Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Materials and Product Technology

International Journal of Materials and Product Technology (IJMPT)

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International Journal of Materials and Product Technology (30 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Effect of Untreated and Deep Cryotreated Tungsten Carbide Electrodes on PMEDM Performance of AISI 304 Stainless Steel   Order a copy of this article
    by Munmun Bhaumik, Kalipada Maity 
    Abstract: Powder Mixed Electro Discharge Machining (PMEDM) is the expansion of conventional Electro Discharge Machining (EDM) where powder particles are mixed in the dielectric fluid for acquiring better surface finish and enhancing machining efficiency. Cryotreatment of the electrode is introduced in this study which reduced the tool wear, thus machining cost. In this investigation, SiC powder particles were suspended in kerosene dielectric and the effect of control parameters, cryotreated double tempered (CT2) electrode have been studied on surface crack density (SCD), surface roughness (Ra), material removal rate (MRR) and tool wear rate (TWR). Powder concentration, duty cycle, pulse on time, peak current, and gap voltage were used as control parameters. EDM operation on AISI 304 stainless steel is performed using untreated (UT) and CT2 tungsten carbide (WC) electrodes. It was found that higher material removal rate and superior surface finish obtained in PMEDM over conventional EDM. CT2 electrode gives less TWR and lesser amount of surface cracks than that of UT electrode.
    Keywords: Cryotreatment; material removal rate; powder mixed electro discharge machining; surface crack density; surface roughness; tool wear rate.

  • Photon Doppler velocimetry measurements of the impact velocity during electromagnetic pulse welding of copper-steel tubular joints   Order a copy of this article
    by Irene Kwee, Wim De Waele, Koen Faes 
    Abstract: Tubular copper to steel joints were manufactured by electromagnetic pulse welding, during which the impact velocity was measured with photon Doppler velocimetry. The reduction in inner diameter and the remaining cross-sectional area of the target tube were determined after welding. Tube-to-tube configurations with an internal support exhibited a larger remaining cross-sectional area, compared to the configuration without internal support. Moreover, for the tube-to-rod configuration, the initial velocity drop immediately after impact dropped down to zero, whereas for the tube-to-tube configurations, a velocity drop to an intermediate level was found. The velocity and acceleration increased with an increase of the discharge energy. The acceleration was positive up to at least 9 us, with an expected turning point situated between 9 us and 11 us. The acceleration was still positive at the moment of impact at a stand off distance of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm, but was likely negative at 2.0 mm.
    Keywords: electromagnetic pulse welding; photon Doppler velocimetry; PDV; impact velocity; copper to steel tubular joints; dissimilar welds.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10035673
  • Investigation of Polishing Parameters and Slurry Composition on Germanium Chemical Mechanical Planarization using Response Surface Methodology   Order a copy of this article
    by Apeksha Gupta, Karthik Shathiri, Vidyasagar Shilapuram, Manivannan Ramachandran 
    Abstract: Chemical mechanical polishing/planarization (CMP) stays a widely used process for complete planarization in semiconductor fabrication. CMP process provides surface uniformity, high selectivity, low defects with the desired material removal rate. The removal rate is influenced by various independent parameters namely turntable speed, down pressure, slurry pH, and H2O2 concentration. Modeling the CMP process from fundamental principles is limited. Hence, in this study, the design of the experimental methodology has been adopted to design the CMP process. Different models such as linear, quadratic, two-factor interaction, and cubic mathematical were developed and statistically analyzed in identifying the suitable model by Box-Behnken design. The consequence of each parameter and their interactions on Ge removal rate is analyzed. A quadratic model is proposed from the outcome. The predicted values achieved using model equations exhibited appropriate fit by experimental values (R2 value for rutile and anatase as 0.943 and 0.942 respectively). The present work verified that response surface methodology and Box-Behnken design can be expeditiously functional for modeling of chemical mechanical planarization.
    Keywords: hydrogen peroxide; removal rate; Box-Behnken design; modeling.

