International Journal of Materials Engineering Innovation (13 papers in press)
Analysis of Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of AA-7068/TiC MMCs
by POPPATHI NARESH, Syed Altaf Hussain, B. Durga Prasad
Abstract: Metal matrix composites are finding its increased applications in various engineering fields such as aerospace, automobiles, and other industries due to its low density and excellent wear resistant. This paper presents the influence of sliding velocity, applied load, rotational speed on wear behavior of AA-7068 alloy is used as a matrix material and reinforced with Titanium Carbide (TiC). The Metal matrix Composites (MMCs) was developed by stir casting technique, with various weight fraction of reinforcement varied from 0 to 10 wt.% in steps of 2wt.% and the test specimens were prepared as per ASTM G95-99 standards. The wear behavior was investigated by performing dry sliding test on pin-on-disc tester. Experiments are planned and conducted as per central composite design (CCD). The data collected was statistically analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and a quadratic model has been developed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in terms of process parameters. The results indicated that the developed model is suitable for the prediction of wear. The micro structural analysis was carried out using SEM, EDX and XRD analysis confirmed the presence of Al and TiC with the composite, which revealed fairly uniform distribution of reinforcement in a matrix. The experimental results reveal that the rotational speed has the highest influence followed by applied load on wear. MMC with 6 wt. % of TiC composite has low wear than that of other composite systems considered in this investigation.
Keywords: Stir casting route; Wear; RSM; SEM; EDS; X-RD;.
Effect of parameters depth of cut and feed rate on the resistance to pitting corrosion of AISI 1018 steel
by Carlos Díaz-Campoverde
Abstract: Corrosion is a process that affects all materials, especially steels that are exposed to corrosive environments. The objective of this study is to establish the relationship between the surface quality conditions of AISI 1018 steel from various combinations of cutting parameters and pitting corrosion. Twelve steel samples were turned by applying different cutting parameters. After that, the specimens were characterized by roughness, microhardness as well as their microstructure. Subsequently, the surfaces of the samples were immersed in a 6% ferric chloride solution for three days at 22
Keywords: Plastic deformation; AISI 1018; surface integrity; accelerated corrosion; depth penetration.
INVESTIGATION ON THE EFFECT OF ALUMINIUM FOAM MADE OF A413 ALUMINIUM ALLOY THROUGH STIR CASTING AND INFILTRATION TECHNIQUES
by R. Karuppasamy, Debabrata Barik, N.M. Sivaram, Milon Selvam Dennison
Abstract: The objective of this research work is to manufacture lightweight aluminium cellular structure through stir casting and infiltration technique from base metal alloy aluminium A413. In stir casting technique, along with the molten base metal alloy foaming agent calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is mixed with different compositions, thorough mixing yielded metal foam and in case of infiltration technique the base metal alloy is mixed with different compositions of sodium chloride (NaCl) particles which act as a space holder in the fabrication of the metal foam. Properties such as density, the percentage of porosity, compressive strength and microstructure are analyzed for the metal foam produced with both the techniques. The study revealed that the addition of the NaCl as a space holder increases the percentage of porosity and decreases the density of the foam in comparison with CaCO3.
Keywords: Aluminium foam; Stir casting; Foaming agent; Infiltration; Microstructure.
Effect of hot extrusion on the characteristics of an Mg-3.0Zn-0.7Zr-1.0Cu alloy produced by powder metallurgy
by Suneesh Eacherath, M. Sivapragash
Abstract: The present study investigates the effect of hot extrusion on the physical, mechanical, and metallurgical characteristics of an as-extruded Mg-3.0Zn-0.7Zr-1.0Cu alloy. The Mg-3.0Zn-0.7Zr-1.0Cu samples were prepared through a powder metallurgy process which was followed by hot extrusion at 500
Keywords: Magnesium alloy; powder processing; hot extrusion; mechanical properties; dynamic recrystallization; grain refinement.
