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International Journal of Materials and Product Technology

International Journal of Materials and Product Technology (IJMPT)

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International Journal of Materials and Product Technology (33 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Numerical simulation analysis of bearing capacity of reinforced concrete high-pressure members   Order a copy of this article
    by Tong Wu, Li Wang 
    Abstract: In order to solve the problem that the numerical simulation results of the bearing capacity of the reinforced concrete high pressure members are not accurate, the numerical simulation research of the bearing capacity of the reinforced concrete high pressure members is put forward. The additional stress of concrete members is calculated by elastic theory formula, and the longitudinal equilibrium differential value of concrete members is obtained. The additional stress of the compression member is calculated. In order to meet the requirements of calculation time and simulation precision, the reinforced concrete members are discretised by grid partitioned. The experimental results show that, compared with the traditional method of mean square root value of relative error is 0.10, accuracy was 98%, 99% of the reliability, effectively overcome the numerical simulation of high pressure bearing capacity of reinforced concrete members, the main tension stress measurement of fixed end concrete members to limit state, and the finite element simulation results closer to the experimental value, this improves the accuracy of the numerical simulation of high pressure bearing capacity of reinforced concrete member, ensure construction quality to a certain extent.
    Keywords: reinforced concrete; high-pressure member; bearing capacity; numerical simulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10041940
  • Fatigue Strength Estimation of Single Self-Piercing Riveted Joints of Steel and Aluminum Plates under Different Loading Modes   Order a copy of this article
    by Young-In Lee, Ho-Kyung Kim 
    Abstract: Self-piercing riveting (SPR) has recently been adopted to join automotive body components because this method can reduce manufacturing costs via product automation while also providing a simpler process. In this study, fatigue tests were conducted using cross-tension and coach-peel specimens with aluminum alloy (A5052) and cold-rolled steel (SPCC) sheets to evaluate the fatigue strength of SPR joints. For the combination of an upper steel sheet and a lower aluminum alloy sheet, designated here as U.S-L.A, the applied load amplitudes corresponding to the fatigue limit in the cross-tension and the coach-peel specimens are approximately 13% and 15% of the monotonic strength, respectively. The fatigue strength of SPR joints of aluminum and steel sheets under various types loading conditions can be adequately predicted by the equivalent stress intensity factor amplitude.
    Keywords: fatigue lifetime; SPR joints; coach-peel; cross-tension; equivalent stress intensity factor; fatigue parameter; failure modes; FEM analysis; fatigue strength.

    Abstract: Plaster and stoneware hand molds were fabricated and used in the NR latex glove preparation. The raw materials characteristics combined to influence the hand mold surface properties through the adhesion-cohesion force, interfacial tension, contact angle, packing density. The stoneware hand mold fired at 800
    Keywords: Stoneware hand mold; Natural rubber latex; Glove; Interfacial force; Adhesion-cohesion force.

  • Fibre reinforcement in fused filament fabrication and sustainability: a literature review and future research agenda   Order a copy of this article
    by Jaydeep R. Shah, Shashank Thanki 
    Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive review of fibre reinforced additive manufacturing and its pertinence in the domain of sustainable manufacturing. In comparison to other additive manufacturing processes, fused filament fabrication (FFF) has more adaptability for the use of fibre reinforcement due to its controlled, meticulous orientation and good dispersal capabilities for additively manufactured products. Many researchers have made numerous efforts to enhance the application domain using composite materials in FFF. The inclusion of fibres in the polymers is attractive in increasing the strength of products. In addition, recent studies have defined the relationship between sustainability and additive manufacturing by incorporating natural fibres and recycled matrix materials in AM. This review article summarises various possibilities of fibre reinforced additive manufacturing, specifically in FFF of thermoplastic composites that enhance the mechanical properties. Finally, the critical research questions for the future advancement of sustainable additive manufacturing, particularly in fibre reinforced FFF, are posed.
    Keywords: additive manufacturing; sustainable manufacturing; fused filament fabrication; continuous fibre reinforcement; natural fibres.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10045083
  • Effects of SiC and Carbon Black on Mechanical Properties (Tensile and Flexural) of AA6082/SiC/CB Metal Matrix Composites   Order a copy of this article
    by Manish Bhargava, Jawahar Paulraj 
    Abstract: Aluminium based Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) are extensively used in manufacturing fields due to its excellent properties like high strength to weight ratio and resistance to corrosion. Accordingly, the main objective of this research is to examine the effect of infusion of SiCp and carbon black on mechanical properties of Aluminium 6082/ SiC/Carbon black MMCs. The mechanical properties initially increases with increase in weight fraction of SiC particulates and weight fraction of carbon black in the matrix. Further infusion of SiC particulates and carbon particulates in the matrix decreases the mechanical properties of MMCs. On the other hand, for tensile strength and flexural strength, the influence of SiCp has been found most significant than carbon black while for impact strength and hardness, carbon black influence is more significant than SiCp.
    Keywords: Aluminium 6082 alloy; SiC; Carbon black; MMC; Mechanical properties.

