Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Materials and Product Technology

International Journal of Materials and Product Technology (IJMPT)

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International Journal of Materials and Product Technology (32 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Degradation of swollen NR/EPDM filled with Graphene Nanoplatelets in different types of service oils for engine mounting   Order a copy of this article
    by Khairu Ilwani Karim, Noraiham Mohamad 
    Abstract: Rubber engine mounts are prone to chemical and environmental degradation due to the high-temperature exposure to various factors during service. Graphene derivative has been known as a promising material with outstanding physical, mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties hence serve as an excellent filler in elastomer composites. This study focuses on the degradation of swollen NR/EPDM blend and NR/EPDM filled with graphene nanoplatelets in different automotive service liquids and later subjected to tensile testing. The blends and nanocomposites were melt compounded using an internal mixer and fabricated by using a hot press. They were then swollen in gear, brake, and engine oils for 6 and 27 days. The change in mass, length and tensile properties are measured to determine the degradation effect. Swollen blends and nanocomposites experienced severe dimension changes and dropped in tensile properties. The results were in good agreement with morphological, structural, thermal, and compositional analyses.
    Keywords: natural rubber; ethylene propylene diene monomer; graphene nanoplatelets; swelling properties; tensile properties.

  • Influence of weight ratio of conductive additive to binder in an electrode on the capacity of Li-ion battery   Order a copy of this article
    by CHEOL KIM, Jung-hoon Lee 
    Abstract: Changes in the charge and discharge capacity of a lithium ion battery are investigated by way of varying the % weight composition ratios of conductive additive to polymeric binder in an electrode of a lithium ion battery. The cathode is made of active material (LiMn2O4), binder (PVDF), and conductive additive (carbon black). In order to study the influence of inactive material composition on a battery performance experimentally, the weight percentage of active material in a cathode is fixed at 85 % and five different ratios of PVDF/carbon black are assessed by varying conductive additive from 1.5 wt % to 13.5 wt % and binder from 13.5 wt % to 1.5 wt % while fabricating lithium ion batteries. For the study of particles cohesive behaviors between inactive materials in the electrode, various SEM images are taken and analyzed for 5 different compositions of carbon black and PVDF. As a result, the improved battery performance is observed at the ratios of 7.5 10.5 wt % carbon black and 7.5 4.5 wt % PVDF.
    Keywords: binder material; conductive additive; electrode composition; inactive material; lithium ion battery.

  • Plastic behaviour of SUS304 stainless steel tubes under intermittent uniaxial tensile loading   Order a copy of this article
    by Lianfa Yang, Daofu Tang, Yulin He 
    Abstract: The plastic behaviour of SUS304 stainless steel tubes was investigated at room temperature via conventional single-round and intermittent uniaxial tensile testing (UTT), and the Hollomon model was adopted to describe the true stressstrain relationship under uniaxial tensile loading. The observed effects of the strain rate and unloading gap on tensile properties and the resulting stressstrain curves were interpreted in terms of microstructural transformation. The results indicate that the flow stress obtained by intermittent UTT was higher than that obtained by conventional single-round UTT, and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and tensile elongation decreased with an increase in the unloading gap. In addition, the yield strength increased with increasing strain rate, while the UTS and tensile elongation decreased. Further, both the strength coefficient and strain-hardening exponent used in the Hollomon model decreased with increasing unloading gap and strain rate.
    Keywords: SUS304; stainless steel tube; uniaxial tensile test; strain rate; unloading gap; tensile properties; plastic behaviour.

  • Temperature variation depending on cutting conditions and its effects on thrust force in micro-drilling of CFRP laminates   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmet Dogrusadik, Aykut Kentli, Mustafa Bakkal, Murat Cakan 
    Abstract: Heat generation is unavoidable in machining processes and detrimental in many aspects. Elevation of cutting temperature may cause the matrix burning and rapid tool wear and also influences the thrust force, which is related to the delamination damage. In this work, micro-drilling induced temperature in the CFRP laminates has been investigated experimentally by taking into account the effects of cutting speed and feed. Thermocouple and infrared thermography methods have been used to measure the generated temperature during the process. Variation of thrust force was introduced as the micro drill penetrates the CFRP laminate. The thrust force was also divided into its components, and the contribution of each component to the thrust force was explained. The effects of generated temperature on the thrust force were evaluated. It was derived from the temperature measurements that generated temperature is sensitive to both feed and spindle speed variations, but the feed is more effective on the generated temperature than the spindle speed in the selected range. It was observed that the thrust force changes significantly as the micro drill cuts the carbon fibre intensive and epoxy intensive layers, and cutting temperature affects the highest thrust force significantly.
    Keywords: Micro-drilling; CFRP laminate; Drilling induced temperature; Thrust force.

