Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Materials and Product Technology

International Journal of Materials and Product Technology (IJMPT)

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International Journal of Materials and Product Technology (31 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Cost-Efficient Full Adder Designs in Quantum-dot Cellular Automata   Order a copy of this article
    by Marshal Raj, Lakshminarayanan Gopalakrishnan 
    Abstract: Quantum-dot cellular automata has the potential to meet the requirements faced by post-Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor technologies. Adder is a key component in any digital circuit system. Several full adder designs are proposed in Quantum-dot Cellular Automata. In this work, all the existing techniques used in Quantum-dot Cellular Automata adders are analyzed and two cost-efficient full adder designs are proposed for different crossover techniques. The proposed designs have fewer cells and delay compared to the existing state-of the art designs. The proposed designs can be extended to implement any N-bit adder. Missing cell defect analysis is done for the proposed designs and compared with the existing state-of-the-art designs. All the designs are implemented and verified using QCADesigner.
    Keywords: Adder; Cost; Crossover; Missing cell defect; Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA).

  • Process optimization and exhibiting correlation in exploitable variable of AWJM   Order a copy of this article
    by Balamurugan Karnan, Uthayakumar M, Sankar S, Hareesh U.S, Warrier K.G.K 
    Abstract: Rare earth phosphate ceramic particles, when used as reinforcement, have considerably improved the toughness property. In the present work, lanthanum phosphate-yttrium composite synthesized by the Sol-Gel technique was taken as a study material. Abrasive Waterjet Machine (AWJM) is preferred to examine the machinability of the fabricated composite as ceramic particles possess low thermal and electrical conductivity. Irrespective of various operating parameters of AWJM, the dominant parameters such as Jet Pressure (JP), Stand-off Distance (SOD) and Traverse Speed (TS) are considered to measure the output performance characteristics of Material Removal Rate (MRR), Kerf Angle (KA) and Surface Profile Roughness (Ra). Silicon Carbide and Garnet are taken as the abrasive particles. The investigation shows that TS essentially characterize silicon carbide as abrasive shows 85.89%, accompanied by 7% JP and 6% SOD. On account of garnet, TS extraordinarily influences with a commitment of 64.84% followed by SOD of 20.11% and JP of 14.65%. The microstructure assessment on the cut surface reveals the plastic deformation surface for both abrasives and the surface erosion occurs by squashing and crushing of particles. Low MRR and KA are recorded for garnet and the superior Ra is therefore obtained when silicon carbide is used as abrasive.
    Keywords: Abrasive Waterjet Machine; Silicon carbide; Garnet; LaPO4-Y2O3 composite; Optimization; Microstructure characterization.

  • Suitable Combination of a Mean-Stress Correction Method and a Stress Type for the Fatigue Analysis of Aluminium Alloy Wheels under Radial Loading   Order a copy of this article
    by Wassamon Phusakulkajorn, Krisda Tapracharoen, Somboon Otarawanna 
    Abstract: The dynamic radial fatigue test is one of the mandatory mechanical tests that passenger car wheels have to pass before proceeding into actual production. Finite element analysis (FEA) plays an important role on quality improvement, cost reduction, and time saving in the wheel design and testing processes. FEA of the wheel radial fatigue test involves the selection of a combination of a mean-stress correction method and a stress type. To the best of our knowledge, no report in the open literature has directly investigated the accuracy of each combination of a mean-stress correction method and a stress type in predicting cracking of wheels in the radial fatigue test. Therefore, this study aims to find the combination(s) of a mean-stress correction method and a stress type suitable for this application. In this work, the Gerber and Goodman mean-stress correction methods are compared when they are used in combination with the absolute maximum principal, signed von Mises and von Mises stresses. Regarding the real test data, three A356.2 aluminium-alloy wheel models cracking during the dynamic radial fatigue test were selected for study. The effectiveness of each combination of a mean-stress correction method and a stress type in predicting fatigue failure in the wheel radial fatigue test was evaluated by comparing simulation results obtained by each combination method with experimental results. The results in this work suggest that using the Gerber or Goodman mean-stress correction method with the absolute maximum principal stress is suitable for the fatigue analysis of aluminium alloy wheels under radial loading. This is related to the brittle behaviour of the A356.2 aluminium alloy used in this work and the fact that the absolute maximum principal stress is a signed stress.
    Keywords: wheel radial fatigue test; finite element analysis; mean stress correction; Gerber diagram; Goodman diagram; absolute maximum principal stress.

