Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Management Practice

International Journal of Management Practice (IJMP)

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International Journal of Management Practice (24 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Determinants of organizational context in management consulting   Order a copy of this article
    by Renato Lopes Da Costa, Nelson António, Álvaro Dias 
    Abstract: Purpose: To combine in a single and integrated model, the roles of management consultants, the variables in each roles and the kind of advice implicit in each area.rnrnDesign/methodology/approach: In a first study, we applied a questionnaire followed by a quantitative analysis to consultants and SME managers to determine the roles of management consultants. Then, to obtain more insights about the complexity of the roles and variables, we conducted a second study supported a semi structured interviews to the same professional groups.rnrnFindings: The roles of consultants can not only be defined in organizational variables and consultant status resulting enabling the construction of the model of determinants of organizational context in management consulting.rnOriginality/value (mandatory) Although the literature labels management consultancy industry as an extraordinary industry and a unique phenomenon in the business context, in fact these statements do not come accompanied by a number of academic studies that highlight the importance of the effective work of management consultants. The proposed model contributes to the existing literature by combining in an integrated model the determinants of organizational context in management consulting.rnrn
    Keywords: Management Consulting; Knowledge Management; Strategy-as-Practice.

  • Does my Attitude Toward Meetings Matter? The Impact of Supervisors and Team Members Team Meeting Attitudes on Counterproductive Meeting Behaviour and Outcomes   Order a copy of this article
    by Eva-Maria Schulte, Simone Kauffeld 
    Abstract: Team meeting attitudes and counterproductive meeting behavior are important predictors of meeting success. However, the link between team meeting attitudes and counterproductive meeting behavior has not been studied yet. This study aims to examine positive team meeting attitudes as a predictor of counterproductive meeting behavior, which in turn, is expected to negatively impact individual (i.e., employees emotional strain) and team (i.e., meeting effectiveness and team performance) outcomes. Using team data and multilevel modeling, we further analyze the importance of supervisors team meeting attitudes for team members team meeting attitudes and meeting success. Results supported that team meeting attitudes of supervisors, teams, and individual team members are negatively linked to counterproductive meeting behavior, which in turn, is negatively linked to meeting effectiveness and team performance as well as positively linked to emotional strain.
    Keywords: team meeting attitudes; counterproductive meeting behavior; meeting effectiveness; conservation of resources theory; multilevel modeling.

  • A new template for identifying the Best Training and Development Practices in an Automotive Industrial Cluster: An Indian Case study   Order a copy of this article
    by ARAVAMUDHAN N.R, Krishnaveni R 
    Abstract: Abstract Any study focusing on identifying the best practices in training and development, in particular is fraught with critical challenges. Part of the challenge in identifying the best practices in training and development is that the field is devoid of any serious empirical research. Most of the material available in the public domain is descriptive, primed on case studies or anecdotal narratives to support the authors claims. A reliable method for identifying the best practices in training and development in the industrial cluster is still uncharted terrain. Hitherto, the research studies focused solely on individual companies. The extant literature revealed that there is an abject lack of empirical research focusing on devising a reliable method for identifying the best practices in training and development in industrial clusters. This purported gap in the training literature provided the impetus to devise a new template for identifying the best training and development practices in an Automotive Industrial cluster. The study straddling three phases namely Diagnosis, Assessment, and Identification will help firms identify the best training and development practices. These best training and development practices were identified through a novel tool called POET and General Estimating Equation (GEE) using SPSS. The three-step methodology will help the automotive firms in a cluster to identify the best practices in training and development.
    Keywords: Training and Development; POET; Best Training and Development practices; General Estimating Equation.

  • The determinants of services FDI location in the UK regions   Order a copy of this article
    by Mark Cook, Grahame Fallon 
    Abstract: This paper contributes to scholarly knowledge and understanding of the way in which economic conditions and government policy affect foreign direct investment (FDI) location in the United Kingdom (UK) regions. It does so by exploring their impact on inbound services FDI location in a sample of the UKs core (the Southeast) and non-core (West Midlands; Wales; Scotland and the Northwest) regions. Use is made of multiple regression techniques to analyse a set of official, longitudinal data gathered for the period from 1980 to 2015 as a means to this end. The findings offer new insights into the relative influence of the search for markets, efficiencies and strategic assets and government policy over the location of services FDI in all five regions. The resultant implications for future inward investment policy development after the UK leaves the EU are also considered, including the potential benefits of increasing policy variations from region to region.
    Keywords: Inbound FDI location determinants;core and non-core regions; multiple regression analysis; economic and government policy influences; implications for future government policy; United Kingdom.

