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International Journal of Materials Engineering Innovation

International Journal of Materials Engineering Innovation (IJMatEI)

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International Journal of Materials Engineering Innovation (27 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Enhancement of weld penetration in 2205 stainless steel by TIG welding novel variants   Order a copy of this article
    by Dipali Pandya, Amarish Badgujar, M.N. Qureshi, Nilesh Ghetiya 
    Abstract: The study compares the effects of welding joints made in 2205 duplex stainless steel with activated tungsten inert gas (A-TIG), flux-bounded TIG (FB-TIG) and flux-zone TIG (FZ-TIG). To examine the effects of activated fluxes welded by the A-TIG and FB-TIG welding procedures, four single component oxide fluxes (Cr2O3, MoO3, SiO2 and TiO2) are chosen. The highest penetration is achieved with SiO2 flux among all selected activated fluxes in A-TIG as well as in FB-TIG welds. FZ-TIG welding is performed with eight unique combinations of selected oxide fluxes. The maximum penetration is achieved in FZ-TIG welding with SiO2 as the centre region flux and Cr2O3 as the side region flux. The robust arc constriction and reversal Marangoni convection lead to higher penetration. The microstructure study shows that A-TIG and FZ-TIG weld joints form a more balanced structure of ferrite/austenite by forming larger laths of Widmanst
    Keywords: activated tungsten inert gas; A-TIG; flux-zone tungsten inert gas; FZ-TIG; flux-bounded tungsten inert gas; FB-TIG; weld bead geometry; Marangoni convection.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10051277
  • Influence of alkali pre-treatments on the physio-mechanical, tribological and thermal performance of hemp fiber reinforced phenolic brake friction material   Order a copy of this article
    by Mithul Naidu, Ajit Bhosale 
    Abstract: Five variants of friction bio-composites were developed
    Keywords: hemp fibres; alkali pretreatments; physio-mechanical performance; tribological performance; Taguchi method; thermo-gravimetric analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10054847
  • Characterization of TiNiNbZr quaternary alloy by atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation   Order a copy of this article
    by Mairaj Ahmad 
    Abstract: Effect of thermal treatments (solution treatment, annealing, and aging) and Zr content on microstructure and mechanical properties of TiNiNbZr quaternary alloy was investigated using optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), micro-Vicker, and nanoindentation. These samples were solution treated at 950
    Keywords: atomic force microscopy; AFM; nanoindentation; advanced characterisation; nano and microhardness; elastic modulus; nitinol; TiNiNbZr quaternary alloy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10054870
    by Ram Niwas Singh, Vikas Kumar 
    Abstract: In the present study, hybrid magnesium-based surface composites were created via FSP, and the impact of tool speeds, plunger depth, number of passes, and tilt angles on the microstructure and hardness were examined. TiO2 nanoparticles and Ag nanoparticles were packed in grooves in equal ratios. Microhardness test, optical scanning, and FESEM were used to assess the composite surfaces. The findings showed that grain size increased with increasing rotational speed and the number of passes but decreased with increasing travel speed. It was also revealed that the distribution of the nanoparticles and hardness are directly related. The maximum microhardness stir zone (SZ) of hybrid composites was 120 Hv, significantly higher than base metal (63 Hv).
    Keywords: friction stir processing; FSP; magnesium alloy; microstructure modification; hardness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10055434
  • Parametric Optimization and Experimental Modelling of AWJ Machining of GFRP Composite   Order a copy of this article
    by Anil Kumar Dahiya, Basanta Kumar Bhuyan, Shailendra Kumar 
    Abstract: Abrasive water jet machining (AWJM) is extensively employed for machining composites such as glass fibre-reinforced polymers (GFRP). AWJM is proven to be efficient and economical for material processing in manufacturing industries, in which a high-speed abrasive water jet is impinged on workpiece surface to erode material to get the desired shape. In this paper, experiments are performed to study the kerf taper (Kt) in AWJ machined GFRP composite according to response surface methodology (RSM) based on the central composite design (CCD) approach. Water pressure (WP), traverse rate (TR), stand-off distance (SOD) and abrasive mass flow rate (AMFR) are considered to study their influence on kerf taper. Optimisation of parameters is executed by applying the desirability technique to minimise the kerf taper. In order to validate the results, confirmation tests have been carried out and which show less than 4.535% of error. Thereafter, an experimental model (second-order mathematical) is made for kerf taper by using RSM. From the analysis, it has been found that the predicted values are very close to the experimental results with a deviation of less than 4%.