  • RSM based Optimization of machining forces and Surface roughness when laser-assisted turning Nitinol alloy   Order a copy of this article
    by Chakala Naresh, P. S. C. BOSE, N. Selvaraj 
    Abstract: In the current investigation, the interrelation between the parameter attributes namely laser power, cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut on machining forces (thrust force (Fx), feed force (Fy) and Cutting force (Fz)) and Surface roughness (SR) in Laser-assisted turning (LAT) of Nitinol alloy using TiAlN PVD coated carbide inserts. The experiments were performed based on Response Surface Methodology (RSM) Face Centered Central Composite Design (FCCD). Statistical techniques analysis of variance (ANOVA) and RSM were utilized to evolve regression models and to resolute optimum parameter attributes. Results from the current research suggests that cutting speed and feed rate have a superior impact on thrust force and cutting force, whereas feed rate and laser power are the most prominent important attributes for feed force. For SR, speed & cutting depth are the most prominent attributes. Optimum LAT parameters obtained through desirability function are found as laser power of 357 watts, cutting speed of 75 m/min, feed of 0.025 mm/rev and depth of cut of 0.5 mm with predicted machining forces (Fx=135.85N, Fy=170.67N&Fz=109.976N) and surface roughness of 0.7087
    Keywords: machining forces; Nitinol alloy; Response surface methodology; optimization; Laser-assisted turning; central composite design; desirability; Surface roughness.

