International Journal of Materials Engineering Innovation (15 papers in press)
Investigation and Wear Analysis of Al-SiCp Nano Composites and Study of its Machinability using Electro Discharge Machining
by Pradyut Kumar Swain, Kasinath Das Mohapatra, Pratyush Kumar Swain, Ratnakar Das
Abstract: The present research work has been given the importance on proper distribution of silicon carbide nano particles with different volume fractions of 1%, 1.5% and 2% in the aluminium metal matrix. The paper also deals with the wear analysis of the developed Al-SiCp nano composite by using dry sliding wear test with pin on disc machine. XRD analysis of the Al-SiCp nano composite work material has been performed to determine the purity and grain size of the sample. The present work also focuses on metal matrix nano composites during Electric discharge machining (EDM) process using brass, aluminium and copper as tool electrodes. Electrode wear ratio (EWR) of the tool as well as material removal rate (MRR) of the workpiece has been determined and it was found that copper is the best and preferable electrode followed by aluminium and brass electrodes due to its higher MRR and lower EWR.
Keywords: Wear; Material removal rate; Electrode wear ratio; Electro Discharge Machining; XRD; Nano Composite; Purity; Grain size.
Influence of substrate bias on performance of diamond coating on WC cutting inserts for machining of aluminium by HFCVD process
by Dilip Kuma Sahu, Saroj Kumar Sarangi, Kakarla Udaya Sri
Abstract: The most important factors during deposition on different carbide base cutting tool inserts by using Hot Filament Chemical Vapour Deposition (HFCVD) method are nucleation and growth of diamond. The negative dc biasing is the most outstanding technique in HFCVD method for improving the nucleation on the substrate surface. In the present investigation, the main objective is to analyse the influence of bias voltage on the WC substrate for nucleation, growth, adhesion and quality of diamond coating along with evaluation of machining performance in dry environment. Finally it has been confirmed that higher nucleation density including good quality diamond coatings along with reduced cutting force and better work surface finish were achieved under a definite reaction pressure with negative substrate bias.
Keywords: nucleation; coating; substrate bias; adhesion.
Magnetoelectricity of Barium Titanate/Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles Incorporated into Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) Copolymer Films
Abstract: Incorporating ferroelectric and ferromagnetic nanoparticles into copolymers can produce composites with novel properties for broad applications especially in electronics. In this research, nanoparticles of barium titanate (BTO) and cobalt iron oxide (CFO) were chemically synthesized and then individually incorporated in Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) to form multi-layered magnetoelectric film. BTO-P(VDF-TrFE)/CFO-P(VDF-TrFE)/BTO-P(VDF-TrFE) sandwich type films -(20-30
Keywords: Multiferroics; Barium Titanate; Cobalt Ferrite; Magnetoelectric; Nanoparticles; Film.
Investigating the significance of SiC particle size on the mechanical properties of Cu-6Sn-SiC composite
by Karthik. V. Shankar, Mr Ajay Gosh, Sudhin C B, Arvind S. Pai, Akshay Biju, K.R. Sriram
Abstract: The existing research is to manufacture bronze metal matrix composite with varying average SiC particle size (30
Keywords: SiC particle size; Bronze metal matrix; mechanical properties; fracture; Cu-Sn.
Monitoring of Hole Quality in Friction Drilling using different Machine Learning Techniques
by Narayana Moorthy N, Kanish T.C
Abstract: The present investigation deals with monitoring the bush and collar formation during the friction drilling process of Be-Cu alloy. Being the aerospace-grade material having a combination of better mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, this alloy has been chosen for the study. As the alloys are usually subjected to extreme heat during the friction drilling process, they are often prone to damage in terms of alteration in the structure as well as irregular bush formation. Hence, monitoring the quality of the hole during the process becomes inevitable when it comes to the hard and tough materials like Be-Cu alloy. In the current study, the quality of the drilled hole was monitored using different machine learning (ML) techniques vis-
Keywords: Friction drilling; Bush formation; Wavelet Transform; Feature extraction; Classifiers.
