International Journal of Materials Engineering Innovation (22 papers in press)
Performance of SnO2/Al working electrode as an electrochemical biosensor for potassium(K+) ions
by Usharani Panda
Abstract: The erratic variation of potassium ion (K+) in the human body results in many life-threatening diseases relating to the kidney and heart. Hence, regular monitoring of the same is extremely essential for leading a healthy life. This encouraged us to fabricate an electrochemical biosensor using SnO2/Al as a working electrode to monitor K+ ions. The SnO2/Al working electrode was prepared from tin oxide (SnO2) coated on aluminum (Al) wire with the help of an indigenously designed chemically wet and dry (CWD) technique, followed by in-situ annealing at 400
Keywords: Tin dioxide (SnO2); XRD; FESEM; I-V study; Real-time response; Sensitivity.
Effect of the Process Parameters on the Mechanical Properties of the Weld Joint in the Friction Stir Welding Process
by Sanjay Jha, Ravi Anand, PRASHANT PRAKASH
Abstract: This article predicts the effect of the input process parameters on the mechanical properties of the weld joint of the aluminum alloy in the friction stir welding process using statistical techniques that are ANOVA, regression and surface response methodology. In the statistical analysis, input factors are tool pin profile, welding speed and tool rotation speed and responses are mechanical properties such as tensile strength, percentage elongation and grain size. Experiments are carried out on the basis of taguchi method of design of experiments and the adequacy of the design of experiments is evaluated by ANOVA analysis. Responses surfaces of the mechanical properties with respect to the input parameters are developed using regression analysis. Statistical analysis shows that the quadratic model of regression analysis successfully represents the surface responses with all experiments conditions. Mechanical properties of the weld joint almost constant with welding speed at particular tool rotation speed and tool pin geometry. The effect of the tool rotation speed is nonlinear on the mechanical properties. At the moderate tool rotation speed (900 to 1120 rpm), tensile and percentage elongation are maximum, whereas grains size and hardness are minimum with all tool pin profiles and welding speed. The surface response curvatures are similar with all tool pin profiles. However, the numerical range of the surface response curvature depends on the tool pin profile. Steeped tool pin profile produces maximum tensile and percentage elongation whereas minimum hardness and grain size value among the all tool pin profile produced surface responses. Stepped tool pin profile produces superior mechanical properties of the weld joint with respect to other tool pin profiles.
Keywords: Tool pin profile; Welding speed; Tool rotation speed; Response surface method; Mechanical Properties; Friction stir welding.
Analysis of high-speed CNC milling of Ti-6Al-4V by multi-objective crow optimization and multi-objective PSO
by Shubham Jain, Vishal Parashar
Abstract: Ti-6Al-4V is widely used as a functionally advanced material in different fields. Poor mechanization and absence of machining innovation are major issues in the application of Ti-6Al-4V. In this research, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression analysis have been used to make input-output relationships. The optimization method was applied to obtain the maximum Material Removal Rate (MRR) and minimum Surface Roughness (SR). These responses were optimized simultaneously and formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem. In multi-objective optimization, the weights of both responses were taken by the grey correlation analysis (GRA) method. This multi-objective optimization problem has been solved using two metaheuristic algorithms, namely, the Crow optimization algorithm, and the Particle swarm optimization (PSO). The optimization results show great concurrence with the response surface methodology results. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was also used to visualize the effect of process parameters on the surface topography.
Keywords: High-Speed CNC Milling; Ti-6Al-4V; Crow Optimization Algorithm; Particle Swarm Optimization; Atomic Force Microscopy.
Wear Resistance Performance of Sheet Metal Die Materials: A Review
by Sachin Salunkhe, Jayavelu Sundaram, Pavan Chandankar, C. Rajkumar
Abstract: The high and ultra-high strength steel materials are widely used in sheet metal forming processes such as stamping, bending, piercing, etc. in the automotive industry. Because of a strong adhesive propensity between the tool and the surface, the wear of the tool is created. The wear of the tool affects the dimensional property of the products, problems of surface quality and consequently interruptions of production. The wear behaviour and wear mechanisms of sheet metal dies were studied in this paper. This paper focuses on recent developments in tribological tool wear and provides adequate data on tool wear features.
Keywords: wear; sheet metal dies; wear mechanism; tribological.