  • Consolidation of Al-5083 Alloy Powders by ECAP   Order a copy of this article
    by Kondaiah Gudimetla, Anil Babu Sankuru, Batsala Naveen, S. Ramesh Kumar, B. Ravisankar, S. Kumaran 
    Abstract: Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) is a technique used in the synthesis of UFG metals and alloys. Apart from that, it is also used for the consolidation of powders. Mechanically alloyed Al-5083 powders with different milling times are consolidated by ECAP at room temperature (RT), at high temperature (HT), and their properties are studied in this paper. Mechanical and physical properties of compacts made by RT as well as HT ECAP up to two passes in Route A are reported. Microstructural and tensile tests of RT ECAPed samples reveal weaker bonds between the particles which result in poor tensile strength and ductility. Furthermore, the fractured surface of compacts consolidated in RT ECAP clearly shows that the failure is due to particle pull-out as a result of poor metallurgical bonding. Unmilled (0 h) powder is found to have achieved 99.22% of its theoretical density and 45 HRB after the first pass in HT ECAP. However, microstructural studies and tensile tests reveal good metallurgical bonds between the particles. Furthermore, the fractured surface of compacts clearly shows that the failure surface is dominated by the ductile fracture features, that is, dimples. HT ECAP followed by sintering is a suitable method for achieving metallurgical bonding between microparticles.
    Keywords: ECAP; Al-5083; Consolidation; Density; Tensile; Fractography.

  • Fatigue Strength Estimation of Single Self-Piercing Riveted Joints of Steel and Aluminum Plates under Different Loading Modes   Order a copy of this article
    by Young-In Lee, Ho-Kyung Kim 
    Abstract: Self-piercing riveting (SPR) has recently been adopted to join automotive body components because this method can reduce manufacturing costs via product automation while also providing a simpler process. In this study, fatigue tests were conducted using cross-tension and coach-peel specimens with aluminum alloy (A5052) and cold-rolled steel (SPCC) sheets to evaluate the fatigue strength of SPR joints. For the combination of an upper steel sheet and a lower aluminum alloy sheet, designated here as U.S-L.A, the applied load amplitudes corresponding to the fatigue limit in the cross-tension and the coach-peel specimens are approximately 13% and 15% of the monotonic strength, respectively. The fatigue strength of SPR joints of aluminum and steel sheets under various types loading conditions can be adequately predicted by the equivalent stress intensity factor amplitude.
    Keywords: fatigue lifetime; SPR joints; coach-peel; cross-tension; equivalent stress intensity factor; fatigue parameter; failure modes; FEM analysis; fatigue strength.