Effect of Curing Degree on Thermal Properties of Epoxy Adhesive Layer in Laminating-Pressed Flexible Printed Circuit Panels
by Kok-Tee Lau, Hoi Ern Kok, Nur Hazirah Rosli
Abstract: The current paper investigates the feasibility of thermal characterisation to measure the difference in curing degrees of the adhesive layer of laminated copper-clad laminate (CCL) using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) according to IPC standards. Polyimide-epoxy adhesive coverlays were laminated onto both sides of the CCL at 120 kgf/cm2 pressure and 180
Keywords: flexible electronics; FPC; flexible printed circuit; flexible PCB; epoxy adhesive; coverlay lamination; thermal properties; curing degree; differential scanning calorimetry; DSC; thermogravimetric analysis; TGA; adhesive thickness; thickness measurement; IPC standards.
Friction and Wear Behavior of HVOF Sprayed Cr2O3-TiO2 Coatings on Aluminum Alloy
by Pradeep Kumar G S, Keshavamurthy R, Prabhu Akhil M, Kiran K, Mervin Thomas, Vijay Tambrallimath, Gurumoorthy S. Hebbar
Abstract: This study investigates the tribological behavior of Cr2O3-TiO2 composite coatings deposited on Aluminum 6061 alloy. Cr2O3-TiO2 composite coatings were deposited by High velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) technique. Developed coatings were subjected to microstructure studies, microhardness test (ASTM E92), friction and wear test (ASTM G99). Pin-on-disc machine was used to evaluate friction and wear characteristics of Cr2O3-TiO2 coatings. Effect of sliding velocity (0.314-1.26m/s) and load (20N-100N) on friction and wear characteristics of Cr2O3-TiO2 coatings were studied and compared with uncoated aluminum alloy. Results showed 54% improvement in hardness of Cr2O3-TiO2 coatings in comparison with aluminum alloy. Coefficient of friction and wear rate decreases by 12% and 48% respectively when evaluated with uncoated aluminum alloy. Coefficient of Friction (COF) and wear rate increases with increase in load and sliding velocity for both coatings and substrate. However, Cr2O3-TiO2 coatings showed lower wear rate and COF at all the loads and sliding velocities studied when compared with uncoated aluminum alloy. Worn out surfaces of uncoated and Cr2O3-TiO2 coated surfaces were subjected to SEM analysis to understand the wear mechanisms in composite coatings.
Keywords: HVOF Coatings; Cr2O3; TiO2; Al6061 alloy; friction and wear; Hardness.
Effect of Cu co-doping on the microstructure and optical properties of alumino-zinc thin films for optoelectronic applications
by Ali Abou Hammad1, Amany El Nahrawy, Doaa Atia, Hanaa El-madany, Abdelfatah Mansour
Abstract: The effect of copper (Cu) co-doping on the microstructure and optical properties of zinc aluminate (AZO) thin films have been investigated. The micro-structure of prepared (Cu/AZO) thin films were described by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (HR/SEM). The optical properties are studied via UV-Vis spectrophotometry system. The XRD shows a cubic crystalline phase of the pure film and the addition of Cu did not change the cubic structure in the doped films. The vibrational bands due to the CuO bond have been observed at 415- 851 cm-1 in the FTIR spectra of Cu/AZO films. HR-SEM shows that both pure and doped films are quite homogeneous with good connectivity and the grain boundaries increase with increasing Cu which leads to enhancement of densification and the crystallinity of the films. Optical investigations of Cu/AZO films show a decrease in the bandgap values from 3.87 eV to 3.83 eV with increasing of Cu contents.
Keywords: Co-doping; Microstructure; Optical properties; Alumino-zinc; AlZnO-Thin films; Optoelectronic.
Sol-gel preparation of bioactive nanoporous (Al2O3: CuO: SiO2): dielectric properties and wastewater decontamination
by Amany El Nahrawy, Bahaa Hemdan, Ahmed Ali, Ahmed Youssef, Ali Abou Hammad
Abstract: The morphological and dielectric properties of bioactive sol-gel alumino-copper silicate nanoporous are characterized. It characterized by sharp diffraction peaks confirming the high crystallinity. Alumino-copper silicate was utilized as a disinfecting agent for wastewater disinfection. The growth inhibitory effect of alumino-copper silicate sanitizer was investigated against various categories of microbial pathogens. Toxicity assay of fabricated alumino-copper silicate nanoporous was measured. The acquired results disclosed that target pathogenic microbes in the raw wastewater sample have been inactivated when subjected to 100 mg/L of fabricated alumino-copper silicate. Likewise, results could not discover any deleterious and poisonous influences for the Vibrio fischeri bacterium and HEp-2 cell line of such nanostructures subsequently, it will be safe for use in water treatment. This investigation, therefore, recommends that the prepared alumino-copper silicate could be considered a future substitute marvelous and sustained-active disinfectant for the production of pathogenic free treated wastewater for recycling in many different applications.