    by Lubna Nafees, Eva M. Hyatt, Lawrence L. Garber, Jr., Neel Das 
    Abstract: This paper takes a first, exploratory step toward more deeply understanding how the millennials of developed versus emerging economies perceive organic products, as well as the consumer behavioural processes surrounding organics. It is also a first step to understanding the growing organics market in emerging countries, represented here by India, for which there seems to be a real dearth of studies focusing on organic food consumption. We find that the Indian focus groups tend to perceive organic products more holistically than their US counterparts, feel a spiritual connection to organics, focus more readily on the augmented product including the societal benefits of a cleaner environment, better treatment of animals and the improved health of farmers. The Indian focus groups revealed themselves to be traditionalists who see the organics movement as taking them back to the agricultural roots of their culture and away from unhealthy Western influences. The US focus groups view the US diet as unhealthy but look to organics not as a way back but as a means to a healthier future. Interestingly, the Indian low involvement focus group view organic foods favorably but largely remain aspirational organics consumers only, due to issues of availability and prices; whereas, the low involvement US focus group is sceptical of the differences and the benefits of organics. Theoretical and social implications are discussed.
    Keywords: organic food; organic food product; organic food India; organic food US; food culture India; food culture US analysis; perceptual maps.

  • Keeping the Spark Alive: Preventing Burnout at Work while Increasing Work Engagement   Order a copy of this article
    by Elif Bilginoğlu, Uğur Yozgat 
    Abstract: Leaders who ignite spirit, encourage passion and light the spark in employees to create the fire in their work environment are called the sparking leaders. This study investigates mainly the impact of sparking leaders on the employees work engagement, burnout and intention to leave the organization and on the other side the impact of self-efficacy on the burnout and intention to leave the organization, additionally. The findings revealed that sparking leadership, as evaluated by employees, predicted work engagement and decreased their burn out as well as their intention to leave the organization. The findings also revealed that the self-efficacy of the employees played an important role on deceasing their burn-out and intention to leave the organization. No relationship was found between sparking leadership and self-efficacy. This means that the sparking leaders bring on fire and use their own flame to keep the spark of the employees alive, and self- efficacy of the employees has an important role on that.
    Keywords: sparking leadership; work engagement; burnout; self-efficacy; intention to leave.

  • The relationship between national culture, capital budgeting systems and firm financial performance: Evidence from Australia and Indonesia.   Order a copy of this article
    by Peter Graham, Milind Sathye 
    Abstract: Prior research has found that capital budgeting systems are influenced by national culture. However, these studies measure national culture narrowly. We advance the literature by including a comprehensive measure of national culture and examine its effects on capital budgeting systems. Specifically, the link between national culture, capital budgeting systems and firm financial performance is explored using contingency theory.\r\nWe surveyed a sample of 100 non-financial firms in Indonesia and Australia. Two of the capital budgeting systems (i.e. capital budgeting procedures and non-financial information) were found to have a significant relationship with financial performance. We found that firms using sophisticated capital budgeting procedures performed better than firms using less sophisticated capital budgeting procedures. In contrast, firms using more non-financial information (a na
    Keywords: capital budgeting systems; national culture; Indonesia; Australia; environmental uncertainty; financial performance.

  • Oil Prices and Stock Market Interplay in Dubai   Order a copy of this article
    by Shruthi Murali, Thiyagarajan S, Naresh Gopal 
    Abstract: This study examines the relationship between Dubai Financial Market General Index (DFMGI) and two important Crude oil price indices, West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and BRENT. Granger Causality tests followed by a robustness check using the Vector Autoregression Model are run on daily logarithmic returns of the variables during the period 2008-15 with particular attention paid to two quarters before, during and after the two major oil price crashes during the period (in 2008 and in 2014). The results show that DFMGI is affected by crude oil prices only during periods of low oil prices. Furthermore, Dubai Financial Market is affected by WTI prices rather than BRENT prices. The study also reveals that WTI spot prices cause BRENT spot prices.
    Keywords: Dubai Financial Market General Index (DFMGI); WTI; BRENT; Volatility; Granger Causality; Vector Auto Regression Model.