  • The investigation of coated layers on surface of ferritic stainless steel by using atmospheric plasma spray method   Order a copy of this article
    by Serkan Özel 
    Abstract: Ferritic stainless steel surfaces have been coated with Co+Mo+Cr+Si mixed powder by using the atmospheric plasma spray (APS) method with four different currents. The characterisation of coated layers is achieved with optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The adhesion strength of coated layers was calculated with ASTM C633 standard test method. In X-ray diffraction measurements, compounds similar to Co2Mo3, Co7Mo6, Co3Mo2Si, Cr3Mo and CoMoSi were detected in coated layers. The maximum bonding strength and hardness have been detected in the specimen plasma-sprayed with current density 600 A.
    Keywords: ferritic stainless steel; coating; cobalt alloy; bonding strength; microstructure.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10043276
  • Atomistic simulation of bicrystal behaviour with 5 grain boundary parallel to nanometric cutting direction   Order a copy of this article
    by Seyed Vahid Hosseini, Mehdi Heidari, Hadi Parvaz, Mehrdad Vahdati 
    Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the behaviour of bicrystals in the nanometric cutting process with symmetric ?5(210) grain boundary. Several copper bicrystals with various grains sizes were simulated using embedded atoms potential. Results showed that when a grain boundary was located at a high hydrostatic pressure area, at upstream of the cutting tool, it was diffused to lower grain by hydrostatic pressure. On the other hand, the grain boundary located at downstream of the tool was migrated to the machined surface with the evaluation of crystallographic orientation in adjacent atoms structure. Although in bicrystals with parallel grain boundary, defects initiate from tool edge similar to single crystals, defects propagation was significantly increased in bicrystal substrate caused the increment of plastic deformation and potential energy. Finally, these defects merged to grain boundary without transmission or reflection into the adjacent grain, increasing stress concentration and residual stress.
    Keywords: nanometric cutting; bicrystalline material; grain boundary; molecular dynamics simulation; high hydrostatic pressure.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10043374
  • Identification of strain-rate-dependent hardening model for aluminium alloy sheet in electromagnetic forming   Order a copy of this article
    by Yangzhe Lin, Zhigang Xu, Wei Liu, Zhenghua Meng, Shoulu Zhou 
    Abstract: The deformation rate of aluminium alloy sheet reaches up to thousands per second in the electromagnetic forming process, and how to obtain the hardening behaviour of aluminium alloy sheet at such high strain rate becomes an essential issue. The electromagnetic hole-flanging test is proposed to simplify the deformation process. Based on the electromagnetic hole-flanging test, the inverse identification procedures are adopted to calibrate the strain-rate-dependent hardening models of aluminium alloy sheet. For the Johnson-Cook and Cowper-Symonds hardening models, the strain-hardening terms were initially determined by the quasi-static uniaxial tensile tests to simplify the inverse procedures. Then, the strain-rate-dependent terms were identified by comparing the simulated and experimental strains of the electromagnetic hole-flanging test. It was validated to calibrate the Johnson-Cook and Cowper-Symonds models of AA5754 aluminium alloy sheet by combining the electromagnetic hole-flanging test with the quasi-static tensile test.
    Keywords: electromagnetic forming; aluminium alloy sheet; hardening model; high strain rate; Johnson-Cook model; Cowper-Symonds model; numerical simulation; flat spiral coil; flanging; inverse identification.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10043424
  • Effect of Field Shaper Tapered Angle on the Electromagnetic Crimping of Tubes on Rods   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramesh Kumar, Sachin D. Kore 
    Abstract: The electromagnetic crimping process is a solid-state mechanical joining technique. This technique has great potential to produce the dissimilar joint. The electromagnetic crimping process is used to produce the crimping of the joint between the copper tube and aluminum rod. The numerical model was validated based on the measured crimped diameter of the tube and also based on the temperature. The validated numerical model was used to study the effect of the field shaper tapered angle on the impact velocity of the flyer, plastic strain in the tube and magnetic field generated on the tube. For this study the tapered angle of the tube used was 14.4
    Keywords: Electromagnetic crimping; Field shaper tapered angle; Finite element method; Discharge energy.

    Abstract: Plaster and stoneware hand molds were fabricated and used in the NR latex glove preparation. The raw materials characteristics combined to influence the hand mold surface properties through the adhesion-cohesion force, interfacial tension, contact angle, packing density. The stoneware hand mold fired at 800
    Keywords: Stoneware hand mold; Natural rubber latex; Glove; Interfacial force; Adhesion-cohesion force.