Influence of high temperature sodium exposure on microstructure and material properties of AISI 440C Stainless Steel
by S. C. S. P. Kumar Krovvidi, Chitta Ranjan Das, Punnia Moorthy R, Chandramouli S, Mariappan K, Sreedhar B. K, Jose Varghese, Nashine B.K., Shaju K. Albert, Raghupathy S
Abstract: AISI 440C SS is one of the candidate materials for bearings in sodium-cooled fast reactor systems due to its good mechanical strength and chemical inertness compared to other bearing steels such as 100Cr6. To understand the influence of sodium exposure at the operating temperature on the properties of the steel, a systematic study of exposing this material in static sodium for 1 month and 8 months was carried out at 550
Keywords: AISI 440C SS; bearings for SFR systems; sodium exposure; tempered martensite; leaching of carbon.
Optimization of Wire EDM process parameters using Taguchi Technique for machining of Hybrid Composites
by S. Jebarose Juliyana, Uday Praksh, Sachin Salunkhe
Abstract: In the mechanical industry, properties of high toughness, rigidity, and impact resistance are in high demand. Over the last two decades, machine tools have grown rapidly, but they are still not widely employed to their full potential. The difficulty of achieving effective parameters has attracted the interest of investigators and engineers. In this investigation, stir cast aluminium matrix composites (AMC-LM5/6%ZrO2/2,3,4%Graphite) were utilised to find the optimal process parameters in WEDM. The importance of improving MRR in WEDM machining cannot be under estimated. To get the intended effects, the trials were conducted by means of the Taguchi approach L27 orthogonal array. ANOVA determines the outcome of machining parameters that influence the normal characteristics as well as the relative contribution of machining parameters. The S/N ratio analysis identifies the parameter that has the greatest influence. The experimental MRR is 9.30 mm3/min, while predicted MRR is 9.46 mm3/min.
Keywords: AMCs; Taguchi technique; WEDM; ANOVA; S/N ratio.
Effect of HVOF Coatings on Abrasive Wear Behavior of Martensitic Stainless Steel
by Sachin Tejyan, Sumit Rana, Amar Patnaik
Abstract: The purpose of this work is to study the effect of HVOF coatings on the hardness and abrasive wear behaviour of martensitic stainless steel. Three types of powders, i.e., WTiC-Ni, WC-Co-Cr, and Cr3C2Ni-Cr are used for thermal sprayed HVOF coatings. The abrasive wear behaviour of coated martensitic stainless steel is characterised by varying wheel speed (100, 150, 200, and 250 rpm), abrading distance (1,000, 2,000, 3,000 and 4,000 m), and load (10, 20, 30, and 40 N). Taguchi designs have also been implemented to examine the effect of control factors, i.e., type of coating, speed, and load. Experimental results reveal that the wear resistance of coated martensitic stainless steel improves with each type of coating. Experimental results also show that the abrasive wear resistance of the WC-Co-Cr powder-coated martensitic stainless steel surface is highest as compared to other coatings, i.e., Cr3C2Ni-Cr and WTiC-Ni.
Keywords: martensitic stainless steel; HVOF coatings; abrasive wear; microstructure.
Abrasive Wear Study of Marble Dust Reinforced Al7075 Alloy Surface Composites: Developed by Friction Stir Processing
by Sachin Tejyan, Nitin Kumar, Rahul Chandra Gariya, Aashish Kumar Singh
Abstract: In this work, a systematic study has been done on mechanical and abrasive wear behaviour of friction stir processed (FSP) Al7075 alloy marble dust reinforced surface composites. Selected friction stir parameters are varying tool feed rate (10, 20, 30 and 40 mm/min) fixed tool rotation speed (1,000 rpm), and zero-degree tilt angle using the conical shape tool. Mechanical properties, i.e., hardness, tensile, and impact strength of the fabricated surface composites are evaluated experimentally. Four control parameters with four levels of each, i.e., FSP tool feed rate (10, 20, 30 and 40 mm/min), counter (1,000, 1,500, 2,000 and 2,500), abrasive wheel speed (100, 150, 200 and 250 rpm), and load (10, 20, 30 and 40 N) are selected for dry sand abrasive wear tests. Results show the improvement in hardness, tensile strength, impact strength and wear resistance with the increase of FSP tool feed rate up to 30 mm/min.
Keywords: aluminium alloy; Al7075; marble dust; friction stir processing; abrasive wear; microstructure.