  • Tribological properties of MoS2 thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering technique   Order a copy of this article
    by Recai Fatih Tunay, Mehmet Poyraz 
    Abstract: This study aims to reduce the friction and wear losses of AISI440C steel, which is preferred in some machine elements like bearing balls, valves, oil pumps, cutters, springs, cams and scissors. The AISI440C substrates were coated with thin film MoS2 which provides low friction and wear. During the coating, steel disc groups were obtained by changing the parameters of deposition including the radio frequency sputtering power and the deposition temperature. The thickness value of the lubricating MoS2 films were determined with a scanning electron microscope. The hardness and elasticity modules of the MoS2 coatings were determined. The data showing friction coefficient-distance relation of wear tests was obtained and the average friction coefficients, wear amounts and wear trace widths were reached. In this way, how changes in substrate deposition temperature and RF sputtering power affect tribological properties were interpreted. As a result, tribological optimisation of the most suitable coating pair parameter was provided.
    Keywords: thin film coating; physical vapour deposition; wear; friction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10034907
  • Optimal Design of the Key Structure of Planetary Concrete Mixers Based on EDEM   Order a copy of this article
    by Tao Wang, Zhiyong He 
    Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to further improve the mixing uniformity of concrete aggregates, thereby improving the quality and mixing efficiency of concrete. Taking the structure of a planetary concrete mixer produced by a company as a reference, the discrete element software EDEM was adopted to simulate the material mixing process and to analyze the mixing uniformity. It is found in the simulation that the aggregates at the side wall of the mixing tank are not mixed evenly when the shape of the side scraper of the mixer is modified from a flat surface to a curved surface. The results show that the structural optimization makes the trajectory of the aggregates more complicated and improves the mixing quality, the mixing uniformity of the three aggregates being increased by 16%, 10.1%, and 22.1% respectively. The simulation results of the discrete element can provide reference for actual product design.
    Keywords: Planetary mixer; inefficient mixing area; Discrete element method; Structural optimization.

  • Research on Simulation Experiment of the Corn Seed Precision Metering Device Based on Pro/E   Order a copy of this article
    by Hui Yan, Duo Long, Ping Yu 
    Abstract: In this paper, a new type of corn precision seed metering device------ combination inner-cell corn seed precision metering device and two kinds of corn are concerned, considerable research on metering device modeling method of the complex structure of mechanical parts and discrete element method by pro/e software is conducted. Through the identification and reading of boundary information, the binding of motion and material property, and data storage, the 3D discrete element analytical model from 3D Pro/ENGINEER physical model is realized. Furthermore, simulation analysis on the working process of precision seed metering device is conducted on the working platform integrated by CAE software, so that, the results acquired by experiments of seed metering device can be analyzed contrastively for optimization design of corn precision seed metering device.
    Keywords: Precision Seed Metering Device; Pro/ENGINEER; Discrete Element Method; Corn Seed; Simulation Experiment.

Special Issue on: A Synergistic Approach in IR4.0 for Product Technology Development

  • Fatigue Life Analysis using Wavelet-Based Signal Decomposition   Order a copy of this article
    by Airee Afiq Abd Rahim, Shahrum Abdullah, Mohd. Zaki Nuawi 
    Abstract: This study examines the importance of discrete wavelet transform method for fatigue life analysis of car suspension systems. Issues related to time series data include loss of important information during signal analysing process. Strain signal is observed under rural road conditions. The energy spectrum is obtained to extract high amplitude activities. The signal is then filtered based on the energy spectrum obtained. Discrete wavelet transform method is then applied to each decomposed signals. Significant levels are determined on the basis of the pattern of the decomposed signal, which is then compared with the original signal and the trend of the total number of cycles and energy from power spectral density for each decomposed signals. Signal levels 1 to 7 remain similar to that of the original. The behaviour of strain signal is characterised to show the significant levels for fatigue analysis.
    Keywords: Discrete wavelet transform; fatigue analysis; PSD.

  • Buckling of axially compressed cones with uneven length   Order a copy of this article
    by Olawale Ifayefunmi 
    Abstract: This paper provides test data on the buckling behaviour of cone with uneven axial height subjected to axial compression. The cone axial height has sinusoidal waves along the circumference of small radius end. First, numerical analysis was carried out for a range of axial imperfection-to-axial height ratio. Next, laboratory-scaled experiment was conducted on a selected axial imperfection-to-axial height ratio, to confirm the appropriateness of the numerical approach employed in the paper. Results reveal that the buckling load of the cone is strongly dependent on the number of waves of axial imperfection and the axial imperfection amplitude. In addition, comparison between experimental and numerical results shows a good agreement with ratio of experimental to numerical buckling strength ranging from -5 to +6.
    Keywords: Buckling; Mild steel cone; Axial compression; ABAQUS simulation; Uneven length.

