International Journal of Materials Engineering Innovation (18 papers in press)
Optimization of Gaseous Nitriding Process Parameters for Hard Surface Layer of Duplex Stainless Steel
by Md Abdul Maleque, Lailatul Harina, Norinsan Kamil Othman, M.M. Rahman
Abstract: The optimization for gaseous nitriding process parameters of duplex stainless steel was performed using Taguchi approach. The nitiridng process parameters of temperature, time and gas mixture ratio of NH3 and N2 are considered as input parameters. Three responses are chosen which are surface hardness, wear weight loss and coefficient of friction. The optimum process parameters for surface hardness and coefficient of friction are similar with 550
Keywords: Optimization; duplex stainless steel; Taguchi method; hard surface layer; nitriding.
Experimental investigation on the effect of multilayer TiCN/TiAlN/WC-C coating on the tribological behaviour of tool inserts for machining applications
by Moganapriya Chinnasamy, Rajasekar Rathanasamy, Ponappa Kannayiram, Sathish Kumar Palaniappan, Samir Kumar Pal, Mahalakshmi Somasundaram, Gobinath Velu Kaliyannan
Abstract: Coating on cutting tool insert is one of the important approaches in improving the friction and wear resistance properties for machining applications. The study investigates the effect of sliding speed and applied normal load on the wear and frictional behavior of pure and coated (single layer Titanium Carbo Nitride (TiCN), bilayer Titanium Aluminium Nitride/Tungsten Carbide/Carbide (TiAlN/WC-C), multilayer (TiCN/TiAlN/WC-C)) tool inserts. Dry sliding wear and friction tests were performed using pin-on-disc tribometer. All the deposited coatings were subjected to three different sliding speeds (1.0 m/s, 1.5 m/s and 2.5 m/s) and three different loads (5 N, 10 N and 15 N) against silicon carbide sliding counterpart for the running time duration of 1200 s. Hardness and surface roughness of the inserts were investigated through Vickers micro hardness tester and surface roughness tester respectively. Higher hardness (25.83 GPa) and lower surface roughness (0.219
Keywords: Multilayer coating; PVD; Friction; Wear.
An Experimental Study of Tribological Behaviors of Aluminium- and Copper-Based Metal Matrix Composites for Bearing Applications
by Vipin Kumar Sharma, Ramesh Chandra Singh, Rajiv Chaudhary
Abstract: To improve the tribological properties for journal bearing materials, composites have been developed in this work. Copper-Aluminium (Cu-Al), Copper-Phosphorous (Cu-P), Aluminium-Flyash (Al-F), and Copper- Lead (Cu-Pb) composites were produced with stir casting method. Pin on disc experiments were performed in a starved lubrication condition for the evaluation of wear and coefficient of friction between the composite pins and mild steel disc. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were obtained for the worn composite samples to study the wear behavior. In this experimental study, Copper-Phosphorous exhibits better tribological properties as compared to the conventional Copper-Lead. However, The Aluminium-Flyash composite resulted in the lowest coefficient of friction and highest wear among all considered composite materials.
Keywords: metal matrix composites; starved lubrication; aluminium; copper; wear; friction; pin on disc.
Application of Interpretive Structural Modelling for analysis of factors influencing Composite fabrication using Additive Manufacturing
by Shwetha S Kumar, S. Vinodh
Abstract: Additive Manufacturing (AM) applications are being increasingly witnessed in composite fabrication. This study is essential to determine the factors which influence AM processes so that they can be optimized. In this context, this article presents a study in which 19 factors influencing AM for composite fabrication is realized. A structural model is developed based on Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) approach and the dominant factors are being identified. MICMAC analysis is being done to categorize the factors. Results showed that 5 out of the 19 factors are dependent factors while 10 are independent factors.
Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Composite fabrication; Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM); MICMAC analysis; Factors.