Chemical Treatments and Mechanical Characterization of Natural Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials - A Review
by V. Vinoth, S. Sathiyamurthy, N. Ananthi, ELAIYARASAN U
Abstract: At present scenario, fibre composites play a vital role in fabricating components or parts used in the area of automobile, Sports equipment, aerospace and biomedical, etc. Composites reinforced with natural fibres (sisal, hemp, jute, bamboo, coir, flax, etc.) enhanced the chemical and mechanical properties. Synthetic fibres instead of using natural fibres have a fascinating interest to researchers and scientists all over the world as an alternative reinforcement because of their admirable properties such as abundantly available, low cost, less density, high specific strength, and biodegradable characteristics. However, achieving good compatibility between reinforcement and matrix is challenging during the preparation of natural fibre composites. Hence, to overcome this issue, chemical treatments are considered as the potential method to improve the fibre properties and mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural, impact, hardness and water absorption. In this present study, an overview of the various chemical treatments and mechanical characterisation of the natural fibre for utilising in fibre-reinforced polymer composites are reviewed.
Keywords: natural fibre; chemical treatments; mechanical properties.
A study of processing and high-temperature sliding wear behaviour of Inconel-625 alloy TIG weld cladding
by Neeraj Kamboj, Lalit Thakur
Abstract: A clad layer of Inconel-625 alloy was successfully deposited on the surface of AISI-304 stainless steel substrate using the tungsten inert gas welding process. Claddings of similar composition were deposited under varying welding currents and scanning speeds, and their characterisation was performed using SEM, EDS, and XRD techniques. Pin-on-disc wear testing was performed at the ambient temperature and 650
Keywords: Inconel-625; sliding wear; hardness; high-temperature; pin-on-disc.
Electrical Discharge Machining of Nickel-based Superalloys: A comprehensive review
by Pankaj Sharma, Kamal Kishore, Manoj Sinha, Vishal Singh
Abstract: Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is commonly used to machine hard-to-cut materials without physical contact between the workpiece and the tool. It works on a dominant thermal mechanism in which the material is eroded by melting and vaporising through numerous high-energy sparks. This paper presents a thorough literature review about the research findings of ED machining for different grades of nickel-based superalloys. These studies correlate experimental results with theoretical analysis, aiming to improve the performance parameters such as material removal rate, electrode wear rate and surface quality. The work focuses on the various process parameters and their influences on multiple responses. This paper also elaborates on the modelling and simulation techniques used to improve the machining efficiency by optimising the process parameters. This review paper includes the recent developments such as hybrid EDM technology mixing nano-particles in dielectric fluids and also lays forth a scope for future research.
Keywords: electrical discharge machining; EDM; nickel-based superalloys; dielectric fluids; process parameters.
Wear Behaviour of Al 8011- nano ZrO2 Composites: A parametric Optimization using Taguchi-Grey relational approach
by Thippeswamy J. C, Sathisha N
Abstract: Aluminium metal matrix (AlMM) composites with nano particle reinforcement are majorly applied in aerospace, defence, marine, and space applications because of outstanding mechanical qualities. The preparation of Aluminium 8011(Al 8011)-nano ZrO2 metal matrix composite with a weight percentage (wt.%) varied between 2, 4 and 6% by stir casting. This study primarily focused on Taguchi-grey relation approach was used to analyse wear attributes. The presence of nano ZrO2 particles in the Al matrix was discovered using X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The experiments are conducted with respect to the Taguchi L27 orthogonal array using pin-on-disc wear testing equipment. The combined effect of three process factors on the rate of wear and frictional force in a dry environment was investigated using load (N), speed (rpm), and weight percent of nano ZrO2. Grey relation analysis (GRA) is used to find the significant affecting parameters. Using scanning electron microscope, wear behaviour is examined.
Keywords: Al 8011; nano ZrO2; grey relation analysis; GRA; analysis of variance; ANOVA; Taguchi method; scanning electron microscopy; SEM.
A Critical Review of Materials and Manufacturing Techniques for Small Wind Turbine Blades
by Suhaib Mohammed Shaikh, Raghuram L. Naik
Abstract: Small wind turbines are a prominent form of renewable energy technology for decentralised power generation. The mass scale dissemination of this technology requires an increase in efficiency and reduction in cost, which are majorly governed by the design of rotor blades. The selection of blade material plays a vital role in designing low cost, lightweight and high strength small wind turbine blades. This paper reviews specific loading conditions for small wind turbines and requirements for the selection of blade materials. Further, various material alternatives and manufacturing techniques along with their advantages and disadvantages are presented. The comparative analysis of potential materials and manufacturing techniques employed for developing composite small wind turbine blades is carried out based on specific criteria enabling researchers to identify suitable blade material and manufacturing technique for small wind turbine applications.
Keywords: small wind blade; material selection; fibre reinforcement; thermoplastics; hybrid composites; manufacturing.