Special Issue on: Functional and Architected Materials

  • An Ultrasonic Signal Acquisition Method Of Ferromagnetic Materials Based On Similar Matrix Blind Source Separation   Order a copy of this article
    by Lin Zhu, Minping Jia, Guangming Guo 
    Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of low signal-to-noise ratio, low efficiency and poor signal richness in ultrasonic signal acquisition of ferromagnetic materials, a new ultrasonic signal acquisition method based on similar matrix blind source separation is proposed. The blind source separation is carried out to remove the noise of the ultrasonic signal of ferromagnetic materials. The basic electromagnetic field equation, the alternating electromagnetic field control equation and the basic acoustic field equation are used to achieve high-quality ultrasonic signal acquisition of ferromagnetic materials. The experimental results show that the denoising effect of the proposed method is good, the signal-to-noise ratio can reach 25dB ~ 30dB, the acquisition efficiency is higher, and the overall application time can be controlled within 0.2s.
    Keywords: Similarity matrix; Blind source separation; Ferromagnetic materials; Signal acquisition;.

  • Probabilistic seismic risk assessment of hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete bridge columns   Order a copy of this article
    by Jin-hai He, Yu-tao Pang, Xin-zhi Dang, Wan-cheng Yuan 
    Abstract: This study evaluates the effect of hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete (HyFRC) material on the seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC) bridge piers in a probabilistic risk framework. Nine typical RC bridge columns are selected and analyzed under 30 as-recorded near-fault ground motions. The HyFRC is simulated using the concrete constitutive model and the bond-slip model. The seismic performance of HyFRC and RC bridge piers is assessed and compared, using the incremental dynamic analysis. The effect of HyFRC is evaluated by comparing limit state capacities, displacement ductility factors, median fragilities, mean annual frequencies and repair time. Results show that the HyFRC columns have an improved limit state capacities but the base shear increase slightly. The HyFRC improves the median fragilities but reduces the annual frequencies and repair time, and more effective in improving the limit state capacities of RC bridge piers with lower aspect ratio and higher axial load ratios.
    Keywords: Hybrid fiber reinforced concrete; Probabilistic seismic risk; Bridge columns; Incremental dynamic analysis; Seismic fragility.

  • Research on the Bearing Capacity of Epoxy Resin Composite under Axial Compression Based on Pull Rod-Arch Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Dan-ping Qiao, Nan Zhang, Chen Zhang, Rui-juan Su 
    Abstract: In order to overcome the problem that the current method can not accurately calculate the axial bearing capacity of epoxy composite, this paper proposes a calculation method for the axial bearing capacity of epoxy composite based on the pull rod-arch model. Based on the pull rod-arch model, the damage constitutive model of the epoxy composite is constructed, including the continuous damage constitutive model and the plastic hardening equation. Combined with the edge yield criterion and the Euler formula, the bearing capacity of the epoxy composite is calculated. The axial bearing capacity of the epoxy composite is calculated by the finite element method. The experimental results show that the proposed method has high accuracy, short time and reliability.
    Keywords: Pull rod-arch model; Epoxy resin; Composite; Axial bearing capacity;.

  • Topology Optimization of Crankshaft for weight Reduction Possibility in Farming Tractor   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramkumar Thulasiram 
    Abstract: The crankshaft is one of the heaviest parts of farm tractor which contributes around 11% total weight of vehicle. This research aims to optimize the lightweight model of internal combustion diesel engine crankshaft for better fuel economy of the farm tractor. Lightweight design of the crankshaft is carried out by Sequential Convex Programming (SCP) based Topology optimization. This optimization is performed using minimum compliance as objective function and percentage of volume from 50% to 90% as response constraints. Analysis is carried out for optimization results through ANSYS Workbench finite element analysis software. Optimized Crankshaft model with feasible design and possible manufacturability is subjected for design validation to ensure strength. Von-misses stress and total deformation of the volume fraction 90%optimized model are slightly higher compared to the benchmark model, but ensures good structural rigidity and factor of safety. Optimized crankshaft model results about 8% weight reduction in the existing crankshaft model by considering all factors influencing design and manufacturing.
    Keywords: Crankshaft; weight reduction; sequential convex programming; topology optimization.