  • Compression strength properties of gypsum matrix composites with recovered fibrous scrap materials from post-consumer tires   Order a copy of this article
    by Dafni Foti, Stergios Adamopoulos, Eleni Voulgaridou, Costas Passialis, Elias Voulgaridis 
    Abstract: Gypsum-based experimental cylindrical samples were prepared using three fractions of recycling tire fluff material (as received, fractions >4 mm and <4 mm) in three proportions (10%, 20%, 30%) by weight. The density values of the samples were found to decrease with increasing the proportion of fluff material incorporated in gypsum. Compressive strength and density of cylindrical samples were positively correlated for all combinations, and their relationships were found statistically significant. Compressive strength values ranged between 1.00-7.64 N/mm2 for the fluff fraction <4 mm, where they were the highest, 0.37-1.59 N/mm2 for the fluff fraction >4 mm, where they were the lowest, and between 0.39-4.22 N/mm2 for the fluff fraction as received during recycling, where they were intermediate. Calculations of the required compressive strength in the case of using gypsum-fluff building bricks in interior walls showed that all gypsum-fluff combinations exhibited the adequate strength to perform successfully.
    Keywords: gypsum; tire “fluff”; recycling; density; compressive strength; building material.

  • A Finite Element Simulation of Incremental Sheet Forming Process: A New Method for G-Code Implementation   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed Amen Gahbiche, Safa Boudhaouia, Eliane Giraud, Yessine Ayed, Philippe Dal Santo, Wacef Ben Salem 
    Abstract: During the incremental sheet forming process, tool paths are generated by CAM software. The obtained files have several possible formats such as the APT or the G-code ones which can be directly transferred to CNC machines for parts forming. However, when it comes to the process simulation, the G-code format could not be used in common finite element programs. In this paper, a new method is developed to implement the G-code into the FE software Abaqus using the Python programming language. The G-code commands are translated into appropriate boundary conditions describing the exact forming tool motions without any decomposition or modification. The numerical results obtained by the proposed method and the conventional tool path decomposition method are compared in terms of the part shape, thickness distribution, forces evolution, and CPU times as well. On the other hand, a comparison of the surface roughness of two conical parts formed using these two formats has been conducted in order to investigate the potential effect of the tool path decomposition on surface quality.
    Keywords: Incremental forming; G code; Numerical simulation; CAM/CAE; Tool path implementation; aluminium alloy; surface roughness.

  • Experimental Investigation and Design Optimization for Magnetic Abrasive Flow Machining using Response Surface Methodology   Order a copy of this article
    by Palwinder Singh, Lakhvir Singh, Sehijpal Singh 
    Abstract: The finishing of surfaces of some of the aerospace parts and medical equipments was required to be of the finest quality. This work described the finishing of micro holes of aluminum cylindrical tubular type work specimens by one of the non-traditional machining method of finishing i.e. magnetic abrasive flow machining. The abrasive media used for finishing contains newly prepared diamond based bonded magnetic abrasives. These abrasives were prepared by mechanical alloying followed by annealing method. The performance of magnetic abrasive flow machining process was evaluated in terms of surface roughness improvement rate. The process variables were optimized by employing response surface methodology. The parameters which showed prominent effect on surface roughness improvement rate were extrusion pressure, magnetic flux density and number of cycles. It was found through the experiments that the optimum result was obtained when extrusion pressure was 800 psi, magnetic field density was 0.6, and number of cycles was 25, which depicts that surface roughness improvement rate after finishing was 72.72% (Ra 0.22
    Keywords: Magnetic abrasive flow machining; Extrusion pressure; Surface roughness improvement rate; Magnetic flux density; Scanning electron microscopy.

  • Measurement of Delamination and Tool Wear with Sensors in End-Milling using Solid and Carbide-Tipped K10 End Mills   Order a copy of this article
    by P.Praveen Raj, N. Shankar Ganesh 
    Abstract: An investigation on the machinability of glass-fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) fabricated using hand molding was conducted on a vertical-milling centre (VMC) with solid K10 carbide and carbide-tipped K10 end mills having four flutes. This revealed that the machinability of GFRP depends on tool wear and delamination. Sensor-fusion techniques were used to measure tool wear and delamination and the tests were conducted utilizing a Taguchi L8 orthogonal array that included the data from the sensors output. These tests illustrated the suitability of the sensor technique for online monitoring of delamination and tool wear and for improving the machinability of composites for a wide variety of applications. The results showed that using solid carbide end mills leads to less delamination of materials during milling of GFRP and carbide-tipped end mills resulted in little tool wear or change in the depth of cut when used at high speeds along with an appropriate feed rate.
    Keywords: Delamination ; machinability; Sensor- Fusion ,tool wear; carbide-tipped.