Analysis optimization of machining aspects and wear characterization of Al6061 reinforced with SiC and Graphite
by Balasubramanya H. S, Nagesh B. V, Prasanna N. D, Yogesha Lakkegowda, Aradhya S. M
Abstract: Aluminium alloy confirming to Al6061 specifications was reinforced with 3%, 6%, and 9% SiC in powder form along with 1% graphite powder by weight basis. Stir casting route was employed to prepare the specimen. Micro structure examination and mechanical properties such as UTS, hardness measurements were carried out. Wear studies in the dry sliding condition were carried out using standard pin-on-disc apparatus confirming to ASTM G99 specifications. The structural examination revealed a uniform dispersion of the reinforcement. Tensile strength and hardness values increased with concentration of SiC. Wear resistance is improved with higher amounts of reinforcement. Decrease in the wear rate is observed with addition of graphite. Regression analysis was carried out for assessment of wear and the wear rate was obtained. The contribution of input parameters on the wear rate has been determined using ANOVA. Model and experimental data compare well with each other.
Keywords: Al6061; SiC; graphite; metal matrix composites; MMC; wear; hardness; tensile strength; universal testing machine.
Influence of Process Parameters on KERF Properties of GFRP with Abrasive Water Jet Machining
by Anil Kumar Dahiya, B.K. Bhuyan, Puneet Kumar, Sachin Salunkhe, Shailendra Kumar
Abstract: Abrasive water jet machine (AWJM) is used in industries to remove and shape the composite materials and other hard-to-cut engineering materials. In this study, experimental investigation on glass fibre reinforced polymers (GFRP) using AWJ machine for cutting performance is discussed. There are various factors which influence the quality of the surface in AWJM. Water pressure, traverse speed, standoff distance, and abrasive mass flow rate are only several of the variables evaluated in this paper. Minitab 18s Taguchi technique is utilised to design the experiment, and ANOVA is performed to determine the significance and impact of process factors on responses.
Keywords: abrasive water jet machine; AWJM; kerf taper; surface roughness; ANOVA; glass fibre reinforced polymers; GFRP.
Study of Substitution of Carburized16MnCr5 used in Sub-Axis of Machine Tool Spindle by Carbonitrided Steel
by Mir Nariman Yoozbashi
Abstract: The focus of the current study is using carbonitrided 16MnCr5 instead carburised steel in the sub-axis of machine tool spindles by investigation on the impact fracture toughness and fatigue strength of 16MnCr5 steel. Samples after preparation, were surface treated by carburising and carbonitriding treatments. The characteristics of toughness and fatigue were presented through impact test and rotating bending fatigue machine. To clarify toughness variation mechanisms, and relation with microstructure, observations of microstructure and fracture surfaces carried out by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Microhardness tests and roughness were evaluated by using equipment. The experimental results showed that, carburised and carbonitrided specimens are relatively similar in properties such as microstructure feature and how to fracture and differ in properties such as hardness distribution, depth of hardened layer, impact energy and roughness. In general, it can be claimed that in the spindle sub-axis, carbonitriding treatment is a good alternative to carburising.
Keywords: 16MnCr5; carburising; carbonitriding; spindle; microstructure; mechanical properties.
Design and fabrication of Epoxy-based Hip Implants
by Ranjit Singh, Manoj Narwariya, Avadesh Sharma, Premanand Chauhan, Rajeev Singh
Abstract: Generally, hip implants are fabricated by metals and ceramics due to their excellent mechanical strength. However, the body fluid causes severe corrosion of these materials, deteriorating the implants structural integrity and mechanical strength. The present work is intended to design and fabricate the epoxy-based hip implant with enhanced physical and mechanical characteristics. The epoxy-based hip implant was designed using manual calculations and modelling software. The analysis shows that the maximum stress acting on the neck of the hip implant is 27.18 MPa which was lower than the yield strength of epoxy resin (107.52 MPa). It was observed that the stresses are concentrated on the neck of the implant. Further, we poured epoxy into a 3D printed PLA mould to manufacture the epoxy-based hip implant. The hip implant was tested experimentally using polariscope and a universal testing machine. The polariscope results reveal similar stress behaviour to simulated results obtained by modelling software. The maximum stress of 5.22 MPa was applied to the neck of the implant. The compression test shows that the fabricated hip implant has mechanical characteristics similar to human bone, making it suitable for implant application.
Keywords: hip implant; epoxy resin; polariscope; mechanical strength; stress.
A study on the sustainable machining of AISI 630 stainless steel under minimum quantity lubrication
by Sivakumar Subramani, N.M. Sivaram, Narendra Laxman Gajbhiye
Abstract: In this study, experiments were performed by changing the cutting velocity, feed rate, depth of cut, and type of machining [flood, dry and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL)] to evaluate the MQL systems influence in turning AISI 630 (17-4 PH) stainless steel. Servocut
Keywords: machining; steel; minimum quantity lubrication; MQL; sustainable machining; surface roughness; turning; optimisation; mineral oil.