  • Developing Civil Servants Engagement and Participation in Cost Reduction Policy through Meta-Abilities: A Case of Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamad Hisyam Selamat 
    Abstract: This study examined the factors affecting cost reduction policy implementation amongst Malaysian civil servants through meta-abilities and a sense of engagement. The studied intrinsic values were a cognitive skill, self-knowledge, emotional resilience, and personal drive. Civil servant engagement in the workplace was treated as the mediating variable. All these values were included in the conceptual framework. A cross-sectional survey was adopted to validate the framework. The sample size for the population of this study was determined at 400. From the analysis, it was found that cognitive skill, emotional resilience, and personal drive influenced participation in cost reduction policy implementation significantly. On the other hand, engagement was negatively influenced by cognitive skills. Additionally, engagement did not mediate the relationships between cognitive skill, self-knowledge, emotional resilience and personal drive and participation in cost reduction policy implementation. Nevertheless, it was found that engagement influenced participation in cost reduction policy implementation significantly. The practical implications are the discovery of theoretical, personal, and workplace practical best practices for the participation in cost reduction policy implementation in public organizations.
    Keywords: Cognitive Skill; Reduction Policy; Civil Servants; Participation; Meta-abilities.

  • Development of the Instrument for Psychological Contract Effectiveness for Service Quality in Academic Institutions   Order a copy of this article
    by Neelam Kaushal 
    Abstract: Psychological contracts theoretical argument arises from social exchange theory which consists of professed commitments and hopes that are having an individual perspective. According to this theory, all the parties comprised in any form of relationships want to construct a relationship based on common respect and fairness. The study on the basis of social exchange theory is aimed to analyze the relationship between students and educational institutes referred to as Psychological Contract effectiveness through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The study along with quantitative design also included qualitative analysis for the scale development. The students from various educational institutions composed a sample of 232 and 300 respondents for EFA and CFA respectively. Scale reliability was assessed by Cronbachs alpha and J
    Keywords: Psychological contract; presumptions; higher education; educational institution facilities and obligations.

  • Perceived Independence or Knowledge Spillovers: The Demand for Non-Audit Services among Family Businesses   Order a copy of this article
    by Bennet Schierstedt, Marisa Henn, Anja Müsch 
    Abstract: This study investigates the impact of family involvement in top management teams, family firms life cycle stages, and family firm identification on family firms demand for non-audit services (NAS). Based on a hand-collected panel dataset including 1,148 German firm-year observations made by 162 family firms, we show that family involvement in top management teams is negatively related to the demand for NAS, resulting in less financial bonding with the incumbent auditor. Moreover, later life cycle stage and high family firm identification positively drive the demand for NAS, which jeopardises external stakeholders perceptions of auditor independence. By moderating auditor characteristics, we show that if the incumbent auditor belongs to the Big Four, family managers NAS purchases are similar to those of non-family managers. Moreover, the relationship between high family firm identification and the demand for NAS becomes even stronger when the incumbent auditor belongs to the Big Four.
    Keywords: Non-audit services (NAS); Socioemotional wealth; Family firms; Panel analysis; Auditing.

  • Blockchain, Trust, and Trust Accounting: Can blockchain technology substitute trust created by intermediaries in trust accounting? A Theoretical examination   Order a copy of this article
    by Silvana Secinaro, Davide Calandra, Paolo Pietro Biancone 
    Abstract: Blockchain technology features such as distributed ledger, decentralisation, smart contracts, and consensus mechanisms promise to trust in transactions. It could be beneficial to trust accounting processes. This paper, using theoretical analysis, reviews these features and examines if they could lead to the substitution or complement the role of trust agents such as legal firms, lawyers, accountants or auditors, and even regulatory authorities. The investigation shows that while blockchain present novel features that are key to enhancing trust, the technology can only complement that trust accounting process, due to the technical skills required. At the same time, the paper discusses the relationship between trust and intermediaries. Future investigations could analyse the relationship between faith and technology, considering practitioners view.
    Keywords: trust; trust accounting; blockchain technology; immutability.