Nano-Porous oxide deposition on Titanium Alloy (Grade-5) to enhance its biocompatibility along with Tribological and Mechanical Analysis
by Anil Kumar
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to explicate the results concerning the surface modification of titanium grade-5 via anodization in a sulfuric acid electrolyte. Fabrication of nanoporous oxide film structure over titanium substrate is the key requirement of this study and after anodization realized remarkable wear-resisting strength along with improved surface hardness as compared to the untreated metal substrate. The consequence of anodizing parameters for instance voltage, time, electrolytic concentration, anodic current density are monitored to determine their optimum values. Phase analysis and morphological survey of the anodized surface has been performed by XRD and SEM respectively. A nanoporous structure appeared at 0.4 M whereas XRD analysis exposed that a phase transformation from anatase to rutile occurs at 0.5 M of H2SO4. A pin-on-disc type wear test practiced to determine the wear-resisting strength of the oxide surface and showed accumulated oxide layer significantly enhance wear-resisting strength, especially abrasive wear. SEM analysis performed after wear test evident that fracture on a larger scale occurs and that large flakes are removed from the surface. Performed work raises the chances for utilization of the nanostructured titania and make it more reliable and adaptable for further engineering as well as biomedical applications.
Keywords: Surface Modification; XRD; SEM; Titania; Tribometer test.
Study of AA-1050 sheet metal parts processed by single point incremental forming with dummy sheet
by Vikas Sisodia, Shailendra Kumar
Abstract: The present paper describes an experimental study of AA-1050 sheet metal part processed by single point incremental forming (SPIF) with dummy sheet. Influence of process parameters namely step-down size, tool size, feed rate, dummy sheet thickness and forming angle on surface roughness of formed part is investigated. From the analysis of results, it is observed that step-down size, tool size, dummy sheet thickness and forming angle are significant process parameter and feed rate is insignificant. Surface roughness decreases with increase in tool size, dummy sheet thickness and forming angle; while it increases with increase in step-down size. Based on experimentation and analysis of results, a mathematical model to predict surface roughness is developed. Further, optimization is performed on the basis of desirability function to minimize surface roughness. Also, optimization algorithm namely genetic algorithm and simulated annealing available in MATLAB optimization tool box is applied to find out the optimum surface roughness. Experimental results are found to be in good agreement with results predicted by the developed mathematical model.
Keywords: Single point incremental forming; SPIF; Dummy sheet; Tool size; Surface roughness; Optimization.
Statistical modeling and optimization of the factors affecting the surface roughness of C45 steel treated by the centrifugal disk mass finishing process
by K. Djender, K. Hamouda, M. Keddam, M.H.E. Amrou
Abstract: The goal of this study was to find the optimal conditions for improving the surface roughness profile of the C45 steel treated by the centrifugal disk mass finishing process. The influential technological factors selected for this study were the grain size of the abrasive media (Gs), the rotational speed of the disc () and the loading volume of the working chamber (V). In order to optimize its parameters and describe the variation of the roughness (Ra), a regression model was developed with the response surface methodology (RSM). The model was validated with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a descriptive quality estimated to 98%. The Student test was used to improve the model by neglecting the terms having an insignificant influence on the change of the roughness value. A series of experimental tests demonstrated that the error percentage between the estimated final model values and the experimentally measured values did not exceed 2.34%. The lowest roughness value Ra = 1.079 μm was obtained analytically by the optimal values of Gs = 4 and = 241.8 rpm. The study shows that it is possible to obtain a better performance of the centrifugal disk mass finishing process by optimizing these influential technological factors.
Keywords: centrifugal disk mass finishing; abrasive media; grain size; C45 steel; surface roughness; response surface methodology.
Influence on mechanical properties of hot pressed, solution treated and age hardened 21-4N ODS alloy developed through pre-alloyed powders
by R. Mariappan, Arun Prasad Murali, G. Dharmalingam, D. Siva Prakasham
Abstract: Austenitic stainless steels (21-4N) were developed from ferro alloys (ferro-chrome, ferro-nickel and ferro-manganese) with and without the addition of yttria by varying the weight percentages (0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 wt% respectively) to get the required composition of Fe-21Cr-4Ni-9Mn-0.5C-0.4Si by high energy ball milling for 10 hrs. The subsequent milled powders were vacuum hot pressed at 1200˚C with a pressure level of 56 MPa with a holding period of 2 hrs under the vacuum level of 10-2 torr. Hot pressed samples were solution treated at 1200
Keywords: 21-4N Austenitic stainless steel; Oxide dispersion strengthening; Mechanical alloying; Vacuum hot pressing; Solution treatment; Aging treatment.