  • Effect of Untreated and Deep Cryotreated Tungsten Carbide Electrodes on PMEDM Performance of AISI 304 Stainless Steel   Order a copy of this article
    by Munmun Bhaumik, Kalipada Maity 
    Abstract: Powder Mixed Electro Discharge Machining (PMEDM) is the expansion of conventional Electro Discharge Machining (EDM) where powder particles are mixed in the dielectric fluid for acquiring better surface finish and enhancing machining efficiency. Cryotreatment of the electrode is introduced in this study which reduced the tool wear, thus machining cost. In this investigation, SiC powder particles were suspended in kerosene dielectric and the effect of control parameters, cryotreated double tempered (CT2) electrode have been studied on surface crack density (SCD), surface roughness (Ra), material removal rate (MRR) and tool wear rate (TWR). Powder concentration, duty cycle, pulse on time, peak current, and gap voltage were used as control parameters. EDM operation on AISI 304 stainless steel is performed using untreated (UT) and CT2 tungsten carbide (WC) electrodes. It was found that higher material removal rate and superior surface finish obtained in PMEDM over conventional EDM. CT2 electrode gives less TWR and lesser amount of surface cracks than that of UT electrode.
    Keywords: Cryotreatment; material removal rate; powder mixed electro discharge machining; surface crack density; surface roughness; tool wear rate.

Special Issue on: A Synergistic Approach in IR4.0 for Product Technology Development

  • Fatigue Life Analysis using Wavelet-Based Signal Decomposition   Order a copy of this article
    by Airee Afiq Abd Rahim, Shahrum Abdullah, Mohd. Zaki Nuawi 
    Abstract: This study examines the importance of discrete wavelet transform method for fatigue life analysis of car suspension systems. Issues related to time series data include loss of important information during signal analysing process. Strain signal is observed under rural road conditions. The energy spectrum is obtained to extract high amplitude activities. The signal is then filtered based on the energy spectrum obtained. Discrete wavelet transform method is then applied to each decomposed signals. Significant levels are determined on the basis of the pattern of the decomposed signal, which is then compared with the original signal and the trend of the total number of cycles and energy from power spectral density for each decomposed signals. Signal levels 1 to 7 remain similar to that of the original. The behaviour of strain signal is characterised to show the significant levels for fatigue analysis.
    Keywords: Discrete wavelet transform; fatigue analysis; PSD.

  • Buckling of axially compressed cones with uneven length   Order a copy of this article
    by Olawale Ifayefunmi 
    Abstract: This paper provides test data on the buckling behaviour of cone with uneven axial height subjected to axial compression. The cone axial height has sinusoidal waves along the circumference of small radius end. First, numerical analysis was carried out for a range of axial imperfection-to-axial height ratio. Next, laboratory-scaled experiment was conducted on a selected axial imperfection-to-axial height ratio, to confirm the appropriateness of the numerical approach employed in the paper. Results reveal that the buckling load of the cone is strongly dependent on the number of waves of axial imperfection and the axial imperfection amplitude. In addition, comparison between experimental and numerical results shows a good agreement with ratio of experimental to numerical buckling strength ranging from -5 to +6.
    Keywords: Buckling; Mild steel cone; Axial compression; ABAQUS simulation; Uneven length.

Special Issue on: ICPCM-2019 Materials Processing and Characterisation

  • Effect of graphene coating on the microstructure and mechanical properties of tungsten inert gas surface melted AISI-316L steel   Order a copy of this article
    by Tanmoy Das, Abhishek Sharma, Jinu Paul 
    Abstract: In this study, stainless steel substrates were coated with a graphene layer by a drop coating method. The surface of these graphene-coated samples was then modified using Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) surface melting technique. Phase changes, microstructure, microhardness, and wear properties of as-received (unprocessed), TIG surface-melted, and graphene-coated TIG surface-melted specimens were inspected. Due to the inclusion of graphene, surface melting steered the creation of thick layers of iron-carbide (FeC) particles. The hardness of the graphene-coated melted layer depicted a high value of 420 HV, while the maximum hardness of the as-received surface melted layer was only 260 HV. Peak shifts observed in Raman spectroscopy depicts the disorderness developed in the graphene incorporated on the substrate. There is a reduction of ~14% in the specific wear rate with the incorporation of graphene coating due to its self-lubricating nature. As an outcome, as-received surface melted steel samples displayed relatively higher wear rates compared to those of surface melted graphene-coated specimens. The formation of a thin graphene tribolayer led to the reduction of the wear in the graphene-coated samples. Delamination, grooves, abrasive wear were observed on the as-received surface melted specimens where a very rough surface was obtained against the graphene-coated one.
    Keywords: Graphene; Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG); Surface melting; Hardness; Wear resistance.