  • Identification of strain-rate-dependent hardening model for aluminium alloy sheet in electromagnetic forming   Order a copy of this article
    by Yangzhe Lin, Zhigang Xu, Wei Liu, Zhenghua Meng, Shoulu Zhou 
    Abstract: The deformation rate of aluminium alloy sheet reaches up to thousands per second in the electromagnetic forming process, and how to obtain the hardening behaviour of aluminium alloy sheet at such high strain rate becomes an essential issue. The electromagnetic hole-flanging test is proposed to simplify the deformation process. Based on the electromagnetic hole-flanging test, the inverse identification procedures are adopted to calibrate the strain-rate-dependent hardening models of aluminium alloy sheet. For the Johnson-Cook and Cowper-Symonds hardening models, the strain-hardening terms were initially determined by the quasi-static uniaxial tensile tests to simplify the inverse procedures. Then, the strain-rate-dependent terms were identified by comparing the simulated and experimental strains of the electromagnetic hole-flanging test. It was validated to calibrate the Johnson-Cook and Cowper-Symonds models of AA5754 aluminium alloy sheet by combining the electromagnetic hole-flanging test with the quasi-static tensile test.
    Keywords: electromagnetic forming; aluminium alloy sheet; hardening model; high strain rate; Johnson-Cook model; Cowper-Symonds model; numerical simulation; flat spiral coil; flanging; inverse identification.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10043424
  • Influence of weight ratio of conductive additive to binder in an electrode on the capacity of Li-ion battery   Order a copy of this article
    by Jung-hoon Lee, Cheol Kim 
    Abstract: Changes in the charge and discharge capacity of a lithium-ion battery are investigated by varying the percentage weight composition ratios of conductive additive to polymeric binder in an electrode of a lithium-ion battery. The cathode is made of active material (LiMn2O4), binder (PVDF), and conductive additive (carbon black). To investigate the effect of inactive material composition on battery performance experimentally, the weight percentage of active material in the cathode is fixed at 85 wt% and five different ratios of PVDF/carbon black are assessed by varying conductive additive from 1.5 wt% to 13.5 wt% and binder from 13.5 wt% to 1.5 wt% while fabricating lithium-ion batteries. To study particles' cohesive behaviours between inactive materials in the electrode, various SEM images are taken and analysed for five different compositions of carbon black and PVDF. As a result, the improved battery performance is observed at the ratios of 7.5 wt%-10.5 wt% carbon black and 7.5 wt%-4.5 wt% PVDF.
    Keywords: binder material; conductive additive; electrode composition; inactive material; lithium-ion battery.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10048560
  • Plastic behaviour of SUS304 stainless steel tubes under intermittent uniaxial tensile loading   Order a copy of this article
    by Lianfa Yang, Daofu Tang, Yulin He 
    Abstract: The plastic behaviour of SUS304 stainless steel tubes was investigated at room temperature via conventional single-round and intermittent uniaxial tensile testing (UTT), and the Hollomon model was adopted to describe the true stress-strain relationship under uniaxial tensile loading. The observed effects of the strain rate and unloading gap on tensile properties and the resulting stress-strain curves were interpreted in terms of microstructural transformation. The results indicate that the flow stress obtained by intermittent UTT was higher than that obtained by conventional single-round UTT, and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and tensile elongation decreased with an increase in the unloading gap. In addition, the yield strength increased with increasing strain rate, while the UTS and tensile elongation decreased. Further, both the strength coefficient and strain-hardening exponent used in the Hollomon model decreased with increasing unloading gap and strain rate.
    Keywords: SUS304; stainless steel tube; uniaxial tensile test; strain rate; unloading gap; tensile properties; plastic behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10048561
  • Atomistic simulation of bicrystal behaviour with Σ5 grain boundary parallel to nanometric cutting direction   Order a copy of this article
    by Seyed Vahid Hosseini, Mehdi Heidari, Hadi Parvaz, Mehrdad Vahdati 
    Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the behaviour of bicrystals in the nanometric cutting process with symmetric Σ5(210) grain boundary. Several copper bicrystals with various grains sizes were simulated using embedded atoms potential. Results showed that when a grain boundary was located at a high hydrostatic pressure area, at upstream of the cutting tool, it was diffused to lower grain by hydrostatic pressure. On the other hand, the grain boundary located at downstream of the tool was migrated to the machined surface with the evaluation of crystallographic orientation in adjacent atoms structure. Although in bicrystals with parallel grain boundary, defects initiate from tool edge similar to single crystals, defects propagation was significantly increased in bicrystal substrate caused the increment of plastic deformation and potential energy. Finally, these defects merged to grain boundary without transmission or reflection into the adjacent grain, increasing stress concentration and residual stress.