  • Nickel-based overlay materials: recent developments, characteristic effects and applicability with plasma transferred arc welding   Order a copy of this article
    by Vivek D. Kalyankar, S.P. Wanare 
    Abstract: Plasma transferred arc welding (PTAW) is being used extensively to improve surface characteristics of materials. Apart from PTAW process parameters, the selection of appropriate overlay material is vital to obtain desired properties. Nickel-based overlay materials are gaining attraction of researchers and industrialists due to their excellent performance in numerous aggressive service conditions. However, there are wide variants of nickel-based overlay materials which need a thorough study to understand several investigation aspects. This article presents a comprehensive survey on nickel-based overlay materials used in depositing functional coatings by PTAW. Recent developments on surface characteristics such as wear resistance, corrosion resistance, metallurgical bonding characteristics, oxidation resistance, microstructural characterisations, etc. are critically reviewed and summarised. This dedicated review on nickel-based overlay materials used for PTAW at one place would be ready information for subsequent authors to understand the associated problems and future aspects which may help them to decide their further research direction.
    Keywords: nickel-based overlay materials; plasma transferred arc welding; PTAW; wear; corrosion; microstructural characterisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10044494
  • Effect of machining parameters on surface roughness and white layer during magnetic field assisted powder mixed EDM of AA6061   Order a copy of this article
    by Arun Kumar Rouniyar, Pragya Shandilya 
    Abstract: Surface integrity aspects of components during machining is one of the challenges of today's manufacturing industry. Magnetic field assisted powder mixed EDM (MFAPM-EDM) is a hybrid process, which integrates the assistance of magnetic field and powder mixed in dielectric in an EDM process towards improving the machining performance and surface integrity. In the present experimental work, machining of aluminium 6061 alloy was performed with fabricated MFAPM-EDM setup considering one variable at a time in the experimental design. Effects of machining parameters namely, discharge current, spark on duration, concentration of powder, spark off duration, and magnetic field have been studied on responses viz. surface roughness (SR), thickness of white layer (TWL) and surface morphology of machined surface. Decrease in SR and TWL was observed with decrease in discharge current, spark on duration, and increase in concentration of powder and magnetic field. Machined surface micro-structural analysis using SEM revealed the presence of fewer cracks, craters and re-solidified debris.
    Keywords: MFAPM-EDM; aluminium 6061 alloy; magnetic field; surface roughness; thickness of white layer; TWL; powder.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10044495
  • Multi-objective optimisation of plastic injection moulding process using mould flow analysis and response surface methodology   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Saleh Meiabadi, Mamoud Moradi, Afshin Kazerooni, Vincent Demers 
    Abstract: Concurrently maintaining a stable part weight and high production rate has remained a challenge in injection moulding. As a statistical tool, response surface methodology (RSM) was exploited to examine effects of process parameters on part weight and production rate. The objective was to optimise process parameters in order to obtain weight stability at high rates of production. The study took advantage of validated numerical simulations using MoldFlow to generate input data required in statistical analysis. Analysis of variance revealed that packing time has a consequential impact on both responses, where an increase in packing time resulted in high part stability, but a low production rate. Real-scale test using optimal parameters producing the best trade-off between part weight and production rate was performed to validate efficiency of the optimisation procedure. The part weight and production rate predicted by RSM were in good accordance with experimental observations, with relative errors of less than 2.5%.
    Keywords: plastic injection moulding; numerical simulation; MoldFlow; analysis of variance; ANOVA; part weight; production rate.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10044496
  • Distinguishing process - impact of down milling and up milling in machining aluminium thin wall   Order a copy of this article
    by L. Gopinath, S. Jerome, Balamurugan Gopalsamy 
    Abstract: The study aims to understand the deformation mechanics that occurs during down and up milling of aluminium thin wall fabrication. With cutting forces as inputs, material properties were defined by the Coffin-Manson relation and the Smith-Watson-Topper model. Hysteresis was found in the process of machining aluminium thin walls. Furthermore, the pattern of cutter loads differentiated the up and down milling through hysteresis. The finite element method was followed using ANSYS v14.5 software in the fatigue workbench to analyse the aspect. Down milling introduced both deflection and deformation. Conversely, up milling did not exhibit deflection. However, the Bauschinger effect and distinct fracture surfaces were diagnosed during up milling. By exploring the nature of hysteresis and fracture surfaces, the selection of down and up milling was made.
    Keywords: thin wall milling; hysteresis; deformation; up milling; down milling; Bauschinger effect.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10044497
  • Investigations on performance characteristics of hybrid peripheral surface grinding on Al/Al2O3p/B4Cp hybrid metal matrix composite   Order a copy of this article
    by Ram Singar Yadav, Vinod Yadava 
    Abstract: In the present work, an attempt was made to investigate performance characteristics of electrical discharge diamond peripheral surface grinding (EDDPSG) on a challenging hybrid metal matrix composite namely Al/Al2O3p/B4Cp using self-developed experimental setup. EDDPSG is an innovative configuration of electrical discharge diamond grinding process applicable for machining flat surfaces of poor machinability materials. Performance parameters are material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (Ra), experimentally studied under influence of the process parameters (gap current, on-time, off-time, grit-number, wheel-speed, and table-speed). Promising potential capability was observed for removing non-conductive ceramic-reinforcements together with soft and ductile matrix material producing higher MRR and surface-finish. Gap current is the most significant process parameter affecting MRR and Ra by 361% and 61% respectively. Very thin re-solidified layers and small streaks on machined surface were observed using scanning electron microscopy which, demonstrate potential applicability and suitability of the process for machining of such complex hybrid composites.
    Keywords: hybrid metal matrix composite; HMMC; electrical discharge diamond grinding; EDDG; MRR; Ra; grinding.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10044499

Special Issue on: ISCEG 2020 Recent Advances of Construction and Building Materials