  • Failure analysis of a broken SA564 stainless steel pump shaft   Order a copy of this article
    by Patthi Bin Hussain, Shaik Nagoor Basha, Ainul Akmar, Balaji Bakthavatchalam, Faiz Ahmad, Shairul Bin Harun 
    Abstract: Shafts are rotating elements that are subjected to torsion and bending moments that cause failures at times leading to personal injury, capacity loss, or poor product quality if basic preventive design actions are not taken. Against this background, this paper describes the failure analysis and root cause of a broken SA564 grade stainless steel pump shaft used in a plant through visual inspection, metallography, X-Ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope, chemical analysis, hardness, tensile and non-destructive tests. The results show that creep, fatigue initiation and propagation from defects in the material during the operation were the predominant factors of pump shaft failure. Moreover, the existence of voids, micro-cracks, sensitization and creeps were also identified on the broken shaft. Finally, the hardness and tensile test revealed that the shaft material possessed enough hardness (310 HV) and strength (994 MPa), which confirms that the shaft failure was not due to the material property. Furthermore, the chemical analysis proved that the failure was not associated with any presence of material defects. Overall, the studied broken shaft of the impeller failed by fatigue, initiated at the fillet radius of the keyway due to the high cyclic stress loading. Meanwhile, this study ratifies the significance of identifying fatigue variables in advance and the need to pay sufficient attention to detail while planning and manufacturing to maintain a long-life span.
    Keywords: failure analysis; shaft; fatigue; creep;pump.

  • Assessment of open hole flexural strength and progressive damage mechanism of CFRP composite as a function of stacking sequence   Order a copy of this article
    by Savita Gupta, Srinivasu Dasari, Snehanshu Pal, Rajesh Kumar Prusty, Bankim Chandra Ray 
    Abstract: An experimental study was carried out to evaluate the flexural behavior of CFRP composite laminate with introduction of open hole as well as by varying stacking sequence. Open hole is required in laminated composites to assemble the components through mechanical fasteners. Degradation in strength was observed due to the presence of hole. Six stacking sequences have been analyzed: [0]$_8$, [90]$_8$, [0/90]$_{2s}$, [90/0]$_{2s}$, [0$_2$/90$_2$]$_s$, [90$_2$/0$_2$]s in which [0]$_8$ is noticed to have highest flexural and open hole flexural strength. Strength retention is also evaluated in this study to compare retention strength of open hole laminate with laminates having no hole. Existence of both tensile and compressive failure modes during flexural loading makes overall damage mode complex. Furthermore introduction of open hole in the laminate during flexural loading makes it more complex as variation in stress distribution activates different features of deformation and failures. Fractographic analysis has been done using scanning electron microscope to perceive damage progression mechanism during flexural loading. SEM micrographs confirmed the delamination between 90 $^{circ}$ and 0 $^{circ}$ plies as it is seen in stress strain graph as a stress drop.
    Keywords: Open hole flexural test; Notch sensitivity; Unidirectional carbon fiber; Square hole.

  • Batch and column investigation of copper(II) removal from aqueous media onto biochar prepared from Limonia acidissima shell   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The industrialized revolt has made our life at ease; however, the release of heavy metals from the various industries posed a severe threat to both human and environmental health. The primary purpose of the contemporary work is to showcase the performance of biochar prepared from agricultural waste being used as an adsorbent for the remediation of Cu2+ ions from aqueous media. The respective lignocellulosic biomass has been characterized by BET, FESEM, and XRD Analysis. This exploration accentuated the application of a statistical tool, Response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with Box-Behnken design (BBD), for the optimization of the adsorption process by the Design-Expert software Version 7.0 (Stat-Ease, Minneapolis, U.S.A). The optimal conditions for the maximum removal of copper (98.62%) from an aqueous solution of 30 mg/L, i.e., pH (5.5), dosage (0.05 g), and temperature (49.08 oC) were achieved by desirability methodology in multi-response optimization. The biochar was also anticipated to be a potential adsorbent for the continuous removal of copper from wastewater.
    Keywords: Limonia acidissima shell; Biochar; Copper; Adsorption.