    Keywords: glass fibre-reinforced polymers; GFRP; abrasive water jet machining; AWJM; kerf taper; optimisation; modelling; response surface methodology; RSM; desirability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10055435
  • Experimental Investigation of the effect of Micro-Arc Oxidation (MAO) Coating on Al-5456 alloy   Order a copy of this article
    by Kushal Chandel, Sayon Pramanik, SAURABH KUMAR MAURYA, Alakesh Manna 
    Abstract: Paper presents the parametric impacts of micro
    Keywords: MAO; coating thickness; surface roughness; microhardness; corrosion resistance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10055725
  • Investigation of sustainable production opportunity in fabrication of hybrid Aluminum metal matrix composites by Powder Metallurgy technique   Order a copy of this article
    by Anup Choudhury, Jajneswar Nanda, Sankar Narayan Das, Kamalakanta Muduli, Srikanth Bathula 
    Abstract: The impact of date palm leaf powder (DPLP) as a reinforcement material in pure aluminium-alumina composites in improvement of physico-mechanical and morphological properties is investigated in this work. The fabricated hybrid composite is made up of a set amount of aluminium and various percentages of DPLP and alumina in weight% ratios of 1:4, 2:3, 3:2, 4:1. To evaluate the individual features of reinforcements and matrix, particle size distribution (PSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and CHNSO studies were used. Specimens were prepared with compacting pressure 474 MPa, two hours sintering time, 600
    Keywords: date palm leaf powder; sintering temperature and time; conventional powder metallurgy; scanning electron microscopy; SEM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10055926
  • Characterization and Evaluation of Al-8011 Metal Matrix Composites Reinforced with B4C+Carbon Nano Tubes Particulate   Order a copy of this article
    by Shivaprakash S., H.K. Shivanand, Srinath M. K., Din Bandhu 
    Abstract: In this study, a novel metal matrix composite (MMC) was created by reinforcing an Al-8011 alloy with carbon nanotube (CNT) and boron carbide (B4C) hybrid particles. The composites’ density (?), Poisson’s ratio (v), and Young’s modulus (E) were calculated using the rule of mixture. Hardness, tensile, and compression strengths were measured on relevant specimens according to ASTM standards. The hybrid reinforced composite (5% B4C + 1.5% CNT) reached 123.6 HRA in the hardness test. 5% B4C + 1.5% CNT reinforcement improved tensile strength to 310.2 MPa. Compression strength, on the other hand, reduced as B4C and CNT percentages increased. For applications demanding the greatest hardness and tensile stresses, the MMC of Al-8011 alloys with 5% B4C and 1.5% CNT was optimal. For the most compressive applications, it was determined that Al-8011 doped with 1% B4C and 1.5% CNT would be the optimal choice. The hybrid reinforcements of B4C and CNT improved the composite, making it suitable for structural applications.
    Keywords: stir-casting; Al-8011; hybrid reinforcement; boron carbide; carbon nano tubes; mechanical attributes.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10056325
  • 3D printed cellulose nanofiber-PLA nanocomposites: Experimental investigations and multi-objective optimization   Order a copy of this article
    by Mugdha Dongre, V.B. Suryawanshi, Y.R. Suryawanshi, Sujatha Parmeswaran 
    Abstract: By incorporating cellulose nanofibres (CNFs) into the polymer matrix, bio-nanocomposites gain more stiffness and tensile strength. FFF is a popular 3D printing technique because of its affordability and simplicity. Many printing parameters affect component cost and function, making process settings for part quality difficult to determine. This work focuses on experimental analysis and multi-objective optimisation of FFF printing parameters and different CNF concentrations for PLA-CNF nanocomposites. The effects of layer thickness, raster angle, and CNF concentration on tensile strength, elastic modulus, toughness, and warpage are analysed. The different responses were combined into single number using TOPSIS (multi attribute performance index
    Keywords: polylactic acid; PLA; cellulose nanofibre; CNF; nanocomposites; fused filament fabrication; FFF; multi objective optimisation; mechanical properties; TOPSIS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10056989
  • Synthesis and Study of Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) For Lithium Ion Batteries   Order a copy of this article
    by Swapnil Potdar, Shashank Kawar 
    Abstract: Development of Lithium Ion Batteries is an essential energy storage technology for different applications. A novel combination of materials are proposed for development of the cathode material of Lithium Ion Batteries. Through the research paper we are proposing synthesis of Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) cathode material using hydrothermal process. In these assumptions, the time is kept constant and temperature is varied from 1300C to 1600C. Further, study of different parameters like Grain Size, Morphology, and Electro Chemical properties are critically observed by varying temperature by Hydrothermal Synthesis process. Study the properties of the synthesized films by the XRD, SEM and TGA techniques. Finally, the electrochemical analysis is carried out to understand the performance of the prepared cathode material.
