International Journal of Materials Engineering Innovation (17 papers in press)
Optimization of Gaseous Nitriding Process Parameters for Hard Surface Layer of Duplex Stainless Steel
by Md Abdul Maleque, Lailatul Harina, Norinsan Kamil Othman, M.M. Rahman
Abstract: The optimization for gaseous nitriding process parameters of duplex stainless steel was performed using Taguchi approach. The nitiridng process parameters of temperature, time and gas mixture ratio of NH3 and N2 are considered as input parameters. Three responses are chosen which are surface hardness, wear weight loss and coefficient of friction. The optimum process parameters for surface hardness and coefficient of friction are similar with 550
Keywords: Optimization; duplex stainless steel; Taguchi method; hard surface layer; nitriding.
Experimental investigation on the effect of multilayer TiCN/TiAlN/WC-C coating on the tribological behaviour of tool inserts for machining applications
by Moganapriya Chinnasamy, Rajasekar Rathanasamy, Ponappa Kannayiram, Sathish Kumar Palaniappan, Samir Kumar Pal, Mahalakshmi Somasundaram, Gobinath Velu Kaliyannan
Abstract: Coating on cutting tool insert is one of the important approaches in improving the friction and wear resistance properties for machining applications. The study investigates the effect of sliding speed and applied normal load on the wear and frictional behavior of pure and coated (single layer Titanium Carbo Nitride (TiCN), bilayer Titanium Aluminium Nitride/Tungsten Carbide/Carbide (TiAlN/WC-C), multilayer (TiCN/TiAlN/WC-C)) tool inserts. Dry sliding wear and friction tests were performed using pin-on-disc tribometer. All the deposited coatings were subjected to three different sliding speeds (1.0 m/s, 1.5 m/s and 2.5 m/s) and three different loads (5 N, 10 N and 15 N) against silicon carbide sliding counterpart for the running time duration of 1200 s. Hardness and surface roughness of the inserts were investigated through Vickers micro hardness tester and surface roughness tester respectively. Higher hardness (25.83 GPa) and lower surface roughness (0.219
Keywords: Multilayer coating; PVD; Friction; Wear.
An Experimental Study of Tribological Behaviors of Aluminium- and Copper-Based Metal Matrix Composites for Bearing Applications
by Vipin Kumar Sharma, Ramesh Chandra Singh, Rajiv Chaudhary
Abstract: To improve the tribological properties for journal bearing materials, composites have been developed in this work. Copper-Aluminium (Cu-Al), Copper-Phosphorous (Cu-P), Aluminium-Flyash (Al-F), and Copper- Lead (Cu-Pb) composites were produced with stir casting method. Pin on disc experiments were performed in a starved lubrication condition for the evaluation of wear and coefficient of friction between the composite pins and mild steel disc. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were obtained for the worn composite samples to study the wear behavior. In this experimental study, Copper-Phosphorous exhibits better tribological properties as compared to the conventional Copper-Lead. However, The Aluminium-Flyash composite resulted in the lowest coefficient of friction and highest wear among all considered composite materials.
Keywords: metal matrix composites; starved lubrication; aluminium; copper; wear; friction; pin on disc.
Application of Interpretive Structural Modelling for analysis of factors influencing Composite fabrication using Additive Manufacturing
by Shwetha S Kumar, S. Vinodh
Abstract: Additive Manufacturing (AM) applications are being increasingly witnessed in composite fabrication. This study is essential to determine the factors which influence AM processes so that they can be optimized. In this context, this article presents a study in which 19 factors influencing AM for composite fabrication is realized. A structural model is developed based on Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) approach and the dominant factors are being identified. MICMAC analysis is being done to categorize the factors. Results showed that 5 out of the 19 factors are dependent factors while 10 are independent factors.
Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Composite fabrication; Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM); MICMAC analysis; Factors.