  • Experimental studies of the interfacial shear mechanical behaviour of geosynthetics-soil   Order a copy of this article
    by Guangqing Yang, Zheng Zuo, Linying Xu, Zhijie Wang, He Wang 
    Abstract: At present, limited researches had been performed on comparison of shear mechanical behaviour between geogrid or geocell and soil. In current research, direct shear tests (DST) were performed on the geogrid and geocell to investigate the impact of the friction characteristics and differences of the geogrid and geocell. Results showed that the geogrid and geocell can improve interfacial shear strength characteristics. The reinforcement effect of the geocell was better than that of geogrid, especially under higher vertical stress. The performance of geocell with 260 mm in distance of junctions was better than that of the 440 mm. The performance of geocell with 150 mm in strip height was better than that of the 100 mm. Additionally, in current studies, the contribution of geocell height to the soil strength was greater than the junction distance. The experimental results may provide an idea for application of geocell reinforced mass structures.
    Keywords: direct shear test; DST; geogrid; geocell; height of geocell strip; distance of junction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10039373
  • Optimization of Mix Proportions for the Cemented Sand and Gravel in Cold Region   Order a copy of this article
    by Guo Lixia, Guo Yuhang, Zhong Ling, Zhang Guozhi 
    Abstract: Cemented sand and gravel (CSG) is recognised as having poor quality due to its high porosity. An experimental study was carried out on the mix proportion design of CSG, taking into account the strength and frost resistance requirements of CSG dams in frozen areas .The main factors affecting the compressive strength and frost resistance of CSG were determined by orthogonal experiments. The influencing factors are water/binder ratio, fly ash, cement consumption, admixture and sand ratio, every factor sets up two cases, and the orthogonal table L8 (24) is adopted. There is a positive correlation between compressive strength and frost resistance, as the test results show. An optimal function about compressive strength and frost resistance to improve the quality of CSG in cold region was proposed, in which, weight was determined by OWA operator and entropy weight method to eliminate the influence of extreme values in the subjective evaluation. With the application of the function, significant factors influencing the desired performance of CSG are sand ratio, cement consumption, water/binder ratio and content of fly ash, while the optimum mix proportion is water/ binder ratio of 1.0, ratio of sand of 0.2, while 60 kg/m3 and 40 kg/m3 for the contents of fly ash and cement. The results can provide a theoretical basis for application and design of CSG dam in cold region.
    Keywords: Cemented sand and gravel; Ordered Weighted Average operator;Orthogonal experiment; Optimization; Compressive Strength;Frost resistance.

  • Influence of fiber type on unconfined compressive strength of fiber-reinforced cemented soil under freeze-thaw cycling   Order a copy of this article
    by Lina Xu, Lei Niu 
    Abstract: In order to study the influence of the fiber type on the unconfined compressive strength of fiber-reinforced cemented soil under the freeze-thaw cycling, several experiments on freeze-thaw cycling and unconfined compressive strength were carried out, using fiber-reinforced cemented soil as the object. Specifically, basalt fiber and glass fiber with the content of 0.5% respectively by weight of soil, and the lengths of 3 mm, 6 mm, and 20 mm respectively were added to the cemented soil, which was cured for 28 d. The result shows that the unconfined compressive strength of these samples increased at first stage and then decreased as the length of fiber increased. Fiber in the cemented soil mitigated its strength loss under the freeze-thaw cycling. During the experiments, the glass fiber-reinforced cemented soil had a smaller strength loss, a higher peak strength and a smaller failure strain than the basalt fiber-reinforced cemented soil. Those findings can provide reference for the selection of reinforcing fibers for cemented soil under the freeze-thaw cycling.
    Keywords: basalt fiber; glass fiber; freeze-thaw cycling; cemented soil; unconfined compressive strength.

  • A Causal Time-varying Analysis Method for Assessing Impacts of Cracks on Service States of Concrete Dams   Order a copy of this article
    by Bo Xu, Aimin Gong, Shuyan Fu, Bin Ou 
    Abstract: The impact of cracks on the service state of concrete dams is an important topic. At present, there is relatively little research on the method of analyzing the impacts of cracks on the service state of concrete dams based on effect variables in dam safety monitoring. This study proposes a causal time-varying (CTV) analysis method to assess the effect of cracks on the service state of concrete dams through analysis of the impacts of cracks on effect variables, such as the deformation, stress, and strain of the dam. Specifically, the CTV characteristics of changes in the effect variables were first analyzed considering both the causal action mechanisms between the contributing factors and effect variables, and the time-varying characteristics of the causal effect; then, the cracks were regarded as an contributing factor on the effect variables of concrete dams. On this basis, a CTV analysis model was established, which consisted of an analytical model of impact degrees and an analytical model of impact sensitivity of cracks on effect variables. Accordingly, the CTV analysis method for impacts of cracks on service states of concrete dams was built. The method was applied to a study case of a concrete gravity-arc dam, which proved the method reasonable and feasible. This research is expected to provide a reference for prevention and control of cracks in concrete dams.
    Keywords: causal time-varying analysis; concrete dam crack; effect variable; impact degree; sensitivity of impact; service state.