    Keywords: Rechargeable Battery; Discharge Control; Lithium-Ion; LiFePO4.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10057689
  • Modelling Mechanical Behaviours of Polypropylene Sheet for Incremental Forming Process using graphic method   Order a copy of this article
    by Sy Le V. 
    Abstract: This paper presents modelling the mechanical behaviours of polypropylene sheet (PP) at room temperature. The standard linear solid model (SLS) is used to establish the constitutive equation for FEM simulation of incremental forming process for PP. The tensile, relaxation and creep tests are performed to calibrate the constituting model. This model is integrated into Abaqus environment by using a user-material subroutine in Fortran language. The cone model is simulated in this FEM environment and verified through lab experiments with model formed by the incremental forming process. The results show that the established constitutive model has responded well to the mechanical behaviour of PP. There is significant agreement between the simulated model and empirical experiments in terms of the thickness distribution and geometric accuracy.
    Keywords: polypropylene; PP; modelling; incremental forming; mechanical behaviour; standard linear solid model; SLS; ISF; constitutive equation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10057690
  • Preparation and Characterization of 3D Printed Bio-composites containing Carica Papaya Cellulose Nanofibers   Order a copy of this article
    by Mugdha Dongre, V.B. Suryawanshi, Y.R. Suryawanshi, Sujatha Parmeswaran 
    Abstract: For the first time, cellulose nanofibres (CNFs) were extracted from Carica papaya petioles using chemo-mechanical treatment. The obtained nanofibres were characterised by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and thermogravimetric analysis. The morphological studies confirmed the nanofibre dimensions in the range of 10
    Keywords: cellulose nanofibres; CNFs; polylactic acid; PLA; Carica papaya petioles; chemo-mechanical treatment; fused filament fabrication; FFF; mechanical properties.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10058893
  • Modeling the Mechanical Properties and Stress Mapping of Aluminium Based Metal Matrix Composite Used in Brake Disc Rotor   Order a copy of this article
    by Ankit Roy Nandy, Ashraf Ali, Satadru Kashyap, Sushen Kirtania, Sanjib Banerjee 
    Abstract: Aluminium-based metal matrix composites (AMMCs) are extensively employed in industries due to their superior and unique properties such as high strength-to-weight ratio, specific modulus, hardness, wear resistance, and fatigue strength. In this research, the analysis of silicon carbide (SiC) reinforced AMMC was conducted for determination of elastic properties with varying volume fractions of their reinforcements. The elastic properties were calculated based on analytical models such as rule of mixture (ROM), Halpin-Tsai model and Shear-Lag model. Subsequently, this composite was considered as the material in a disc brake rotor, in order to study the stress mapping and its applicability. Traditionally used brake disc material, grey cast iron, was compared with the proposed SiC and CaCO3 reinforced AMMC, in order to study their deformation behaviour under compressive wear loading using FEM analysis. FEM was used to map the stress fields on the material and compared with grey cast iron-based disc brake rotor.
    Keywords: aluminium matrix composite; finite element modelling; FEM; wear resistance; calcium carbonate.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10059307
  • Microstructure and mechanical study of SDSS thin sheet welded by CCTIG and PCTIG process   Order a copy of this article
    by Sujeet Kumar, Vimal KEK 
    Abstract: In this research paper, effects of pulsed current tungsten inert gas (PCTIG) welding process over constant current tungsten inert gas (CCTIG) welding process on the quality of weld joints produced in super duplex stainless steel material were investigated. Microstructure obtained by PCTIG welded joints is 40% more in number as compared to CCTIG welded joints which indicate finer grain structure in the weld zone of PCTIG welded joint. The tensile strength of CCTIG welded joints shows 8% of reduction and PCTIG welded joints shows 6.4% reduction as compared to the base metal. A three-point bending test was performed and found that the 2
    Keywords: super duplex stainless steel; tungsten inert gas; microstructures; tensile test; numerical simulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10059843
  • Comparison of the Ductile Damage Models for Fracture Prediction of the Incremental Sheet Forming   Order a copy of this article
    by Sy Le V. 