Special Issue on: ISCEG 2020 Recent Advances of Construction and Building Materials

  • Experimental studies of the interfacial shear mechanical behavior of geosynthetics-soil   Order a copy of this article
    by Guangqing Yang, Zheng Zuo, Linying Xu, Zhijie Wang, He Wang 
    Abstract: This paper describes direct shear tests (DST) that were carried out to examine the interfacial shear mechanical behavior of geosynthetics-soil. Both geogrid and geocell are widely adopted in engineering constructions, while limited researches had been performed on comparison of shear mechanical behaviour between geogrid or geocell and soil. In current research, DST were carried out on the geogrid and geocell to investigate the impact of the friction characteristics and differences of the geogrid and geocell. Meanwhile, the influences of the normal stress, the geocell strip height and junction distance upon the interfacial mechanical behavior of the geocell were also investigated. Additionally, the interfacial shear strength parameters and interaction were analyzed. Results showed that normal stress directly affected the interfacial shear stress. Both geogrid and geocell can improve interfacial shear strength characteristics. The reinforcement effect of the geocell was better than that of geogrid, especially under higher vertical stress. The performance of the geocell with 260mm in distance of junctions was better than that of the geocell with 440mm in distance of junctions. The performance of the geocell with 150mm in height of the strip was better than that of the geocell with 100mm in height of the strip. Additionally, under the corresponding test conditions in current studies, the contribution of geocell height to the soil strength was greater than the junction distance. Geocell could significantly improve the interfacial cohesion, while the increase of frictional angle was relatively small. The experimental results may provide an idea for application of geocell reinforced mass structures.
    Keywords: direct shear test; geogrid; geocell; height of geocell strip; distance of junction.

Special Issue on: Computational Materials Modelling, Analysis and Applications

  • Research On Structure Optimization Method Of 3D Printer Based On Decoupling Parallel Connection   Order a copy of this article
    by Jinjian Chen 
    Abstract: In order to improve that mechanical distribution and automatic control capability of the 3D printer structure, a decoupling control method of the 3D printer structure is proposed based on the decoupling control, and a mechanical distribution model of the 3D printer structure is constructed. The linear decoupling method is used to adjust the position of components, high resolution printing structure parameters feedback tracking fusion method is used for parameter allocation and error correction. By constructing reliability the reliability control price constraint condition, and the global optimal solution is obtained to realize the optimization of the decoupling control of the 3D printer structure. The simulation results show that the stability of the 3D printer structure decoupling control is high, the self-adaptive performance is good, the mechanical automatic distribution capability of the 3D printer structure is improved, and the output resolution capability of the 3D printer is improved.
    Keywords: decoupling parallel; 3D printer; structure; control; high resolution.

  • Numerical Investigation of Bipolar Plates Manufactured using Hydroforming Process   Order a copy of this article
    by Ayotunde Olayinka, William Emblom 
    Abstract: Simulations of microscale hydroforming processes using LS-DYNA and other non-linear finite element software packages enables manufacturers to optimize the forming processes without the attending waste associated with performing multiple actual processes. In this study, finite element analysis was used to investigate microscale sheet hydroforming (MSSH) of annealed AISI 304 stainless steel for producing bipolar plates for PEMFC. The present study investigated the effect of hydroforming pressure and channel geometry on some performance measures that affect the quality of manufactured bipolar plates. Some of the measured quantities considered include the distribution of stress and strain across the flow field of the hydroformed channels, thickness thinning and thickness distribution for the annealed AISI 304 sheet metal. The results of the numerical simulation were verified using hydroforming process. The results show that FEA technique accurately predicts the behavior of metallic sheet under MSSH.
    Keywords: metal; forming; hydroforming; PEMFC; FEA; LSDYNA; bipolar-plate; simulation.