  • A time-dependent swelling constitutive model for reliability analysis of anhydrite tunnel   Order a copy of this article
    by Jianxun Wu, Zhenkun Hou, Liang Chen 
    Abstract: Abstract: The anhydrite rock is easy to swell and soften after encountering water, which leads to an increase in the displacement of the tunnel face and the force of the supporting structure, resulting in disasters such as tunnel lining invasion, destruction and floor uplift. Thus the physical model tests of the swelling evolution process of anhydrite rock are carried out, based on which, a time-dependent swelling constitutive model of anhydrite and two performance functions of tunnel are established. At the same time, a calculation framework is proposed for the reliability analysis of tunnel subjected anhydrite swelling, whose reliability influencing parameters is investigated. The comparisons of reliability of tunnel are conducted under the conditions of soaking and no soaking. The sensitivity analysis of reliability indices is performed by using the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) technique and calculating the Partial Rank Correlation Coefficients. The reliability-based design of tunnel with anhydrite swelling is illustrated and the influence of groundwater distribution on the reliability is discussed. The research results provide a theoretical basis for tunnel stability and reliability analysis.
    Keywords: Keywords: Reliability Analysis; Sensitivity Analysis; Tunnel; Anhydrite Swelling; Swelling Constitutive Model.

  • Evaluation of in-soil creep characteristics of HDPE geogrid using the time-stress superposition method   Order a copy of this article
    by Guangqing Yang, Qiaoyi Li, Zhijie Wang, He Wang 
    Abstract: The tensile creep characteristics of geogrids in-soil were studied by using a self-designed creep test device. To study the influence of normal stress on the tensile creep characteristics of geogrids, creep tests were carried out at three tensile stress levels. The restraint of normal stress can reduce the creep strain of a geogrid. The HDPE geogrids exhibited primary and secondary creep stages under restraint. According to the principle of time stress superposition, the creep strain time curves under three different tensile stress levels were moved along the logarithmic time axis to obtain the master strain curve at a given reference stress level. Based on the 500 hours creep test data, the principal curve was used to predict the creep characteristics up to 100 years by the time stress superposition principle.
    Keywords: geogrid; tensile creep; in-soil; time stress superposition; master strain curve.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10039934