    Keywords: nanometric cutting; bicrystalline material; grain boundary; molecular dynamics simulation; high hydrostatic pressure.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10043374
  • Temperature variation depending on cutting conditions and its effects on thrust force in micro-drilling of CFRP laminates   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmet Dogrusadik, Aykut Kentli, Mustafa Bakkal, Murat Cakan 
    Abstract: Heat generation is unavoidable in machining processes and detrimental in many aspects. Elevation of cutting temperature may cause the matrix burning and rapid tool wear and also influences the thrust force, which is related to the delamination damage. In this work, micro-drilling induced temperature in the CFRP laminates has been investigated experimentally by taking into account the effects of cutting speed and feed. Thermocouple and infrared thermography methods have been used to measure the generated temperature during the process. Variation of thrust force was introduced as the micro-drill penetrates the CFRP laminate. The thrust force was also divided into its components, and the contribution of each component to the thrust force was explained. The effects of generated temperature on the thrust force were evaluated. It was derived from the temperature measurements that generated temperature is sensitive to both feed and spindle speed variations, but the feed is more effective on the generated temperature than the spindle speed in the selected range. It was observed that the thrust force changes significantly as the micro-drill cuts the carbon fibre intensive and epoxy intensive layers, and cutting temperature affects the highest thrust force significantly.
    Keywords: micro-drilling; CFRP laminate; drilling induced temperature; thrust force.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10048564
  • Consolidation of Al-5083 alloy powders by ECAP   Order a copy of this article
    by Kondaiah Gudimetla, Anil Babu Sankuru, Batsala Naveen, S. Ramesh Kumar, B. Ravisankar, S. Kumaran 
    Abstract: Mechanically alloyed Al-5083 powders with different milling times are consolidated by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) at room temperature (RT), at high temperature (HT), up to two passes in Route A and their mechanical and physical properties are studied in this paper. Microstructural and tensile tests of RT ECAPed samples reveal weaker bonds between the particles which result in poor tensile strength and ductility. Furthermore, the fractograph of RT ECAPed samples shows that the failure is due to particle pull-out as a result of poor metallurgical bonding. Unmilled (0 h) powder is found to have achieved 99.22% of its theoretical density and 45 HRB after the first pass in HT ECAP. However, microstructural studies and tensile tests revealed good metallurgical bonds between the particles. Furthermore, the fractured surface of compacts shows that the failure surface is dominated by the ductile fracture mode. HT ECAP followed by sintering is a suitable method for achieving metallurgical bonding between microparticles.
    Keywords: equal channel angular pressing; ECAP; Al-5083; consolidation; density; tensile; fractography.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10048565
  • Effect of field shaper tapered angle on the electromagnetic crimping of tubes on rods   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramesh Kumar, Sachin D. Kore 
    Abstract: The electromagnetic crimping process lies in the category of solid-state mechanical joining technique. This technique has great potential to produce dissimilar joints. The electromagnetic crimping process is used to produce the crimping of the joint between the copper tube and aluminium rod. The numerical model was validated based on the measured crimped diameter of the tube and also based on the temperature. The validated numerical model was used to study the effect of the field shaper tapered angle on the impact velocity of the flyer, plastic strain in the tube, and the magnetic field produced around the tube. For this study, the tapered angle of the tube used was 14.4°, 15.2°, 15.9°, 16.7° and 17.4°. The other parameters related to the field shaper such as outer diameter, total length, inner diameter, and working length were kept constant. From this study, it was found that with the increase in the tapered angle of the field shaper, and maintaining the other parameters constant the impact velocity of the tube, magnetic field and plastic strain developed in the tube also increases.
    Keywords: electromagnetic crimping; EMC; field shaper tapered angle; finite element method; FEM; discharge energy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10048567