  • Strategy impact on the choice of partial versus full acquisitions: evidence from Japanese outbound acquisitions   Order a copy of this article
    by Kashif Ahmed, Ralf Bebenroth 
    Abstract: In this study, we investigated how strategies adopted by firms impacted their decision to make either partial or full acquisitions in cross-border deals. Our sample comprised Japanese cross-border acquirers that had three different viable strategies, viz. prospectors, defenders, and analysers. Applying transaction cost economics, the strategic capability perspective and the strategic cognition perspective, we found that not only prospectors but also analysers preferred full acquisitions, whereas defenders had a preference for partial acquisitions. This study shows that strategy impacts acquisition behaviour, and cautions managers to consider aspects of partner opportunism and firm capabilities when choosing between partial and full acquisitions.
    Keywords: Miles and Snow typology; analysers; prospectors; defenders; partial acquisitions; full acquisitions; mergers and acquisitions; Japan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMP.2020.10029575
  • Identifying innovative practices of management control among start-ups   Order a copy of this article
    by Wendy Beatriz Witt Haddad Carraro, Sandro Battisti, Carlos Brito 
    Abstract: Management control in start-ups is regarded by practitioners as a critical issue with significant potential of development. On the other hand, researchers in this field recognise a lack of a systematic approach for applying management control models to help start-ups to succeed. This article aims to identify how start-ups use management control practices under an innovative approach. For the data collection, six workshops were held involving 91 entrepreneurs. The research suggests that start-ups use a great number of controls in relation to customer management, performance, employees, information systems, and risks. Furthermore, evidence was also found that the use of management control tools has become a priority for companies wishing to overcome challenges raised by the huge number of uncertainties faced by start-ups. The theoretical contributions of the model presented in this paper have mainly to do with the fact that management controls are implemented and used in different scopes of start-ups analysis. The practical implications put in evidence that control mechanisms can be formal or informal, adapting to a company's needs.
    Keywords: management control; science and technology parks; performance measurement; business strategy; technology adoption; start-ups; innovative practices; business models.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMP.2020.10029566
  • Cross-border acquisitions and financial failure of UK firms (2008-2013)   Order a copy of this article
    by Nour Adel 
    Abstract: This study examines the financial failure of UK cross-border acquirers between 2008 and 2013. The researcher investigates acquirers' financial failure using two financial models. Based on a sample of manufacturing and non-manufacturing firms, the research explores the financial health of acquirers over three years starting from the date they announce the deals. The main findings confirm that most of firms suffer from financial instability after announcing their cross-border deals and that according to both models. These findings are consistent with those of other studies; which also demonstrate difficulties experienced when undertaking cross-border deals, and that due to differences in law, rules and cultures between the host and the home countries.
    Keywords: cross-border acquisitions; financial failure; UK acquirers; manufacturing firms; non-manufacturing firms.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMP.2020.10029571
  • Organisational commitment and culture: evidence of commitment in an independent sales force   Order a copy of this article
    by Dalmir Sant'Anna, Clarissa Carneiro Mussi, Wlamir Xavier, Iúri Novaes Luna 
    Abstract: This article analyses the relationship between organisational culture and commitment demonstrated by independent sales professionals of a firm in the electrical cables and conductors industry. This study is based on both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Participants comprised all 42 professionals working in the company's commercial division. Data were collected using interviews and documentary research. Two base scales were used to determine organisational commitment and organisational culture: IBACO and EBACO. Results indicate that a sales force, even when independent, might express commitment through the values of collaborative professionalism, and employee satisfaction and well-being, as well as the practices of fostering interpersonal relationships, external integration, rewards and training. The values and practices mentioned in this study may serve as insights for managers who wish to improve sales force commitment and consequently increase sales performance.
    Keywords: culture organisational; sales force commitment; independent sales force; sales performance; electrical conductors industry; training; electrical cables industry; collaborative professionalism; employee satisfaction; employee well-being; interpersonal relationships; external integration; organisational commitment; rewards.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMP.2020.10029574
  • An investigation into the effect of audit firm size, auditor tenure, institutional ownership, board characteristics on auditor independence   Order a copy of this article
    by Khaldoon Ahmad Al Daoud 
    Abstract: The independence of an auditor is a crucial issue because of its potential impact on audit quality. This study examines the effect of audit firm size, auditor tenure, institutional ownership, board independence, and board diversity on the audit quality. The sample comprised 52 listed service firms on the Jordanian Stock Exchange, whose data were obtained for the years from 2013 to 2016, and 208 firm-year observations were involved in the analyses process. In this study, auditor independence served as the proxy for audit quality. The results reveal that audit firm size and institutional owners and board independence significantly and positively influence audit quality. The results reveal that companies with a higher proportion of institutional ownership and independent members of the board and being audited by a Big 4 firm are more likely to maintain the independence of the external auditor. However, auditor tenure and board diversity had no significant relationship with auditor independence. The results could be useful for the management of companies that are interested in enhancing the quality of audit work in their companies.
    Keywords: auditor independence; corporate governance; ownership structure; Jordan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMP.2020.10029573
  • Application of TAM model in teaching and learning - a behavioural study on social media   Order a copy of this article
    by Bhuvanesh Kumar Sharma, Vinod Kumar Pal 
    Abstract: Social networking sites are becoming very popular among students. It is considered one of the most important sources for creating content for teaching and learning among students. The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use on attitude and behavioural intention which determine the actual behaviour to use social media for teaching and learning. A conceptual model has been developed after an intense literature review and analysed with the help of structural equation modelling. The result of the study suggested that the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are good predictors of attitude and behavioural intention and attitude is a good predictor of behavioural intention and behaviour intention predict the actual behaviour of the student to use social media.
    Keywords: teaching and learning; perceived usefulness; perceived ease of use; attitude; behavioural intention; actual behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMP.2020.10024308

