Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics

International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics (IJMEI)

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International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics (108 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Machine learning-based CAD system for thyroid tumour characterisation using ultrasound images   Order a copy of this article
    by Niranjan Yadav, Rajeshwar Dass, Jitendra Virmani 
    Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to develop an efficient computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) system for the characterisation of thyroid tumours using US images. An efficient CADx system is designed to address speckle noise’s effect on thyroid tumour classification in this work. The analysis has been carried out with 820 thyroid ultrasound images. The CADx system designs were examined based on original and despeckled images to compare the texture and morphological features. The extracted features have been used to design five CADx systems, namely: 1) PCA-KNN; 2) PCA-PNN; 3) PCA-SVM; 4) SFS-SVM; 5) LS-ANFC algorithms. The results illustrate that a CADx system based on the PCA-SVM algorithm with (LBP + ZRM) features yields optimal performance for the characterisation of thyroid tumour ultrasound images.
    Keywords: thyroid ultrasound images; local binary pattern; LBP; Zernike features; support vector machine; sequential feature selection; SFS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10049164
  • Deep learning approaches in detection of COVID-19 using X-ray images   Order a copy of this article
    by Shibili Said, Mredhula Lokanathan 
    Abstract: We all have seen how badly COVID-19 had affected our lives. The utilisation of deep learning in analysing covid is a promising research area. This paper brief on the utilisation of deep learning in analysing covid X-ray. A Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), a deep learning algorithm is utilised here, to study the detection of covid X-rays. The literature shows several successful deep learning models in detection of COVID-19. In this paper, we have implemented shallow layered simple CNN and deep layered CoroNet (which is taken from literature) using three different dataset. This paper would give a brief picture of deep learning in covid classification.
    Keywords: deep learning; covid X-rays; convolutional neural network; CNN.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10049172
  • Analogy of cervical malignancy through Inception V3 and Xception network of CNN   Order a copy of this article
    by K. Hemalatha, N. Kasthuri, N.S. Kavitha, T. Jamuna, K. Kanchana 
    Abstract: Cancer is a disease formed by the abnormal growth of cells and if it not treated in its early stage it spreads to other parts of body. There are more than hundred types of cancer available in the world. An effective method of testing is needed to diagnose the presence or absence of disease, monitor progress of the cancer, and evaluate the treatment’s effectiveness. Cervical cancer ranks fourth among the cancers afflicting women worldwide. To overcome the aforementioned problem deep learning techniques are used for automatically diagnosing the disease from Pap smear images. The proposed model is evaluated on SIPAKMED dataset. CNN-based architectures such as Inception V3 and Xception were used to classify the cervical cells and their accuracy was ascertained. The performance measures such as precision, recall and sensitivity are calculated. The obtained results concluded that CNN pre-trained model Xception achieved the higher classification rate of 95.99%.
    Keywords: cervical cancer; SIPAKMED; Xception; Inception V3; deep learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10049258
  • Use of a neuro-fuzzy technique to predict complete Rockall score in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhaleh Ghobadi, Somayeh Saraf Esmaili 
    Abstract: This study, using a neuro-fuzzy technique tried to provide an intelligence model for predicting the complete Rockall score of the patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The data related to 350 patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding who were hospitalised in the public hospital in Iran have been used. The 30% of the data were randomly selected and used as test data, and the others were also applied as training data. Clinical Rockall and Blatchford scores as inputs and complete Rockall score as the output were considered. To evaluate the model performance, conventional criteria were calculated. The accuracy of the model was compared with the accuracy of the artificial neural network tool. According to the results, proposed model has higher accuracy and efficiency than the artificial neural network and it seems to be used as a useful tool. Accuracy, cheap, high speed and being new are some benefits of the presented model.
    Keywords: upper gastrointestinal bleeding; Rockall; Blatchford; artificial intelligence; neuro-fuzzy system; artificial neural network.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10049259
  • Auditory model system to recognise Alzheimer's diseases: speech signal analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Ravi Kumar, R. Prabha, B. Kannan, T.J. Nagalakshmi, Sheshang D. Degadwala 
    Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease is a catch-all phrase for a variety of illnesses, including numerous neurodegenerative disorders. A century ago, neurosyphilis-caused dementia was the most frequent cause of dementia in developed nations, but Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is today the most common cause. Dementia might still be difficult to diagnose because of a number of barriers. Early symptoms overlap with other disorders, and the potential of several, or mixed, aetiologies are just a few of the factors that contribute to a wide range of possible outcomes. Because language diminishes along with neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease, it is a significant source of clinical information. As a result, data on speech and language have been intensively investigated in relation to its diagnosis. Text characteristics extracted from the transcripts are used to detect AD using an SVM classifier. However, the accuracy of automatic assessment falls as WER rises, the two are very weakly associated (0.31).
    Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; auditory model system; wavelet transform; gammatone filter.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10049260
  • Brain image enhancement and segmentation using anatomically constrained neural networks   Order a copy of this article
    by P.S. Arthy, A. Kavitha 
    Abstract: Brain image segmentation is one of the processes that take the most time and is the most complicated to do in a therapeutic scenario. The essential principles and features of medical image segmentation based on deep learning are presented. MRI-based medical image classification issues are addressed in this study using a histogram and time-frequency differential deep (HTF-DD) technique. The following are the stages of the proposed approach’s construction. An unsupervised training procedure is used to build a deep convolutional neural network (CNN), which then outputs standardised improved pre-processed features for data extraction. Secondly, a set of time-frequency characteristics is derived from medical images using the time signal and the frequency signal. The last step is to develop an effective model based on differential deep learning for classifying objects. Multi-modal brain data sets and public standards are used to illustrate the applicability of our methodology.
    Keywords: neural network; image processing; brain image enhancement; segmentation; anatomically constrained neural networks; ACNNs; histogram and time-frequency differential deep; HTF-DD; convolutional neural network; CNN.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10049261
  • Automatic knee anterior cruciate ligament torn diagnosis using CNN-XGBoost   Order a copy of this article
    by Kamel H. Rahouma, Ahmed Salama Abdel Latif, Kadry Ali Ezzat 
    Abstract: The knee joint is very important for everyone as it helps us in movements, which is essential for everyone. One of the most diseases that injure the knee is the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). This work has developed a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for examining the given knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image and automatically determining if there is a torn in ACL or not. The region growing based segmentation algorithm is used to get the region of interest (ROI) from MRI image, e.g., extract ACL region from knee image then CNN-XGBoost model is used for knee ACL classification. The model is divided into two main parts: the first part extract the feature uses CNN and the second part using XGBoost for feature classification. The designed model gives us an accuracy of 91%.
    Keywords: deep learning; CNN; XGBoost; knee ACL.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10049912
  • Analysis and trends of COVID-19 in Italy   Order a copy of this article
    by Cinzia Muriana, Giovan Battista Vizzini 
    Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 is impacting the public health-system worldwide and requires policies to address the demand for additional capacity. Monitoring its spread allows the identification of alarm signals useful for scaling up resources and reacting to the pandemic. In Italy, starting with the identification of the first patient, the Protezione Civile has published a range of indicators as open data, which has supported the country’s government in discovering trends and in setting-up targeted measures for preventing the spread of the virus and controlling the speed of transmission. This paper analyses these indicators from February 2020 to June 2021 and provides insights for healthcare managers.
    Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 outbreak; SARS-CoV-2 predictors; COVID-19 response; outbreak monitoring; Italy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10049913
  • Design of automated computer aided diagnosis system to predict diabetic retinopathy based on EfficientNet   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Sathiya Devi, K. Vignesh, V. Raguvaran 
    Abstract: The World Health Organization (WHO) recognises that diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the rising healthcare problems in the world which leads to vision loss if left untreated. In this paper, an automated computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for DR is implemented based on EfficientNet. Initially, image pre-processing is performed by smoothing it with median filter and converting into grey scale image. Then size, colour and shape normalisation are carried out. To increase the volume and to solve the data imbalance issue flipping, rotation, zooming and distortion operations are performed. The CAD system diagnoses the severity levels of DR from fundus images by exploring feature extraction based on EfficientNet B0 model and classification with XGBoost classifier. It is experimented with Indian Diabetic Retinopathy Image Dataset (IDRiD) and experimental result reveals that, the combination of EfficientNet B0 and XGBoost produces better classification accuracy when compared with other convolutional neural network (CNN) models.
    Keywords: diabetic retinopathy; EfficientNet B0; XGBoost classifier; computer aided diagnosis system; healthcare; convolutional neural network; CNN.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10050478
  • Solving moderated mediation model using interval data on fuzzy elevation   Order a copy of this article
    by A. Akilbasha, R. Vanitha, D. Kalpanapriya 
    Abstract: A variable that grounds mediation between dependent and independent variables. These mediator variables take vital parts in the analysis of data which entails numerous variables, exclusively when the dependent and independent variables are affected by other variables. Thus, mediation analysis requires all areas which need regression analysis, especially in psychology, industry, teaching, production area, etc. Mediation has been projected in multiple studies. On the other hand, at times it is more logical to articulate the fuzzy theory data when the variables are not purely distinct. Normally, to articulate the attitude of a persona bad, moderate, good use fuzzy numbers than using crisp numbers. This paper explains the model of fuzzy moderated mediation using interval data. Also, to find the total, direct and indirect effects psychological data have been applied when the mediator, moderator, and confounding variable subsist.
    Keywords: mediation; moderation; moderated mediation; fuzzy mediation; interval data.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10049914
  • Cardiac arrhythmia classification of imbalanced data using convolutional autoencoder and LSTM techniques   Order a copy of this article
    by Rekha Rajagopal, V. Shyam Kumar 
    Abstract: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) can be identified by medical professionals with the help of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. The ECG signals shows the heart rhythm and any irregularity in heart rhythm is called arrhythmia. The arrhythmias can be broadly classified into five categories: 1) class N; 2) class S; 3) class V; 4) class F; 5) class Q. The proposed research work automatically categorises the ECG beats into one of the five classes using long short-term memory (LSTM). The ECG waveform is divided into individual ECG beats and is provided as input to the convolutional autoencoders. The compressed representation of the encoder is used as features for further classification by LSTM. The class imbalance problem in the dataset is overcome using ADASYN technique. The proposed research work gives an overall accuracy of 99.12%.
    Keywords: arrhythmia; long short-term memory; LSTM; autoencoder; ADASYN; deep learning; disease classification; convolutional neural network; CNN.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10049967
  • Epilepsy detection and classification based on the contour maps of brain MR images   Order a copy of this article
    by H.S. VinayKumar 
    Abstract: A new method of Epilepsy detection and classification of the degree of affliction is presented. The proposed method is based on the information generated by the filled contour maps of the brain MRI. The result is independent of the size and orientation of the target image. Distribution of multiple intensity levels in an MR image is generated by the proposed contour map segmentation technique. Disease afflicted regions are segmented using this technique. The epilepsy diagnosis is carried out by classifying MR images as healthy and diseased. The diseased ones are further classified into three sub-classes of affliction, namely, mild, medium and severe. The classification is based on the area of the top level segment relative to the total area of the non-skull region. In the proposed method, the classification error is found to be between 5% to 10%.
    Keywords: contour map segmentation; skull-stripping; top level segment; area of non-skull region; filled contour map; contour level list.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10050095
  • A secure health monitoring system based on fog to cloud computing   Order a copy of this article
    by Hafida Saidi, Nabila Labraoui, Ado Adamou Abba Ari 
    Abstract: Nowadays, the elderly can receive care in their home and enable physicians to follow their diseases in real-time. However, these technologies suffer from several issues like security and privacy-preserving data challenges. In this paper, we proposed a HIPAA-compliant framework that enables security and privacy-preserving medical data based on fog-to-cloud (F2C) computing. Our aims are to define a system that solves the privacy and security issues with remote elderly monitoring. The F2C infrastructure is used to provide better security of medical data and allow a real-time diagnosis of the elderly. Furthermore, F2C combines the benefits of cloud and fog computing such as providing permanent storage, reducing computation load and data transmission delay, and enhancing the security challenges. Simulation results suggest that F2C technology delivers better performance in terms of latency, cost, and energy consumption.
    Keywords: elderly healthcare; wearable sensors; fog to cloud computing; AES-ECC encryption; internet of medical things; IoMT.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10050253
  • An advanced manta ray search optimisation with likelihood marginal classification mechanism for ECG arrhythmia detection   Order a copy of this article
    by Budidi Udaya Kumar, Jaidhan Beera John, Bharath Kumar Reddy Soma Venkata, Ummadisetty Sreenivasulu 
    Abstract: The proposed work objects to develop an advanced optimisation-based classification system for identifying the arrhythmia disease with increased accuracy and reduced error rate. The optimal features are selected using the manta ray search optimisation (MRSO) technique. The likelihood marginal classification (LMC) approach is employed to predict the classified label as whether normal or disease affected. During analysis, the different types of performance measures are used to evaluate the results of the proposed approach. Also, the obtained values are compared with the existing techniques for showing the effectiveness of the proposed model.