Special Issue on: ISCEG 2020 Recent Advances of Construction and Building Materials

  • Experimental studies of the interfacial shear mechanical behaviour of geosynthetics-soil   Order a copy of this article
    by Guangqing Yang, Zheng Zuo, Linying Xu, Zhijie Wang, He Wang 
    Abstract: At present, limited researches had been performed on comparison of shear mechanical behaviour between geogrid or geocell and soil. In current research, direct shear tests (DST) were performed on the geogrid and geocell to investigate the impact of the friction characteristics and differences of the geogrid and geocell. Results showed that the geogrid and geocell can improve interfacial shear strength characteristics. The reinforcement effect of the geocell was better than that of geogrid, especially under higher vertical stress. The performance of geocell with 260 mm in distance of junctions was better than that of the 440 mm. The performance of geocell with 150 mm in strip height was better than that of the 100 mm. Additionally, in current studies, the contribution of geocell height to the soil strength was greater than the junction distance. The experimental results may provide an idea for application of geocell reinforced mass structures.
    Keywords: direct shear test; DST; geogrid; geocell; height of geocell strip; distance of junction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10039373
  • Optimisation of mix proportions for the cemented sand and gravel in cold region   Order a copy of this article
    by Lixia Guo, Yuhang Guo, Ling Zhong, Guozhi Zhang 
    Abstract: Cemented sand and gravel (CSG) is recognised as having poor quality due to its high porosity. An experimental study was carried out on the mix proportion design of CSG, taking into account the strength and frost resistance requirements of CSG dams in frozen areas. The main factors affecting the compressive strength and frost resistance of CSG were determined by orthogonal experiments. The influencing factors are water/binder ratio, fly ash, cement consumption, admixture and sand ratio, every factor sets up two cases, and the orthogonal table L8 (24) is adopted. There is a positive correlation between compressive strength and frost resistance, as the test results show. An optimal function about compressive strength and frost resistance to improve the quality of CSG in cold region was proposed, in which, weight was determined by OWA operator and entropy weight method to eliminate the influence of extreme values in the subjective evaluation. With the application of the function, significant factors influencing the desired performance of CSG are sand ratio, cement consumption, water/binder ratio and content of fly ash, while the optimum mix proportion is water/ binder ratio of 1.0, ratio of sand of 0.2, while 60 kg/m3 and 40 kg/m3 for the contents of fly ash and cement. The results can provide a theoretical basis for application and design of CSG dam in cold region.
    Keywords: cemented sand and gravel; ordered weighted average operator; orthogonal experiment; optimisation; compressive strength; frost resistance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10045786
  • Influence of fibre type on unconfined compressive strength of fibre-reinforced cemented soil under freeze-thaw cycling   Order a copy of this article
    by Lina Xu, Lei Niu 
    Abstract: In order to study the influence of the fibre type on the unconfined compressive strength of fibre-reinforced cemented soil under the freeze-thaw cycling, several experiments on freeze-thaw cycling and unconfined compressive strength were carried out, using fibre-reinforced cemented soil as the object. Specifically, basalt fibre and glass fibre with the content of 0.5% respectively by weight of soil, and the lengths of 3 mm, 6 mm, and 20 mm respectively were added to the cemented soil, which was cured for 28 d. The result shows that the unconfined compressive strength of these samples increased at first stage and then decreased as the length of fibre increased. Fibre in the cemented soil mitigated its strength loss under the freeze-thaw cycling. During the experiments, the glass fibre-reinforced cemented soil had a smaller strength loss, a higher peak strength and a smaller failure strain than the basalt fibre-reinforced cemented soil. Those findings can provide reference for the selection of reinforcing fibres for cemented soil under the freeze-thaw cycling.
    Keywords: basalt fibre; glass fibre; freeze-thaw cycling; cemented soil; unconfined compressive strength.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10045241
  • A Causal Time-varying Analysis Method for Assessing Impacts of Cracks on Service States of Concrete Dams   Order a copy of this article
    by Bo Xu, Aimin Gong, Shuyan Fu, Bin Ou 
    Abstract: The impact of cracks on the service state of concrete dams is an important topic. At present, there is relatively little research on the method of analyzing the impacts of cracks on the service state of concrete dams based on effect variables in dam safety monitoring. This study proposes a causal time-varying (CTV) analysis method to assess the effect of cracks on the service state of concrete dams through analysis of the impacts of cracks on effect variables, such as the deformation, stress, and strain of the dam. Specifically, the CTV characteristics of changes in the effect variables were first analyzed considering both the causal action mechanisms between the contributing factors and effect variables, and the time-varying characteristics of the causal effect; then, the cracks were regarded as an contributing factor on the effect variables of concrete dams. On this basis, a CTV analysis model was established, which consisted of an analytical model of impact degrees and an analytical model of impact sensitivity of cracks on effect variables. Accordingly, the CTV analysis method for impacts of cracks on service states of concrete dams was built. The method was applied to a study case of a concrete gravity-arc dam, which proved the method reasonable and feasible. This research is expected to provide a reference for prevention and control of cracks in concrete dams.
    Keywords: causal time-varying analysis; concrete dam crack; effect variable; impact degree; sensitivity of impact; service state.