Wear and Corrosion behavior of titanium carbide reinforced metal matrix composites for automobile brake disc application
by Sivananth Varatharajan, Karuppusamy P, Lingadurai K
Abstract: The wear and corrosion behaviour of Aluminum Silicon (Al-Si ) alloy with titanium carbide(TiC) as reinforcement were investigated in this article. Initially automobile brake discs were fabricated by stir casting method with 10 wt.% TiC in Al-Si alloy. A small part cut from the automobile brake shoe used as a pin to slide against MMC and Cast iron in dry condition. The load and velocity varied accordingly to simulate the vehicle running condition. It was found from the results that the wear resistance and coefficient of friction for TiC reinforced MMC is better than the grey cast iron material. SEM analysis shows that wear debris form a built-up transfer layers at higher loads in MMC. An artificial neural network (ANN) model using back propagation network was developed in this study to predict the wear. The observed results showed that the experimental values of wear agrees very closely with ANN results. Frictional heating parameter is also calculated to determine how effectively the load and sliding speed converted into heat during the wear test. The corrosion tests were carried out in 3.5 wt.% NaCl environment to study the effect of TiC addition (3, 7 and 10 wt.% ) on Al-Si matrix. Potentiodynamic polarisation measurements exhibits that the corrosion resistance decreased with increasing TiC weight percentage. SEM analysis showed more nos. of corrosion spots in samples with 10 wt. % of TiC revealed that the presence of reinforcement in matrix affect the corrosion rate
Keywords: wear; corrosion; TiC; brake disc.
Analysis of Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of AA-7068/TiC MMCs
by POPPATHI NARESH, Syed Altaf Hussain, B. Durga Prasad
Abstract: Metal matrix composites are finding its increased applications in various engineering fields such as aerospace, automobiles, and other industries due to its low density and excellent wear resistant. This paper presents the influence of sliding velocity, applied load, rotational speed on wear behavior of AA-7068 alloy is used as a matrix material and reinforced with Titanium Carbide (TiC). The Metal matrix Composites (MMCs) was developed by stir casting technique, with various weight fraction of reinforcement varied from 0 to 10 wt.% in steps of 2wt.% and the test specimens were prepared as per ASTM G95-99 standards. The wear behavior was investigated by performing dry sliding test on pin-on-disc tester. Experiments are planned and conducted as per central composite design (CCD). The data collected was statistically analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and a quadratic model has been developed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in terms of process parameters. The results indicated that the developed model is suitable for the prediction of wear. The micro structural analysis was carried out using SEM, EDX and XRD analysis confirmed the presence of Al and TiC with the composite, which revealed fairly uniform distribution of reinforcement in a matrix. The experimental results reveal that the rotational speed has the highest influence followed by applied load on wear. MMC with 6 wt. % of TiC composite has low wear than that of other composite systems considered in this investigation.
Keywords: Stir casting route; Wear; RSM; SEM; EDS; X-RD;.
Effect of parameters depth of cut and feed rate on the resistance to pitting corrosion of AISI 1018 steel
by Carlos Díaz-Campoverde
Abstract: Corrosion is a process that affects all materials, especially steels that are exposed to corrosive environments. The objective of this study is to establish the relationship between the surface quality conditions of AISI 1018 steel from various combinations of cutting parameters and pitting corrosion. Twelve steel samples were turned by applying different cutting parameters. After that, the specimens were characterized by roughness, microhardness as well as their microstructure. Subsequently, the surfaces of the samples were immersed in a 6% ferric chloride solution for three days at 22
Keywords: Plastic deformation; AISI 1018; surface integrity; accelerated corrosion; depth penetration.
INVESTIGATION ON THE EFFECT OF ALUMINIUM FOAM MADE OF A413 ALUMINIUM ALLOY THROUGH STIR CASTING AND INFILTRATION TECHNIQUES
by Karuppasamy Ramasamy, Milon Selvam Dennison
Abstract: The objective of this research work is to manufacture lightweight aluminium cellular structure through stir casting and infiltration technique from base metal alloy aluminium A413. In stir casting technique, along with the molten base metal alloy foaming agent calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is mixed with different compositions, thorough mixing yielded metal foam and in case of infiltration technique the base metal alloy is mixed with different compositions of sodium chloride (NaCl) particles which act as a space holder in the fabrication of the metal foam. Properties such as density, the percentage of porosity, compressive strength and microstructure are analyzed for the metal foam produced with both the techniques. The study revealed that the addition of the NaCl as a space holder increases the percentage of porosity and decreases the density of the foam in comparison with CaCO3.
Keywords: Aluminium foam; Stir casting; Foaming agent; Infiltration; Microstructure.
Effect of hot extrusion on the characteristics of an Mg-3.0Zn-0.7Zr-1.0Cu alloy produced by powder metallurgy
by Suneesh Eacherath, M. Sivapragash
Abstract: The present study investigates the effect of hot extrusion on the physical, mechanical, and metallurgical characteristics of an as-extruded Mg-3.0Zn-0.7Zr-1.0Cu alloy. The Mg-3.0Zn-0.7Zr-1.0Cu samples were prepared through a powder metallurgy process which was followed by hot extrusion at 500
Keywords: Magnesium alloy; powder processing; hot extrusion; mechanical properties; dynamic recrystallization; grain refinement.