Wear and Corrosion behavior of titanium carbide reinforced metal matrix composites for automobile brake disc application
by Sivananth Varatharajan, Karuppusamy P, Lingadurai K
Abstract: The wear and corrosion behaviour of Aluminum Silicon (Al-Si ) alloy with titanium carbide(TiC) as reinforcement were investigated in this article. Initially automobile brake discs were fabricated by stir casting method with 10 wt.% TiC in Al-Si alloy. A small part cut from the automobile brake shoe used as a pin to slide against MMC and Cast iron in dry condition. The load and velocity varied accordingly to simulate the vehicle running condition. It was found from the results that the wear resistance and coefficient of friction for TiC reinforced MMC is better than the grey cast iron material. SEM analysis shows that wear debris form a built-up transfer layers at higher loads in MMC. An artificial neural network (ANN) model using back propagation network was developed in this study to predict the wear. The observed results showed that the experimental values of wear agrees very closely with ANN results. Frictional heating parameter is also calculated to determine how effectively the load and sliding speed converted into heat during the wear test. The corrosion tests were carried out in 3.5 wt.% NaCl environment to study the effect of TiC addition (3, 7 and 10 wt.% ) on Al-Si matrix. Potentiodynamic polarisation measurements exhibits that the corrosion resistance decreased with increasing TiC weight percentage. SEM analysis showed more nos. of corrosion spots in samples with 10 wt. % of TiC revealed that the presence of reinforcement in matrix affect the corrosion rate
Keywords: wear; corrosion; TiC; brake disc.
Analysis of Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of AA-7068/TiC MMCs
by POPPATHI NARESH, Syed Altaf Hussain, B. Durga Prasad
Abstract: Metal matrix composites are finding its increased applications in various engineering fields such as aerospace, automobiles, and other industries due to its low density and excellent wear resistant. This paper presents the influence of sliding velocity, applied load, rotational speed on wear behavior of AA-7068 alloy is used as a matrix material and reinforced with Titanium Carbide (TiC). The Metal matrix Composites (MMCs) was developed by stir casting technique, with various weight fraction of reinforcement varied from 0 to 10 wt.% in steps of 2wt.% and the test specimens were prepared as per ASTM G95-99 standards. The wear behavior was investigated by performing dry sliding test on pin-on-disc tester. Experiments are planned and conducted as per central composite design (CCD). The data collected was statistically analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and a quadratic model has been developed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in terms of process parameters. The results indicated that the developed model is suitable for the prediction of wear. The micro structural analysis was carried out using SEM, EDX and XRD analysis confirmed the presence of Al and TiC with the composite, which revealed fairly uniform distribution of reinforcement in a matrix. The experimental results reveal that the rotational speed has the highest influence followed by applied load on wear. MMC with 6 wt. % of TiC composite has low wear than that of other composite systems considered in this investigation.
Keywords: Stir casting route; Wear; RSM; SEM; EDS; X-RD;.
Effect of parameters depth of cut and feed rate on the resistance to pitting corrosion of AISI 1018 steel
by Carlos Díaz-Campoverde
Abstract: Corrosion is a process that affects all materials, especially steels that are exposed to corrosive environments. The objective of this study is to establish the relationship between the surface quality conditions of AISI 1018 steel from various combinations of cutting parameters and pitting corrosion. Twelve steel samples were turned by applying different cutting parameters. After that, the specimens were characterized by roughness, microhardness as well as their microstructure. Subsequently, the surfaces of the samples were immersed in a 6% ferric chloride solution for three days at 22
Keywords: Plastic deformation; AISI 1018; surface integrity; accelerated corrosion; depth penetration.
INVESTIGATION ON THE EFFECT OF ALUMINIUM FOAM MADE OF A413 ALUMINIUM ALLOY THROUGH STIR CASTING AND INFILTRATION TECHNIQUES
by Karuppasamy Ramasamy, Milon Selvam Dennison
Abstract: The objective of this research work is to manufacture lightweight aluminium cellular structure through stir casting and infiltration technique from base metal alloy aluminium A413. In stir casting technique, along with the molten base metal alloy foaming agent calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is mixed with different compositions, thorough mixing yielded metal foam and in case of infiltration technique the base metal alloy is mixed with different compositions of sodium chloride (NaCl) particles which act as a space holder in the fabrication of the metal foam. Properties such as density, the percentage of porosity, compressive strength and microstructure are analyzed for the metal foam produced with both the techniques. The study revealed that the addition of the NaCl as a space holder increases the percentage of porosity and decreases the density of the foam in comparison with CaCO3.
Keywords: Aluminium foam; Stir casting; Foaming agent; Infiltration; Microstructure.