Special Issue on: ICBESD-2018 Special Issue Agenda 2030 and Sustainable Development The Paradigm Shifts in Business and Economics

  • Food Commodity Price Volatility and Its Nexus with Monetary Factor: An Empirical Analysis of India   Order a copy of this article
    by Amritkant Mishra, Amba Agarwal 
    Abstract: This empirical analysis strives to properly investigate the potential consequences of the foreign exchange rate and money supply on retail food inflation. It also endeavours to explore the commodity-wise food inflation volatility in Indian outlook. The successful outcome of the ARDL technique sufficiently reveals that in the short run, money supply and foreign exchange rate have a direct impact on food inflation. While on the other hand, in the long run, foreign exchange rate produces a negative impact on food prices. The outcome of causality examination demonstrates that there is no causality running from money supply towards the food inflation, while on the other hand, unidirectional causality exists from the foreign exchange rate toward food inflation in India. Moreover, the result of the volatility analysis reveals that commodities like vegetables, pulses, condiment, fruits, and tea have double-digit inflation with high volatility. While on the other hand, essential commodities such as egg, meat, fish, cereal and milk seem less volatile. The disintegration result amply demonstrates that grains, drain, egg, meat, and fish have a tremendous contribution to the food prices expansion.
    Keywords: Food inflation; volatility; GARCH; ARDL and Money Supply.

  • Auctions, Negotiations and Winner's Curse in Coal Mining in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Soumendu Sarkar 
    Abstract: In this essay, we examine the move from negotiations to auctions as the method of allocation of coal mining blocks in India. The Economic Survey of India 2017-18 recorded that the move to auctions for allocation of captive blocks has been less favourable than predicted, because of \emph{winner's curse}. Late 2017, media reported that the government was considering revenue-sharing models for coal block allocation. In February 2018, the government opened up coal for commercial mining through ascending auctions. Given this contradiction, a careful analysis of different allocation procedures needs to be carried out with the nature and future trajectory of coal mining in India in mind. Our plan is as follows. We begin with a background of the coal block allocation process in India. Subsequently, we review the relevant technical literature on allocation of natural resources. We then compare methods of allocation in terms of their suitability and performance for fulfilling the desired objectives of the government.
    Keywords: Auctions; Negotiations; Coal; Energy; Indian Economy; Industrial Organization; Economics of Regulation.