Special Issue on: Advanced Smart Materials

  • Research on numerical simulation of wear temperature field of vehicle brake disc based on SIFI feature   Order a copy of this article
    by Haoge Peng, Ming Zhang 
    Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of low simulation accuracy and long time in traditional numerical simulation method of vehicle brake disc wear temperature field, a numerical simulation method of vehicle brake disc wear temperature field based on Sifi characteristics is proposed. The temperature field simulation model of vehicle brake disc wear is built, and the temperature field estimation results are obtained. On this basis, after the Gaussian scale space is generated by using Sifi features, the key point descriptor is generated by determining the key extreme points and the direction of the key points, so as to extract the characteristics of the vehicle brake disc wear temperature field. According to the feature extraction results, the numerical simulation of the vehicle brake disc wear temperature field is carried out. The experimental results show that the simulation accuracy of this method is more than 92%, the average simulation time is 33.9 ms, and the comprehensive performance is better.
    Keywords: SIFI characteristics; vehicle brake disc; wear; temperature field; numerical simulation; Gaussian scale space.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10042060
  • Detection method of interface defects of titanium nitride thin film coating materials based on image processing   Order a copy of this article
    by Shengan Zhou, Yuan Wang, Gengsheng Huang, Yiyun Zhang 
    Abstract: In order to improve the accuracy of defect location and defect feature extraction of coating materials, an interface defect detection method based on image processing is designed in this paper. After scanning the interface image of TiN film coating material, denoising was carried out to improve the accuracy of defect location. After the preprocessing image is segmented and the defect area is located, the optical signal of the defect area is collected to achieve the purpose of improving the accuracy of defect feature extraction, and then the defect location is detected by extracting the details of grey image. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the proposed method is between 92% and 97%, and the accuracy of defect feature extraction is between 93.6% and 95.7%, which indicates that the proposed method is more effective.
    Keywords: image scanning; image denoising; image preprocessing; titanium nitride film coating; defect detection; defect location; feature extraction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10043875
  • A comparative study on the photodegradation efficiency of TiO2-CS hybrid beads under wet and dry conditions   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohd Azam Mohd Adnan, Saba Afzal, Mohd Rafie Johan, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd Julkapli 
    Abstract: The direct ex-situ technique successfully produced chitosan (CS) support TiO2 hybrid beads under wet and dry circumstances. The addition of CS to TiO2 photocatalysis improves adsorption, dispersion, and stability. The active surface, crystallinity, and morphology of the hybrid beads were determined, confirming the samples’ homogenous granular morphology and homogeneous dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles in the CS matrix. The more vital interaction between TiO2 and CS molecules was responsible for the lower IR peak intensities of the OH and NH2 groups of wet hybrid beads. Raman spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that the crystallinity and phase of TiO2 in both wet and dry samples are almost indistinguishable. With the optimal catalyst loading of 6 g, the photodegradation study revealed that wet hybrid beads reported adsorption of 95% for MB, while dry hybrid beads reported 75% for MO. Therefore, to enhance interactions between TiO2 and CS, TiO2-CS wet hybrid beads have superior stability, surface functioning, and adsorption capabilities, as determined by characterisation results.
    Keywords: hybrid beads; TiO2; chitosan; wet condition; methyl orange; methylene blue.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10044464