    Abstract: Incremental sheet forming is a modern forming process which is suitable for fabricating unique product or small production batches. This paper focuses on prediction of mechanical damages occurring in ISF process with magnesium sheet at elevated temperature by using FEM simulation in Abaqus/explicit with four ductile damage models. The practical experiments with different tensile specimens have been conducted to calibrate the ductile damage models. By using a combination of mechanical test approach and FEM simulation, the stress triaxiality and fracture strain are identified, which helps find out the locus of ductile damage for each model. The simulated results are verified to those conducted in real experiment in terms of the type of mechanical failures and fracture location the simulated results show that CrachFEM and modified Mohr-Coulomb models can be used for predicting the ductile damage occurring in the SPIF process with magnesium sheet at elevated temperature.
    Keywords: constitutive equation; damage model; FEM simulation; incremental sheet forming; ISF; magnesium sheet; AZ31; ductile damage; damage criteria; Abaqus; SPIF.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10060122
  • Evaluation of Wear Behaviour of Stir and Squeeze cast A356/SiC/Gr Hybrid composites using TOPSIS Method   Order a copy of this article
    by Dhanashekar M, Loganathan P, Mohan SR, Ayyanar S, Murali B 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the influence of stir and squeeze cast processes on the dry sliding wear behaviour of A356/ SiCp (5 wt.%) / Gr (0
    Keywords: squeeze cast; wear behaviour; optimisation; TOPSIS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10060524
  • Optimization of process parameters For Kerf Taper Using TM-GRA of GFRP Composite with AWJM   Order a copy of this article
    by Anil Kumar Dahiya, Basanta Kumar Bhuyan, Rishu Sharma, Puneet Kumar, Shailendra Kumar 
    Abstract: Machining and shaping of difficult-to-machine hard materials and composites like glass fibre reinforced polymers (GFRP) are very difficult and uneconomical due to their specific properties such as anisotropic and non-homogenous nature with the conventional machining process. Abrasive water jet machining (AWJM) is proven to be efficient and economical for material removal processing in manufacturing industries, in which a high-speed abrasive water jet is impinged on workpiece surface to erode material to get the desired shape. In this paper, experiments are performed to study the kerf taper (Kt) in AWJ machined GFRP composite according to Taguchi’s design-based L16 orthogonal array. Water pressure (WP), traverse rate (TR), stand-off distance (SOD) and abrasive mass flow rate (AMFR) are considered to study their influence on kerf taper. Optimisation of parameters is executed by applying the GRA technique to minimise the kerf taper. Subsequently, confirmation tests are conducted at the optimised set of parameters to validate the results. The average value for kerf taper from confirmation experiments is measured 0.2958.
    Keywords: glass fibre reinforced polymer; GFRP; abrasive mass flow rate; AWJM; kerf taper; optimisation; Taguchi; grey relational analysis; GRA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2024.10061328
  • Evaluation of Elastic Properties of Graphene Nanoplatelet Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Nanocomposites   Order a copy of this article
    by Mousam Das, Sushen Kirtania, Satadru Kashyap, Sanjib Banerjee 
    Abstract: The present work puts forward the determination of elastic properties of graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) reinforced aluminium (Al) matrix nanocomposites, with different volume fractions and aspect ratios of GNP. Three analytical models (AMs), namely the Halpin-Tsai model, the Shear-Lag model, and the Gao-Zhang (GZ) model, were taken into consideration for the evaluation of Young's modulus of GNP/Al nanocomposite (GANC). Four cases with different dimensions of GNP have been considered for understanding the characteristics of different AMs. The Young’s modulus values calculated using different AMs have been compared with experimental results (EXRs). It was observed that the GZ model shows acceptable agreement with the EXRs. For further evaluation of Poisson’s ratio of GANC, two AMs, viz. rule of mixture (ROM) and Eshelby model have been used. It can also be concluded that for the evaluation of Poisson’s ratio, the Eshelby model is a better choice than ROM.
    Keywords: graphene nanoplatelet; GNP; metal matrix nanocomposite; Young’s modulus; Poisson’s ratio; analytical models; AMs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2024.10061329
  • Bending processes precision and efficiency in the design and production of metal plates   Order a copy of this article
    by Bruno Silva, António Rocha, Daniel Miranda, Filipe Chaves 
    Abstract: This paper is focused on enhancing productivity and efficiency in the bending process of metal plates. With increasing demands for precision and productivity, companies must optimise their processes and resources. The project addresses the challenge of achieving reliability and efficiency in the bending process, considering various factors that influence metal sheet behaviour during bending. The project proposes a method that combines parametric modelling with the final piece after bending, utilising SolidWorks CAD software. By executing specimens of common bending angles, measuring bend deductions, and creating specific bending tables for SolidWorks, the project aims to improve bending reliability and effectiveness while reducing design times and errors. The results provide evidence of significant time reductions in CAD software treatments and effective production of compliant bending parts. The project also emphasises the importance of continuous process refinement for companies to maintain their competitiveness in the industry.