Biomaterials for Artificial Knee Joint Replacement: A Review
by Omar Hussain, Babar Ahmad, Shahid Saleem
Abstract: Human knee works under lubrication conditions that are characterised as boundary or mixed lubrication. In these situations, the joint suffers from starved lubrication provided by the synovial fluid. Over an extended period of time, this starved lubrication causes excessive wear and leads to osteoarthritis. Biomedical implants are gaining increasing attention nowadays to improve the working lifespan of artificial implants like hip and knee joints. This stems from the fact that friction and wear are the key factors affecting the life of artificial joints. In this review, we discuss the processes affecting the normal functioning of the joint. In this model, we also discuss the materials used for the orthopaedic industry and the problems which lead to the failure of the same. The possibilities of improving the life span of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) are also discussed as UHMWPE is the gold in the orthopaedic industry.
Keywords: knee joint; osteoarthritis; UHMWPE; polymer-based composites; artificial joints.
An anisotropy study on microstructure and tensile strength of silicon carbide and graphite particle reinforced AZ91D hybrid composite
by Packia Antony Amalan A, N.M. Sivaram
Abstract: This present study aimed to evaluate the anisotropy property on microstructure and tensile strength of produced hybrid composite. To produce the hybrid composite, SiC (5 wt.%) and Gr (1 wt.%) were added with AZ91D alloy. The samples were prepared through the stir-casting. The samples in as-cast and ageing heat treated (T6) conditions were evaluated for microstructural, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and ductility. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) was applied to evaluate the microstructural and fracture behaviour of the materials. Tensile stress-strain curves of the prepared samples were studied both in longitudinal and transverse directions. In the longitudinal direction, the maximum obtained UTS, YS and ductility are 171 MPa, 69 MPa and 5.47%; similarly, 116 MPa, 43 MPa and 4.33% respectively obtained in the transverse direction heat-treated composite (T6). Maximum reported anisotropy on UTS was 35.94% for as-cast composite and on YS was 37.68% for T6-composite.
Keywords: magnesium; tensile properties; hybrid composite; anisotropy; longitudinal direction; transverse direction.
Modelling Frictional noise using Artificial neural network and Regression: The case of steel on steel reciprocating sliding
by Mir Mohsin John, M. Hanief
Abstract: The present work investigates the influence of the operating parameters on the frictional noise during reciprocating sliding of steel on steel using a ball-on-disc configuration. All the experiments were carried out in an anechoic chamber to mitigate the effect of surrounding noise to arrive at reliable frictional noise measurements during sliding experiments. The experimental outcomes reveal that the frictional noise increases with increase in surface roughness, frequency and the applied load. The regression and artificial neural network models were developed using the data generated by experimentation. The artificial neural network model predicts the frictional noise more accurately and closely to the experimental results as compared to the regression models. It has been found that the MSE, MAPE and R2 for the ANN model are 0.001100, 1.35 and 0.98385 respectively, while the corresponding values for the 2nd order regression model are 0.0661, 4.07 and 0.8995, respectively.
Keywords: frictional noise; surface roughness; modelling; regression; artificial neural network; ANN; contour interpolation.
Experimental analysis of compressive properties of arrowhead auxetic structure made by Fused Deposition Modeling process
by Harshit Dave, Ashish Prajapati, Ankit Kumar Nikum, Mihir Panchal, Sagar Macwan, Hardeep Singh, Saptarishi Pandey
Abstract: Since the 1980s, a new class of materials has been discovered called auxetic materials. These materials have a counterintuitive behaviour: when stretched longitudinally, they also expand in the perpendicular axis; when compressed longitudinally, they also become transversely thinner. They portray high indentation resistance, fracture toughness, and thermal fracture resistance. Auxetic materials are finding a variety of applications today, from aerospace usage, consumer goods, to the biomedical field, self-governing filters, springy shoe soles. In this study, compression behaviour of the arrowhead honeycomb auxetic structure sandwich has been analysed. These structures are 3D printed using polylactic acid (PLA) material. Further, the compressive properties of the sandwich structure are tested with different specimens by varying their gradient parameters. Nine specimens of varying parameters are tested, each with a different relative density due to changes in internal angles and arm length. The relationships between relative density against compressive strength is investigated.
Keywords: 3D printing; auxetic structures; negative Poissons ratio; fused deposition modelling; FDM.