  • Research on low-temperature crack resistance of toughened epoxy asphalt mixture   Order a copy of this article
    by Lin Qi, Rentao Xu, Junjie He 
    Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of long test time and large error existing in traditional methods, a new test method for low temperature crack resistance of toughened epoxy asphalt mixture is designed in this paper. This method is mainly based on the results of low-temperature performance of epoxy asphalt mixture, combined with grey theory to analyse the correlation of epoxy asphalt content, different sieve pass rate and low-temperature performance index, so as to obtain the relationship between different influencing factors and the low-temperature crack resistance performance index of epoxy asphalt mixture, and obtain the test results according to the relationship analysis results. The experimental results show that the method has the advantages of short test time, low error and reliability, and can be further applied in practice.
    Keywords: toughened; epoxy asphalt; mixture; low-temperature crack resistance; test.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10037561

Special Issue on: ICPCM-2019 Materials Processing and Characterisation

  • Effect of graphene coating on the microstructure and mechanical properties of tungsten inert gas surface melted AISI-316L steel   Order a copy of this article
    by Tanmoy Das, Abhishek Sharma, Jinu Paul 
    Abstract: In this study, stainless steel substrates were coated with a graphene layer by a drop coating method. The surface of these graphene-coated samples was then modified using tungsten inert gas (TIG) surface melting technique. Phase changes, microstructure, microhardness, and wear properties of as-received (unprocessed), TIG surface-melted and graphene-coated TIG surface-melted specimens were inspected. Due to the inclusion of graphene, surface melting steered the creation of thick layers of iron-carbide (FeC) particles. The hardness of the graphene-coated melted layer depicted a high value of 420 HV, while the maximum hardness of the as-received surface melted layer was only 260 HV. Peak shifts observed in Raman spectroscopy depicts the disorderness developed in the graphene incorporated on the substrate. There is a reduction of ~14% in the specific wear rate with the incorporation of graphene coating due to its self-lubricating nature. As an outcome, as-received surface melted steel samples displayed relatively higher wear rates compared to those of surface melted graphene-coated specimens. The formation of a thin graphene tribolayer led to the reduction of the wear in the graphene-coated samples. Delamination, grooves, abrasive wear were observed on the as-received surface melted specimens where a very rough surface was obtained against the graphene-coated one.
    Keywords: graphene; tungsten inert gas; TIG; surface melting; hardness; wear resistance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2020.10033989
  • Failure analysis of a broken SA564 stainless steel pump shaft   Order a copy of this article
    by Patthi Bin Hussain, Shaik Nagoor Basha, Ainul Akmar, Balaji Bakthavatchalam, Faiz Ahmad, Shairul Bin Harun 
    Abstract: Shafts are rotating elements that are subjected to torsion and bending moments that cause failures at times leading to personal injury, capacity loss, or poor product quality if basic preventive design actions are not taken. Against this background, this paper describes the failure analysis and root cause of a broken SA564 grade stainless steel pump shaft used in a plant through visual inspection, metallography, X-Ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope, chemical analysis, hardness, tensile and non-destructive tests. The results show that creep, fatigue initiation and propagation from defects in the material during the operation were the predominant factors of pump shaft failure. Moreover, the existence of voids, micro-cracks, sensitization and creeps were also identified on the broken shaft. Finally, the hardness and tensile test revealed that the shaft material possessed enough hardness (310 HV) and strength (994 MPa), which confirms that the shaft failure was not due to the material property. Furthermore, the chemical analysis proved that the failure was not associated with any presence of material defects. Overall, the studied broken shaft of the impeller failed by fatigue, initiated at the fillet radius of the keyway due to the high cyclic stress loading. Meanwhile, this study ratifies the significance of identifying fatigue variables in advance and the need to pay sufficient attention to detail while planning and manufacturing to maintain a long-life span.
    Keywords: failure analysis; shaft; fatigue; creep;pump.

  • Assessment of open hole flexural strength and progressive damage mechanism of CFRP composite as a function of stacking sequence   Order a copy of this article
    by Savita Gupta, Srinivasu Dasari, Snehanshu Pal, Rajesh Kumar Prusty, Bankim Chandra Ray 
    Abstract: An experimental study was carried out to evaluate the flexural behavior of CFRP composite laminate with introduction of open hole as well as by varying stacking sequence. Open hole is required in laminated composites to assemble the components through mechanical fasteners. Degradation in strength was observed due to the presence of hole. Six stacking sequences have been analyzed: [0]$_8$, [90]$_8$, [0/90]$_{2s}$, [90/0]$_{2s}$, [0$_2$/90$_2$]$_s$, [90$_2$/0$_2$]s in which [0]$_8$ is noticed to have highest flexural and open hole flexural strength. Strength retention is also evaluated in this study to compare retention strength of open hole laminate with laminates having no hole. Existence of both tensile and compressive failure modes during flexural loading makes overall damage mode complex. Furthermore introduction of open hole in the laminate during flexural loading makes it more complex as variation in stress distribution activates different features of deformation and failures. Fractographic analysis has been done using scanning electron microscope to perceive damage progression mechanism during flexural loading. SEM micrographs confirmed the delamination between 90 $^{circ}$ and 0 $^{circ}$ plies as it is seen in stress strain graph as a stress drop.
    Keywords: Open hole flexural test; Notch sensitivity; Unidirectional carbon fiber; Square hole.