    Keywords: electrocardiogram; ECG; cardiovascular disease; manta ray search optimisation; MRSO; likelihood marginal classification; LMC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10050386
  • Reconstruction of a 3D medical image from pre-processed 2D DICOM slices : clinical application   Order a copy of this article
    by Kamal Halloum, Hamid Ez-Zahraouy 
    Abstract: This paper presents two techniques, histogram equalisation (HE) and contrast limited adaptative histogram equalisation (CLAHE), for contrast enhancement of 2D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) slices in order to reconstruct them as 3D images. These powerful techniques allow the maximum possible contrast to be established without ultimately affecting medical interpretation, based on a comparative study of three 3D images constructed by the slices: real, enhanced only by HE and those processed by CLAHE after HE. We have experimentally demonstrated that the CLAHE technique is effective in improving contrast and reducing noise amplification especially for medical images.
    Keywords: histogram equalisation; CLAHE; 3D medical image; DICOM image; image processing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10050387
  • Detection of adverse drug reactions from online health communities’ data: a case study of anti-epileptic drugs   Order a copy of this article
    by Anwar Ali Yahya 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the problem of detecting adverse drug reactions of anti-epileptic drugs from patients’ reviews in online health communities. A lexicon-based methodology is proposed and applied to a dataset of patients’ reviews collected from two online health communities. The dataset is cleaned and the adverse reactions of anti-epileptic drugs are extracted with the aid of consumer health vocabulary and a lexicon of adverse drug reactions. A proportional reporting ratio is then applied to quantify the correlation between each drug and adverse reactions and thus identify the adverse reactions of each drug. The results are validated quantitatively against a database of adverse drug reactions, called side effect resource, and qualitatively against the extant knowledge related to the common adverse reactions and drug-drug similarities of anti-epileptic drugs. The validation results provide evidences on the effectiveness of the proposed methodology and the validity of online health communities’ data for adverse drug reactions detection.
    Keywords: adverse drug reaction detection; pharmacovigilance; anti-epileptic drugs; AEDs; data mining; online health communities.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10050418
  • Segmentation of the human spinal cord using U-Net architecture   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Kumarganesh, Muzammil Hussain, H. Shaheen, S. Anthoniraj, M. Somaskandan, C. Sivakumaran 
    Abstract: When attempting to assess spinal cord atrophy caused by a variety of disorders, the first step that must be taken is to segment the spinal cord contour. A tumour of the spinal cord is an abnormal development of cells that may occur anywhere in or around the spinal cord. The process of locating tumours in the spinal cord is a very important one. It is difficult to identify the tumour with MRI due to the irregular form of the spinal cord. The model begins by locating the spinal cord, after which it creates the bounding box coordinates. Our technique is validated using four separate clinical datasets. The results of the experiments that used a unique segmentation strategy that was dependent on MRI images reveal that the algorithm that was presented for the system delivers a higher level of accuracy when compared to the other algorithms that are already in use.
    Keywords: spinal cord segmentation; bounding box; U-Net architecture; deep learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10050461
  • Deep learning-based malignancy prediction in thyroid nodules   Order a copy of this article
    by L. Mohana Sundari, M.S. Maharajan, T. Senthil Kumar, Leo John Baptist Andrews 
    Abstract: Although the vast majority of thyroid nodules are non-cancerous, determining whether or not a nodule is cancerous may be a difficult and time-consuming process that often involves unnecessary surgical events. In addition, we discussed the process of developing a model that might anticipate the presence of cancer in thyroid nodules by including a number of the core demographic and ultrasound parameters. A combined sensitivity and specificity score was used to assess the diagnostic performance, and their accuracy was compared to that of radiologists. The comparison between model prediction and expert evaluation reveals the benefit of our approach over human judgement in predicting thyroid nodule malignancy. The results of the experiments show that the suggested algorithm performs better. Nodules of TI-RADS category 4 were used. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve in the validation dataset was 0.92 (with accuracy of 0.70, sensitivity of 0.81 and specificity of 0.58).
    Keywords: thyroid; AI; deep learning; medical imaging; deep learning; CNNs; preoperative diagnosis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10050829
  • Empirical wavelet decomposition of photoplethysmographic signal for hypertension risk stratification and detection of diabetes mellitus using machine learning techniques   Order a copy of this article
    by Muzaffar Khan, Bikesh Kumar Singh, Neelamshobha Nirala 
    Abstract: Hypertension (HT) is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the overlap of diabetes mellitus (DM) with hypertension can lead to severe complications. Presently, the diagnostic method for detecting hypertension and DM is unsuitable for large-scale screening. The proposed model uses a statistical feature extracted by decomposing the PPG signal into a sub-band signal using Empirical wavelet transform (EWT), a comparative study conducted between various soft and hard computing classification models. The highest accuracy achieved by sequential neural network for the three categories, namely normal (NT) vs. prehypertension (PHT), NT vs. hypertension type 1 (HT-I), NT vs. hypertension type 2 (HT-II) in terms of F1 scores is 78.9%, 91.2% and 94%, respectively and F1 score of 97.9% for detection of DM-II patients. We conclude that soft computing techniques such as deep learning neural networks have shown superior performance compared to hard computing techniques. Furthermore, features selected using a hybrid feature selection technique were found to improve the classifier’s performance. The main advantage of the proposed model that uses a decomposition technique is found to be more immune to noisy PPG signals, overcoming the limitation of the morphological-based model.
    Keywords: hypertension; diabetes mellitus; photoplethysmographic; empirical wavelet transform; Hilbert transform ensemble classifier; deep learning neural network.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10050838
  • Deep neural networks for medical image segmentation: geodesic distance transform   Order a copy of this article
    by P. Jenifer Darling Rosita, W. Stalin Jacob, R. Kalpana, T. Cynthia Anbuselvi 
    Abstract: The segmentation of medical images aids in managing the dose of medication, as well as the dosage of exposure to radiation, limiting the development of diseases like tumours, and monitoring the progression of diseases like cancer. The process of segmentation involves the division of a picture into distinct regions that each includes fragments of pixels that have similar characteristics. The regions should have a strong link to the items or elements of interest depicted in the picture in order to be expressive and useful for image analysis and interpretation. A proposal is made for an interactive framework that takes a deep learning approach. P-Net is the first stage of the framework, and it is used to produce an initial automated segmentation. The second stage is where the framework is implemented. This interaction is included in the input of the R-Net.
    Keywords: image segmentation; deep learning; brain tumour; datasets.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10050839
  • Detection of diabetic retinopathy severity from fundus images: DCNN   Order a copy of this article
    by T.Senthil Kumar, R. Muthalagu, L. Mohana Sundari, M. Nalini 
    Abstract: Diabetes retinopathy is a frequent diabetic complication that damages the retina and, if left untreated, may lead to blindness. The exponential rise in the number of diabetics throughout the globe has resulted in an equivalent rise in the number of diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients, one of the most serious consequences of diabetes. The goal of this research is to develop a hybrid solution approach for identifying diabetic retinopathy using retinal fundus pictures. The process of retinal vascular segmentation is critical for detecting a variety of eye disorders, such as the effects of diabetes on the eyes, also known as diabetic retinopathy. Morphologically based operations were used for the autoextraction of retinal blood vessels. Wavelet decomposition and back propagation neural networks were used to extract retinal vascular characteristics and evaluate the dataset that was used for this article. Morphologically based operations were also used for autoextraction of retinal blood vessels.
    Keywords: diabetic retinopathy; fundus images; retina; deep learning; image processing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10050840
  • Detection and classification of Alzheimers using super-resolution algorithm and convolutional neural network   Order a copy of this article
    by T. Senthil Kumar, Ashok Vajravelu, R. Muthalagu, P. Sri Latha 
    Abstract: On the basis of data obtained from brain imaging, a number of different machine learning (ML) methods may be used to categorise Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Convolutional neural networks have been suggested for the classification of Alzheimer’s disease based on anatomical MRI in more than 30 different studies. Since the frameworks and implementation details of many researchers aren’t available to the public, it makes them difficult to replicate. This article extracts the green channel initially, which is further enhanced by using super resolution algorithm. Convolutional neural network is applied to the contrast-enhanced image. We used CNN and T1-weighted MRI to broaden open-source solution for Alzheimer’s disease categorisation. Preprocessing, classification, and evaluation techniques for deep learning are included in the framework as well as tools for converting ADNI, AIBL, and OASIS data to the standard of the BIDS format. By combining deep learning with radionics, the accuracy of Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis is increased.
    Keywords: image classification; convolutional neural network; CNN; Alzheimer’s disease classification; magnetic resonance imaging; MRI.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10050896
  • Breast cancer diagnosis by hybrid fuzzy CNN network   Order a copy of this article
    by W. Stalin Jacob, P. Jenifer Darling Rosita, M. Sri Geetha, P. Jagadeesh, Sivakumaran Chandrasekaran 
    Abstract: Breast cancer is a common gynaecological ailment that affects women all over the world. Early identification of this disease has been shown to be extremely beneficial in terms of therapy. Mammographic pictures are analysed in this article utilising image processing methods and a pipeline structure to see whether they contain malignant tumours, which are subsequently categorised. The SVM classifier is used for classification, and it is fed by the characteristics that have been picked. It is supported by a number of kernel functions. This differs from standard machine learning classification and optimisation strategies, and it is shown in a unique manner. The outcomes of the actualised computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) learning process are analysed in order to determine whether or not it was successful. The BCDR-F03 dataset is evaluated, as well as the: 1) local mammographic dataset; 2) colony optimisation-based multi-layer perceptron (ACO-MLP) dataset.
    Keywords: breast cancer; deep learning; convolution neural network; CNN; prediction; benign and malignant; computer-aided diagnostic; CAD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10050897
  • Robust liver segmentation using marker controlled watershed transform   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Anwarul Siddique, Shailendra Kumar Singh, Moin Hasan 
    Abstract: The liver is the body’s largest organ, and it is largely responsible for metabolism and detoxification. In computer vision-based biomedical image analysis, liver segmentation is a critical step in detecting liver cancer. Due to the complicated structure of abdominal computed tomography (CT) images, noise, and textural differences across the image, liver segmentation is a key task that results in under-segmentation and over-segmentation. This paper uses a marker-based watershed transform to segment the liver in abdominal CT images. The double stage Gaussian filter with texture and contrast enhancement (DSGFTCE) is used to improve image quality at the pre-processing stage. The performance of the proposed segmentation is assessed using various performance evaluation metrics such as dice score (DS), volume overlapping error (VOE), Jacquard index (JI) and relative volume difference on LiTS dataset. The performance comparison with previous state of arts shows that proposed liver segmentation scheme provides better results (DS = 0.968, VOE = 0.089, JI = 0.9379, RVD = 0.09) compared with existing techniques.
    Keywords: liver segmentation; contrast enhancement; texture smoothening; watershed transform; Gaussian filtering; computer tomography.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10050979
  • Trimester analysis for detecting abnormalities in foetal growth based on femur length using LabVIEW   Order a copy of this article
    by D. Ruban Thomas, V. Vasanth, R. Kishore, B. Kishore Kumar 
    Abstract: Foetal development characteristics are used to determine the effects of various maternal traits and identify people who are more likely to have adverse outcomes. Foetal development features were measured during each trimester of pregnancy and were impacted by several mothers socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Ultrasound measures of the foetus are crucial during pregnancy. The stability of foetal growth features can be assessed using tracking analyses throughout pregnancy. The length of the femur, the long bone in the thigh, is one of the markers used to monitor foetal growth and health. Previous research concentrated on birth outcomes compared to the foetal development, during pregnancy. In this work, the femur length is measured using LabVIEW. An ultrasound finding of short femur length may signal the need for additional testing to rule out illnesses. Femur length is one of the several factors for determining a babys health.
    Keywords: Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench; LabVIEW; virtual instruments; VI; trimester; ultrasound; ultrasonography; foetal growth; femur length; pregnancy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10051334
  • Analyses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced GI bleed related hospitalisation discharges from 2016 to 2018 in the USA   Order a copy of this article
    by Chancey Sweeney, Shankar Srinivasan, Dinesh P. Mital, Riddhi Vyas 
    Abstract: This study determines the predictors of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeds induced by NSAIDs and their relation to length of hospital stay and total charges. A descriptive analysis showed the highest incidence as non-Hispanic White, older adult patients with variation in household income. Risk factors include Helicobacter pylori, alcohol, and smoking. The overall prediction of study outcomes showed associations between independent and dependent variables such as age, race, and gender, in relation to length of hospital stay and total charges. A high influence was detected with interaction of predictors such as health and socio-demographic characteristics, like advanced age, gender, race, and smoking.
    Keywords: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; NSAID; gastrointestinal bleed; NSAID induced; GI bleed; hospitalisation discharges.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10051360
  • A deep analysis of chronic kidney disease for early detection using machine learning classifiers   Order a copy of this article
    by Saurabh Pal 
    Abstract: All patients who have suffered by chronic kidney disease (CKD) are not easily identified due to symptoms on early stage. The main objective of this research paper is to develop a CKD prediction model which can give better accuracy as compared to other studies. In this paper, we have organised CKD datasets from UCI machine learning repository. Most significant CKD features are eliminated by recursive feature elimination techniques. We have trained base classifiers RF, K-NN, MLP and SVM on 70% disease dataset and test on 30% dataset. Bagging and voting ensemble methods are used to enhance the prediction model. The proposed bagging ensemble model outperformed the other classifiers by achieving 97% accuracy.