Dry sliding wear behavior of A356-TiB2/TiC in-situ composites at ambient and elevated temperatures
by Ismail Kakaravada, Arumugam Mahamani, V. Pandurangadu
Abstract: A356-TiB2/TiC in-situ metal matrix composites have been developed through reactions between liquid aluminum and various chemicals, such as potassium hexa fluorotitanate (K2TiF6), potassium tetra fluoroborate (KBF4), and graphite (C), through flex assisted synthesis. In the present investigation, the distinct quantities of halide salts were added into molten aluminum to obtain 0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5% of TiB2/TiC-reinforced composites. The fabricated composites were examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) energy dispersive analysis (EDAX) X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and micro-hardness tests to evaluate the effects of adding the reinforcement. The wear behavior of A356-TiB2/TiC composites was studied using a pin-on-disk apparatus. The influence of Wt% of the reinforcement, sliding velocity, normal load, and temperature on wear rate (WR), coefficient of friction (COF), specific wear rate (SWR), and wear rate per unit Wt% of the reinforcement. The worn out surfaces of A356-TiB2/TiC composites were carefully analyzed with an SEM. TiB2 and TiC particles improved the wear resistance of composites at ambient and elevated temperatures. This result reveals that at elevated temperatures, the pure alloy was subjected to adhesive wear, whereas oxidation wear was more dominant in A356-TiB2/TiC composites.
Keywords: A356-TiB2/TiC in-situ composite; wear rate; coefficient of friction; specific wear rate; wear rate per unit Wt% of reinforcement; wear parameters; wear surface analysis; wear modes.
Influence of Sub-Zero Temperature Treatment on Wear and Microstructure of H13 Tool Steel
by Satish Kumar, Arunkumar Bongale, Priya Jadhav, Nitin Khedkar
Abstract: Tool life enhancement of commercially existing tool material is the topic of interest for many researchers. An attempt has been made in the current paper to increase the tool life of H13 tool steel by carrying out liquid nitrogen treatment procedure. The process is carried out by reducing the temperature to subzero level and keeping the specimens at that temperature for an extended duration of time. For the current study, the H13 tool steel specimens are treated using liquid nitrogen to bring down the temperature to -196 0C. Three different treatment durations are selected for the study, and they are 12, 24, and 36 hours. Once the treatment is complete, the specimens are tested for their wear resistance by conducting dry sliding wear test using pin-on-disc wear test setup. Treatment time, speed of the disc and load on the pin are the three variables that are used at different ranges to measure the wear resistance and the effect of variation of test parameters on the wear resistance of the treated specimens. Taguchi's Design of Experiments and ANOVA are used for the analysis purpose. Finally, the wear mechanism responsible wear of the specimens is analyzed using scanning electron microscopic analysis of the worn out specimen surfaces. The results indicate that liquid nitrogen treatment at -196 0C for different holding durations has linearly increased the wear resistance of the treated specimen and an increase in around 168% in wear resistance was observed in the 36 hours treated sample compared to 12 hours treated one. And also, the ANOVA of the test results indicate that the load on the pin and speed of the disc are less influential than the treatment duration during the dry sliding wear tests. The microstructure observations indicated that there were different wear mechanisms such as plastic deformation and peel-off, oxidation, and abrasion, which contributed to the wear of the specimen under different testing conditions.
Keywords: Liquid Nitrogen treatment; H13 tool steel; Microhardness; Wear Test; Taguchi approach; Wear Mechanism.
