reaction study to improve cross-section measurements of fission products in nuclear waste using Cs-137 on proton or deuteron ranging from 0.1 to 2.4 GeV   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdessamad Didi, Hamid Amsil, Hamid Bounouira, Khalid Laraki, Hamid Marah, Hassane Dekhissi, Mohammed Yjjou 
    Abstract: The aim of this research was to study the spallation reaction of a caesium-137 target using a beam of protons or deuterons for the transmutation of nuclear waste, as well as evaluate the differences in the production cross section of the secondary spallation products, such as neutrons, protons, deuterons, pions (pi_+, pi_-, pi_0), helions, tritons, and alphas. The work presented in this article provides the necessary scientific evidence for confidently implementing the MCNP-calculated transmutation of caesium-137 using a spallation reaction. In our research we evaluated and improvised the different physical characteristics of the fission products of the caesium-137 target during a spallation reaction.
    Keywords: transmutation; waste energy; spallation; caesium-137; MCNP; cross section; Monte Carlo.

  • Real time sub-assembly identification through IMU data fusion with vision sensor for an inspection system   Order a copy of this article
    by Thirumalaesh Ashokkumar, N.A. Nibarkavi, S. Joesph Winston, Joel Jose, Rathika P D 
    Abstract: Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), is a two loop, sodium cooled, pool type reactor. The PFBR reactor core is made up of sub- assemblies holding core material in hexagonal lattice. The inspection of core internals is essential to ascertain the structural integrity of the core components. During the commissioning of the reactor, this inspection will be of importance for the qualification of the core components after the assembly and integration, which will give confidence in successfully running the reactor. The Reactor Core Viewing System in Room Temperature (RCVS-RT) is a system that has been developed to aid in this process for the inspection of the reactor core components. RCVS-RT is designed to introduce a vision probe through the reactor top shielding through the observation port into the core top and then into the extracted sub- assembly slot to reach up to the grid plate top for inspection. The RCVS has a linear radial, rotational theta and an azimuth linear vertical axis to articulate the camera pipe during deployment. The RCVS-RT is tested and qualified on a mock test setup to qualify the system on a 19 dummy sub-assembly arrangement. Since the orientation is completely lost during the deployment of camera probe, it is imperative to implement a feature to overlay the orientation information into the vision data for assisting the user during inspection. This work explores fusing non- contact sensors to a vision sensor to achieve orientation recognition of the RCVS- RT. The use of non-contact sensors helps in maintaining sterile core components without having the inspection tools interacting with them. It also ensures data that is reliable. A 10 DOF GY-87 IMU sensor that comprises of a HMC5883L is used with the vision sensor. The sensor module has a Magnetometer, MPU6050 Accelerometer and Gyroscope and a BMP180 Air pressure sensor. Using the orientation of the RCVS-RT and the numbering of the extracted sub assembly, the numbering of the adjacent sub-assemblies is deduced from the core geometry. This allows for a straight forward identification of the subassemblies in the core. Another simpler test setup was designed to check the sensor data fusion to have orientation overlaid on vision data.
    Keywords: PFBR; RCVSRT; data fusion; orientation identification; sub-assembly numbering algorithm.

  • Determination of radiological hazards due to alpha emitters from ceramics used in Iraq   Order a copy of this article
    by Sara SalihNayif, Elham Jasim Mohammed, Abdalsattar Kareem Hashim, Ali Abojassim, Hussien Abid Ali Bakir Mraity 
    Abstract: The sealed can technique was used in this work to determine the amount of radioactivity (alpha emission) of imported ceramic tiles that are used in different kinds of building in Iraq. The resulting data showed that the radon concentration varied from 22.105 to 302.482 Bq/m3 with an average of 162.293 Bq/m3. The effective radium content ranged from 0.079 to 1.087 Bq/kg with an average value of 0.583 Bq/kg. The uranium concentration varied from 1.192 to 16.313 Bq/kg with an average value of 16.313 Bq/kg. After obtaining those results and comparing them with the global average and permissible limits recommended by international scientific agencies, such as ICRP and UNSCEAR, it was found that the considered ceramic samples are safe for local use.
    Keywords: alpha emitters; ceramic; radiological hazards; closed-can technique.

  • Xe and Kr extraction for Th-U sustainable ICMSR fuel   Order a copy of this article
    by Iza Shafera Hardiyanti, A. Suparmi, Andang Widi Harto 
    Abstract: the Innovative Compact Molten Salt Reactor (ICMSR) is a nuclear reactor designed to use thorium as the main fissile fuel to achieve sustainable fuel resources. ICMSR has the inherent safety required as an advanced reactor. This reactor uses liquid fuel salt. The fuel contains NaF-ThF4-UF4 (75-19.4-5.6) % mole of fuel salt with 19.75% uranium-235 enrichment. ICMSR uses graphite as moderator, Hastelloy-N as reactor vessel and NaF-KF (50-50) % mole as intermediate coolant. Fission yields produced by ICMSR include Xe and Kr. These isotopes need to be removed from the reactor because they reduces fuel utilisation. This paper describes the effect of the extraction of Xe and Kr isotopes on the criticality of ICMSR. Calculation is done by using MCNP6. The results show that the extraction of Xe and Kr on ICMSR increased the criticality and produced 2.661E+08 Ci actinide fission products
    Keywords: ICMSR fuel; thorium sustainable fuel; Xe and Kr extraction; criticality; fission yield.