  • A time-dependent swelling constitutive model for reliability analysis of anhydrite tunnel   Order a copy of this article
    by Jianxun Wu, Zhenkun Hou, Liang Chen, Xidong Du, Jinyang Fan, Xiaobin Xu, Cynthia Sun 
    Abstract: The anhydrite rock is easy to swell and soften after encountering water, which leads to an increase in the displacement of the tunnel face and the force of the supporting structure, resulting in disasters such as tunnel lining invasion, destruction and floor uplift. Thus the physical model tests of the swelling evolution process of anhydrite rock are carried out, based on which, a time-dependent swelling constitutive model of anhydrite and two performance functions of tunnel are established. At the same time, a calculation framework is proposed for the reliability analysis of tunnel subjected anhydrite swelling, whose reliability influencing parameters is investigated. The comparisons of reliability of tunnel are conducted under the conditions of soaking and no soaking. The sensitivity analysis of reliability indices is performed by using the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) technique and calculating the partial rank correlation coefficients. The reliability-based design of tunnel with anhydrite swelling is illustrated and the influence of groundwater distribution on the reliability is discussed. The research results provide a theoretical basis for tunnel stability and reliability analysis.
    Keywords: reliability analysis; sensitivity analysis; tunnel; anhydrite swelling; swelling constitutive model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10048562
  • Dynamic Displacement Response Analysis of Bridge in the Impact Vibration of Slight and Frequent Vehicle Bump   Order a copy of this article
    by Jian Shen, Yu-han Ma, Lang Wu 
    Abstract: To study the impact of vehicle moving on bridge, the bump occurring under the determined limit conditions of vehicle from no bump to the beginning of bump was named as slight and frequent vehicle bump. With a 1/4 simplified vehicle model and the Euler-Bernoulli bridge model, the required minimum impact height for the bump and the effect of bump impact on the vertical dynamic mid-span displacement response of bridge were figured out in different vehicle speed, axle load and wheel diameter. The simulation analysis by ANSYS software, with HSFLD242 unit simulating air inside the tire and MASS21 simulating the car weight held by tires, verified the results of the minimum impact height. The effect of bump impact on the vertical dynamic mid-span displacement response of bridge was also verified by observation using the TCQN-6A bridge deflection detector on the mid-span dynamic deflection of a 25-meter simply supported beam bridge.
    Keywords: slight and frequent vehicle bump; critical condition of vehicle bump; vehicle-bridge coupling; dynamic model; simulation analysis.

  • Evaluation of in-soil creep characteristics of HDPE geogrid using the time-stress superposition method   Order a copy of this article
    by Guangqing Yang, Qiaoyi Li, Zhijie Wang, He Wang 
    Abstract: The tensile creep characteristics of geogrids in-soil were studied by using a self-designed creep test device. To study the influence of normal stress on the tensile creep characteristics of geogrids, creep tests were carried out at three tensile stress levels. The restraint of normal stress can reduce the creep strain of a geogrid. The HDPE geogrids exhibited primary and secondary creep stages under restraint. According to the principle of time stress superposition, the creep strain time curves under three different tensile stress levels were moved along the logarithmic time axis to obtain the master strain curve at a given reference stress level. Based on the 500 hours creep test data, the principal curve was used to predict the creep characteristics up to 100 years by the time stress superposition principle.
    Keywords: geogrid; tensile creep; in-soil; time stress superposition; master strain curve.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10039934