  • Batch and column investigation of copper(II) removal from aqueous media onto biochar prepared from Limonia acidissima shell   Order a copy of this article
    by Shilpi Das, Susmita Mishra 
    Abstract: The industrialised revolt has made our life at ease; however, the release of heavy metals from the various industries posed a severe threat to both human and environmental health. The primary purpose of the contemporary work is to showcase the performance of biochar prepared from agricultural waste being used as an adsorbent for the remediation of Cu2+ ions from aqueous media. The respective lignocellulosic biomass has been characterised by BET, FESEM and XRD analysis. This exploration accentuated the application of a statistical tool, response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with Box-Behnken design (BBD), for the optimisation of the adsorption process by the Design-Expert software version 7.0 (Stat-Ease, Minneapolis, USA). The optimal conditions for the maximum removal of copper (98.62%) from an aqueous solution of 30 mg/L, i.e., pH (5.5), dosage (0.05 g), and temperature (49.08
    Keywords: Limonia acidissima shell; biochar; copper; adsorption.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10037131
  • Prediction of Corrosion Properties of LENSTM Deposited Cobalt, Chromium and Molybdenum Alloy Using Artificial Neural Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Nagoor Basha Shaik, Kedar Mallik Mantrala, Lakshmi Narayana Kavuluru 
    Abstract: The corrosion properties of the material play an essential role in the life of metallic components, especially in biomedical and marine engineering applications. Cobalt-Chrome- Molybdenum alloy, a well-known biocompatible material, has been tested for its Potentiodynamic properties. The samples are fabricated with Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENSTM), an additive manufacturing process with variations in different process parameters like laser power, powder feed rate, and a laser scan speed of deposition. L4 orthogonal array of the Taguchi method is used to select the total number of experiments with these three process parameters, each at two levels. Potentiodynamic polarization tests are performed by scanning the samples at a rate of 2mVs-1. The artificial neural network model has been developed for the prediction of the properties, as mentioned above, using the experimental data sets. The results of the model are found to be satisfactory as the overall R squared value is 0.9982. The developed model helps in estimating the Potentiodynamic properties of the LENS deposited Cobalt, Chromium, and Molybdenum materials with the process parameters that have not experimented, and it saves the experimental process time for various purposes.
    Keywords: Corrosion; Co-Cr-Mo alloy; Laser Engineered Net Shaping; Artificial Neural Networks; prediction; additive manufacturing.

  • Micro-magnetic characterisation of ground AISI D2 tool steel using hysteresis loop technique   Order a copy of this article
    by Akash Awale, Atul Kumar Shrivastava, Abhimanyu Chaudhari, Meghanshu Vashista, Mohd Zaheer Khan Yusufzai 
    Abstract: According to tooling industries, grinding is most effective and economical machining for AISI D2 tool steel owing to its low thermal conductivity. The first objective is to investigate the effect of grinding environments on surface integrity of AISI D2 tool steel. Grinding performance like force ratio and grinding temperature was investigated under wet and dry environments. The second objective is to qualitatively assess the thermal damage of ground surface using non-destructive hysteresis loop (HL) technique. The result shows that higher force ratio and surface roughness were obtained under flood grinding. Maximum thermal damage in terms of drastic variation in microstructure and microhardness were observed under dry grinding owing to serious plastic deformation at higher grinding temperature. HL outcomes like lower average permeability, higher coercivity and remanence were obtained with higher thermal damage on ground surface. Finally, linear correction was obtained between HL outcomes and microhardness of ground samples.
    Keywords: surface grinding; AISI D2 tool steel; grinding temperature; surface roughness; microstructure; microhardness; magnetic Barkhausen noise; MBN; hysteresis loop technique.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10035249
  • Preparation of Graphene Reinforced Aluminum Composites: Investigation of Microstructural, Electrical Conductivity and Microhardness Behaviour   Order a copy of this article
    by Binod Bihari Palei, Tapan Dash, Susanta Kumar Biswal 
    Abstract: We have prepared composites of Al-graphene (0.1-0.3 wt%) by employing a specially designed dry planetary ball milling technique (by 6 hrs of milling) followed by optimized compaction of 140 MPa and sintered at 560 0C. Various characterization of composites were carried out by using XRD, XPS, FESEM, TEM, HRTEM, SAED, EDS, micro Raman, electrical conductivity and microhardness analysis to produce an optimized and advanced Al-graphene composite. Graphene grown in typical Al-graphene (0.3 wt%) composite was marked in bi-layer form. EDS shows purity of composite, exhibiting only peaks of Al and C. Results obtained from XRD, XPS, HRTEM and SAED studies confirm the successful formation of composite between Al and graphene without any appearance of aluminum carbide. The typical aluminum-graphene (0.3 wt%) composite exhibits significantly more electrical (56.2x106 S/m ) and microhardness (157
    Keywords: Graphene; Aluminum; Ball milling; Microstructure; Microhardness.