Keywords: Bioactive silicate-nanoporous; aluminosilicate; pathogenic microbes; MIC; toxicity; decontamination; wastewater management.
DEVELOPMENT AND WEAR RESISTANCE EVALUATION OF EPOXY RESIN COMPOSITE REINFORCED WITH COW HORN AND CORN COB
by Olamide Ariwoola, John Taiwo, Taiwo Abioye, Isiaka Oladele
Abstract: In this work, epoxy resin composites reinforced with varying compositions (0-20 wt.%) of cow horn (CH) and corn cob (CC) particles were developed. The microstructure, hardness and wear resistance of the composites were investigated. The microstructure analysis revealed that the CC appeared to be fibre-like while the CH appeared as particles in the epoxy resin matrix. The particles content and distribution were enhanced as the CH composition in the composites increased. Compared to the unreinforced sample, the composite started showing improvement in hardness at 6 wt.% CH content (10.1 HV). This increased with increase in CH content and maximum was found at 20 wt.% CH (18.6 HV). CC additions have no considerable influence on the composite hardness. The entire composites exhibited lower wear rate compared with the epoxy resin sample. The least wear rate was found at 20 wt.% CH. CH reinforcement enhanced the composite wear properties than the CC.
Keywords: Polymer composites; Epoxy resin; Agro-waste products; Reinforcements; Wear resistance; Hardness; Microstructure; Cow horn; Corn cob; Stir casting.
Corrosive Nature of the Wetting Behavior Modified AISI 304 Stainless Steel with a Surface Microgroove
by K. Sureshvarr, Kannan R, Abhilash Kumar Nair , Sairam Krishna R, Yaswanth Varikuti , Abhishek Gollapalli , Sivashanmugam P
Abstract: Corrosive nature of the stainless steel surfaces causes material losses which, in turn, affects the structural stability of structure. The corrosion of AISI304 surfaces can be controlled by decreasing the contact between the aqueous corrosive media and the material surface. The modifications in corrosion of AISI304 surfaces were investigated experimentally by enabling small surface area of 5 mm by 5 mm cross section of material surface using single microgroove of different sizes and shapes such as U, V, and inverted cut cone. In addition to superhydrophobic behavior of modified area, the liquid drop established anisotropic wetting behavior, i.e., the static contact angle of the liquid drop is higher in the direction perpendicular to groove than the one measured in the direction of groove. The static contact angle was found to decrease with increase in geometrical parameter of the groove, i.e., the ratio between the groove width to groove depth. This behavior, in turn, increased the contact area of the liquid drop. The corrosion measurements such as corrosion current, polarization resistance, and corrosion rate have been carried out using potentiodynamic polarization clearly indicate a relationship with wetting behavior by the liquid drop and geometrical parameter of the single microgroove.
Keywords: corrosion resistance; wetting; physical microstructure; superhydrophobicity; linear polarization.
Fabrication and Tribological Studies of Al-CSA Composite Using RSM
by Siva Sankara Raju R, Venkata Siva B
Abstract: Aluminium based metal matrix composite (AMC) is prepared from coconut shell ash particles (CSA) and investigated the tribological performance of the prepared composites. Al-CSA composite is fabricated via stir casting route and tested tribological performance with Pin-on -Disc tester. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on 24 face central composite factorial design (CCF) has been employed for design of experiments. The effect of operating variables such as normal pressure (A - Kg/cm2), % of CSA (B - Vol. %)), sliding distance (C -m) and sliding velocity (D m/s) on the wear rate (Wr - mm3/m) and coefficient of friction (CF) have been analyzed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test reveals that normal pressure is the major influencing variable on wear rate and coefficient of friction. Interaction plots revealed that, wear rate of composite increased with an increase in pressure and sliding distance due to severe plastic deformation, delamination and decohesion of particles. Also, wear rate increased with sliding velocity up to 1.4m/s and then decreased due to the effect of work hardening, likewise, wear rate increased by increasing volume of CSA, owing to hardness of the composite. Regression analysis revealed that, normal pressure has the positive effect on coefficient of friction and the other three variables have a negative effect. Confirmatory tests are conducted and observed that, the error of the regression model is within the range of acceptance, i.e. 5%.