    Keywords: chronic kidney disease; CKD; recursive feature elimination; RFE; random forest; K-nearest neighbour; multilayer perception; support vector machine; voting and bagging ensemble classifier.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10051462
  • Developments in technology assisted gait analysis in post-knee arthroplasty   Order a copy of this article
    by Sumit Raghav, Anshika Singh, Shashwat Pathak, Suresh Mani, Mukul Kumar 
    Abstract: Early monitoring in knee arthroplasty is a critical issue to tackle deviation from expected healing, patient satisfaction and ensuring quality of life. There are various methods suggested and implemented over years with varied degree of performance. This paper presents a relevant review of technology assisted gait analysis in knee arthroplasty. The systematic search revealed 272 studies, of which 13 were added retrospectively through reference screening of the included articles. After title and abstract screening, only 20 studies were included in this review. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of applications of technology assisted gait analysis to monitor and quantify the status of waking. There is moderate-quality of evidence showed technology-assisted; in particular, sensor-based technology, motion sensors and motion analysis results in a statistically significant improvement in monitoring of gait parameters.
    Keywords: gait analysis; knee arthroplasty; gait parameters.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10051736
  • The new development in the lower limb exoskeleton - a review   Order a copy of this article
    by Jun-Yi Ge, Maysam F. Abbod, Jiann-Shing Shieh 
    Abstract: The lower limb exoskeleton is a human machine interaction system which is designed to help users perform movements involving the lower limb by providing assistive torque. This technology has been proposed and developed in recent years. It is a comprehensive application of biomechanics, automatic control, information science and so on. In this review, we summarised the characteristics of exoskeletons that have emerged in the last twenty years. And at the end of the paper, we propose some possible solutions of the existing exoskeleton problems. This may be a guideline for further research on lower limb exoskeleton.
    Keywords: lower limb; exoskeleton; biomechanics; automatic control.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10051870
  • Machine learning-based framework for early prediction of diabetes   Order a copy of this article
    by Salliah Bhat Shafi, Venkatesan Selvam, Gufran Ahmad Ansari 
    Abstract: The recent advancements in technology have changed the landscape of healthcare. With changes in lifestyle and rise in living standard diabetes remains leading cause of death globally. Prediction of diabetes using machine learning algorithms (MLA) for early prediction is need of the hour. However, it is still in its nascent stage. The goal of this study is to employ significant features of machine learning algorithms to the prediction of diabetic and to get the best results which are compared to clinical outcomes. Using predictive analysis, the suggested strategy focuses on choosing the features that aid in the early detection of diabetes. The result shows that the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm has the highest accuracy of 99.349%as compared to naive Bayes which is 98.95%. In order to improve classification and accuracy, this research also normalises the selection of suitable features in the data.
    Keywords: machine learning; naive Bayes; support vector machine; SVM; prediction; diabetes; patients.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10052157
  • Implementing machine learning techniques to predict bipolar disorder   Order a copy of this article
    by Nisha Agnihotri, Sanjeev Kumar Prasad 
    Abstract: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a mental and psychiatric disorder which is characterised by alternate mode swings between mania and depression is very common these days. The classification, modelling and characterisation and diagnosis of these mental disorders are important in medical research. An unexpected and unexplored area in BD is to judge the non-verbal behaviour of person accurately. Therefore, this paper address the challenges of detecting BD state by machine learning (ML) techniques to test the non-verbal behaviours activities like various facial expressions, voice recordings and body gestures of mentally ill and controlled persons in a whole spectrum. ML techniques can potentially provide new horizons in diagnosing and treating in mental healthcare. Further, this paper aims to present commonly used algorithms such as decision trees (DT), support vector mechanism (SVM), logistics regression (LR), K-nearest neighbours (KNN), etc. and describe their properties and performances which could act as a guide to select appropriate models. The study shows that people with controlled state behaves significantly different as compared to BD patients in their interpersonal accuracy (IPA). This develops a new training program to improve better understanding and psychosocial functionality in their rehabilitation.
    Keywords: machine learning; mood disorder; anxiety depression; bipolar disorder-I and II; Python; interpersonal accuracy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10052205
  • Prediction of epileptic seizure using deep learning architectures   Order a copy of this article
    by Vajravelu Ashok, J. Anitha, Isabel De La Torre Díez, D. Jude Hemanth 
    Abstract: Neurological illnesses such as epilepsy are among the most frequent. Epileptic sufferers’ lives are greatly impacted by early warnings of impending seizures. Using electroencephalogram signals, this research aims to create an epileptic seizure prediction algorithm that can automatically identify an epileptic seizure. Early seizure prediction using EEG data is now possible thanks to the latest machine learning algorithms. An average AUC of 0.74 is achieved by the new technique, compared to 0.72 for the state-of-the-art approach, a 3.25-fold increase in computing time. In-depth knowledge of seizure detection, classification, and potential future research areas may be gained through this presentation’s cutting-edge methodologies and concepts. Predicting seizure activity might benefit from a modified atom search optimisation-based deep recurrent neural network. Numerous hidden layers are used by the deep recurrent neural network (DRNN) classifier to predict seizure activity.
    Keywords: electroencephalogram; EEG; signal processing; epilepsy; CHBMIT dataset.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10052827
  • Segmentation of retinal features in colour fundus images   Order a copy of this article
    by N. Bino, P.A. Haris, O. Sheeba 
    Abstract: Retinal diseases could be diagnosed by the variations in size, shape and texture of features in retinal images. Colour fundus images are widely used for the diagnosis of retinal diseases like diabetic retinopathy (DR), glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), etc. Image processing enhances the input image, which segments and highlights regions of interest and quantify it. In this paper, we have segmented optic disc and blood vessels in colour fundus images using an algorithm coded in MATLAB. The input images and their corresponding ground truth images were obtained from public datasets available in Kaggle. The validation of the segmented images is done for parameters like accuracy, sensitivity, precision, F-measure, Mathews correlation coefficient, Dice coefficient, Jaccard index and specificity. The algorithm could effectively segment images, with an average accuracy of 99.74% in segmenting optic disc and 94.74% that of blood vessels.
    Keywords: retinal image segmentation; colour fundus imaging; optic disc; retinal blood vessels.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10052912
  • Hybrid multi-kernel SVM algorithm for microaneurysm recognition in colour fundus images   Order a copy of this article
    by S.B. Mohan, B. Kannan, D. Ravikumar, C. Sivakumaran 
    Abstract: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a condition that results in impaired vision and is triggered by diabetic. These alterations in the retinal vessels may be traced back to hyperglycemia. Microaneurysms (MAs) seem to be the initial disease symptoms of DR, and a prompt identification of microaneurysms may assist in the detection of DR in the preclinical phase. Optical coherence imaging system, often known as OCT, is a non-invasive imaging technology that offers a cross-sectional picture of the retinal. We construct new probability foundations for support vector machines (SVMs) using informational differences and the Fisher score. The findings that were achieved were as follows: the accuracy criterion had a score of 96.32%, the sensitivity criterion had a score of 97.34%, the specificity criterion had a score of 95.42%, and the precision criterion had a score of 95.27%.
    Keywords: retinal pictures; scaled Dirichlet combination; support vector machines; SVMs; microaneurysm images.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10053229
  • Application of deep learning to segment pelvis bones   Order a copy of this article
    by N. Thamaraikannan, M. Saravanan, N.K. Anushkannan, S. Ramesh, C. Sivakumaran 
    Abstract: The proper identification and localisation of pelvic bone metastases begins with precise segmentation of the pelvic bones. Existing pelvic bone segmentation algorithms are generally manual or semi-automatic, and they exhibit low accuracy when dealing with picture appearance changes caused by multi-site domain shifts, etc. This paper presents a strategy for segmenting normal pelvic bone characteristics in multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) using a 3D U-Net based on deep learning. Extensive testing on our dataset indicates the usefulness of our automated technique. The 3D U-Net network, based on deep learning, offers patients accurate identification and segmentation of pelvic bone metastases.
    Keywords: U-Net; pelvis bone; segmentation; biomedical signal processing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10053901
  • Psychological distress and its association with socioeconomic and health behaviour factors   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiangdong An, Hui-chuan Chen, Monty Taylor 
    Abstract: The authors assess the relationships among psychological distress, socioeconomic status, and health behaviour factors. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) dataset was analysed for this study using hierarchical regression and ANOVA. Results show that daily energy expenditure is positively related with psychological distress. The authors also find that daily fruit consumption, daily green salad consumption, and monthly frequency of leisure activities are negatively associated with psychological distress. Furthermore, the results indicate that people with personal incomes of less than $20,000 perceive significantly higher distress than people with higher incomes. Among five occupation groups, the sales and services group perceives significantly higher distress compared to the other four groups. The four other occupation groups as categorised by CCHS do not perceive significantly different distress levels.
    Keywords: psychological distress; gender; occupation; income; health behaviour; fruit consumption; green salad consumption; leisure activities; energy expenditure.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10053931
  • A novel method to predict stroke using deep learning approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Swagata Sarkar, A. Jayashree, R. Thirumurugan, C. Sivakumaran 
    Abstract: Strokes remain the main cause of major impairment that lasts for lengthy period of time and ranks as the third greatest cause of mortality overall in United States. The ability to accurately anticipate a stroke is very useful for facilitating earlier intervention as well as treatments. Several studies have concentrated on determining the chance of a heart attack; on the other hand, only few have investigated the possibility of a brain attack. Various machine learning techniques are being created to estimate the chance of a cerebral infarction. We present a data-driven classifiers deep neural Networks (ResNet) for diagnosing strokes predicated on 12-leads ECG information. The quality of the model, which has been fine-tuned to perfection, allows us to achieve a training correctness of 99.99% and an accuracy rate of 85.82%. The findings imply that ECG is a viable adjunct tool for diagnosing stroke.
    Keywords: machine learning; stroke prediction; CNN; deep learning; ResNet.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10053942
  • Face recognition-based security system for automated teller machine using deep face model   Order a copy of this article
    by K. Kavin Kumar, S. Mythili, S. Prabhu Kumar 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to show about using OpenCV and deep learning techniques to design and implement a face recognition-based ATM security system. Face recognition only provides service to the user if the user is authentic or if the user has been validated by an authentic ATM card user. Users are authenticated by comparing the persons video taken in front of the ATM. The proposed method identifies the right persons by comparing the blink of eyes. If someone enter the ATM with photocopy of another person, checking the blink of eyes the validation is made. If the user is authentic, to strengthen the models accuracy, the current image is being utilised. A web link is sent to the registered mobile number that owns the ATM card, to verify the access of the illegitimate user to his/her account only then the user is considered as a legitimate user. Histogram algorithms and deep learning approaches are used by the system to identify persons. To process the image and detect the faces in the image, this system use the OpenCV package. Face recognition is achieved through the use of an open CV and deep learning.
    Keywords: OpenCV; blink of eyes; VGG Face model and deep face.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10054109
  • Detection and classification of lung cancer using deep neural network   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Babu Kumar, M. Vinoth Kumar 
    Abstract: Lung cancers hold a critical spot among the reasons for most cancer deaths among humans. The better way to maximise the survival rate is the detection of cancer at the earliest. But existing traditional techniques are time-consuming and error-prone. This study is a significant and efficient method for the detection and classification of lung cancer into large cell carcinomas, small cell, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinomas, or benign respectively. In the proposed technique, a novel algorithm is implemented to generate the Image patches from whole slide histopathological images. Then, histogram normalisation is carried out to remove noise and enhance the image. Then a novel extended Mobius transformation technique is used for image augmentation. Finally, Dense EfficientNetB7 is trained to extract the features for the detection and classification of lung cancer. The performance of the proposed technique is proved more efficient and par with histologists attaining an accuracy of 98.87%.
    Keywords: lung cancer; histopathology; deep convolution neural network; DCNN; EfficientNetB7.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10054175
  • A review of the relationship between flow-volume curve and obstructive sleep apnea   Order a copy of this article
    by Seval Bulut Eris, Cahit Bilgin, Ömer Eriş, Mehmet Recep Bozkurt 
    Abstract: This study presents a systematic review of studies in the literature evaluating the relationship between the flow-volume curve and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). When the literature was examined, it was observed that there are few studies in this field, and only statistical analyses were made using the ready parameters given by the pulmonary function test (PFT). New biomarkers can be discovered with characteristic and statistical features extracted from the flow-volume curve to diagnose OSA. Machine learning-based systems can be developed using biomarkers. Rules-based automatic diagnosis systems can enable faster OSA diagnosis. In addition, it can eliminate the disadvantages arising from using a sleep laboratory to diagnose OSA.
    Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea; OSA; flow-volume curve; flow-volume loop; saw-tooth pattern; pulmonary function test; PFT; machine learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10054791
  • Design and analysis of microfluidic channel with W-shaped electrodes for separation of bio-particles using dielectrophoresis technique   Order a copy of this article
    by Muktimani Brahma, R. Kumar, Trigunesh Narzary 
    Abstract: A unique microfluidic device with W-shaped electrodes is designed to separate the micro-bio-particles. The microfluidic device efficiently separates the red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets using the dielectrophoresis technique. The separation process has been analysed by using COMSOL Multiphysics software and found that the electrode with the minimum gap of 25 um acquired optimum results at an applied voltage of 8 V. The proposed device gave a high separation efficiency of 89.5% and a separation purity of 99.63%. The enhanced microfluidic device gave better results compared to other recent works and is exceptionally suitable for separation of micro-bio-particles.