  • BAEC TRIGA research reactor: 35 years experience   Order a copy of this article
    by Md. Abdul Malek Soner, Abdullah Al Mahmud, Md. Moazzem Hossain, Md. Sayed Hossain, Md. Mobasher Ahmed, Md. Rakibul Hasan, Md. Bodhroddoza Shohag, Nusrat Jahan, Mohammad Mezbah Uddin, Ashraful Haque 
    Abstract: BAEC TRIGA Research Reactor (BTRR) is the only nuclear reactor in Bangladesh. Its a valuable tool for a wide variety of research accomplishments and serves as an excellent source of neutrons. BTRR has been operating since 14 September 1986, and is used in various fields of research and utilisation. BTRR is continuously playing its part in the development of the nuclear sector in Bangladesh. Excluding some incidents, BTRR operation has been successfully carried out till now. The few incidents, such as a decay tank incident and others, were solved mostly by local specialists and in some cases with the help of IAEA and experts from abroad. Installation of digital control console was a big step to strengthen the operational safety. The purpose of this paper is to present 35 years of operating experience of the sole reactor in Bangladesh. Maintenance experience, some modification and upgradation work are also presented through this work.
    Keywords: BTRR; N-16 decay tank; SAR; TRIGA Mark-II reactor.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNEST.2022.10053716
  • Estimating annual effective dose and excess of the lung risk factor of radon gas in University of Al-Hamdaniya buildings   Order a copy of this article
    by Malik H. Kheder, Hanaa N. Azeez 
    Abstract: Radioactive radon gas is a source of environmental pollution, especially in places where radon levels are high. Radon gas concentrations must be kept at their lowest levels and below globally acceptable limits for a safe environment, which can be accomplished by taking frequent measurements of the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR), lung cancer incidence per million people per year (LCC), and annual effective dose (AED) to identify and fix high-concentration areas. In this study, radon gas concentration was measured in the air of several buildings from the University of Al-Hamdaniya using the CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detector. The measured radon concentrations ranged from 19.24 to 64.60 Bq/m3, with an average of 41.54 Bq/m3. The effective annual dose ranged from 0.48 to 1.62 mSv/y. The lifetime cancer risk was 1.86 x 10-3 to 6.26 x 10-3, and the lung cancer cases per million person-years were 20.94 x 10-9 to 70.33 x 10-9. The mean radon concentration obtained was less than the World Health Organization (WHO) reference level of 100 Bq/m3.
    Keywords: radon concentrations; effective annual dose; CR-39 detector; alpha potential energy; lung risk factor.

  • Transfer factors of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K from fertilised soil to different types of field crops in Tikrit City, Iraq   Order a copy of this article
    by Laith Najam, Imad Hussain, Rabee Alkhayat, Taha Wais 
    Abstract: Natural radionuclide activity concentrations in fertilised soil and field crops, as well as the transfer factor from fertilised soil to field crops, were measured. The measurements were carried out using gamma ray spectroscopy with a NaI (TI) detector. The geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) for soil-to-crop transfer factors for each study site were 0.57(1.37), 0.41(1.53), and 0.41(1.51) for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, respectively. The geometric mean transfer factor of 232Th in the present study is 19 times higher than the world mean value, whereas the geometric mean transfer factors of 226Ra and 40K are less. the results show that the fertilised soil samples and field crops pose no radioactive risk and that there are no immediate health risks associated with the use of these samples in the areas under investigation. Furthermore, there was no correlation between 232Th and 226Ra concentrations, possibly because these radionuclides are transported differently in soil.
    Keywords: fertilised soil; field crops; transfer factor; gamma spectroscopy; arid area.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNEST.2022.10053092
  • Morphological analysis of debris obtained from melt coolability experiment using CaO-B2O3 corium simulant   Order a copy of this article
    by Vijay Kumar Pandey, Shrikant Verma, Rajendra Kumar Duchaniya, Arun K. Nayak, Upender Pandel 
    Abstract: The present study is focused on debris analysis obtained from melt coolability experiment. Melt gets fragmented upon interaction with water and get quenched while forming a porous debris bed. This debris bed is coolable by natural circulation. Quenching of the melt pool has been discussed in the central region in the test section. The agglomeration of melt debris and the formation of solid cake regions adversely affected the coolability of the porous debris bed. The characterization study of debris is carried out. The debris size range was found from 1 cm to 3 cm. The porosity of the debris bed was measured about 53% using the volumetric method. The data represents a systematic study of the debris agglomeration phenomenon and debris size distribution which is necessary for the development of new ways to mitigate agglomerations of debris to enable the prediction of the debris coolability in various melt coolability scenarios.
    Keywords: binary oxidic melt; debris coolability; melt coolability; SEM; debris morphology; melt coolability; debris agglomeration.

  • Sustainable and improved use of uranium oxide fuel through a proposed PWR-CANDU nuclear fuel cycle   Order a copy of this article
    by Robert Sogbadji, Rex Abrefah, Griffin Wasike 
    Abstract: The global energy transition agenda has led to a corresponding increase in clean energy. Nuclear power is therefore expanding rapidly against the ecological concerns of low power density fossil fuels plants, leading to increased demand for nuclear fuels. This is expected to put a strain on the world uranium resource. This work analyses the reuse of PWR spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a CANDU reactor. In this study, the PWR SNF produced extra energy of 38% in the CANDU as compared to the use of traditional natural uranium fuel. This improved fuel economy. The fissile content of the PWR SNF was harnessed without any chemical reprocess thereby preventing access to nuclear material for nuclear proliferation activities. PWR-CANDU nuclear fuel cycle reduced the expected strain on the available uranium reserves for fresh Uranium fuel for the once-through CANDU cycle, thereby decreasing environmental degradation which occur through continuous mining of uranium.
    Keywords: nuclear fuel cycle; burnup; actinides; PWR; CANDU; proliferation; energy transition;.