Special Issue on: Advances in Innovative Engineering Materials and Processes

  • Filling method of thin shell 3D printing material based on implicit surface   Order a copy of this article
    by Huijian Shu 
    Abstract: The traditional filling method of thin shell 3D printing material has poor capturing effect on missing features, low filling efficiency and poor economic benefit. Therefore, this paper proposes a thin shell 3D printing material filling method based on implicit surface. The 3D material filling process of implicit surface is designed, and the implicit surface is constructed to mark the image surface features of material defects; the two-phase segmentation is used to realise the mesh division of material defect image, and the thin shell 3D printing material filling algorithm is designed, and finally the material filling is realised by 3D printing technology. The experimental results show that the average accuracy of missing feature capture is 97.35%, the average length of filling path is 570.3 mm, and the average filling time is 3.65 min.
    Keywords: 3D printing; implicit surface; two-phase segmentation; filling efficiency.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10040389
  • Analysis of rheological characteristics of cement mortar based on microstructure   Order a copy of this article
    by Huan Liu, Zhan-zhan Zheng, Quan-sheng Yang 
    Abstract: In order to solve the problems of low precision of rheological characterisation and large error of characteristic analysis existing in traditional analysis methods of rheological properties of cement mortar, a new method of rheological properties analysis of cement mortar based on microstructure is proposed in this paper. According to Bingham fluid, power law fluid and Carson fluid equation, the rheological characteristics of cement mortar are obtained. According to the microstructure of cement mortar, the evaluation model of rheological properties of cement mortar is constructed. The internal structure relationship of cement mortar is determined by grey correlation method, and the damage variables of cement mortar are obtained to complete the rheological properties analysis of cement mortar. The experimental results show that the highest accuracy of the proposed method is about 95%, and the error of rheological property analysis is always less than 2%.
    Keywords: fine microstructure; cement mortar; rheological properties; Bingham fluid; power law fluid; damage variable.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10040744
  • Numerical simulation analysis of bearing capacity of reinforced concrete high-pressure members   Order a copy of this article
    by Tong Wu, Li Wang 
    Abstract: In order to solve the problem that the numerical simulation results of the bearing capacity of the reinforced concrete high pressure members are not accurate, the numerical simulation research of the bearing capacity of the reinforced concrete high pressure members is put forward. The additional stress of concrete members is calculated by elastic theory formula, and the longitudinal equilibrium differential value of concrete members is obtained. The additional stress of the compression member is calculated. In order to meet the requirements of calculation time and simulation precision, the reinforced concrete members are discretised by grid partitioned. The experimental results show that, compared with the traditional method of mean square root value of relative error is 0.10, accuracy was 98%, 99% of the reliability, effectively overcome the numerical simulation of high pressure bearing capacity of reinforced concrete members, the main tension stress measurement of fixed end concrete members to limit state, and the finite element simulation results closer to the experimental value, this improves the accuracy of the numerical simulation of high pressure bearing capacity of reinforced concrete member, ensure construction quality to a certain extent.
    Keywords: reinforced concrete; high-pressure member; bearing capacity; numerical simulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10041940
  • Numerical simulation of material wear of automotive brake device based on finite element simulation   Order a copy of this article
    by Haoge Peng, Ming Zhang 
    Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of low accuracy of wear analysis results and long-time of wear prediction existing in traditional methods, a numerical simulation analysis method for material wear of vehicle brake device based on finite element simulation is proposed. The friction coefficient of vehicle braking device wear is calculated, and the relationship between braking force and friction is obtained. On this basis, a finite element simulation system is established, and the stress variation law of material wear of vehicle braking device under braking state is analysed by using finite element method, and the numerical simulation of material wear of vehicle braking device is completed. The experimental results show that the accuracy of this method is between 96.3% and 98.7%, the missing detection rate is always less than 35%, and the minimum time of wear numerical simulation is only 0.23 s.
    Keywords: finite element simulation; vehicle braking device; material wear; finite element simulation system.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10042058
  • Damage and crack detection of self-compacting concrete based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process   Order a copy of this article
    by Ai-na Qi, Pei-pei Chen 
    Abstract: In order to overcome the problem of poor detection effect due to the failure of the traditional methods to detect damage indicators, a self-compacting concrete damage and crack detection method based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process is proposed. Construct a concrete damage detection index system and a concrete damage analytic hierarchy model, and determine the evaluation index weights according to the results of the damage analytic hierarchy. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process is used to calculate the evaluation index, and the final comprehensive evaluation result is obtained to realise the detection of the damage and cracking of the self-compacting concrete. The experimental results show that the highest detection accuracy of this method reaches 90%, and the detection time of this method is short, always less than 1 s, and the detection sensitivity is high. The experimental results can verify the effectiveness of this method.
    Keywords: fuzzy analytic hierarchy process; self-compacting concrete; damage and crack detection; index weight; fuzzy calculation model; X-ray foreign body detector.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10042059
  • Response surface method for optimisation of SLA processing parameters   Order a copy of this article
    by Mahmoud Ahmed El-Sayed, Nour El-Nakeeb, Islam Shyha, Mootaz Ghazy 
    Abstract: In the current study, response surface method (RSM) was applied to correlate stereolithography (SLA) process parameters such as layer thickness, hatch overcure, and part orientation to SLA part characteristics such as density, surface finish and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). The results showed that density was directly proportional to the hatch overcure but inversely affecting the layer thickness. Besides, the hatch overcure was shown to have a positive effect on the UTS, while the layer thickness was found to influence the UTS adversely. Furthermore, the relationship between the layer thickness and surface roughness was suggested to be directly proportional. The optimised values of process parameters indicated by the response surface model were 90, 0.12 mm and 0.1 um for the part orientation, hatch overcure and layer thickness, respectively. The corresponding predicted density, UTS and surface roughness of an SLA part were 1,098 kg/m3, 42.8 MPa and 5.31 um, respectively.
    Keywords: stereolithography; SLA; additive manufacturing; response surface method; RSM; process parameters; design of experiments; DoEs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10042419
  • Study of modified joint configuration in friction stir welding of dissimilar Al-Mg plates   Order a copy of this article
    by Uday Kumar, Uttam Acharya, Barnik Saha Roy 
    Abstract: The current investigation is focused to study the suitability of modified joint configuration to achieve strong and stiff dissimilar joints of AA6061-T6 and AZ31B by friction stir welding. The welding were performed at a varying tool travel speed and at constant rotation speed and tilt angle by a taper threaded tool. The investigation includes the analysis of force, torque, power input, peak temperature of the welding; the weld bead surface, macrostructure, microstructure and joint strength. The outcome of the study shows better results with the modified joint configuration compared to the simple butt. Sound weld joints have been achieved for all the weld conditions using the modified configuration whereas the same has been achieved only at a tool travel speed of 0.75 mm/s for butt configuration. The maximum joint efficiency of 82% is achieved using the modified joint configuration at a tool travel speed of 0.75 mm/s. The article highlights: 1) a modified joint configuration to weld dissimilar Al-Mg has been studied; 2) joint efficiency of 85% has been achieved.
    Keywords: friction stir welding; FSW; joint configuration; dissimilar weld joints; microstructure; mechanical properties; joint efficiency.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10043647