    Keywords: dielectrophoresis; red blood cells; RBCs; platelets; separation; microchannel; electrodes; flow rate; electric field; non-uniform; force.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10054875
  • Diffusion tensor imaging for Alzheimer’s disease classification using a bag of features and majority voting   Order a copy of this article
    by Latifa Houria, Noureddine Belkhamsa, Assia Cherfa, Yazid Cherfa 
    Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia. Thus, various neuroimaging-based methods were proposed to detect this disease at its early stage, called mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We developed a novel approach combining Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-indices and ensemble learning to classify AD. A bag of features (BoF) is used to retrieve the locale features, and a support vector machine (SVM) is applied for classification. The majority voting technique is used to combine the final predicted labels. The proposed method achieves an accuracy of 94.0%, 97.0%, and 95.9% to classify CN vs. MCI, CN vs. AD, and MCI vs. AD, respectively.
    Keywords: diffusion tensor imaging; Alzheimer’s disease; bag of features; BoF; support vector machine; SVM; majority voting.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10054939
  • An intelligent method for predicting cardiac disease based on PSO-convolutional neural network   Order a copy of this article
    by M. Balamurugan, P. Blessed Prince 
    Abstract: Cardiovascular disease (also known as CVD) is one of the primary contributors to both morbidity and death. The present state of the art in artificial intelligence plays a significant part in the process of aiding medical professionals in the diagnosis of a variety of disorders. A hybrid framework is proposed for the diagnosis of cardiovascular illnesses by analysing medical voice data. Eleven datasets comprising 14,416 numerical characteristics may be produced by using the method that has been suggested. From the datasets that are produced as a consequence, numerical and graphical characteristics are extracted. In the third layer, numerical data is provided to five separate machine learning (ML) techniques and graphical characteristics are transmitted to convolutional neural networks (CNNs), with transfer learning utilised to choose the best suited configurations. From a benchmark dataset, the PSO-CNN technique that was presented obtains an accuracy of 96.78%.
    Keywords: cardiovascular; PSO-CNN; optimisation; machine learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10054940
  • Data mining approach for nutrition score calculation of geriatric patients   Order a copy of this article
    by Vaishali P. Suryawanshi, Rashmi S. Phalnikar 
    Abstract: Due to lack of uniformity in terms of understanding nutrition status, comorbidity types, patient mobility and BMI readings mal-nutrition screening forms cannot be used to correctly comprehend each patients nutritional status. The goal of this study is to use a data mining approach to understand nutrition screening forms in order to determine the malnutrition status of hospitalised geriatric patients. The evaluation measures are used to indicate the accuracy of the classification algorithms. The research work on nutrition screening form, which is designed using classification algorithms, will help physicians to understand their patients nutritional status and help in avoiding malnutrition in them.
    Keywords: malnutrition screening forms; classification; data mining; evaluation measures.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10055068
  • Integer wavelet transform based data hiding scheme for medical image protection   Order a copy of this article
    by Moad Med Sayad, Zermi Narima, Khaldi Amine, Kafi Med Redouane 
    Abstract: A crucial security and protection challenge today in telemedicine is how to ensure the confidentiality of sensitive data sent over the internet and limit access to specified designated information. To keep such details private, we propose in this work a robust and blind medical image watermarking approach that combines integer wavelet transform (IWT) and singular value decomposition (SVD). Low embedding capacity is a potential drawback of modern integer wavelet transform (IWT)-based watermarking systems. A secure high capacity watermarking scheme based on IWT is proposed in this work to overcome this specific limitation. According to experiment results on imperceptibility and robustness, the proposed solution efficiently maintains a significant quality of watermarked images and the watermark is resistant to the most commonly used attacks in watermarking. The integration of information about the patient in his medical image will avoid any confusion between two images.
    Keywords: medical image; digital watermarking; blind watermarking; integer wavelet transform; IWT; singular value decomposition; SVD; QR code.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10055240
  • Segnet and U-Net based brain tumour segmentation   Order a copy of this article
    by R. Ashwini, Swagata Sarkar, C. Pandi, S. Rajalakshmi 
    Abstract: The process of separating individual brain tumours in diagnostic pictures is an essential component of therapeutic therapy. The manual segmentation process takes a lot of time and requires a lot of work, while the current automated segmentation techniques have problems such as a large number of parameters and a lack of accuracy. We created a completely automated technique for the segmentation of brain tumours by applying deep learning. The system was tested on 285 examples of brain tumours using multi-parametric magnet resonant images taken from either the BraTS2018 data set. The quantitative study of brain tumours is helpful in gaining a better knowledge of the features of the tumour as well as in developing more effective treatment strategies. Through the use of this technology, it was possible to get mean dice values of 0.9213 for the overall tumour and 0.8729 for the tumour core.
    Keywords: brain tumour; BraTS database; computer intelligence; Densenet; U-Net.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10055242
  • Myocardial infarction detection in late gadolinium enhancement cardiac MRI   Order a copy of this article
    by Sarra Dali Youcef, Mahammed Messadi 
    Abstract: Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the most used technique for assessing myocardial viability. Myocardial segmentation is a fundamental step in the detection of myocardial infarction (MI) on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images. In this paper, we provide a system for automated myocardial infarct detection. The myocardial segmentation is applied to cine images and then transferred to LGE images, to subsequently detect myocardial infarction. We tested our approach on the sunnybrook cardiac database. The proposed method shows remarkable accuracy. We obtained a dice similarity coefficient of 0.92 and an average perpendicular distance of 1.75 (mm) between automated and manual segmentation.
    Keywords: left ventricle; cine MR images; late gadolinium enhanced MR images; myocardial infarct; viability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10055269
  • Medical image registration and automatic hippocampus segmentation through convolutional neural network   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Durga Prasad, K.S.N. Murthy, B. Kannan, C. Sivakumaran 
    Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a brain degenerative ailment that progresses and is irreversible. Mild cognitive impairment, known as MCI, is a clinical indicator that AD may eventually develop. In order to effectively treat and prevent AD, an accurate diagnosis of the illness’s early stages is required. AD often manifests its symptoms first in the hippocampus. Deep machine learning was used in this project with the intention of achieving its aim of segmenting a specific region. The suggested method’s performance was compared to manual segmentation using similarity measures. The performance of a CNN that segments the hippocampus directly is inferior to that of any contouring technique and the findings were 96% accurate. The quantitative results are improved by the application of stringent corrections to the data, although the gap is still rather large. The suggested technique is promising and may be expanded in AD prognosis by predicting hippocampal volume changes in the early stages of the illness.
    Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; hippocampus; magnetic resonance imaging; convolutional neural network images; TBI; U-net.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10055511
  • CNN-based detection of cervical spinal cord injury   Order a copy of this article
    by G. Chandraiah, K. Mekala Devi, A. Mohamed Abbas, S. Rajalakshmi 
    Abstract: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the ability to infer alterations on a microscopic level in lesions that are present on the spinal cord. For the purpose of locating lesions brought on by cervical illnesses, our deep neural network using MRI was suggested. The segmentation of spine pictures, as well as their identification, diagnosis, as well as quantitative assessment, have all seen significant applications of the deep learning technology. The most cutting-edge approach to machine learning using medical imaging data is called convolutional neural networks (CNNs), which are powered by deep learning. The proposed network produces segmentation results that are in high degree of agreement with the real world situation. The suggested network produces outstanding results on testing. These findings are based upon that pixel level. The machine learning network that was suggested is both efficient and reliable for doing completely autonomous segmentation of the problematic area.
    Keywords: analysis of the spine province; magnetic resonance imaging; MRI; spinal cord; convolutional neural networks; CNNs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10055578
  • Pneumonia detection using modified VGG 19 net architecture: application of deep convolutional neural network   Order a copy of this article
    by K. Sivakumar, P. Vinitha Baby, Lourdu Jennifer J.R., C. Sivakumaran 
    Abstract: Pneumonia is a somewhat common condition that may be brought on by a variety of micro-organisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungus. The use of a deep convolutional neural network fed with X-ray images to detect lung pneumonia has been proposed. Collecting data, enhancing images, performing an adaptive and precise ROI evaluation, extracting features, and diagnosing diseases are all part of the framework’s scope. The suggested deep CNN models were trained using 12,000 pictures from the Pneumonia chest X-ray Dataset, which contained both infected and uninfected chest X-rays. The publicly available new CNN models were trained, and the results were compared with ensemble approach. On the validation set, the suggested technique demonstrated its superiority with an AUC of 95.21 and a sensitivity of 97.76. The proposed technique had a 90.71% success rate in properly identifying images of a patient’s chest as normal, viral pneumonia, or bacterial pneumonia.
    Keywords: pneumonia; deep learning; machine learning; CNN.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10055646
  • Effects of various phases and errors on partial volume estimation in the analysis of PV correction in ASL MRI   Order a copy of this article
    by A. Shyna, Amma C. Ushadevi, Ansamma John, C. Kesavadas, Bejoy Thomas 
    Abstract: Arterial spin labelling (ASL) MRI is widely used to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). The low resolution of ASL images causes partial volume (PV) effect that causes an erroneous estimation of CBF values. A two-phase study is conducted to investigate the impact of various factors on the PV correction technique using linear regression. The effects of different stages in the PV estimation process are examined in the first phase, and the impact of noise and blurring on PV estimates on the second phase. Experiments are conducted on simulated PCASL images generated from ADNI and the results are validated using RMSE score and ROI analysis.
    Keywords: arterial spin labelling MRI; partial volume effect; cerebral blood flow; CBF; linear regression.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10055831
  • Motor imagery classification based upon wavelet packet decomposition and binary particle swarm optimisation   Order a copy of this article
    by Rohtash Dhiman, Pawan 
    Abstract: Motor imagery (MI)-electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are most convenient basis for brain computer interface (BCI) systems. This investigation aims to develop a novel method for feature extraction and selection that improves classification accuracy in the BCI system. Wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) and approximate entropy (ApEn) are used for feature extraction for EEG signals. Binary particle swarm optimisation (BPSO) technique is used for feature selection. Artificial neural network (ANN) is employed for classifying MI activities with mean accuracy of 87.29%. The proposed methodology can be useful in clinical applications for motor-disabled subjects connecting outside environment with sequences of MI activities.
    Keywords: approximate entropy; ApEn; artificial neural network; ANN; binary particle swarm optimisation; BPSO; brain computer interface; BCI; electroencephalogram; EEG; motor imagery; MI; wavelet packet decomposition; WPD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10056105
  • Radial basis function network equipped with an ensemble-based Lasso ridge model in diagnosis of breast cancer   Order a copy of this article
    by Pooja J. Shah, Trupti P. Shah 
    Abstract: The information that is kept in the form of medical records is of tremendous assistance when it comes to the process of putting together medical decision support systems. The goal of this study is to provide a description of two distinct methods for the development of a medical diagnostic tool that is driven by data in the detection of breast cancer. The radial basis function network (RBFN) architecture with Lasso and ridge regularisation, as well as ensemble learning, are both methods that have been proposed as potential solutions. Following the implementation of the proposed networks on the Wisconsin Breast Cancer (WBC) dataset, comparative analysis is carried out.
    Keywords: radial basis function network; RBFN; Lasso and ridge regularisation; LR; ensemble learning; breast cancer; BC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10056107
  • A new hybrid approach for automated leakage detection in fundus fluorescein angiography images   Order a copy of this article
    by Bikesh K. Singh, Suraj Chandrakar, Ankur Khare, Ravi Khatri, Deepak Chandravanshi, Sumit Kumar Banchhor 
    Abstract: The existing methods for quantitative investigation of leakage in fluorescein angiography (FA) images involve manual delineation and lack annotated datasets and high accuracy. The proposed hybrid approach can automatically detect leakage in FA images with high accuracy. The hybrid approach combines the fuzzy c-means (FCM) with distance regularised level set evolution (DRLSE). Two expert radiologists test the accuracy of the proposed system. We have also tested inter-and intra-observer variability between the two experts. The study observed high accuracy of 0.98 +- 0.02 and 0.98 +- 0.03 with experts 1 and 2, respectively. Further, the accuracy of manual inter-observer (expert 1 and expert 2) and intra-observer (expert 1) were observed as 0.95 += 0.05 and 0.98 +- 0.02, respectively. The proposed fully automated hybrid approach can accurately detect and quantify the leakage in FA images and thus has great potential value in diabetic retinopathy (DR).
    Keywords: diabetic retinopathy; DR; fluorescein angiography; FA; leakage; segmentation; inter- and intra-observer variability; fuzzy c-means; FCM; distance regularised level set evolution; DRLSE.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10056108
  • Remotely operated infant incubator   Order a copy of this article
    by Maham Sarvat, Suhaib Masroor, Jawaid Shabbir, Zohra Jabeen, Bilal Ahmad 
    Abstract: A neonatal incubator is a sealed enclosure where a child may be placed for treatment in a safe and healthy environment. The system can provide a heater, a fan, a water container for applying moisture, a control valve to regulate oxygen supply, and access ports for nursing care. In this paper, a novel approach is presented to create a cost effective wireless portable baby incubator. It is shown that the control and operation of the incubator is performed wirelessly from the nursing counter, located within the range of 30 m via an Android device. The device will provide information of all the installed functions on a single screen. Moreover, it requires only a single staff member to monitor them, and give them necessary instructions via the same Android device. To validate the efficiency of the proposed design, the incubator is simulated 30 times, and the acquired results are tested statistically by ANOVA.