Special Issue on: Special Issue Advanced Smart Materials

  • The effect of MnO2 concentration on the formation of MnO2/ZnO thin films with bifunctional thermal insulation and photocatalytic self-cleaning performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohd Rashid Yusof Hamid, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd Julkapli, Mohamad Fared Murshed, Mohd Shamsul Busnak, Mohd Imran Hilmi, Mohd Azam Mohd Adnan 
    Abstract: This study focuses on fabricating manganese dioxide/zinc oxide (MnO2/ZnO) thin films using a two-stage chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The concentration effect of MnO2 thin film for the second stage deposition will be optimised and selected based on their thermal conductivity behaviour. It was found out that the wettability showed an increase in the contact angle (CA) after the addition of ZnO, with the highest CA of 14.5°C for 12% of ZnO. The same sample also demonstrated commendable thermal performance after reaching a constant temperature of 35.9°C in 65 minutes compared to the uncoated glass substrate. All thin films indicated low photocatalytic activity, where the best sample (12% of ZnO loading) yielded only 6% degradation efficiency of 10 mgL-1 malachite green (MG) as a model pollutant within 90 minutes. The porosity and agglomeration gradually increased following second stage deposition and ZnO introduction.
    Keywords: wettability; dual functionality substrates; thin-film coating; energy-efficient smart window; self-cleaning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10046261

Special Issue on: Advanced Smart Materials

  • Research on numerical simulation of wear temperature field of vehicle brake disc based on SIFI feature   Order a copy of this article
    by Haoge Peng, Ming Zhang 
    Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of low simulation accuracy and long time in traditional numerical simulation method of vehicle brake disc wear temperature field, a numerical simulation method of vehicle brake disc wear temperature field based on Sifi characteristics is proposed. The temperature field simulation model of vehicle brake disc wear is built, and the temperature field estimation results are obtained. On this basis, after the Gaussian scale space is generated by using Sifi features, the key point descriptor is generated by determining the key extreme points and the direction of the key points, so as to extract the characteristics of the vehicle brake disc wear temperature field. According to the feature extraction results, the numerical simulation of the vehicle brake disc wear temperature field is carried out. The experimental results show that the simulation accuracy of this method is more than 92%, the average simulation time is 33.9 ms, and the comprehensive performance is better.
    Keywords: SIFI characteristics; vehicle brake disc; wear; temperature field; numerical simulation; Gaussian scale space.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10042060
  • Fatigue crack detection of heavy duty railway track based on decision fusion analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhaojun Guo, Hao Yin 
    Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of low detection accuracy and long detection time of traditional crack detection methods, this paper proposes a fatigue crack detection method of heavy-haul railway rail based on decision fusion analysis. Based on the accurate load composition and key structural parameters of heavy-haul railway rails, the initial crack data were obtained according to the crack generation state. The data of rail fatigue crack in three-dimensional space were transformed into numerical data of crack in two-dimensional plane by translation and rotation method, and the crack tip data were fused by decision fusion analysis method, so as to realise accurate detection of crack location. The experimental results show that the detection accuracy of the proposed method is always higher than 95.3%, and the detection time is always less than 0.5 s, which can realise the rapid and accurate detection of fatigue crack of heavy-duty railway rail.
    Keywords: decision fusion analysis; heavy duty railway; rail fatigue; crack detection.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10047956
  • The mechanical properties and microstructure of 1,000 MPa grade Cu-Ni TRIP steel at different bainitic isothermal temperatures   Order a copy of this article
    by Xu-ming Wang, Ai-min Zhao, Zhi-yi Bao 
    Abstract: For developing TRIP steel with good coordination on strength and plasticity, a TRIP steels containing copper and nickel at different bainite isothermal temperatures (350-470°C) were investigated to explore the best process. The microstructure of the tested steel was investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, and electron backscatter diffraction, as well as its mechanical properties were tested and analysed by uniaxial tensile test. It can conclude that when holding bainitic isothermal temperature at 410°C, the steel obtained the excellent mechanical properties, e.g., the elongation is 16.88%, the strength of extension is 1,088 MPa and the strength and ductility product is 18,365 MPa%. The crystallite dimension and carbon level of retained austenite play an important role in its stability. Moreover, in terms of morphology, the film-like austenite makes an important impact in the gentle transition during deformation and the stability of retained austenite is affected by its film thickness.
    Keywords: TRIP steel; metastable austenitic; bainite isothermal temperature; microstructure; mechanical properties.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10047072
  • Detection method of interface defects of titanium nitride thin film coating materials based on image processing   Order a copy of this article
    by Shengan Zhou, Yuan Wang, Gengsheng Huang, Yiyun Zhang 
    Abstract: In order to improve the accuracy of defect location and defect feature extraction of coating materials, an interface defect detection method based on image processing is designed in this paper. After scanning the interface image of TiN film coating material, denoising was carried out to improve the accuracy of defect location. After the preprocessing image is segmented and the defect area is located, the optical signal of the defect area is collected to achieve the purpose of improving the accuracy of defect feature extraction, and then the defect location is detected by extracting the details of grey image. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the proposed method is between 92% and 97%, and the accuracy of defect feature extraction is between 93.6% and 95.7%, which indicates that the proposed method is more effective.
    Keywords: image scanning; image denoising; image preprocessing; titanium nitride film coating; defect detection; defect location; feature extraction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2021.10043875
  • Experimental study on impact compression performance of expressway concrete   Order a copy of this article
    by Yunxia Li, Qi Ding, Rong Tang 
    Abstract: In order to solve the problems such as inaccurate damage estimation and long performance analysis time of concrete existing in traditional methods, the impact compression performance test method of expressway concrete was put forward. The KCC model is used to obtain the stress-strain relationship of highway concrete pavement, and the impact compressive stress of expressway concrete is calculated by linear interpolation. The impact compression damage function of concrete pavement is constructed, and the apparent compaction state equation of concrete pavement is obtained. On the basis of the above, the expressway concrete specimen is made and the impact compression performance test of expressway concrete is carried out. The experimental results show that when the impact force is 20 kN, the accuracy of the damage estimation of the expressway concrete is 95.3%, and the performance analysis time is only 1.4 s.
    Keywords: expressway; concrete; impact compression performance; stress-strain relationship; shear plane function; damage function; equation of state for apparent compaction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10048152
  • A comparative study on the photodegradation efficiency of TiO2-CS hybrid beads under wet and dry conditions   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohd Azam Mohd Adnan, Saba Afzal, Mohd Rafie Johan, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd Julkapli 
    Abstract: The direct ex-situ technique successfully produced chitosan (CS) support TiO2 hybrid beads under wet and dry circumstances. The addition of CS to TiO2 photocatalysis improves adsorption, dispersion, and stability. The active surface, crystallinity, and morphology of the hybrid beads were determined, confirming the samples' homogenous granular morphology and homogeneous dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles in the CS matrix. The more vital interaction between TiO2 and CS molecules was responsible for the lower IR peak intensities of the OH and NH2 groups of wet hybrid beads. Raman spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that the crystallinity and phase of TiO2 in both wet and dry samples are almost indistinguishable. With the optimal catalyst loading of 6 g, the photodegradation study revealed that wet hybrid beads reported adsorption of 95% for MB, while dry hybrid beads reported 75% for MO. Therefore, to enhance interactions between TiO2 and CS, TiO2-CS wet hybrid beads have superior stability, surface functioning, and adsorption capabilities, as determined by characterisation results.
    Keywords: hybrid beads; TiO2; chitosan; wet condition; methyl orange; methylene blue.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10044464