Special Issue on: Managing Hospitality and Tourism Organisations Innovation, Creativity and Enterprise

  • Ethical leadership and service innovative behaviour of hotel employees: The role of organisational identification and proactive personality   Order a copy of this article
    by Bilal Afsar, Annam Bibi 
    Abstract: With the increasing demand for ethical standards in the current business environment, ethical leadership has received particular attention. Using social exchange theory and social learning theory, this study examines the relationship between ethical leadership and employees service innovative behaviour with mediating role of organisational identification and moderating role of an employees proactive personality. The sample for the study included 321 subordinates and 62 supervisors from 26 hotels across Pakistan. Results indicated that ethical leadership promotes service innovative behavior at workplace, while organisational identification mediates the effect of ethical leadership on service innovative behaviour. Furthermore, the relationship between ethical leadership and service innovative behaviour via organizational identification is moderated by an employees proactive personality. This study highlights the importance of ethical leadership in enhancing service innovative behaviors among hotel employees. It advances theory of ethical leadership by examining the intervening effect of organisational identification and proactive personality on employees service innovative behaviours.
    Keywords: Ethical leadership; service innovative behaviour; creativity; organisational identification; proactive personality; hospitality.

  • Kaizen (Continuous Improvement) and Systems Thinking: Exploring How Kaizen Facilitators Operationalize Values and Assumptions   Order a copy of this article
    by Noel Criscione-Naylor 
    Abstract: Continuous improvement and systems thinking philosophies have diversely manifested to include the creation of multidisciplinary teams, referred to as Kaizen teams, comprised of high-level leaders through frontline level staff challenged to generate business outcomes through the lens of stakeholder value. The purpose of this study was to identify values, assumptions, and behaviours associated with leaders of these teams during the Kaizen process and identify post-participation impact on professional practice. Structured conversations and observations took place with leaders certified to facilitate a Kaizen event. Leaders highlighted critical competencies and values that impact the teams ability to innovatively problem solve to achieve objectives as well as consequences for team members and the organization. Data reveals significant issues organizations must direct their attention to for long term sustainability and to fully realize their commitment to continuous improvement practices. These issues include constraints of the Kaizen structure and non-traditional role responsibilities the Kaizen leader takes on to make manufacturing methodologies work in a service based environment.
    Keywords: Multidisciplinary teams; diversity; leadership; change agent; management; systems thinking; Kaizen; Kaizen facilitator; process improvement; continuous improvement; sustainability; teamwork; lean; hospitality; casino.

  • Do the managers of boutique hotels value their tangible and intangible attributes in the same way as their guests?   Order a copy of this article
    by Laura Fuentes-Moraleda, Teresa Villace-Molinero, Carmen Lafuente-Ibáñez, Ana Muñoz-Mazon 
    Abstract: Boutique hotels have experienced spectacular growth in the world and particularly in Spain over the last decade. These small hotels stand out for their unique and innovative design, which provides an intimate atmosphere where personal treatment is essential. The purpose of this research is to identify tangible and intangible attributes of boutique hotels and how they are rated by the guests and the managers, to analyse whether or not there are differences and whether these differences are based on variables such as age, level of income and gender. Based on the previous literature the classification of the attributes used is divided into four groups; (i) room and bathroom; (ii) restaurant and bar; (iii) general infrastructure and (iv) general hotel services, and classified depending on their nature (tangible or intangible). The student T-test for independent measures has been applied to determine the possible existence of significant differences. Results confirm that guests consider the comfort of the services provided by the hotel and the sense of feeling good (lack of noise, comfort), and connected (Wi-Fi) to be the most important, whereas for managers the important attributes are related to the room (bed, d
    Keywords: Boutique hotels; millennials; income; gender; tangible and intangible features; innovation; experiences; emotional; technology.

  • Alternative use of farmlands as tourism and leisure resources: Diversification, Innovations and Competitiveness   Order a copy of this article
    by Ade Oriade, Roy Broad, Steve Gelder 
    Abstract: Even though farm-based tourism has been around for some time, the contemporary development in farm business in the UK is intriguing and histrionic. Based on the contemporary situation, this study explores issues relating to diversification, innovation and competitiveness in farm attraction context. The study employed case study strategy and adopted qualitative research approach by conducting interviews in three farm attractions in Shropshire, West Midlands, UK; utilising a template approach to data analysis by identifying key themes a priori. Findings support the conception that different farm organisations have different needs that require different level of innovativeness. Three element of innovation distinctively emerged namely: organisational, product and marketing innovations. Based on the findings practical implications are identified.
    Keywords: farm attraction; rural tourism; visitors experience; leisure; diversification; innovations; resource use; competitiveness; farm shop; destinations.