    Keywords: infant incubator; remote monitoring and control; wireless communication; smart electro-medical devices.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10056665
  • Efficacy and bioequivalence study of Zithromax and Azithral a drug for the treatment COVID-19   Order a copy of this article
    by Hattab Youcef 
    Abstract: Generic drugs are increasingly marketed around the world to the detriment of their quality. The objective of this work was therefore to carry out a bioequivalence study between the originator Zithromax a drug for the treatment COVID-19 and its generic Azithral, this bioequivalence study is based on the quality control of generic and originator azithromycin tablets, which is carried out after validation of the azithromycin assay method, and essentially on pharmaco-technical tests (mass uniformity, breakability, disintegration, dissolution in vitro). By referring mainly to different pharmacopoeias, the tests have shown that the quality of generic tablets is acceptable but seems to be less satisfactory than that of originator tablets.
    Keywords: bioequivalence study; generic; azithromycin; COVID-19.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10056861
  • Multi perceptron network based model to classify the multi stages of Alzheimer’s disease using clinical data   Order a copy of this article
    by Chevvenahalli Rangegowda Nagarathna, Mohanchandra Kusuma 
    Abstract: Alzheimer’s is a neurodegenerative disease that diminishes the capability of individuals to perform their daily activities. It is an irreversible disease. Once it is started it cannot be cured, but early detection of the disease can help to slow down the progression of the disease by starting the treatment early. In this experiment, we use clinical study data available at the Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) dataset to detect the different stages of Alzheimer’s and forecast the duration required for conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and also classification of the disease is done. The clinical signs of AD are rendered by age, patient education details, the progression rate of disease, and cognitive information. Various machine learning techniques like multi perceptron networks, random forest, SVM, and decision tree classifiers are used to do binary and multi-classification of AD, late mild cognitive impairment (LMCI), early cognitive impairment (EMCI), and cognitive control (CN). The multi perceptron network shows the best performance by giving an average accuracy of 99.24% for binary classification and 93% for multi class classification. The proposed model enables early detection and also predicts the different stages of Alzheimer’s using the clinical dataset.
    Keywords: Alzheimer’s; dementia; MMSE; multi-layer perceptron; random forest; SVM; late mild cognitive impairment; LMCI; early cognitive impairment; EMCI.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10056957
  • Diagnosis of the COVID-19 with deep learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Moulud Demouche, Abderrahmane Baadache, Djamil Aissani, Taha Zerrouki 
    Abstract: Since the beginning of 2020, the COVID-19 virus has spread widely throughout the world. RT-PCR is used to diagnose the disease, but radiologists studied advances in chest CT scans to produce high-quality images. The purpose of this research is to develop a deep learning system for detecting the COVID-19 virus using chest computed tomography. We proposed three convolutional neural network (CNN) approaches to developed three models, and applied them to a publicly available COVID-19 screening chest CT scan dataset of 2,482 images. Our models have shown that they work by getting a high F1-score of 98.5% for the InceptionResNetV2 model.
    Keywords: COVID-19; convolutional neural network; CNN; deep learning; Xception; InceptionResNetV.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10057090
  • Deep learning for smart home security systems   Order a copy of this article
    by N. Ashokkumar 
    Abstract: Smart home security systems helps to monitor the homes from remote place. These systems were created with the goal of mitigating risks and, eventually, leading to the consolidation of a sense of security. We get off with an overview of the deep learning approach and an analysis of its significance in the evolution of machine learning. The most basic prerequisite for choosing the most appropriate way to build a smart home is face recognition. Kinect is used to generate the point cloud image of a human body in this technique. The data that has been received will be processed by the Arduino microcontroller, which will ultimately result in the intelligent management of various domestic electrical equipments. The experimental findings demonstrate that by analysing and processing human point cloud photos, the proposed algorithm is able to effectively recognise human attitude and operate domestic appliances and other operations.
    Keywords: smart home; machine learning; deep learning; DL; machine learning; ML; denial of service; DoS; intrusion detection system; IDS; internet of things; IoT.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10057160
  • Information domain approach to investigate the cardio-vascular, cardio-respiratory and vasculo-respiratory causal coupling to study gender and age-based changes   Order a copy of this article
    by Kirti Singh, Indu Saini, Neetu Sood 
    Abstract: This study presents a framework to quantify the coupling changes in cardiovascular, cardiorespiratory, and vasculorespiratory complexity using information domain approaches based on compensated transfer entropy (cTE). The dataset used for this research consists of the group of healthy young and old subjects. The proposed technique delivers significant coupling changes in healthy dataset based on age and gender in contribution of heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and respiration (RESP). For validation of statistically significant values, the paired t-test is used. This study provides additional value to the prognostic and diagnostic approach in biomedical science.
    Keywords: heart rate variability; HRV; respiration; RESP; blood pressure; BP; RR interval; transfer entropy; TE.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10057240
  • Parkinson disease detection using ResNet-50: a CNN architecture   Order a copy of this article
    by N.K. Anushkannan, S. Nirmalkumar, L. Chithra, K. Manoharan 
    Abstract: A person’s motor and cognitive symptoms from Parkinson’s disease (PD) can change dramatically over time. Some of the signs of Parkinson’s disease are shared with more common illnesses including ageing and essential tremor, making diagnosis challenging. Lots of study has gone into figuring out the best ways to diagnose this illness. Using deep learning, recursive neural networks (RNNs), and convolutional neural networks (CNNs) that can differentiate between healthy and PD patients, this research hopes to automate the Parkinson’s disease (PD) diagnostic procedure. As such, this study intends to analyse numerous imaging and movement datasets to determine which Parkinson’s disease test is best in terms of its capacity to differentiate between individuals, as different datasets may emphasise different elements of the illness (notably cube and spiral pentagon datasets). Furthermore, this study will be utilised to compare imaging and time series datasets for their diagnostic utility in Parkinson’s disease.
    Keywords: Parkinson disease; deep learning; signal processing; convolutional neural network; CNN; ResNet-50.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10057278
  • Parkinsons detection based on combined ResNet architecture and LSTM   Order a copy of this article
    by M. Gokuldhev, Anjani Kumar, K. Kiruthika, B.R. Tapas Bapu 
    Abstract: In this research, a novel approach to the clinical condition of neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson’s is presented. The proposed method uses a mix of deep networks that have been pre-trained as well as long-term and short-term memory (LSTM). A new model called PD-ResNet is constructed and based on the residual network (ResNet) architecture to understand the variations between people with Parkinson disease and healthy controls. In order to execute adoption of the obtained learnt representations across data originating from various medical contexts, a new loss functionality is presented as well as used in the development of the deep neural networks (DNNs). Experiments conducted on the clinic gait dataset demonstrate that our suggested model has good performance, with a correctness of 95.51%, an accuracy of 94.44%, a recalls of 96.59%, a sensitivity of 94.44%, as well as a F1 measure of 95.50%.
    Keywords: Parkinson illness; ResNet architecture; deep neural networks; DNNs; long short-term memory.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10057280
  • Forward neck posture on cervical pain among university students: effect of smartphone addiction   Order a copy of this article
    by Selvaraj Antoniraj, Hafizah Che Hassan, K. Baleswamy 
    Abstract: These days, smartphones are used for much more than just making and receiving phone calls and text messages; they can also be used to view and share media, surf the web, and send and receive electronic mail. A cross-sectional analysis of college students between the ages of 17 and 30, who were using smartphones for prolonged period of time. The survey was conducted through an online questionnaire. Simple random sampling was used to get 404 samples, 216 of which were men and 188 of which were women. There is a positive and highly significant (p < 0.01) association between forward neck posture and cervical pain in college students. Using a smartphone excessively is associated with increased risk of cervical pain (p < 0.01). The findings of this study reveal that the extended and extensive use of smartphones by university undergraduates is a key contributing cause of their neck pain.
    Keywords: cervical pain; neck posture; smartphone addiction; students.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10057778
  • An optimised machine learning approach using Intel oneAPI for detecting cardiovascular system failure   Order a copy of this article
    by Akshay Bhuvaneswari Ramakrishnan, A. Srilakshmi, Shriram K. Vasudevan 
    Abstract: Heart failure is a frequent illness that might result in circumstances that could be fatal. Early heart illness identification is essential for prompt treatment and better patient outcomes. In this study, we offer a multi-machine learning model, trained with Intel oneAPI, technique for the early diagnosis of heart illness. To choose the most pertinent patient characteristics that will be used as input for our machine learning models, we employ a genetic algorithm (GA). To forecast the risk of cardiac disease, we optimise the models using a genetic algorithm and Intel oneAPI. Our findings demonstrate the high accuracy of our approach, with linear discriminant analysis optimised with GA producing the most accurate model with a 92.34% accuracy rate.
    Keywords: heart failure; machine learning; genetic algorithm; optimisation; oneAPI.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10057866
  • Increasing the accuracy of oscillometric blood pressure measurement   Order a copy of this article
    by Y.M. Blessy, K. Rajalakshmi, R. Raj Anandh, Vajravelu Ashok 
    Abstract: The presence of unregulated high blood pressure (BP) is linked to an elevated chance of health problems, some of which may cause harm to a range of organs across the body. Among the most dangerous as well as widespread conditions is hypertension, which refers to increased blood pressures. Unfortunately, correct blood pressure readings need the use of many medical instruments. The proposed system compares the systolic and diastolic objectives of blood-pressure readings, which are obtained using analogue devices and those obtained using an electronically controlled blood pressure reading tool. The systolic measurement alone had a mean variance of 3,265 mmHg, while the diastolic measurement had a mean variance of 6,165 mmHg. The discrepancy is then included into these processes of calibrating the automated blood pressure measuring device. The accuracy of the output of the calibration reading tool is between 99.47% and 99.82%.
    Keywords: blood pressure measurement; non-invasive; micro controller.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10057971
  • Integrating dialysis machine functions using system design approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Vicky B. Sardar, Atul Sajgure, Neela R. Rajhans 
    Abstract: In new product development (NPD) process, system design thinking contributes significantly towards the effectiveness of the product. For effective system design solution, incremental improvements to the existing system at each element level should meet the user expectations. A detailed view of the inputs and outputs occurring at each component level of a hemodialysis machine is presented in this study. This research work provides suggestions to address the functions of existing dialysis machine for home use. The suggestions are based on systems approach. Risk mitigation plan is devised for preventing the critical accidents while designing the machine for home hemodialysis using Swiss Cheese approach.
    Keywords: new product development; NPD; system design; home hemodialysis; HHD; Swiss Cheese approach.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10057977
  • Classification of cardiac arrhythmia disease using deep learning auto encoder algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by B. Nithyasundari 
    Abstract: An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a very important diagnostic tool for figuring out what is wrong with a person’s heartbeat. Arrhythmia has been put into groups in many different ways. Due to the fact that electrocardiogram (ECG) data are in a state of continual change, it might be challenging to employ standard handmade approaches. We offer a framework for deep learning that does not need a great deal of supervision and is geared toward the detection of arrhythmias (WSDL-AD). Three distinct ECG waveforms are selected from the arrhythmia database maintained by MIT and BIH in order to evaluate the proposed methodology. The primary objective of this research is to discover a deep learning method, with the end aim of classifying the three distinct heart ailments that have been selected. The highest rate of correct recognition that can be achieved is 98.51%, while the accuracy of testing is around 92%.
    Keywords: MIT-BIH dataset; electrocardiogram; ECG; arrythmia disease; deep learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10058004
  • Breast cancer prediction using whale optimisation algorithm and ANFIS classifier   Order a copy of this article
    by M. Sri Geetha, S. Navaneethan, G. Divya, B. Geethavani 
    Abstract: Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of the disease that affects women and is responsible for billions of deaths globally. The adaptive clustering is for the purpose of image segmentation, followed by an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for the categorisation of images. In order to optimise the parameters, a deep learning-based method known as the whale optimisation algorithm (WOA) has been suggested. The breast cancer database for the state of Wisconsin comprised information of patients who had a known diagnosis. The ANFIS classifiers were provided with a training set of records of this kind in order to learn how to discriminate between new cases in the domain. In order to identify breast cancer, the ANFIS classifier was fed nine characteristics that define breast cancer indications. The suggested ANFIS model included both the adaptability of neural networks and the qualitative approach of fuzzy logic.