  • Prediction of Corrosion Properties of LENSTM Deposited Cobalt, Chromium and Molybdenum Alloy Using Artificial Neural Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Nagoor Basha Shaik, Kedar Mallik Mantrala, Lakshmi Narayana Kavuluru 
    Abstract: The corrosion properties of the material play an essential role in the life of metallic components, especially in biomedical and marine engineering applications. Cobalt-Chrome- Molybdenum alloy, a well-known biocompatible material, has been tested for its Potentiodynamic properties. The samples are fabricated with Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENSTM), an additive manufacturing process with variations in different process parameters like laser power, powder feed rate, and a laser scan speed of deposition. L4 orthogonal array of the Taguchi method is used to select the total number of experiments with these three process parameters, each at two levels. Potentiodynamic polarization tests are performed by scanning the samples at a rate of 2mVs-1. The artificial neural network model has been developed for the prediction of the properties, as mentioned above, using the experimental data sets. The results of the model are found to be satisfactory as the overall R squared value is 0.9982. The developed model helps in estimating the Potentiodynamic properties of the LENS deposited Cobalt, Chromium, and Molybdenum materials with the process parameters that have not experimented, and it saves the experimental process time for various purposes.
    Keywords: Corrosion; Co-Cr-Mo alloy; Laser Engineered Net Shaping; Artificial Neural Networks; prediction; additive manufacturing.

  • Micro-magnetic characterization of ground AISI D2 tool steel using hysteresis loop technique   Order a copy of this article
    by Akash Awale, Atul Kumar Shrivastava, Abhimanyu Chaudhari, Meghanshu Vashista, Mohd Zaheer Khan Yusufzai 
    Abstract: According to tooling industries, grinding is most effective and economical machining for AISI D2 tool steel owing to its low thermal conductivity. The first objective is to investigate the effect of grinding environments on surface integrity of AISI D2 tool steel. Grinding performance like force ratio and grinding temperature was investigated under wet and dry environments. The second objective is to qualitatively assess the thermal damage of ground surface using non-destructive hysteresis loop (HL) technique. The result shows that higher force ratio and surface roughness were obtained under flood grinding. Maximum thermal damage in terms of drastic variation in microstructure and microhardness was observed under dry grinding owing to serious plastic deformation at higher grinding temperature. HL outcomes like lower average permeability, higher coercivity and remanence were obtained with higher thermal damage on ground surface. Finally, linear correction was obtained between HL outcomes and microhardness of ground samples.
    Keywords: Surface grinding; AISI D2 tool steel; grinding temperature; surface roughness; microstructure; microhardness; magnetic Barkhausen noise; hysteresis loop technique.

  • Preparation of Graphene Reinforced Aluminum Composites: Investigation of Microstructural, Electrical Conductivity and Microhardness Behaviour   Order a copy of this article
    by Binod Bihari Palei, Tapan Dash, Susanta Kumar Biswal 
    Abstract: We have prepared composites of Al-graphene (0.1-0.3 wt%) by employing a specially designed dry planetary ball milling technique (by 6 hrs of milling) followed by optimized compaction of 140 MPa and sintered at 560 0C. Various characterization of composites were carried out by using XRD, XPS, FESEM, TEM, HRTEM, SAED, EDS, micro Raman, electrical conductivity and microhardness analysis to produce an optimized and advanced Al-graphene composite. Graphene grown in typical Al-graphene (0.3 wt%) composite was marked in bi-layer form. EDS shows purity of composite, exhibiting only peaks of Al and C. Results obtained from XRD, XPS, HRTEM and SAED studies confirm the successful formation of composite between Al and graphene without any appearance of aluminum carbide. The typical aluminum-graphene (0.3 wt%) composite exhibits significantly more electrical (56.2x106 S/m ) and microhardness (157
    Keywords: Graphene; Aluminum; Ball milling; Microstructure; Microhardness.

  • Mechanical properties of Cissus Quandrangularis Stem Fiber Reinforced Isophthalic Polyester Composites   Order a copy of this article
    by VINOD MOGER, ARUN KUMAR D T, Ashutosh Pattanaik, Raghavendra Rao P S, Sreenivasulu G 
    Abstract: Current research work deals with the mechanical properties of Cissus Quandrangularis Stem natural fiber (CQSF) with polyester matrix. The fiber was extracted with water and subjected to different pretreatment to remove the wax content from the surface of the fiber and to improve adhesive bonding & strength of the fiber. Fabrication of the natural fiber reinforced composites (NFRCs) with polyester matrix was prepared, followed by mechanical performance of NFRCs composites. The result shows improved mechanical properties with increase in CQSF content up 25 wt%. Further morphological analysis was alone done on the fractured surfaces of composites with scanning electron microscopes.
    Keywords: CQSF; NFRCs; Polyester.