  • Mechanical properties of Cissus Quandrangularis Stem Fiber Reinforced Isophthalic Polyester Composites   Order a copy of this article
    by VINOD MOGER, ARUN KUMAR D T, Ashutosh Pattanaik, Raghavendra Rao P S, Sreenivasulu G 
    Abstract: Current research work deals with the mechanical properties of Cissus Quandrangularis Stem natural fiber (CQSF) with polyester matrix. The fiber was extracted with water and subjected to different pretreatment to remove the wax content from the surface of the fiber and to improve adhesive bonding & strength of the fiber. Fabrication of the natural fiber reinforced composites (NFRCs) with polyester matrix was prepared, followed by mechanical performance of NFRCs composites. The result shows improved mechanical properties with increase in CQSF content up 25 wt%. Further morphological analysis was alone done on the fractured surfaces of composites with scanning electron microscopes.
    Keywords: CQSF; NFRCs; Polyester.

  • Effect of low-temperature isothermal holding on microstructure and mechanical properties of hot rolled high carbon Nb microalloyed steel plate   Order a copy of this article
    by Indrajit Dey, Rajib Saha, Swarup Kumar Ghosh 
    Abstract: Two high carbon steels, one plain carbon (HC0) and the other, Nb microalloyed (HC1) are selected in the present research. Both the experimental steels were initially hot rolled after complete homogenisation and then air cooled to room temperature. These hot rolled plates were then subjected to low temperature isothermal holding followed by air cooling to room temperature. Isothermal holding above the martensite start temperature (Ms) results in the formation of bainite with some amount of high carbon martensite whereas, isothermal holding below Ms leads to the formation of predominantly martensite. The increase in isothermal holding temperature from 200
    Keywords: hot rolled steel plate; low-temperature isothermal holding; microstructure; mechanical properties.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10035423
  • Synthesis of Ni/Ti thin film by magnetron sputtering to study the effect of annealing time on microstructure and mechanical properties   Order a copy of this article
    by Tapasendra Adhikary, Rahul Prasad Rajak, Bharat.C.G Marupalli, Akash Oraon, Gourab Bhattacharya, Venimadhav Adyam, Shampa Aich 
    Abstract: Thin films composed of a single layer of nickel and titanium were fabricated using magnetron sputtering at room temperature on a Si substrate and the as-deposited films were subsequently annealed to achieve nickeltitanium (NiTi) shape memory alloys. In this paper, we have reported a simplistic way that can be applied to achieve the near equiatomic Ni-Ti alloy thin films with precise controllability of chemical compositions. The compositions were prepared by taking the weight of individual elements in the proper stoichiometric proportions maintaining near equiatomic ratio of Ni and Ti. The surface-interface studies have been performed focusing on interlayer diffusion over the nano-level structure at 500 C for different holding times. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the films annealed at 500 C for different annealing times revealed various kinds of intermetallic compounds and second phase particles along with silicides. Nanoindentation tests on the single bi-layer (two alternative layers) of Ni-Ti thin films were conducted to evaluate the mechanical properties. Subsequent investigation revealed diffusion and migration of atoms between Ni and Ti layers by post-deposition heat treatment consequently have a profound impact on mechanical properties of these films.
    Keywords: NiTi; shape memory alloys; SMAs; thin film; bi-layer thin films; magnetron sputtering.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10036769
  • Use of Sintered Fly ash aggregate in Pervious Concrete   Order a copy of this article
    by Subhakanta Dash 
    Abstract: In the present study, Fly ash based Pervious concrete (FPC) is fabricated using sintered fly ash aggregates. Materials used include OPC Type I cement, the coarse aggregate of size 4.75, 9.5, 12.5 mm, water, and superplasticizer. Using these materials, various concrete mixtures were developed with a water to cement ratio of 0.30, 0.35, and 0.40 respectively. The effect of these parameters on the mechanical properties of the pervious concrete such as compressive strength, flexural strength, tensile strength, permeability, porosity, abrasion resistance, and leachability is studied. Test results showed that pervious concrete materials made with sintered fly ash aggregates had a better mechanical as compared to natural available aggregate. Also, the concrete with SFA aggregates could achieve compressive strength ranges from 7.15 to17.40 MPa with porosity range from 26.79 to 34.05% and these can be adopted as an environment-friendly concrete.
    Keywords: Fly ash; aggregate; admixture; sintering; strength; permeability; porosity; durability.