    Keywords: adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system; ANFIS; whale optimisation algorithm; WOA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10058260
  • Human emotion classification enabled by EEG signal analysis and machine learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Dattaprasad A. Torse, Mahadev M. Bagade 
    Abstract: In recent years, automated human emotion recognition system poses numerous challenges with large and complex data and its vast computation. In this work, we consider a three-dimensional continuous valence-arousal-dominance framework for data representation in space using the DEAP dataset of 32 participants. An experiment was carried out to test practicality of the proposed system using the EMOTIV Insight headset electroencephalogram (EEG) data from four channels. We utilise a tunable-Q wavelet transform (TQWT) algorithm to extract frequency domain characteristics of the signals and classify using time windows of two seconds. The extracted power of the signals was identified as features from different frequency bands and the K-nearest neighbour (KNN) and random forest (RF) classifiers resulted in an accuracy of 97.8%.
    Keywords: emotion recognition; tunable-Q wavelet transform; TQWT; K-nearest neighbour; KNN; random forest; RF.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10058261
  • Brain tumour segmentation using deep learning method - inception U-net   Order a copy of this article
    by S.B. Mohan, B. Ramesh, G. Gurumoorthy, B. Kannan 
    Abstract: The objective of the procedure of segmentation for brain tumours is to provide an accurate delineation of the regions that are affected by the tumour. In recent years, deep learning algorithms have shown performance that is seen to be promising in the field of addressing a variety of difficulties pertaining to computer vision. With the assistance of a deep learning model that is supported by DenseNet and commencement, a highly autonomous process for managing the work of glioma division in pre-usable X-ray examinations has been developed. This method can handle the task of handling the task of segmentation of gliomas. The incorporation of inception modules resulted in a substantial improvement (p < 0.001) in the segmentation performance across the board including all glioblastoma sub-districts. The algorithm attained a high degree of accuracy while maintaining a high level of performance throughout all three of the BraTS 2018 datasets.
    Keywords: segmentation; brain tumour; computer vision; inception; DenseNet architecture.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10058262
  • Hybrid brain computer interface structures to control drone in 3D   Order a copy of this article
    by B. Divya, S. Bharathi, G.R. Mahendra Babu, K. Rajalakshmi, Nalini Mohan 
    Abstract: In order to overcome the shortcomings of traditional single BCI systems, a novel method of brain-computer interfacing (BCI) has been proposed; this method is known as a hybrid BCI. Although several tests using hybrid BCIs have yielded promising results, much more research and development is still needed in this area. As a corollary, we also did a thorough analysis of the most recent studies focusing on the usefulness of BCIs. To determine the weight each factor should have in the overall evaluation of BCI usability, we zeroed in on the tasks and measurements involved. We reported on the satisfaction-based usability features of BCI and mixed BCI systems efficacy, and efficiency, and made some suggestions for further research. Usability testing can reveal problems with the HCI and ergonomics of BCI and hybrid BCI systems, as well as provide suggestions for future study in the area.
    Keywords: brain-computer interfacing; BCI; drone control; 3D images.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10058455
  • Integration of matching smart phone data with long-term continuous glucose monitoring data pictures of food intake   Order a copy of this article
    by A. Rajasekar, J. Megala, Swagata Sarkar, C. Sivakumaran 
    Abstract: The treatment of diabetes relies heavily on careful glucose monitoring as an important component. Nevertheless, further information on the context is required in order to completely comprehend and interpret glucose levels in a meaningful manner. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), automated analysis of new glucose variables, and visualisation of CGM data via the ambulatory glucose profile have all contributed to significant advancements in precise glucose monitoring over the past five years. This made significant improvements in glucose monitoring. There are considerable challenges to its adoption, such as the fact that it is inconvenient and does not give immediate and frequent feedback. However, intermittent self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) can offer extra information that may be used to make choices about therapy. Systems that indicate greater results compared to standard SMBG alone include those that give instant feedback to patients as well as decision support tools for both patients and physicians.
    Keywords: glucose monitoring; biomedical; smartphone; diabetes.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10058522
  • Revolutionising organ donation and transplantation for a better future: a blockchain based approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Rachana Y. Patil, Yogesh H. Patil 
    Abstract: Prolonged monitoring of life-sustaining organs and their supply chain is challenging. Patients have to wait for a longer time due to numerous lacunas in the organ donation and transplant system. The objectives of this article are manifold, first to address the major challenges in successful organ donation and transplantation systems worldwide. Second, to focus opportunities in workforce expansion, developing modern infrastructure and creating social awareness for organ donation. Third is to regulate the legal, ethical and administrative management among government authorities and medico-legal firms. To overcome these irregularities, we have proposed a secure, distributed and immutable blockchain based approach to improve and streamline organ donation and transplantation procedures. This ensures the availability of organs for the needy patents. This blockchain-specific approach helps to prevent and monitor organ trafficking by auditable medical transactions. This opens up blockchain-based smart health services to defend doctors and patients rights.
    Keywords: organ donation; transplantation; blockchain; challenges; opportunities.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10058768
  • Anomaly detection architecture for smart hospitals based on machine learning, time series, and image recognition analysis: survey   Order a copy of this article
    by Somaya Haiba, Tomader Mazri 
    Abstract: Smart hospital networks are considered the most sensitive networks for anomalies; any tiny existence might produce very different dangerous scales. The usual anomaly detections dedicated to this kind of network are not able to analyse all the different categories and proprieties of the generated data, because the majority of them rely only on time series analysis which is not able to cover all the circulated pieces of information. For that, in this paper, we will survey a proposed anomaly detection architecture that can dominate all the data categories that exist inside the e-health network using image recognition as well as time-series analysis.
    Keywords: E-healthcare monitoring network; IoMT; smart hospitals; E-health anomaly; anomaly detection; machine learning; time-series analysis; IoT security; ImageGray analysis; medical data; Cybersecurity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10058832
  • A novel deep learning approach for b-value optimisation in intravoxel incoherent motion magnetic resonance imaging on simulated data   Order a copy of this article
    by Abin Shoby, Jerome Francis, Jini Raju, C. Ushadevi Amma, Ansamma John 
    Abstract: Intravoxel incoherent motion magnetic resonance imaging (IVIM MRI) is a non-invasive technique which measures the perfusion and diffusion effects present in a tissue. One of the major challenges in IVIM imaging is the prolonged scan time since multiple b-value images are required for estimating IVIM parameters. The proposed work introduces a novel approach for reducing the number of b-values required for the generation of IVIM signals from unknown b-values using long short-term memory (LSTM) network. Experimental results show that LSTM network has the capability of accurately estimating IVIM parameters even with 4 b-values, with the estimated values are in agreement with the literature. If an IVIM machine takes 37.5 seconds for the acquisition of a b-value signal, then it will take only 2.5 minutes for acquiring IVIM signals for 4 b-values. This will reduce the patient discomfort and increases the clinical acceptance of IVIM imaging.
    Keywords: intravoxel incoherent motion imaging; long short-term memory; LSTM; area error; optimal b-values.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10058833
  • Tri-partition-based b-value optimisation for intravoxel incoherent motion magnetic resonance imaging of brain   Order a copy of this article
    by Jini Raju, C. Ushadevi Amma, Ansamma John, V. Jineesh 
    Abstract: Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique allows the simultaneous estimation of perfusion and diffusion without the use of contrast agents. As the number of b-values increases, the scan time also increases, which in turn causes patient discomfort. This necessitates the reduction in the number of b-values (b-value count) and the optimisation of absolute b-values that quantify both the perfusion and diffusion effects accurately. The two partition approach of biexponential model fails to consider the b-value regions where both the perfusion parameters have significance. The proposed work explores the possibility of finding minimal and optimal set of b-values using the images corresponding to a set of 21 b-values, using random sampling-based tri-partition method, by varying b-value counts from 10 to 4. Experimental results demonstrate that appropriate selection of b-values from the three partitions generate quality parametric maps.
    Keywords: intravoxel incoherent motion; IVIM; diffusion weighted imaging; b-value optimisation; random subsampling.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10058916
  • Early-stage leukaemia detection using sophisticated machine learning algorithms   Order a copy of this article
    by Pawan Whig, Anant Aggarwal, Dhaya Sindhu Battina, Srinivas Venkata, Shama Kouser, Ashima Bhatnagar Bhatia 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the efficacy of convolutional neural networks (CNNs), a deep learning technique, in early-stage leukaemia detection - a crucial task for improving outcomes. Comparing support vector machines, random forests, artificial neural networks, and CNNs, we assess performance on a dataset of blood samples from leukaemia patients and healthy subjects. Results reveal high accuracy across models, with CNN outperforming other methods in both accuracy and efficiency. CNNs capacity to learn complex patterns from raw data, such as blood samples, sets it apart from traditional algorithms. This study underscores CNNs potential to revolutionise early-stage leukaemia detection, demonstrating its significance in advancing cancer diagnosis.
    Keywords: early-stage leukaemia; machine learning; deep learning; convolutional neural network; CNN; classification; feature extraction; diagnosis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10060130
  • Solution for I-RFID-based smart infrastructure health monitorings security and privacy   Order a copy of this article
    by A. Rajasekar, K. Vidya, G. Adharsh, C. Sivakumaran 
    Abstract: The idea of a smart city and smart infrastructure is a relatively recent one, and it refers to the management and control of the various infrastructures of a city via the integration of internet and cellular networks. The addition of internet of things functionality to cellular networks results in an increase in both the scalability and dependability of the whole system. The most current innovation in integrated radio frequency identification (I-RFID) sensor technology allows for the data collected by the sensor to be sent over greater distances in a more secure manner using access point and base station. We constructed a network of intelligent nodes, each of which will consist of a radio-frequency identification tag, a reduced function RFID reader and sensors. The proposed method exhibits minimal data delivery losses and a considerable reduction in the amount of time spent on transmission delays.
    Keywords: radio frequency identification; RFID; healthcare monitor; security; smart infrastructure.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10060421
  • A novel hybrid-based approach for detection of skin lesion using machine learning techniques   Order a copy of this article
    by Nikhil Singh, Sachin Kumar, Shriram K. Vasudevan 
    Abstract: As a result of medical sector treatment strategies, the incidence of skin cancer has increased globally over the past few decades. It is essential to develop automatic detection systems to aid doctors in the early diagnosis of skin cancer. The automated identification of skin lesions using dermoscopic pictures remains a difficult and complex endeavour. This proposal describes a unique method for detecting skin cancer using dermoscopy pictures. In order to enhance the performance, we combined the segmentation and classification techniques with the innovative hybrid methodology fuzzy brain storming optimisation (FBSO). In two steps, we performed lesion segmentation, noise reduction, and feature extraction before submitting our dataset to machine learning algorithms for optimisation and analysis. Many characteristics, including accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, precision, F1-score, and AUROC, have been used to validate the performance of the suggested model. The experiment demonstrates that random forest’s accuracy [91.0% for dataset 1 (ISIC) and 92.5% for dataset 2 (HAM10000)] and AUROC [96.1% for dataset 1 (ISIC) and 97% for dataset 2 (HAM10000)] are superior to those of traditional models.
    Keywords: machine learning; AI; healthcare; skin cancer; medicine; melanoma.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10060493
  • A machine learning-based methodology for stratifying patients into obstructive sleep apnea risk   Order a copy of this article
    by Christos Bellos, Konstantinos Stefanou, Georgios Stergios, Dafni Patelou, Thomas Katsantas, Konstantinos P. Exarchos, Apostolis Nikolopoulos, Agni Sioutkou, Georgios Siopis, Konstantinos Kostikas, Chara Tselepi, Athanasios Konstantinidis 
    Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common and chronic disorder that leads to increased day-time sleepiness, is associated with accidents, emerging of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders as well as depression. Almost 20% of the population suffers from OSA while a large portion of people are undiagnosed. The objectives of the current work are: 1) the development of a platform to keep a record of home sleep studies and monitor patients; 2) its use for screening tool for the detection of undiagnosed cases in the general population; 3) the design of a machine learning-based methodology for stratifying patients into high and low risk of OSA based on a series of clinical findings and questionnaires. The proposed methodology showed overall accuracy 87.4%, sensitivity 92.1% and specificity 77.1%.
    Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea; machine learning; web-based system; visualisation platform; data analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10060654
  • Prediction of COVID-19 cases with epidemiological and time series models   Order a copy of this article
    by Aman Shakya, Anita Sharma, Sanjeeb Prasad Panday, Rom Kant Pandey 
    Abstract: This work analyses the official data of coronavirus and predicts the evolution of the epidemic in Nepal. The generalised SEIR model has been applied with hybrid of ETS-ARIMA time series model for the time series analysis and predictions of evolution of COVID-19 cases. The prediction has been made for 30 days using the past data of thirteen months. The prediction made by generalised SEIR model has been corrected using two time series models, ETS and ARIMA model. The predicted error by ARIMA model is added to the prediction made by generalised SEIR model. Use of generalised SEIR model along with ETS and ARIMA model improves the time series prediction of coronavirus spread in case of Nepal as compared to the generalised SEIR model. Also, the SEIR-ETS-ARIMA model reduces the estimation error as compared to SEIRD-ARIMA model. Improvement in all quality measures, MAE, MSE, RMSE and MAPE has been observed.