Effect of maize cob ash as supplementary cementitious material on the mechanical properties of concrete
by Orlando R. Bagcal, Melito A. Baccay
Abstract: In this study, the effect of maize cob ash (MCA) as a supplementary cementitious material on the mechanical properties of concrete was evaluated. Maize cob ash as a pozzolanic material was partially used to replace cement ranging from 0% to 20% by weight in increment of 5% with varying water-cementitious ratios of 0.44 and 0.56. The results of this study indicated that the strength of concrete decreased as the amount of maize cob ash in the concrete mix increased. Generally, it can be concluded that maize cob ash can be utilised as partial replacement for cement in concrete at a suitable amount and can be used for building walls and other minor construction works. It was also established in the study that the optimum amount of 6.43% maize cob ash cement replacement could be used for structural members with compressive strength of 25 MPa.
Keywords: cement; cementitious materials; compressive strength; maize cob ash; MCA; mechanical properties; tensile strength; concrete.
Effect of deep cryogenic treatment on the mechanical properties of AISI D3 tool steel
by Satish Kumar, Mohan Nagaraj, Arunkumar Bongale, Nitin K. Khedkar
Abstract: The research paper presents a study on deep cryogenic treatment and its effects on mechanical properties of AISI D3 grade high carbon steels. Commercially available AISI D3 steel was subjected to deep cryogenic treatment for soaking durations of 12 hours, 24 hours and 36 hours using a cryogenic refrigerator at −196°C and then followed by tempering for 2 hours at a constant temperature of 150°C. Thus prepared samples were tested as per ASTM standards to evaluate their mechanical properties such as microhardness, impact and tensile properties. Further, to understand the effect of deep cryogenic treatment, the fractured surfaces were subjected to scanning electron microscopic examinations. X-ray diffraction analysis and energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis were also conducted to investigate the changes in structure of the material after deep cryogenic treatment. Results indicate that 12 hours soaking time during cryogenic treatment will give optimum mechanical properties compared to 24 and 36 hours. Also, reduction in mechanical properties by 4-6% was observed for 24 and 36 hours cryogenic treated samples compared to 12 hours treated samples.
Keywords: deep cryogenic treatment; D3 tool steel; microhardness; tensile test; impact strength fracture surface.
Modelling and simulation of natural fibre/epoxy composites - prediction of stress state and deformations
by R.T. Durai Prabhakaran, Mohit Gupta, Puneet Mahajan, Graham A. Ormondroyd
Abstract: Natural fibres usually include hemp, jute, and flax fibres are gaining importance in composites with an increasing potential to replace synthetic fibres in advanced composites. Current glass and carbon fibre systems require large amount of energy in production, which has led to an upsurge in interest in the reinforcement potential of natural fibres. Especially with natural fibres, higher variability of mechanical properties is a major challenge. Therefore, prediction of laminate performance at early stages of design requires computation. The present work was intended to understand how the flax fibre layups and orientation affect the mechanical behaviour of laminated composites. Unidirectional, cross-ply, angle-ply, and quasi-isotropic laminates made up of flax fibre reinforced epoxy are considered to study tensile, flexural behaviour, and stress distribution in the individual laminae. A classical laminate theory, which considers elastic behaviour of the laminae, and a finite element simulation are used to predict the stress-strain response of a layered composite. Further, results showed that the quasi-isotropic flax/epoxy laminate perform better than angle-ply and cross ply laminates.
Keywords: natural fibre; epoxy; flexural loads; cross/angle-ply; plate theory; FE analysis.
3D printed functional prototypes for electrochemical energy storage
by Kamaljit Singh Boparai, Rupinder Singh
Abstract: This study outlines the three dimensional (3D) printing of functional prototypes as electrochemical energy storage devices (EESD). The EESD has been prepared with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)-graphene (Gr) blended feedstock filament on commercial fused deposition modelling (FDM) setup. The rheological suitability of ABS-graphene composite material for FDM applications has been examined by melt flow index (MFI) test. Finally the feedstock filament for FDM has been prepared on twin screw extrusion. The in-house prepared feedstock filament can be used for the 3D printing of EESD. The effect on glass transition temperature with the inclusion of Gr particles has been examined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra visualised the structural changes in Gr/ABS matrix. Further, the study has been supported with scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-based photomicrographs.
Keywords: fused deposition modelling; FDM; electrochemical energy storage devices; EESD; FT-IR spectra; differential scanning calorimeter; DSC.