  • Material selection and parametric modeling of laminated composite beam for piezoelectric energy harvesting   Order a copy of this article
    by Subhransu Kumar Panda, J. Srinivas 
    Abstract: Presently, energy harvesting from natural sources is one of the hot-spot areas for actuating the micropower devices used in electronics and instrumentation. The performance and potential of energy harvesting systems depend on the geometry of the structure and properties of the materials employed. The present work focuses on the effect of piezoelectric materials on the structural and electrical characteristics. A three-dimensional finite element analysis is implemented to investigate the power output from a vibrating cantilever beam with three different types of piezoelectric materials namely PZT-5H (Lead zirconate titanate), PVDF (Polyvinylidene fluoride) and Zinc oxide (ZnO). It was observed that the power output strongly depends on the material properties and geometric parameters of piezoelectric patches mounted on the cantilever substrate. To this end, the area and thickness ratio of the laminated beams are varied to understand its effect on the natural frequencies and the electric power output. The output current increases with an increase in the area of the piezoelectric patch. A similar trend is observed in the case of the thickness ratio. PZT-5H has shown more energy harvesting potential for the same geometrical configurations.
    Keywords: Laminated composite; Energy harvesting; Piezoelectric; PVDF; ZnO.

  • Numerical and experimental investigation on the shapes of the sonotrode during ultrasonic welding   Order a copy of this article
    by Manas Ranjan Panda, Siba Sankar Mahapatra, Harendra Kumar Narang, Rajendra Kumar Praharaj 
    Abstract: Ultrasonic welding is a revolutionary solid-state welding technique for joining metals as well as non-metals whereby high-frequency ultrasonic mechanical vibrations are locally applied to workpieces being held together under pressure. The high-frequency vibrations along with applied pressure create frictional heat at the mating surfaces leading to molecular bond. This work presents the effects of the different shapes of the sonotrode on the transient temperature distribution during the welding, using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Three different shapes of sonotrodes such as stepped, conical and exponential are considered. Prepared FE models are capable of predicting the temperature distribution to different parts such as weld interface, sonotrode, and anvil. The results of the FE model are validated with experimental results using K-type thermocouple.
    Keywords: Sonotrode design; FEA; ANSYS; USM; Thermocouple.

  • Analytical, Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Double Collar Collet Chuck Holder by Combined Extrusion and Forging Processes   Order a copy of this article
    by Srikar Potnuru 
    Abstract: The present paper confers about design and analysis of Double Collar Collet Chuck Holder (DCCCH) by Combined Extrusion and Forging (CEF) process. The current work addresses the problem to estimate the parameters such as metal flow, heat transfer, friction, punch load and ram speed during the CEF process. It should be noted that complexity of shape and volume of the material are two major constitutes which ensign motivation for the present work. In this context, framework of the present in-situ focus on estimation of aforementioned parameters which enables us to develop complex shapes with minimal material wastage using CEF process. Henceforth followed by Analytical and numerical solution have been developed adjacent to the experimental procedure.
    Keywords: Combined Extrusion-Forging process; DEFORM3D; Upper Bound Technique.