International Journal of Materials Engineering Innovation (9 papers in press)
Selection of materials formulation for non-asbestos friction materials using multi-criteria decision making (MCDM)
by Dinesh Shinde, Mukesh Bulsara, K.N. Mistry
Abstract: Friction materials (FM) should possess higher & stable coefficient of friction at the same time should have high resistance to wear sustained at higher temperature too. In order to develop a friction material exhibiting many functional requirements, one should think from different viewpoints, which gives motivation for use of multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) in selection of materials formulation for the friction materials. In this work, three material formulations (CSP0, CSP15, & CSP30) for friction materials and specimens were prepared as per industry standards. The FMs were subjected to a standard friction material quality test procedure named as Chase friction test under controlled condition as recommended by SAE J661. The results of the chase test were interpreted for two fade & recovery cycles through different attributes crucial to thermal behavior of the FMs and the test data was used in multi-criteria decision making for the selection of best material formulation using Grey Relation Analysis (GRA). To understand the surface wear behavior of the materials, tested samples were subjected to microstructural analysis using SEM/EDS. It is concluded that the materials formulations are ranked as CSP30
Keywords: Friction materials; Fade & recovery; GRA; SEM; EDS.
Improving the Surface Characteristics of Metallic Implants using Electric Discharge Machining: A Review
by Arvind Kumar Singh, Anup Malik, Harlal Singh Mali
Abstract: The key precondition for choosing bio-materials is their compatibility with the human body, along with the essential properties that would be suitable for long term success of implants. Metallic materials are suitable as implants due to their excellent mechanical properties like toughness, ductility, strength, elasticity etc. For the production of high-performance metallic implants, selection of metal alloys and surface functionalization is of particular importance and necessity. Inspired by the functional surface of natural biological systems, there have recently emerged many new designs and ideas to construct multi-functional surfaces with great potential for biomedical applications. This review initially discusses the metallic biomaterials, their properties, and their applications. The later part of the review discusses surface modification techniques. It was found that electric discharge machining is one of the non-contact type machining processes, which can be useful for economical surface modification of metal implants.
Keywords: biocompatibility; EDM; metallic implants; surface characterization; surface modification.
Effect of Stitch Orientation on Tensile and Flexural Bending Mechanical Properties and Damage Mechanisms of Glass/Epoxy Composites Laminate
by Hamza Mechakra, Samir Lecheb, Ahmed Chellil, Brahim Safi
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the effect of stitch row directions on tensile and flexural bending mechanical properties of composite laminates reinforced by glass-fabric. For the fabrication of stitched laminates, a polyester thread used to stitch the dry fabric glass in fourth cases (longitudinal stitch 0
Keywords: Stitching; Glass fabrics; Laminates; Tensile; Flexural bending.
Magnetic states in Fe-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulators nano-crystallites
by Somaya Mohamed, Amany M. El Nahrawy, Ahmed Ali, Hamdia Zayed
Abstract: Samples of Bi2Se3 and FexBi2-xSe3 (x=0.4, 1.0 and 1.4)) were positively prepared by acidic sol gel method. The XRD pattern shows the structure of Bi2Se3. In addition to, with adding, Fe-ions, there are three peaks at 2?= 10.2o, 13.4o and 15o appeared which indexed with Fe2O3 card. SEM and TEM confirmed there are a combination of nanorods and nanospheres in soft accumulation of the samples with an average particle nano-size nearly 30-33 nm. Thermal analysis for all samples have been recorded and shows there are a weight loss at 500oC corresponds to the crystallization of pure Bi2Se3 due to oxidation of metals, moreover, the ratio of the weight loss of about 4.177% of the sample indicating high thermal stability of Bi2Se3. In addition, magnetic moment-field dependence investigated at room temperature confirmed created antiferromagnetic state in the composite, the magnetic moment as well as the saturation values were increased with increasing the Fe2O3 levels of doping.
Keywords: Composite; Bi2Se3; Fe-doping Bi2Se3; Sol–gel method; magnetic properties; topological insulators.
A State-of-The-Art Review on All Constitutive Models in Simulating Mechanical Behaviour of Metals and Alloys
by Hridayjit Kalita, Kaushik Kumar
Abstract: The motivation for the current paper is derived from the drawbacks of all the physical mechanical tests such as tensile, hardness and impact tests that are widely employed for predicting and improving the functionalities and performance of the industrial components in their service life phase. These tests are time consuming, costly and lack analytical understanding of the material behaviour. A virtual mechanical test simulation provides an alternative approach for enhancing sustainability and explaining comprehensively the mechanical behaviour of various metals and alloys by exploiting the recent analytical and semi empirical constitutive models. In this paper, the feasibility of the models associated with the determination of tensile, hardness and impact properties have been studied in 3 different sections. The outcome of the study is the clarity in choosing the most feasible models, role of the various parameters associated with these models in defining the behavior of materials, role of the correction factors (adjusting the predicted and measured values) and identification of the model input-output parameters with the future intention of implementing these models in the virtual material testing framework.