Special Issue on: The Structure, Properties and Application of Metal and Composite Materials

  • Synthesis and mechanical characterisation of self-lubricating Al7075/MoS2/ZrB2 hybrid composite   Order a copy of this article
    by Mukesh Dubey, Narendra Kumar, Sunil Mohan 
    Abstract: In the current study, Al7075-based hybrid composites reinforced with zirconium diboride (ZrB2) and molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) particles were synthesised through a two-step stir casting process. Three distinct compositions Al7075 alloy, Al7075 + 3 vol.%MoS2 and Al7075 + 3 vol.%MoS2 + 3 vol.%ZrB2 have synthesised using the stir casting process. X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) along with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and mechanical characterisation performed on all synthesised samples to identify reinforcement particles, grain refinement, particle morphology, hardness, tensile properties and failure mode. Microstructural examination reveals refined grain structure, uniform distribution of particles, along with clear interface and good bonding. Mechanical characterisation reveals Al7075/MoS2/ZrB2 hybrid composite with highest hardness, strength, and ductility among all the compositions examined. Increased strength along with good ductility of composite over the unreinforced alloy is an important finding of the present study in contrast with many previous studies. Microstructure and mechanical features were correlated with results obtained for enhanced performance and life span of the hybrid composites.
    Keywords: hybrid composite; Al7075; zirconium diboride; ZrB2; molybdenum disulphide; MoS2; stir casting; mechanical properties.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10047073
  • Leakage current detection method of electrical insulation materials based on Windowed-added Fourier transform   Order a copy of this article
    by Yulin Zhuang 
    Abstract: In order to effectively solve the disadvantages of low accuracy of leakage feature recognition and low accuracy of detection results in traditional leakage current detection methods, a leakage current detection method of electrical insulating materials based on windowed Fourier transform is proposed. Firstly, the windowed Fourier transform process is analysed to judge the related properties of leakage current signal. Then, the leakage current detection unit is designed by using the insulation equivalent model, leakage current detector, self-excited oscillator, second-order low-pass filter and windowed Fourier transform process. Finally, based on the leakage characteristics of electrical insulation materials, the leakage current detection process is designed to complete the leakage current detection of electrical insulation materials. The results show that the recognition accuracy of leakage characteristics is always above 95%.
    Keywords: electrical insulation materials; leakage current; leakage detection; windowed-added Fourier transform; feature recognition.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10047415
  • Performance analysis of automotive braking friction materials based on surface roughness   Order a copy of this article
    by Ronghua Bian, Xin Chen, Mingpeng Wang 
    Abstract: The traditional friction material performance analysis method has the problem of high wear rate. Therefore, this paper proposes a performance analysis method of automobile braking friction material based on surface roughness. The calculation formula of material friction is described by classical friction law, the material performance analysis function is constructed according to Mamdani fuzzy algorithm, the influence function of friction coefficient is determined through the optimal fusion position constraints, and the multi-objective function model is constructed according to surface roughness to analyse the performance of automobile braking friction materials. The results show that the friction coefficient of the material is 0.38 at 200 C. When the service life of the friction material is 150 days, the wear rate of the friction material is 0.22%. This shows that this method can improve the friction performance of automotive braking friction materials, which has a certain practical significance.
    Keywords: wear rate; cut item; roughness term; load; friction materials.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10047416
  • Study on damage fatigue test method of metal materials for rotating machinery   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei Jing, Peng Wang, Ningchao Zhang 
    Abstract: In order to solve the problem that the existing metal material damage fatigue test methods can not accurately test the compression and shear properties of materials, a new metal material damage fatigue test method for rotating machinery is proposed in this paper. The calculation model of mechanical characteristics of metal materials based on impact load is established to calculate the yield moment and the damage fatigue degree of metal test materials. The smaller size Q235 steel material on rotating machinery is selected as the experimental object, and the damage fatigue test is designed. The experimental results show that the overall height of the three-dimensional morphology of the fatigue surface is low, and becomes uneven when the number of tensile times increases. It is proved that the damage fatigue test of the proposed method is more accurate and can predict the life and strength of steel under damage.
    Keywords: rotating machinery; metallic materials; damage fatigue; impact load; cyclic load.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10047957
  • Residual life prediction of thermal insulation material for cold chain logistics transportation vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Yulong Wan, Xinchun Li 
    Abstract: Aiming at the problems of low prediction accuracy and long prediction time cost in traditional methods, a residual life prediction method of thermal insulation material for cold chain logistics transportation vehicle is proposed. The distribution position of thermal insulation material in the car body is analysed. According to the distribution position of thermal insulation materials, the life prediction parameters of thermal insulation material are calculated. According to the determined parameters, the key degree of thermal insulation material is calculated by gradient descent method, so as to construct the residual life prediction model of cold chain logistics transport vehicle compartment thermal insulation material, take the key parameters of thermal insulation material as the input, and output the residual life prediction results of compartment thermal insulation material. Experimental results show that the prediction accuracy of the proposed method is about 97% when 100 times, and the shortest time cost is about 0.5 s.
    Keywords: compartment thermal insulation material; life prediction; gradient descent method; residual life prediction model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10048375
  • Pyroelectric and hygrothermal couplings effects on dynamic active control analysis of coupled thermopiezoelastic composite plate   Order a copy of this article
    by Milad Rouzbehani 
    Abstract: The main goal of this article is to examine the pyroelectric and hygrothermal couplings effects on dynamic active control analysis of coupled thermopiezoelastic composite plate. The dynamic deflection and stresses of coupled thermopiezoelasticity displayed to hot and humid environmental circumstances are obtained using a direct proportional feedback controller. The governing equations are determined utilising the Navier solution method. The results clearly show that by increasing moisture diffusion, the number of stresses and deflections are increased. Consequently, the induced temperature is increased by increasing humidity up to 25%. A change of 5% deflection rise and on average 4% increase of stresses are observed. Furthermore, if the increase of humidity goes to 75% the plate deflection grows by 9% and stresses increase by about 8%. Additionally, by applying appropriate control gain, the deflection damped 62% quicker which causes the heat generated in the plate controlled properly.
    Keywords: coupled thermopiezoelasticity; hygrothermal environment; pyroelectric effect; sensor; actuator; Navier solution.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10048533