  • Effect of low-temperature isothermal holding on microstructure and mechanical properties of hot rolled high carbon Nb microalloyed steel plate   Order a copy of this article
    by Indrajit Dey, Rajib Saha, Swarup Kumar Ghosh 
    Abstract: Two high carbon steels, one plain carbon (HC0) and the other, Nb microalloyed (HC1) are selected in the present research. Both the experimental steels were homogenised at 1200
    Keywords: Hot rolled steel plate; low-temperature isothermal holding; microstructure; mechanical properties.

  • Synthesis of Ni/Ti thin film by magnetron sputtering to study the effect of annealing time on microstructure and mechanical properties   Order a copy of this article
    by Tapasendra Adhikary, Rahul Prasad Rajak, Bharat.C.G Marupalli, Akash Oraon, Gourab Bhattacharya, Venimadhav Adyam, Shampa Aich 
    Abstract: Thin films composed of a single layer of nickel and titanium were fabricated using magnetron sputtering at room temperature on a Si substrate and the as-deposited films were subsequently annealed to achieve nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloys. In this paper, we have reported a simplistic way that can be applied to achieve the near equiatomic Ni-Ti alloy thin films with precise controllability of chemical compositions. The compositions were prepared by taking the weight of individual elements in the proper stoichiometric proportions maintaining near equiatomic ratio of Ni and Ti. The surface-interface studies have been performed focusing on interlayer diffusion over the nano-level structure at 500
    Keywords: NiTi; shape memory alloys; thin film; bilayer thin films; magnetron sputtering.

  • Use of Sintered Fly ash aggregate in Pervious Concrete   Order a copy of this article
    by Subhakanta Dash 
    Abstract: In the present study, Fly ash based Pervious concrete (FPC) is fabricated using sintered fly ash aggregates. Materials used include OPC Type I cement, the coarse aggregate of size 4.75, 9.5, 12.5 mm, water, and superplasticizer. Using these materials, various concrete mixtures were developed with a water to cement ratio of 0.30, 0.35, and 0.40 respectively. The effect of these parameters on the mechanical properties of the pervious concrete such as compressive strength, flexural strength, tensile strength, permeability, porosity, abrasion resistance, and leachability is studied. Test results showed that pervious concrete materials made with sintered fly ash aggregates had a better mechanical as compared to natural available aggregate. Also, the concrete with SFA aggregates could achieve compressive strength ranges from 7.15 to17.40 MPa with porosity range from 26.79 to 34.05% and these can be adopted as an environment-friendly concrete.
    Keywords: Fly ash; aggregate; admixture; sintering; strength; permeability; porosity; durability.

  • Characterization of AISI P20 tool steel involving different heat treatment processes   Order a copy of this article
    by Manisha Priyadarshini, Ajit Behera, Chandan Biswas 
    Abstract: AISI P20 is a special purpose tool steel used to produce injection molds and casting dies which should have desired properties like higher wear resistance, toughness, and hardness. The heat treatment is established to be a vital process for the manufacturing of any product using tool steel, as the microstructural changes incurred during the process have a greater impact on the overall characteristics of the same. This paper helps to understand the effect of six different heat-treatment procedures on tool steel with their microstructure and phases. Different processes are taken with different cooling rates and sub-zero temperatures (-50?C, -100?C and -150?C) and analysis of surface morphology, phases and mechanical characteristics are carried out. Phase analysis reveals the internal changes in the structure, which can also be supported through microstructures.
    Keywords: heat-treatment; hardness; compression; impact; wear.