Mechanical properties of Fe+SiC metal matrix composite fabricated on stainless steel 304 by TIG coating process
by Anjani Kumar, Anil Kumar Das
Abstract: In this work, metal matrix composite (MMC) coatings were fabricated by tungsten inert gas (TIG) arcing process on stainless steel AISI 304 with iron (Fe) and silicon carbide (SiC) powder. The influence of ceramic (SiC) on the wear behavior and hardness of 10%, 20%, and 30% SiC by weight were investigated. XRD diffraction pattern revealed that the formation of metal silicide (NiSi, Fe2Si, CrSi2, and Ni3Si), iron carbide (Fe2C and Fe3C), and intermetallic compund (NiFe). EDX analysis confirmed the presence of Fe, Ni, Si, and C in coating. SEM was employed to investigate coating morphology and mode of wear mechanism. The magnified image reveals that fine-grained homogeneous structure has evolved in 20% -SiC, while agglomerated SiC particles in 30% -SiC coating due to improper dispersion of SiC in the coating during heating. Maximum microhardness was measured 663 HV0.1 in 30% -SiC and 660.5 HV0.1 in 20% -SiC; whereas average hardness was 507.7 HV0.1 and 499 HV0.1 respectively as compared to substrate hardness 220 HV0.1. Minimum wear loss was observed in 20% -SiC coating (wear height loss 301.5
Keywords: TIG coating,MMC; Microhardness; SEM-EDX; Friction and wear.
ANOVA and regression model of slurry erosion parameters of a polymeric spray paint film
by Mahmoud Heshmat, Yasser Abdelrahman
Abstract: In this paper, slurry erosion behavior of a polymeric paint film coated on steel and impacted with silica was investigated. The investigated spray paint is commonly used in automobile paint systems to provide protection against mechanical and corrosive damages. Slurry erosion tests were conducted on the designed samples to investigate the effect of the common slurry erosion parameters, namely, slurry concentration, impact angle, and impact velocity, on the mass loss of the paint material as a response. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to study the contribution of the individual parameters and investigate the significant effect of them on the mass loss of the paint material. Moreover, a regression model was developed based on the ANOVA results to predict the response (mass loss) in terms of different values of the input parameters. The developed regression model was validated with the experimental results and found to be feasible. The results revealed that the slurry erosion increases by increasing the slurry concentration and impact velocity. In addition, the rate of erosion increases with the increase of the impact angle until the angle reaches 66o. Furthermore, the ANOVA illustrated that slurry concentration and impact angle are the most significant parameters influencing the mass loss of the paint material, whilst the impact velocity had the less significant impact. The obtained statistical results were confirmed by conducting extra experimental works.
Keywords: Slurry erosion; ANOVA; regression; kendo.
Development and characterization of novel functionally graded hybrid of carbon-glass fibers
by Shamsher Singh, Sudhir Vummadisetti, Himanshu Chawla
Abstract: A functionally graded hybrid (FH) laminate has been developed using carbon and glass fibers bonded with epoxy resin. Carbon and glass fibers are dispersed layer wise in proportions throughout the laminate. The material characteristics of this laminate have been evaluated under tensile, compressive, and flexural loading conditions. Further, the properties of FH laminate are compared with sandwich and alternate hybrid laminates. In alternate hybrid laminates, carbon and glass fibers individually in alternate layers. The failure is similar as laminated composite specimens but functionally graded hybrids possess higher strength. Two types of specimens are fabricated, one with glass fiber in the core and carbon fiber on the surface and vice-versa among which specimens with glass fibers embedded in the core region performed better in terms of strength and stiffness. Analytical equations are developed based on the power law for material characterization of functionally graded hybrid composites. Stiffness and strength obtained from analytical equations show good agreement with experimental investigation. The elastic modulus, tensile and compressive strength of hybrid specimens are also determined using the rule of mixtures (ROM). It is observed that the strength and stiffness obtained from ROM is equivalent to the experimental results. It has been concluded that FH laminates have better performance in tension and compression in comparison to a sandwich hybrid, whereas sandwich hybrid laminates achieved better results in flexure. Therefore, it is noteworthy that functionally graded hybrid can replace conventional hybrids such as sandwich and alternate layers hybrid as far as uni-axial tensile or compressive strength is concerned.
Keywords: Alternate layer hybrid; functionally graded Composites; hybrid effect; sandwich hybrid.