Keywords: Coconut shell Ash; Wear rate; Coefficient of friction; ANOVA; CCF; RSM.
Utilization of Fly Ash (FA) by Synthesizing FA-ZnO Composite as Semiconducting Material
by S.S. Panda, H.P. Tripathy, P. Pattanaik, D.K. Mishra, S.K. Kamilla
Abstract: In consideration to synthesize low value added fly ash (FA) to high value added product, an attempt has been carried out to synthesizecomposite materials having semiconducting properties out of the mixture of industrial waste fly ash (FA)and zinc oxide (ZnO). A series of FA-ZnOnanocompositeswith the variation of FA and ZnO have been synthesized by chemical route followed by sintering at 1300?C to produce the end product. To confer the end product, structural (XRD, FTIR) and surface morphological (TEM) studies have been carried out to identify the formation of the nanocomposites. pH level studies has been undertaken to find the feasibility of the prepared composites for different electrochemical bio sensing applications. The optical (UV-VIS) and electrical (IV) characterizations have been carried out to realize the semiconducting nature of the prepared sample. The obtained band gaps of the prepared materials are varying from 2.51 eV to 3.09 eVdepending on the fly ash content in ZnO.
Keywords: Fly ash; Zinc oxide; XRD; TEM; FTIR; UV-VIS.
Selection of materials formulation for non-asbestos friction materials using multi-criteria decision making (MCDM)
by Dinesh Shinde, Mukesh Bulsara, K N Mistry
Abstract: Friction materials (FM) should possess higher & stable coefficient of friction at the same time should have high resistance to wear sustained at higher temperature too. In order to develop a friction material exhibiting many functional requirements, one should think from different viewpoints, which gives motivation for use of multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) in selection of materials formulation for the friction materials. In this work, three material formulations (CSP0, CSP15, & CSP30) for friction materials and specimens were prepared as per industry standards. The FMs were subjected to a standard friction material quality test procedure named as Chase friction test under controlled condition as recommended by SAE J661. The results of the chase test were interpreted for two fade & recovery cycles through different attributes crucial to thermal behavior of the FMs and the test data was used in multi-criteria decision making for the selection of best material formulation using Grey Relation Analysis (GRA). To understand the surface wear behavior of the materials, tested samples were subjected to microstructural analysis using SEM/EDS. It is concluded that the materials formulations are ranked as CSP30
Keywords: Friction materials; Fade & recovery; GRA; SEM; EDS.
Influence of Al, Fe, and Cu on the microstructure, diffused reflectance, THz, and dielectric properties for ZnTiO3 nanocrystalline
by Ahmed Bakr, Ali B. Abou Hammad, Ahmed R. Wasswl, Amany M. El Nahrawy, A. M. Mansour
Abstract: Structural, diffused reflectance, THz, and dielectric features of spinel ZnTiO3 doped with (5 mol.% of Al, Cu, and Fe) prepared using the sol-gel and calcined at 800 oC have been investigated. The Al, Cu, and Fe can replace the titanium ions and form sols solutions in the ZnTiO3 phase, and the spectroscopic and dielectric of the ZnTiO3 peaks changed with the dopant addition. X-ray diffraction patterns elucidate the creation of the ZnTiO3 rhombohedral phase, while the introduction of Al and Fe within the ZnTiO3 structure is composed of two phases identified as cubic phase Zn2TiO4 structure and TiO2 besides the rhombohedral of zinc-titanate. The various dopants induce a surface morphology modification observed by SEM. Diffusive reflection for ZnTiO3 doped Al, Cu, and Fe indicated higher transparent over the wavelength 400 nm which making them a choice as excellent transparent semiconductor oxides for different optoelectronic applications. The electric modulus has the least values nearly reach zero at low frequency denoting that a neglected contribution of electrode polarization to the total polarization. THz and dielectric performance of a material is closely related to its composition and microstructure.
Keywords: ZnTiO3-perovskite; Sol-gel method, Diffused reflectance; Terahertz, Dielectric