    Keywords: bend deduction; statistical process control; SolidWorks modelling; metal plates; precision; efficiency.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2024.10061780
  • The physico mechanical and morphological characterization of polycrystalline Al/Al2O3 composites at different process parameters   Order a copy of this article
    by Anup Choudhury, Jajneswar Nanda, Sankar Narayan Das, Kamalakanta Muduli, Srikanth Bathula 
    Abstract: Polycrystalline compounds consist of erratically oriented grains held together by ionic and covalent bonding. During solid-state sintering, the grain boundary energy obstructs dislocation mobility thereby restricting grain size. Thermomechanical action contributes in fabricating the polycrystalline aluminium metal matrix composite (AMMC). Current article has abridged the combined effects of compacting pressure, temperature and time on physical/mechanical/morphological properties of coarse (75
    Keywords: polycrystalline materials; powder metallurgy; PM; solid-state sintering; microhardness; compressive strength.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2024.10063662
  • The potential use of fibers derived from Wild Abyssinia Bananas in reinforcing polymer composites   Order a copy of this article
    by Temam Kadire, Sanghamitra Das, Shrikrishna Nandkishor Joshi 
    Abstract: This study systematically characterised wild Abyssinia bananas (WABs) fibre properties such as physical, chemical, thermal, structural, mechanical, and morphology. WAB fibre properties were investigated using sophisticated equipment such as TGA, XRD, FTIR, UTM and SEM. The observed result revealed that the fibres have a diameter of 163.3
    Keywords: wild Abyssinia banana; WAB; chemical composition; thermal stability; tensile strength; crystallinity index.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2024.10063663
  • Evaluation of MOR and Permeability of Investment Casting Ceramic Mould with Oil Palm Fibre Additive   Order a copy of this article
    by Is Prima Nanda, Muhammad Hafiz Jahare, Mohd Hasbullah Idris, ANDRIL ARAFAT 
    Abstract: The abundance and cheap organic fibre offers an alternative additive to enhance the ceramic strength aside from its biodegradable benefit promoting sustainability. In this study, the utilisation of oil palm fibre in a water-based silica binder as a substitute for the expensive liquid polymer addition in investment casting mould was explored. Different lengths of oil palm fibres (3, 5, 7, 9 mm) were incorporated in the preparation of ceramic moulds namely green (dewaxed and non-dewaxed), and fired for modulus of rupture (MOR) and permeability test. The results show that the non-dewaxed and dewaxed moulds with 3 mm fibre modification recorded the highest strength; 2.14 and 3.51 MPa respectively compared to the no-fibre (non-dewaxed, 1.56 MPa and dewaxed, 2.26 MPa) moulds. A higher permeability (5.36 m2
    Keywords: silica binder; oil palm fibre; OPF; empty fruit bunch; EFB; modulus of rupture; MOR; permeability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2024.10064772
  • A Comprehensive Investigation on the Fabrication Parameter Optimization for Natural Fibre Reinforced Laminate Sandwich Composite   Order a copy of this article
    by Ganapathy T, Milon Selvam Dennison, S. Arivazhagan, Shirin Ayisha Maryam M, Radhakrishnan R, Thirukumaran M, Sivasamy P 
    Abstract: This research investigates the fabrication of natural fibre-reinforced laminate sandwich composites, emphasising the synergy between fibre type, polymer laminate, and fibre treatment. The grey relational and Taguchi techniques were employed to analyse the combinations of three natural fibres (snake grass, banyan, pineapple), three polymers (high-density polyethylene, high-impact polystyrene, polycarbonate), and chemical treatments (alkali, potassium permanganate, benzoyl peroxide). The compression moulding was adapted to produce the polymer sandwich composites with natural fibre reinforcements. The mechanical properties of the fabricated composites were measured using tensile and flexural tests. The contribution of the parameters to the outcomes was estimated using ANOVA. The comparison analysis suggests that the chemical treatment is the most influential fabrication parameter for controlling multiple response characteristics. The most critical process parameters for achieving the desired qualities (with values of 0.687, 0.663, and 0.655) are chemical treatments, polymer laminate, and fibre categories. Thereby, the three important fabrication parameters contribute to the advancement of sustainable composite materials.