Keywords: Mechanical test; Virtual mechanical test simulation; Bridgman technique; Charpy test; GTN; Hardness indentation; Instantaneous area method.
Experimental Analysis on Machinability Aspects of Sintered Aluminium Metal Matrix (Al+Si+Mg+Cu+SiC) Composite - A Novel Product Produced by Powder Metallurgy Method
by Rajesh Kumar Behera, Birajendu Prasad Samal, Sarat Chandra Panigrahi, Sudhansu Ranjan Das, Aezeden Mohamed, Kamalakanta Muduli, Ananya Samal, Pramod Kumar Parida, Ratnakar Das
Abstract: Due to the various superior and unique properties in aluminum metal matrix composites (Al+Si+Mg+Cu+SiC) on alloys; those are used in variety of industrial uses. Present paper studies the machinability aspects of turning and surface roughness in sintered aluminum metal matrix composites produced by powder metallurgy process and the various experiments were carried out by a CNC lathe with using tool inserts of titanium nitride coated tungsten carbide tool. This study attempts to measure and examine the influences of the depth of cut, feed-rate and cutting speed on surface roughness during machining of the composites. The cutting parameters and tool wear was influenced on the surface roughness. It was systematically analyzed and a predictive model was established with-respect-to turning variables using Taguchi and response-surface methodology. The results showed that feed and cutting speeds are important, controlled, and dominant factors in the AMMC turning operation, considering the minimization of machined surface roughness and the weight share of SiC reinforcement.
Keywords: Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite; Turning; Response Surface Methodology (RSM); Taguchi method; Surface Roughness (SR).
Performance of SnO2/Al working electrode as an electrochemical biosensor for potassium(K+) ions
by Usharani Panda
Abstract: The erratic variation of potassium ion (K+) in the human body results in many life-threatening diseases relating to the kidney and heart. Hence, regular monitoring of the same is extremely essential for leading a healthy life. This encouraged us to fabricate an electrochemical biosensor using SnO2/Al as a working electrode to monitor K+ ions. The SnO2/Al working electrode was prepared from tin oxide (SnO2) coated on aluminum (Al) wire with the help of an indigenously designed chemically wet and dry (CWD) technique, followed by in-situ annealing at 400
Keywords: Tin dioxide (SnO2); XRD; FESEM; I-V study; Real-time response; Sensitivity.
Effect of the Process Parameters on the Mechanical Properties of the Weld Joint in the Friction Stir Welding Process
by Sanjay Jha, Ravi Anand, PRASHANT PRAKASH
Abstract: This article predicts the effect of the input process parameters on the mechanical properties of the weld joint of the aluminum alloy in the friction stir welding process using statistical techniques that are ANOVA, regression and surface response methodology. In the statistical analysis, input factors are tool pin profile, welding speed and tool rotation speed and responses are mechanical properties such as tensile strength, percentage elongation and grain size. Experiments are carried out on the basis of taguchi method of design of experiments and the adequacy of the design of experiments is evaluated by ANOVA analysis. Responses surfaces of the mechanical properties with respect to the input parameters are developed using regression analysis. Statistical analysis shows that the quadratic model of regression analysis successfully represents the surface responses with all experiments conditions. Mechanical properties of the weld joint almost constant with welding speed at particular tool rotation speed and tool pin geometry. The effect of the tool rotation speed is nonlinear on the mechanical properties. At the moderate tool rotation speed (900 to 1120 rpm), tensile and percentage elongation are maximum, whereas grains size and hardness are minimum with all tool pin profiles and welding speed. The surface response curvatures are similar with all tool pin profiles. However, the numerical range of the surface response curvature depends on the tool pin profile. Steeped tool pin profile produces maximum tensile and percentage elongation whereas minimum hardness and grain size value among the all tool pin profile produced surface responses. Stepped tool pin profile produces superior mechanical properties of the weld joint with respect to other tool pin profiles.
Keywords: Tool pin profile; Welding speed; Tool rotation speed; Response surface method; Mechanical Properties; Friction stir welding.
Analysis of high-speed CNC milling of Ti-6Al-4V by multi-objective crow optimization and multi-objective PSO
by Shubham Jain, Vishal Parashar
Abstract: Ti-6Al-4V is widely used as a functionally advanced material in different fields. Poor mechanization and absence of machining innovation are major issues in the application of Ti-6Al-4V. In this research, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression analysis have been used to make input-output relationships. The optimization method was applied to obtain the maximum Material Removal Rate (MRR) and minimum Surface Roughness (SR). These responses were optimized simultaneously and formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem. In multi-objective optimization, the weights of both responses were taken by the grey correlation analysis (GRA) method. This multi-objective optimization problem has been solved using two metaheuristic algorithms, namely, the Crow optimization algorithm, and the Particle swarm optimization (PSO). The optimization results show great concurrence with the response surface methodology results. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was also used to visualize the effect of process parameters on the surface topography.
Keywords: High-Speed CNC Milling; Ti-6Al-4V; Crow Optimization Algorithm; Particle Swarm Optimization; Atomic Force Microscopy.