Special Issue on: Advances in Materials Forming
Effect of hot extrusion on mechanical behaviour of boron nitride reinforced aluminium 6061-based metal matrix composites
by Y.B. Mukesh, T.P. Bharathesh, R. Saravanan, R. Keshavamurthy
Abstract: In this present investigation Al 6061-based BN reinforced metal matrix composites were developed with 6 and 9 wt% of boron nitride. The Al 6061 was chosen as base material owing to its superior formability, light weight and moderate strength. Boron nitride was used as reinforcement keeping in mind its excellent wear and corrosion resistance along with superior strength and thermal properties. The stir casting method was adopted for development of composites since it is most flexible and universally accepted method for preparing castings economically. The developed composites were subjected to extrusion process. Mechanical properties were tested both before and after the extrusion to study the impact of extrusion process on properties of composites. It was observed that hardness and tensile strength of both casted and extruded samples were improved by the addition of the BN reinforcement. Whereas ductility of samples reduced with the increase of boron nitride concentration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to identify the distribution of boron nitride (BN) and to study the fractured surfaces of Al 6061-BN metal matrix composites.
Keywords: Al 6061; boron nitride; composites; extrusion.
Special Issue on: Innovations in Manufacturing for the Engineering of Modern Materials
Optimization of Drilling Parameters for Minimum Circularity Error in FRP Composite
by Dinesh Shinde
Abstract: In composite materials, the damage is characterized by the delamination and circularity error of drilled holes. The amount of delamination and circularity error depends on different ma-chining parameters such as spindle speed, feed Rate, and plate thickness. The present paper attempts to investigate an optimal combination of process parameters for drilling of compo-site laminates. The work is carried out on industrial grade FRP composite laminates with varying process parameters. The experiments are designed using a Box-Behnken design,' grounded in the response surface methodology. Circularity error is considered as the output response as it is prominent in the drilling of composite laminates. ANOVA test is carried out to find the significance of the input parameters and test the empirical model. The effect of input parameters on the amount of circularity error is also investigated. Genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to predict the optimal settings of input machining parameters.
Keywords: Box-Behnken design (BBD); FRP Composite; Response surface methodology (RSM); GA; PSO.
A Comprehensive Modelling, Analysis and Optimization of Adhesive Bonded Single Lap Glass Fiber Reinforced Composite Joints
by Hanumantharaya Rangaswamy, Irappa Sogalad, BASAVARAJAPPA S., Manjunath Patel G C
Abstract: This paper presents a detailed study on failure load and shear strength of adhesive bonded single lap glass fiber reinforced composite joints. The Composite laminates were prepared by conventional hand-layup method, and thus prepared joints were tested against tensile load according to ASTM D5868 standard. Taguchi L27 orthogonal array with four factors (adhesive thickness, overlap length, surface roughness, and adherend thickness) operating at three levels was used for conducting experiments and collected the failure load and shear strength data. The results reveal that all the factors are influencing, but adhesive thickness being the most dominant and surface roughness has less dominant on failure load and shear strength of adhesive bonded single lap glass fiber reinforced composite joints. Response surface plots shows that surface roughness being less dominant, wherein its interaction with overlap length is found to be significant for failure load. The adherend thickness and overlap length interactions also helps to produce stronger joints. Multi objective particle swarm optimization based on crowding distance (MOPSO-CD) was used to optimize the bi-objective functions (failure load and shear strength) simultaneously under the input variable constraints. The fitness value obtained for multi objective functions were found to be close to unity (i.e., 0.944). The confirmation tests were conducted for optimized conditions to know the appropriateness of the MOPSO-CD tool. It has been found that at the optimized conditions the improvement is 52.94% and 61.12% respectively for failure load and shear strength.
Keywords: Bonded joints; Glass fiber; Epoxy resin; MOPSO-CD algorithm.
Morphological Evaluation of Ultra low-density Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) Microcellular Plastic Developed through Cyclic Foaming Technique
by Abhishek Gandhi
Abstract: In this article, the cyclic microcellular foaming technique has been employed to develop low-density Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) Microcellular foamed composite material. Influence of saturation pressures both at the first as well as at second saturation stage were evaluated for its effect on the morphological attributes as well as on the foam density in the eventual microcellular foamed composites. Further, the cell collapse phenomenon which can be predominant in many conditions were analysed in depth by utilizing scanning electron micrographs. With the increase in the saturation pressures at stage 1 of sorption, it was found to reduce the foam density considerably, however, in the second stage, the sorption property got significantly reduced and the overall expansion ratio was also reported to reduce. The average cell size is approximately 150
Keywords: Microcellular; Foam; PMMA; Cyclic; cellular polymers.