International Journal of Migration and Residential Mobility
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International Journal of Migration and Residential Mobility (4 papers in press)
REFORMING LABOUR IMMIGRATION POLICIES OF HOST COUNTRIES TO STAMP OUT LABOUR TRAFFICKING IN THE ASEAN REGION by Ferdinand Joseph Abstract: Human trafficking, including labour trafficking cripples the ASEAN labour hosting countries specially Malaysia and Thailand. Although labour trafficking within ASEAN nations prevails due to the existence of several root causes, this article accentuates, economic inequality between ASEAN nations, covert nature of trafficking regime, overlapping nature of human smuggling and human trafficking, migration policies of host countries are the primary root causes for labour trafficking. Practically, the efforts of ASEAN, including its own convention against trafficking in persons, bi-lateral agreements between its member states, as well as enactments of anti-trafficking laws by individual ASEAN member states have failed to stamp out human trafficking or labour trafficking completely within the region. This article emphasises the urgency of reforming labour immigration policies of ASEAN labour hosting countries to root out labour trafficking and proposes a model policy reform in labour immigration, employment, labour market research, labour regulation and surveillance of employers and employees. Keywords: labour trafficking; southeast Asia; human smuggling; immigration policies; economic inequality; covert nature; human trafficking; overlapping; neighbourhood watch; entrepreneurs; memorandum of understanding.
Drawing an unequivocal connection between Democracy and Migration: The Case of Malian Youths in Sub-Saharan Africa by Seun Bamidele Abstract: Drawing an unequivocal connection between migration and democracy has so far been an ignored field of African academic request. This is fairly astounding, since migration suggests key conversation starters to the meaning of democratization. While huge numbers of the contemporary points in migration inquire about, for example, youth migration and youths rights in governmental issues, all difficult the compartment model of the country state particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, can without much of a stretch be connected to bigger inquiries of democracy and majority rule advancement, this is once in a while done. In democratization inquire about, outside elements and impacts from which may likewise be causal elements of migration were for since quite a while ago concurred just little consideration in political actors based speculations of administration change. Similar remains constant on account of the insightful concentration from the mid-1990s onwards, when inquire about interests moved to the union of new majority rule governments. Migrants did not figure on the motivation among the different operator of progress. However, the rise of migrants as political performing actors is one of the principle developments in the way democracy is standardized. In migration studies, despite what might be expected, democracy is a factor once in a while mulled over separated from the exemplary fair examinations on migrants' political conduct. Thinking around migration and democracy this article analyze the blame lines between democracy and migration in connection to Malian youth in Sub-Saharan Africa. Keywords: Democracy; Youth; Migration; Mali; Sub-Saharan Africa.
Impact of River Erosion on Livelihood and Coping Strategies of Displaced People in South-Eastern Bangladesh by Prabal Barua Abstract: Bangladesh is situated in riverine and deltaic region in south-Asia where riverbank erosion is a recurrent or catastrophic climate induced disaster in Bangladesh. The present study has been undertaken to investigate the impact of riverbank erosion on lives and livelihoods of the displaced people in the South-Eastern coastal area of Bangladesh. Basically, primary data has been used for finalizing the manuscript. Both quantitative and qualitative data have been used through participant observation, in-depth interviews, focus group discussion and questionnaire survey. The study reveals that riverbank erosion is addressing displacement, hidden hunger and poverty, loss of land and identity of coastal people. Besides, erosion affects persons face social, economic, cultural and political stigma in their community. The foremost drivers that stimulus the vulnerability extents are livelihood approaches and entrance to food, water and health facilities in the study areas. But Until now, little research attention has been given on problems people living in the study areascoastal areas face. People have used different types of Indigenous Knowledge (IK) to reduce erosion or the sufferings of the affected people. It is a wonder now, how long these affected people will be left open to this disaster of this century which is enriched by modern knowledge and technology. The findings of this study are vital for policymakers to articulate and implement effective approaches and programs to reduce vulnerability and to increase the local adaptation processes in order to improve such households livelihood all over Bangladesh. Keywords: Riverbank Erosion; Displaced people; coastal people; Indigenous Knowledge.
Migration and Wage Labor: A Case study of Ghanaians in New York City, 1957-2010 by Abdul Kuba Abstract: Ghanaian migration to the United States is considered a displacement caused by poverty, political instability and the desire for one to improve his or her economic and social status. Such perceptions are usually based on stereotypes rather than theoretically informed empirical evidence. This idea is influenced by media images of massive refugee flows of Africa to the United States. Like any other African immigrants, Ghanaian migration to the United States can be viewed in two main forms; involuntary and voluntary. The involuntary migration experience of Ghanaians in the United States date to the sixteenth century when Ghanaians were brought to North America as slaves to provide labor for the "New World." Voluntary migration of Ghanaian, on the other hand, became visible during the second half of the twentieth century after the country gained its independence from the British.
From the twentieth century, Ghanaians were motivated by the need for higher education to fill the vacuum left by their colonial masters, and to better their economic and social conditions. Migration to New York City was greatly influenced by the community of Ghanaians created by the first wave of Ghanaian immigrants in New York. This community gave new immigrants hope of a better life in the United States. This paper examines the main factors that account for incessant follow of Ghanaian to New York City, the impact of such migration on identity formation in the United States and New York in particular. Methodologically, the paper employs the qualitative approach by examining newspapers reports, oral interviews and various secondary sources exploring migration and labor history.
Keywords: Immigrants; Diaspora; Labor; Ghanaians; New York City; Association; Identity.