  • Material selection and parametric modeling of laminated composite beam for piezoelectric energy harvesting   Order a copy of this article
    by Subhransu Kumar Panda, J. Srinivas 
    Abstract: Presently, energy harvesting from natural sources is one of the hot-spot areas for actuating the micropower devices used in electronics and instrumentation. The performance and potential of energy harvesting systems depend on the geometry of the structure and properties of the materials employed. The present work focuses on the effect of piezoelectric materials on the structural and electrical characteristics. A three-dimensional finite element analysis is implemented to investigate the power output from a vibrating cantilever beam with three different types of piezoelectric materials namely PZT-5H (Lead zirconate titanate), PVDF (Polyvinylidene fluoride) and Zinc oxide (ZnO). It was observed that the power output strongly depends on the material properties and geometric parameters of piezoelectric patches mounted on the cantilever substrate. To this end, the area and thickness ratio of the laminated beams are varied to understand its effect on the natural frequencies and the electric power output. The output current increases with an increase in the area of the piezoelectric patch. A similar trend is observed in the case of the thickness ratio. PZT-5H has shown more energy harvesting potential for the same geometrical configurations.
    Keywords: Laminated composite; Energy harvesting; Piezoelectric; PVDF; ZnO.

Special Issue on: New Advances in Topology Optimisation

  • Multi-objective Topology Optimization Design of Lattice Structures with Negative Poisson's ratio considering Energy Absorption and Load-bearing Characteristics   Order a copy of this article
    by Yixian Du, Peng Yin, Qihua Tian, Xiangman Zhou 
    Abstract: To make lattice structures have both load-bearing and energy absorption characteristics to protect the safety of personnel and equipment in the collision, this paper proposes a multi-objective topology optimization method for the design of lattice structures with negative Poissons ratio. The energy absorption and load-bearing characteristics of the lattice structure are characterized by negative Poisson's ratio and stiffness, respectively. A topology optimization model is established to maximize the stiffness and negative Poisson's ratio of the lattice structure. The design optimization of microscopic material is conducted by the energy homogenization method. A modified optimality criteria method is employed to update design variables. The energy absorption and load-bearing characteristics of the optimized structure are tested and analyzed by finite element simulation and compression experiment, respectively. The results show that the optimized lattice structure has both energy absorption and load-bearing characteristics. In general, the proposed method can provide a feasible reference for the topology optimization design of anti-collision structures.
    Keywords: Multi-objective topology optimization;Negative Poisson's ratio lattice structure;Load-bearing characteristics;Energy absorption characteristics.

  • Topology optimization of periodic structures with multiple materials using BESO   Order a copy of this article
    by Jie Xu, Yongfeng Zheng, Liang Gao 
    Abstract: Periodic structures have been used extensively in many engineering fields due to their unique advantages, including being easy to manufacture and assemble. A combination of multiple materials can provide a more favorable performance for periodic structures. This study aims to optimize multi-material periodic structures by using Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization (BESO). Firstly, a topology optimization framework for multiple materials is developed to design periodic structures using BESO. Then, a material interpolation model is adopted to display the overall layouts of multiple materials in the design domain. Finally, three numerical examples are investigated to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed design framework, regarding obtaining periodic structures with multiple materials.
    Keywords: Topology optimization; Periodic structures; Multiple materials; BESO.

  • Topology Optimization of Truss Structures under Non-stationary Random Seismic Excitations with Displacement and Stress Constraints   Order a copy of this article
    by Xueping Li, Yanyu Tang, Peng Wei, Cheng Su 
    Abstract: This paper studies topology optimization problems of truss structures under non-stationary random seismic excitations considering displacement and stress constraints. The optimization model of truss structures is formulated by taking volume minimization with constraints on variances of displacements and stresses. The explicit time domain method (ETDM) is applied to analyze the stochastic responses of the structure and the sensitivities with respect to the design variables. Based on the sensitivity analysis, the nodal positions and the cross-sectional areas of the bar elements of the truss structures are optimized simultaneously by using the globally convergent method of moving asymptotes (GCMMA). Meanwhile, a scheme is proposed to delete zero bars and redundant nodes during the optimization process. Finally, several topology optimization examples of 2-D and 3-D truss structures illustrate the accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed method.
    Keywords: topology optimization; truss structures; seismic excitations; ETDM.

  • An efficient multiscale concurrent design method using fitting function   Order a copy of this article
    by Chen Yu, Qifu Wang, Chao Mei, Zhaohui Xia 
    Abstract: In this paper, a multiscale concurrent optimization method is presented for the design of cellular structures. The purpose is to search the configurations and layouts of microstructures simultaneously. At the microscale, a family of graded microstructures (GMs) is obtained via reconstructing the level set function (LSF) and parallelly moving the cutting plane. Based on the gradient-varying mechanical properties, the fitting functions of elasticity tensors with respect to relative densities are established. The numerical homogenization method is utilized to calculate the mechanical properties of sample points which are regarded as fitting parameters. For the multiscale scheme, the allocation of GMs is optimized by a material distribution method, while the configurations of microstructures are designed by an extended parameterized level set method (PLSM) which is inspired from the design thinking of the bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO). Numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
    Keywords: multiscale concurrent; topology optimization; reconstructing level set; cutting plane; fitting function; extended level set method.