    Keywords: natural fibre; polymer laminate; chemical treatment; compression moulding; sandwich composite; grey relation; Taguchi technique.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2024.10064773
  • Investigating The Structural And Energy Band Attributes Of Titanium Dioxide With Subtle Changes In Precursor Concentration For Potential Memristor Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Shilpa Shivaram, S. K. SURESH BABU, Done Rinshun Paul, David Nirmal, Vigneshwaran B 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the structural, morphological, size and energy band variations in titanium dioxide (TiO2) synthesised by solvothermal method. The precursor concentrations were varied within a small range (0.09 M to 0.15 M) to assess changes in its structural and energy band characteristics minutely. The crystallite size obtained from XRD was found to decrease from 14 nm to 10 nm with an increase in precursor concentration. Spherical morphology with a reduction in particle size was observed using SEM and particle size analysis. From the UV-Visible absorption studies conducted, the bandgap reduction of 3.12 eV (direct bandgap) and 2.95 eV (indirect bandgap) were observed. Photoluminescence studies conducted confirmed the energy band attributes of TiO2 with probable indication of defects. The ability of the material to decrease its bandgap, crystallite and particle size and modify its energy band properties while displaying structural defects makes it an excellent choice for memristors.
    Keywords: TiO2; band gap; sphere morphology; precursor concentration; memristor.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2024.10064774
  • Experimental Investigation and Fuzzy Logic Modelling of Mechanical Characteristics in Aluminium Die Cast-14 Incorporating Functionally Graded Material (FGM) with Boron Carbide (B4C)   Order a copy of this article
    by Ambigai Rajasekaran, Prabhu Sethuramalingam 
    Abstract: This study investigates functionally graded materials (FGMs), where mechanical properties vary deliberately. An FGM was developed using ADC-14 aluminium die-cast with boron carbide (B4C) as reinforcement via centrifugal casting. Mechanical characteristics, particularly hardness, were assessed via experimental methods and fuzzy logic prediction. Two different sizes of B4C (50
    Keywords: ADC-14; functionally graded materials; FGM; boron carbide; thermal analysis; hardness; fuzzy logic analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2024.10064775
  • Characterization of SAED Pattern of TEM Images of CdZnS Thin Films   Order a copy of this article
    by Subhash Shrivastava, Ritu Shrivastava 
    Abstract: In this paper, the chemical bath deposition method is used to prepare CdZnS thin films at optimal conditions. Prepared CdZnS thin films have good adherence to microscopic glass slides and are thin and of uniform thickness. Characterisations of thin films have been done by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and EDAX studies. SAED pattern and XRD pattern analysis, as well as their comparative studies, have been done. A grainy structure with a grain size of about 140 nm has been observed by TEM images. D-spacing is measured by the SAED pattern, which is also confirmed by XRD images.
    Keywords: chemical bath deposition; thin films; selected area electron diffraction pattern; X-ray diffraction; EDAX spectra.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2024.10065227
  • A Comprehensive Study on the Tribological and Mechanical Behaviour of Aluminum.SiC Composites Using Taguchi Technique   Order a copy of this article
    by Sundarrajan D, Ganapathy T, Karthik Pandiyan G, Prabaharan T, Jafrey Daniel James D 
    Abstract: Aluminium composites’ mechanical and tribological performances with silicon carbide (SiC) have been studied. Aluminium (AA6061) alloy composites were fabricated using the liquid metallurgy method by varying silicon carbide reinforcement from 5% to 20% by weight. The scanning electron (SE) microscope method helps to analyse the dispersion of SiC in aluminium materials. The samples with 15% wt varying reinforcement SiC have improved tensile strength, improved hardness behaviour and impact strength. However, the design of experiments (DOE) was employed to achieve the optimum conditions in the wear parameters like weight (wt in %) SiC sliding velocity (m/s), applied load (N), and sliding distance (m). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) a statistical method, has been employed to recognise the essential and interaction parameters that influence the composite’s wear behaviour and friction coefficients. On the other hand, the tribological (wear) properties like rate of wear and friction coefficient have been lowered by the addition of SiC reinforcement.
    Keywords: AA6061 alloy; SiC; SEM; strength; hardness; wear; DOE; ANOVA; optimisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2024.10065228