    Keywords: corona; SEIR; ETS; ARIMA; SEIRD-ARIMA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10060974
  • Sentiment analysis in medication related texts   Order a copy of this article
    by Rabia Bounaama, Mohammed El Amine Abderrahim 
    Abstract: This study deals with the sentiment analysis of medication related texts improvement by using classical and state-of-the-art approaches like long-short-term memory (LSTM) and bidirectional encoder representation from transformers (BERT) model. The models evaluation demonstrates that transformer model outperformed other models like Na?ve Bayes (NB), logistic regression (LR) and support vector machine (SVM). Despite the superiority of state-of-the-art models, we show that the use of classical approaches remains a possible choice to avoid the complexity problem of the state-of-the-art approaches. The texts used in our experiment come from the Social Media Mining for Health (SMM4H) corpus and the coronavirus tweets NLP-text classification corpus.
    Keywords: sentiment analysis; machine learning; transformer; long-short-term memory; LSTM; bidirectional encoder representation from transformers; BERT.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2023.10061044
  • Predicting low back pain symptoms with machine learning   Order a copy of this article
    by T. Senthilkumar, A. Kanmani, P. Senthil, A. Niranjil Kumar, S. Narasimha Prasad 
    Abstract: Chronic low back pain (LBP), often known as low back syndrome or LBP, is a condition that may be brought on by a number of different disorders. It is also the biggest cause of disability on a global scale. Because there are now more digital pictures available in orthopaedics, researchers have been able to create techniques that are connected to artificial intelligence. The objective of this research was to assess the usefulness of a variety of machine learning (ML) algorithms and sample entropy (SampEn), a metric that evaluates the degree to which motion variability is complicated, in determining the presence of the ailment known as LBP. The Gaussian naive Bayes ML algorithm had the highest level of performance out of all the other algorithms that were evaluated, with an accuracy rate of 79% when it came to identifying patients suffering from CLBP.
    Keywords: low back pain; LBP; machine learning; artificial intelligence.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2024.10061273
  • A real-time deep learning-based system for the blood glucose prediction of the diabetic patients   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhay Kumar Tripathi, Sumitra Mishra, Shriram Kris Vasudevan 
    Abstract: Diabetes is a prevalent and long-term condition. It is possible to prevent diabetes if it is detected early enough. Insulin risk and severity may be considerably decreased if an accurate early prediction could be made. Diabetes datasets are challenging to predict due to the small amount of data that has been categorised and the potential for outliers (or missing values). The purpose of this study is to predict diabetes in a human or a patient with greater accuracy using various machine learning techniques, such as neural networks. Techniques for machine learning may increase the accuracy of predictions with patient-generated data. We begin by classifying the database and separating it into training and testing sets of information, which we then analyse separately. The CNN-LSTM combination is seen to yield the best results, with an accuracy rate of 96.5%. An accuracy of 91.56% is achieved in the testing data. Improved accuracy of the categorisation is achieved by imposing an LSTM model for diabetes prediction.
    Keywords: smart healthcare system; diabetes prediction; long short-term memory; LSTM; machine learning; deep learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2024.10061586
  • Telemedicine system for healthcare monitoring: heart rate and body temperature vital signs   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashok Vajravelu, Sreeja Vijay, R. Ramamoorthi, S. Ramesh 
    Abstract: The phrase remote health monitoring systems (RHMS) is used in the area of telemedicine to consult with, diagnose, and treat patients while working remotely. The RHMS was developed with the intention of using several types of communication technology in order to provide timely medical care to populations who are geographically separated. This article provides a detailed examination of the non-invasive capture of crucial data as well as the internet of things in the context of the discipline of healthcare informatics. It discusses the difficulties encountered in the area of healthcare informatics and offers recommendations for further research. In particular, the investigation that was carried out indicated that there has been a difficult obstacle to overcome in the process of developing multi-frequency essential IoT systems. If such technologies are successfully implemented, the resulting healthcare system will be one that is not only strong but also environmentally friendly, self-sufficient, and intelligent.
    Keywords: healthcare system; non-invasive data acquisition; internet of things; IoT; wireless sensor network; WSN.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2024.10061587
  • Deep transfer learning based two-stage multi-modal depressive tendency recognition using physiological and psychophysiological signals   Order a copy of this article
    by Gaurav Kumar Gupta, Dilip Kumar Sharma 
    Abstract: Depressive tendency recognition is challenging due to the limitations of labelled depressive knowledge and diverse variations in behaviour. This paper proposes a deep transfer learning-assisted two-stage multi-modal depressive tendency recognition system (DTL-TMD) by utilising physiological signals such as audio, transcript texts, and images and EEG as psychophysiological signals. The proposed system leverages the deep transfer learning (DTL) model to address and enhance the insufficient annotated physiological and Psychophysiological signals. Finally, it fuses the outcome of two stages with the assistance of a depression level-aware attention model in the adaptive neuro-fuzzy interface system (ANFIS) to detect depressed and non-depressed subjects effectively. Experimental results demonstrate superior performance and improve the depression recognition rate.
    Keywords: depression; electroencephalogram; EEG; convolutional neural network; CNN; adaptive neuro-fuzzy interface system; ANFIS; grow net; radial basis function neural network; RBFNN; deep Boltzmann machine; DBM; deep transfer learning; DTL; whale optimisation algorithm.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2024.10061938
  • Multiclass epilepsy seizure classification using deep learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Pankaj Kunekar, Mukesh Kumar Gupta, Pramod Gaur 
    Abstract: The neurosurgeon must be able to identify the type of epileptic seizure for the purpose to comprehend the cortical connectivity of the brain. Recurrent seizures, often known as epilepsy, are symptoms of the central nervous system and last either a few seconds or, in rare cases, a few minutes. EEG is one of the methods for recording seizures. The majority of EEG devices are composed of scalp electrodes that capture electrical activity. These signals are complex and often difficult to classify. Despite the existence of automated premature seizure identification from a usual electroencephalogram, little effort at multiple classes classification of seizures have been made done. Therefore, utilising the Bonn University dataset, a deep learning models has been developed using RNN, LSTM, and bi-directional-long short-term memory also known as Bi-LSTM, to solve this challenge. Bi-LSTM is found to be the most effective model for multi-class categorisation of epilepsy episodes in this research, with an accuracy of nearly 99% for three classes.
    Keywords: epilepsy seizures; electroencephalogram; EEG; Bi-LSTM; deep learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2024.10061939
  • Automated adaptive gamma improvement with weighting distribution in wireless capsule endoscopy   Order a copy of this article
    by Kanika Pasrija, Kavita Mittal 
    Abstract: This study focuses on enhancing the wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) systems capabilities in disease localisation and bleeding detection within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. By leveraging direction of arrival (DOA)-based localisation methods, the research proposes a novel approach involving the identification of regions of interest (ROIs) along the GI tract, streamlining feature extraction and bleeding image classification while reducing computational complexity. Additionally, a new bleeding detection method is introduced, utilising the Y.I/Q colour space as an efficient alternative to the conventional YIQ model. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed computer-assisted diagnostic algorithm in accurately identifying gastritis and gastrointestinal bleeding, underscoring its potential to significantly enhance WCE technology for improved disease localisation and diagnostic precision. Our experiments yielded compelling results, with our computer-assisted diagnostic algorithm achieving an accuracy rate of over 90% in accurately identifying gastritis and gastrointestinal bleeding. This significant level of accuracy underscores the potential of our approach to greatly enhance the capabilities of wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) technology, improving disease localisation and diagnostic precision within the gastrointestinal tract.
    Keywords: gastrointestinal; computer-assisted diagnostic-procedure; wireless capsule endoscope; luminance-in phase-quadrature; region of interest; deep neural network; disease localisation; bleeding detection; patient care; medical practices; early disease detection; telemedicine.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2024.10062053
  • Disease detection system based on haemogram report using random forest algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Deepali K. Gaikwad 
    Abstract: The healthcare systems require vast amount of medical data that is gathered post performing numerous medical tests. Medical data provides the essential information in order to diagnose diseases early or even before they occur. The classifiers use the characteristics of the complete blood count to forecast information about potential blood illnesses in early stages, which may improve the likelihood of a cure. Machine learning builds predictive models based on prior data. The illness prediction procedure may decrease as many as fatalities and improves the condition of living for those who tract with these diseases. In this study we applied random forest classifier on blood test report dataset to identify various blood diseases like anemia, leukemia, lymphoma, sickle-cell, etc.
    Keywords: machine learning; random forest; blood components; blood diseases.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2024.10062222
  • Analysis of type-2 diabetes datasets using sampling techniques   Order a copy of this article
    by Puneeth N. Thotad, Geeta R. Bharamagoudar, Basavaraj S. Anami 
    Abstract: Diabetes is one of the significant health disorders causing mortality in a developing country like India. Using technology to treat disease can lead to insights using data mining and machine learning techniques. Patient information plays a significant role in the diagnosis and prognosis of diabetes disease for decision-making. A comparative study is carried out using three imbalanced diabetes datasets. Synthetic minority oversampling technique is applied, and datasets are balanced. Balanced datasets gave higher accuracy, recall, precision, F1-score, and area under the curve compared to imbalanced datasets. Random forest has performed well on the balanced datasets. This work is appropriate for use in the medical field to manage diabetes efficiently.
    Keywords: data mining; machine learning; sampling techniques; random forest; decision tree; diabetic complications.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2024.10062368
  • Enhanced brain structure segmentation in schizophrenia MRI using bias correction and optimisation   Order a copy of this article
    by N. Swathi, J.M. Mathana, K. Sakthidasan 
    Abstract: Exploring the structural details of schizophrenia through neuroimaging, particularly MRI, has been essential in unravelling the disorder’s underlying pathophysiology. This research addresses the challenge of accurately segmenting MR images in schizophrenia studies, contending with issues like magnetic field inhomogeneity and noise. The central objective is to refine segmentation precision by effectively estimating bias fields. Employing multiplicative intrinsic component optimisation (MICO) and non-uniformity correction via brain SUITE for bias correction, and utilising firefly and partial swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithms for gray matter and ventricle segmentation, the study identifies the optimal combination through a comparative analysis. Evaluation metrics, including structural similarity measures (SSIM), feature similarity measures (FSIM) and Accuracy, highlight the superior performance of the MICO and PSO pairing in this proposed framework.
    Keywords: schizophrenia; SZ; image segmentation; bias correction; multiplicative intrinsic component optimisation; MICO; non-uniformity correction; brain suite; firefly; PSO.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2024.10062369
  • A survey on the automated computer-aided diagnosis of epilepsy seizure   Order a copy of this article
    by Pankaj Kunekar, Mukesh Kumar Gupta, Pramod Gaur 
    Abstract: Epilepsy, a life-threatening neurological disorder, necessitates early diagnosis and treatment to mitigate its risks. Neurologists detect epileptic seizures based on manual analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) signals. However, this manual approach is time-consuming, prone to errors due to human fatigue, and challenging for interpreting non-linear, non-stationary data. This paper presents a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art automated computer-aided diagnosis techniques for early epilepsy seizure detection, focusing on advancements made to overcome the limitations. By synthesising existing research, this survey aims to pinpoint the current state of the field, shed light on its strengths and weaknesses, and identify promising directions for future research.
    Keywords: computer-aided diagnosis; CAD; epilepsy; computerised tomography; CT; magnetic resonance imaging; MRI; positron emission tomography; PET.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2024.10063066
  • Breast cancer diagnosis based on thermography images using deep learning and forest optimisation algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by M. Sri Geetha, A. Grace Selvarani, R. Vinodhini, M. Murugan 
    Abstract: Breast cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer affecting women. The method of obtaining mammograms is a painful and unpleasant procedure for women since it requires compression of the breasts. This article would analyse thermal breast images for symptoms of the disease using image-processing techniques and algorithms. With this procedure, breast cancer could be discovered at an earlier stage of development. We describe a novel approach for extracting breast differentiating features utilising bio-data, image analysis, and image statistics. These features were obtained from thermal images acquired by a camera, and they will be classified by convolutional neural networks (CNNs) as normal or suspicious. The proposed method gives an accuracy rate of 98.95% for the thermal image dataset.
    Keywords: breast cancer; breast thermal image; convolutional neural network; CNN; image analysis; thermography.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2024.10063877
  • COPD: assessment of COPD prediction through machine learning techniques   Order a copy of this article
    by Mrinal Goswami, Arpita Nath Boruah 
    Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive and debilitating respiratory condition characterised by persistent airflow limitation, typically associated with chronic bronchitis and emphysema. COPD represents a significant global health burden, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. In recent years, there has been growing interest in applying machine learning techniques to various aspects of COPD management, including diagnosis, treatment optimisation, etc. This work investigates the performance of different machine learning classifiers used in COPD prediction, especially in single and ensemble classification. A detailed performance comparison among all the classifiers is also done, considering accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score.
    Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; COPD; machine learning; ML; classification; ensemble learning; confusion matrix.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2024.10064464
  • Monitoring liver fibrosis in chronic liver disease patients using parametric electrical impedance tomography   Order a copy of this article
    by Shimon Hury, Shimon Abboud, Oranit Cohen Ezra, Maria Lichter, Davidov Yana, Ziv Ben Ari 
    Abstract: Liver fibrosis stage is the major factor that impacts liver morbidity and mortality. Previous studies suggest that liver dielectric properties, namely its bioimpedance, can be helpful in fibrosis stage classification. In this study, the feasibility of liver fibrosis classification using parametric electrical impedance tomography (pEIT) coupled with demographic & geometric clinical data is investigated. Data from chronic liver patients was collected and used to fit a machine learning model on the task of screening healthy subjects. An accuracy score of 85% was achieved. The exclusion of pEIT measurements, resulted in drop in accuracy to 72% (p-value < 0.005), sensitivity (85% vs. 70%), specificity (84% vs. 74%) and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) (0.86 vs. 0.83).