  • Optimisation Design of Graded Lattice Structures for Natural Frequency   Order a copy of this article
    by Yu Wang, Tinghao Zhang, Jian Mu, Xijia Liu, Bin Tu, Huazhong Lu 
    Abstract: In this study, a design approach is presented to optimise the layout of lattice structures for natural frequency in dynamic problems. For an optimisation framework, the design domain is periodically configured by a series of predefined microstructures with variable thickness of structures. An interpolation scheme was employed to estimate the mechanical properties of the unit cells with respect to their thicknesses. To achieve an optimised design ready for additive manufacturing, the constraint of the minimum length scale is considered in the optimisation process, and a post-processing scheme is developed to smooth the mismatches between the unit cells with different thicknesses of microstructures. Two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach for designing manufacturable lattice structures with practical significance.
    Keywords: optimization design;lattice structure;natural frequency;microstructure connectivity.

  • Robust topological design of laminated composite plate under interval random hybrid uncertainties   Order a copy of this article
    by Yi Wu, Dong Mi, Lizhang Zhang, Aiguo Cheng 
    Abstract: The laminated composite plate is widely used in contemporary industrial applications. In this work, a robust topology optimization method is studied to overcome the possible uncertainties existed in the laminated composite plate. Based on the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT), the laminated composite plate is modeled. A hybrid interval random model is employed to describe the imprecise probability of uncertain material properties and ply orientations in the laminated composite plate, which considers the measurement accuracy and cost in actual engineering. By using the first-order Taylor series expansion twice, the imprecise probabilistic parameters can be exactly expressed by interval values. A hybrid perturbation technique (HPT) is proposed to efficiently estimate the worst-case of the laminated composite under uncertainties. The sensitivity of the structural mean compliance in the worst-case with respect to design variables is further derived. The bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) method is employed to find the robust distribution of the material. Several numerical examples including both static and dynamic situations of the CCCC plate are presented, and the effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated clearly.
    Keywords: Robust topology optimization; laminated composite plates; hybrid uncertainty; interval random model.

  • Experimental validation of an automotive subframe stiffener plate design obtained from topology optimization   Order a copy of this article
    by Qinghai Zhao, Hongxin Zhang, Tiezhu Zhang, Lin Yuan, Wenyue Wang, Xinqing Li 
    Abstract: High performances are indispensable elements for automotive subframe design to improve automotive ride comfort and handling stability. In view of its multiple functions, the essential performances for subframe design include stiffness, natural frequency as well as weight, especially stiffness referred to as the fundamental target. This paper presents a validation process for an automotive subframe stiffener plate with innovated design obtained from topology optimization through both numerical simulations and experimental measurements. An optimized configuration of the stiffener plate is proposed through structural topology optimization that improves the stiffness and lightweight requirement. The final detailed geometry is reconstructed in consideration of manufacturing requirements including welding procedure and assembly layout. The natural frequencies of the optimized model are analyzed through experimental measurement and numerical simulation. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach is an efficient and effective methodology for subframe stiffener plate design to improve its stiffness, and with the conclusion that the numerical simulation can to some extent replace the experimental measurement for modal analysis.
    Keywords: automotive subframe; topology optimization; stiffener plate; experimental validation.

Special Issue on: Functional and Architected Materials

  • An Ultrasonic Signal Acquisition Method Of Ferromagnetic Materials Based On Similar Matrix Blind Source Separation   Order a copy of this article
    by Lin Zhu, Minping Jia, Guangming Guo 
    Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of low signal-to-noise ratio, low efficiency and poor signal richness in ultrasonic signal acquisition of ferromagnetic materials, a new ultrasonic signal acquisition method based on similar matrix blind source separation is proposed. The blind source separation is carried out to remove the noise of the ultrasonic signal of ferromagnetic materials. The basic electromagnetic field equation, the alternating electromagnetic field control equation and the basic acoustic field equation are used to achieve high-quality ultrasonic signal acquisition of ferromagnetic materials. The experimental results show that the denoising effect of the proposed method is good, the signal-to-noise ratio can reach 25dB ~ 30dB, the acquisition efficiency is higher, and the overall application time can be controlled within 0.2s.
    Keywords: Similarity matrix; Blind source separation; Ferromagnetic materials; Signal acquisition;.