    Keywords: electrical impedance tomography; liver fibrosis; machine learning; logistic regression.

  • Clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy technology   Order a copy of this article
    by G.S. Uthayakumar, J. Jeneetha Jebanazer, A. Prabha, T.J. Nagalakshmi 
    Abstract: Magnetic resonance imaging has been refined as a non-invasive technique due to the superior contrasts it presents in soft tissues. Recent advances in instrumentation have allowed for measurements at ultra-high field strengths, leading to improved signal-to-noise ratios and increased resolution. This study discusses the magnet and gradient subsystems of MRI systems, as well as a number of complications that can occur from using a magnet. Furthermore, it illustrates the RF coils and transceiver’s finer characteristics and numerous constraints. It also showed the idea behind the data processing technology and the difficulties that come with it. In conclusion, the many artefacts inherent to MRI were elucidated. It also gives a quick rundown of the various problems that MRI have to deal with.
    Keywords: MRI image; spectroscopy; clinical application; medical image processing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2024.10064609
  • Proposed novel approach for detecting Alzheimer’s disease in early stages   Order a copy of this article
    by Nadish Ayub, Syed Zubair Ahmad Shah, Rayees Ahmad Dar, Assif Assad, Abdullah Shah 
    Abstract: Alzheimers disease (AD), an incurable brain condition leading to memory loss, requires early detection for effective management. Utilising deep learning (DL) and computer vision (CV) in medical image analysis (MIA) shows promise, but acquiring annotated medical data is costly. Analysing 3D magnetic resonance images (MRIs) demands resource-intensive 3D convolutional neural networks (CNNs). This study introduces a 2D MRI slice-based transfer learning framework, employing a majority voting mechanism during testing. Experimentation reveals the optimal balance between data volume and accuracy is achieved with approximately 10 middle slices. The proposed approach attains a notable 93.91% accuracy, surpassing the state-of-the-art by 12.61% in distinguishing AD from cognitively normal (CN) cases.
    Keywords: deep learning; machine learning; Alzheimer’s disease; 3D MRI; transfer learning; 2D slices; convolutional neural networks; CNNs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2024.10064680
  • Blood disease prediction system based on haemogram report using XGBoost algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Deepali K. Gaikwad, Ashok T. Gaikwad 
    Abstract: Healthcare systems gather extensive medical data from diverse tests spanning various fields. Unearthing concealed insights within this data remains critical for early disease detection or preventive measures. Classifiers utilise comprehensive blood count characteristics to forecast potential blood disorders in their initial phases, potentially amplifying the likelihood of effective treatment. Machine learning assumes a pivotal role in crafting predictive models based on historical data. This predictive procedure holds potential in curbing fatalities and enriching the lives of individuals managing these conditions. As an illustration, in this investigation, an XGBoost classifier was deployed on a blood test report dataset, successfully identifying a range of blood-related ailments like anemia, leukemia, lymphoma, sickle-cell anemia, and others.
    Keywords: machine learning algorithms; supervised learning; unsupervised learning; blood disease; XGBoost algorithm.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2024.10064883
  • Simulation of heart beat interval series - a neurophysiology based model in comparison with a nonlinear network oscillator model   Order a copy of this article
    by Sajitha Somasundaran Nair, Mini Maniyelil Govindankutty, Minimol Balakrishnan, Remya George 
    Abstract: Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a non-invasive method of autonomic nervous system (ANS) function assessment. In the present study a quantitative physiological model of the ANS is compared with a nonlinear network oscillator model in terms of power spectrum and poincare plots across three autonomic states. The physiological model more accurately reproduces HRV features compared to the nonlinear oscillator model. Rooted in actual physiology, the physiologic model allows extensive parameter tuning for various autonomic states, offering multiple modulable parameters. In contrast, the nonlinear oscillator model lacks physiological roots and permits only limited adjustments through coupling coefficients.
    Keywords: autonomic nervous system; ANS; heart rate variability; HRV; quantitative physiological model; neurotransmitter kinetics; nonlinear oscillator model; poincare plot; power spectrum.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2024.10064942
  • Data analysis, early diagnosis and management of COVID-19   Order a copy of this article
    by Rani Samyuktha Devabhaktuni, Simisola Olawoye, Dinesh P. Mital, Shankar Srinivasan 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the deadliest infectious diseases in recent history. Our research goals are to study the mode of spread of COVID-19 on various counties in New York and New Jersey, its effect on various, races, gender, age groups and to develop a clinical decision support system (CDSS) for early detection of COVID-19. The Bronx borough in New York state, the Bergen and Essex counties in the neighbouring New Jersey state, and men and people over 65 had higher hospital admissions, and fatalities, according to our research, where we used SAS and SPSS for data analysis.
    Keywords: clinical decision support system; CDSS; Corvid; COVID-19; SARSCoV-2; RT-PCR; systemic disease; fatality rate.

  • Brain image compression and reconstruction system using deep learning   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Seenuvasamurthi, S. Ashok, B. Shankarlal, A. Mohamed Abbas, Ashok Vajravelu 
    Abstract: New perspectives on brain structure and function can only be gained through the rapid advancement of brain imaging technology. Throughout history, this has been the case. It is common practise in medicine to employ image processing in the early stages of diagnosis and treatment. In classification and segmentation tasks, deep neural networks (DNNs) have so far proven to be exceptional. Functional ultrasound (fUS) is a novel imaging technique that enables the observation of neuronal activity across the brain in awake, ambulatory rats. To achieve adequate blood flow sensitivity in the brain microvasculature, fUS relies on lengthy ultrasonic data collecting at high frame rates, placing a load on the sampling and processing hardware. Parallel MRI is introduced in broad terms, with an emphasis on the classical understanding of image space and k-space-based techniques.
    Keywords: accelerated MRI; parallel imaging; iterative image reconstruction; numerical optimisation; machine learning; deep learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10048343
  • Chest X-ray image analysis for pneumonitis disease classification   Order a copy of this article
    by Ruchika Arora, Indu Saini, Neetu Sood 
    Abstract: Computer-aided health system increase doctors diagnosing capability and drastically reduces patients' death. This paper introduces an algorithm with combinational approach of convolution neural network (CNN) and gated recurrent unit (GRU) for pneumonia detection on low-cost chest X-ray (CXR) images. This model practices potential of multiple GRUs with CNN and fuses spatial and label information of CXR images for pixel-level classification. The proposed CNN+GRU model is experimented on pneumonia CXR image dataset available at Kaggle, which consists of 5,216 train and 624 test images respectively. The proposed model achieves 99.74% and 98.37% accuracy on training and testing dataset respectively.
    Keywords: artificial intelligence; disease detection; image classification; convolution neural network; chest images; gated recurrent units; GRU; pneumonia disease; Kaggle; lung diseases; medical image diagnosis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10047778
  • Detection and classification of arrhythmia disorders using machine learning algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by P. Ramani, S. Sugumaran, Manoharan Nivethitha Devi, T.J. Nagalakshmi, G. Annapoorani 
    Abstract: A recent study by the United Nations Agency (World Health Organization) reported that 17.9 million people died due to cardiovascular disease, and it is increasing exponentially. Furthermore, it was also reported that it was highly difficult to recognise the sickness and dictate the relevant care in a timely manner. For analysis, a user data file for cardiopathy prediction that contains parameters such as gender, age, kind of pain, force per unit area, hyperglycaemia, and so on has been considered. The approach entails determining the correlations between the numerous properties of the data file using regular processing techniques and then treating the attributes appropriately to forecast the likelihood of cardiopathy. This article endeavours at probing methodised data-mining techniques such as NB classifier, random forest classification, decision tree in addition to support vector machine. These machine learning approaches require less time to anticipate sickness with a high degree of accuracy. The proposed algorithm provides 91.2% recognition rate than SVM and decision tree classifier.
    Keywords: support vector machine; SVM; NB classifier; random forest; RF; arrhythmia disorders; decision tree.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10049587
  • A review on automated detection and classification of diseases in retinal images   Order a copy of this article
    by M.C. Padma, Esra'a Mahmoud Jamil Al Sariera, Thamer Mitib Ahmad Al Sariera 
    Abstract: Hypertensive retinopathy (HR) and glaucoma are the most diseases that cause blindness. Early detection of these diseases is very important for ophthalmologists in clinical diagnostic and successful treatment. The identification and diagnosis of glaucoma and HR require segmentation of the normal objects inside retina such as blood vessels and optic disc (OD). This article describes publicly available retinal datasets and an overview of the state-of-the-art for segmenting normal objects in the retina such as blood vessels and the OD, as well as ways for detecting pathologies that affect normal objects in the retina such as glaucoma and HR. The purpose of this study is to develop a professional structure that will familiarise the researcher with the most up-to-date blood vessels and OD segmentation techniques and the classification of HR and glaucoma diseases. Furthermore, we compared the dataset, evaluation metrics, pre-and post-processing steps, segmentation and classification methods and induced results of these approaches.
    Keywords: hypertensive retinopathy; HR; glaucoma; blood vessels; optic disc; OD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10048781
  • Classification of brain MRI using hypercolumn technique with convolutional neural network   Order a copy of this article
    by K. Kavin Kumar 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to classify brain tumours. When abnormal cells grow within the brain, a brain tumour develops. Cancerous (malignant) tumours and benign (non-cancerous) tumours are the two basic forms of tumours. In this regards an algorithm is developed to classify the tumour and non-tumour. The main focus is given to the hypercolumn implementation along with VGG-16 and ALEX-NET. The datasets were taken from the Kaggle and real brain data from Johnson's MRI and it consists of tumour and non-tumour. The obtained result identifies whether the person is having a tumour or not. The developed algorithm is having an accuracy of 94.5% for VGG-16 with hypercolumn and 91.2% for ALEXNET with hypercolumn.
    Keywords: tumour; non-tumour; hypercolumn; ALEXNET; VGG16; MRI; malignant; benign.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10049911
  • Feature analysis for fundus image classification of multi-retinal diseases   Order a copy of this article
    by Widhia K.Z. Oktoeberza 
    Abstract: Retinal diseases affect the vital eye tissue, which can reduce eye vision and even cause blindness if left undiagnosed and untreated. Some retinal diseases can be prevented and even treated properly to return the lost vision by conducting early detection. A scheme to classify multi-retinal diseases is proposed in this study; specifically diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), and media haze (MH). The process is starting by extracting some features consisting of statistical and texture features, which are undergone in 500 fundus images taken from the RFMiD dataset. Thereupon, these features were classified based on the MLP classifier. Based on that classification process, the accuracy rate of DR, ARMD, and MH classifications achieved 84.2%, 93.2%, and 89.4%, respectively. These achievements show that the proposed scheme effectively classifies multi-retinal diseases and has the potential to assist ophthalmologists in early detecting the appearance of retinal diseases for preventing the worst effect.
    Keywords: retinal diseases; feature analysis; image classification; fundus images.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10049694
  • Analysis, design and implementation of electronic navigation device for visually impaired persons   Order a copy of this article
    by Abiodun O. Ogunsanya, Omini E. Okoi 
    Abstract: In this paper, we describe an electronic navigation system, a wearable device intended for obstacle detection and navigation purposes for visually impaired persons. Three ultrasonic sensors, a passive infrared sensor, a programmed microcontroller, GPS module, memory card, audio stimuli feedback, and vibro-tactile feedback comprise the inexpensive, commodity hardware, were connected in a closed circuit. They were used to detect barriers at a distance of up to 1 m. The passive infrared sensor was utilised to detect both animate and inanimate impediments. Initial results of the experiment demonstrate that using the wearable navigation system, the percentage collision rate was reduced, that is 90.1% reduction, 50% reduction in response time, and 98% of variance in distance detection using regression analysis compared to conventional guide care. The device shows dependable response to obstacle detection with minimal error. This demonstrates that wearable navigation device is safe and has the potential to improve quality of life of visually impaired persons.
    Keywords: visually impaired; obstacle detection; wearable navigation device; convectional guide care; microcontroller.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10049168
  • A CNN and spatial tract-based statistics-based approach for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease   Order a copy of this article
    by Latifa Houria, Noureddine Belkhamsa, Assia Cherfa, Yazid Cherfa 
    Abstract: The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is growing dramatically each year, making it critical to find efficient strategies to detect the disease early on and prevent its progression. In this work, we present an approach combining tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and convolutional neural network (CNN) to classify the AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from a cognitively normal (CN) subject using the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The TBSS was applied to generate the WM skeleton from the two DTI maps fractional anisotropy (FA) and mode of anisotropy (MO). The CNN is trained first on FA-Skeleton and MO-Skeleton and then fine-tuning on FA and MO relevant slices. This combinatory procedure achieved a higher result and represented a powerful diagnostic tool.
    Keywords: diffusion tensor imaging; DTI; Alzheimer's disease; convolutional neural network; CNN; tract-based spatial statistics; TBSS; fractional anisotropy; mode of anisotropy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2022.10049862