Effect of hot extrusion on the characteristics of an Mg-3.0Zn-0.7Zr-1.0Cu alloy produced by powder metallurgy
by Suneesh Eacherath, M. Sivapragash
Abstract: The present study investigates the effect of hot extrusion on the physical, mechanical, and metallurgical characteristics of an as-extruded Mg-3.0Zn-0.7Zr-1.0Cu alloy. The Mg-3.0Zn-0.7Zr-1.0Cu samples were prepared through a powder metallurgy process which was followed by hot extrusion at 500
Keywords: Magnesium alloy; powder processing; hot extrusion; mechanical properties; dynamic recrystallization; grain refinement.
Nano-Porous oxide deposition on Titanium Alloy (Grade-5) to enhance its biocompatibility along with Tribological and Mechanical Analysis
by Anil Kumar
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to explicate the results concerning the surface modification of titanium grade-5 via anodization in a sulfuric acid electrolyte. Fabrication of nanoporous oxide film structure over titanium substrate is the key requirement of this study and after anodization realized remarkable wear-resisting strength along with improved surface hardness as compared to the untreated metal substrate. The consequence of anodizing parameters for instance voltage, time, electrolytic concentration, anodic current density are monitored to determine their optimum values. Phase analysis and morphological survey of the anodized surface has been performed by XRD and SEM respectively. A nanoporous structure appeared at 0.4 M whereas XRD analysis exposed that a phase transformation from anatase to rutile occurs at 0.5 M of H2SO4. A pin-on-disc type wear test practiced to determine the wear-resisting strength of the oxide surface and showed accumulated oxide layer significantly enhance wear-resisting strength, especially abrasive wear. SEM analysis performed after wear test evident that fracture on a larger scale occurs and that large flakes are removed from the surface. Performed work raises the chances for utilization of the nanostructured titania and make it more reliable and adaptable for further engineering as well as biomedical applications.
Keywords: Surface Modification; XRD; SEM; Titania; Tribometer test.
Study of AA-1050 sheet metal parts processed by single point incremental forming with dummy sheet
by Vikas Sisodia, Shailendra Kumar
Abstract: The present paper describes an experimental study of AA-1050 sheet metal part processed by single point incremental forming (SPIF) with dummy sheet. Influence of process parameters namely step-down size, tool size, feed rate, dummy sheet thickness and forming angle on surface roughness of formed part is investigated. From the analysis of results, it is observed that step-down size, tool size, dummy sheet thickness and forming angle are significant process parameter and feed rate is insignificant. Surface roughness decreases with increase in tool size, dummy sheet thickness and forming angle; while it increases with increase in step-down size. Based on experimentation and analysis of results, a mathematical model to predict surface roughness is developed. Further, optimization is performed on the basis of desirability function to minimize surface roughness. Also, optimization algorithm namely genetic algorithm and simulated annealing available in MATLAB optimization tool box is applied to find out the optimum surface roughness. Experimental results are found to be in good agreement with results predicted by the developed mathematical model.
Keywords: Single point incremental forming; SPIF; Dummy sheet; Tool size; Surface roughness; Optimization.
Statistical modeling and optimization of the factors affecting the surface roughness of C45 steel treated by the centrifugal disk mass finishing process
by KAMEL DJENDER, KHALED HAMOUDA, MOURAD KEDDAM, MOHAMED HOCEME EDDINE AMROU
Abstract: The goal of this study was to find the optimal conditions for improving the surface roughness profile of the C45 steel treated by the centrifugal disk mass finishing process. The influential technological factors selected for this study were the grain size of the abrasive media (Gs), the rotational speed of the disc () and the loading volume of the working chamber (V). In order to optimize its parameters and describe the variation of the roughness (Ra), a regression model was developed with the response surface methodology (RSM). The model was validated with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a descriptive quality estimated to 98%. The Student test was used to improve the model by neglecting the terms having an insignificant influence on the change of the roughness value. A series of experimental tests demonstrated that the error percentage between the estimated final model values and the experimentally measured values did not exceed 2.34%. The lowest roughness value Ra = 1.079 μm was obtained analytically by the optimal values of Gs = 4 and = 241.8 rpm. The study shows that it is possible to obtain a better performance of the centrifugal disk mass finishing process by optimizing these influential technological factors.
Keywords: centrifugal disk mass finishing; abrasive media; grain size; C45 steel; surface roughness; response surface methodology.
Influence on mechanical properties of hot pressed, solution treated and age hardened 21-4N ODS alloy developed through pre-alloyed powders
by R. Mariappan, Arun Prasad Murali, G. Dharmalingam, D. Siva Prakasham
Abstract: Austenitic stainless steels (21-4N) were developed from ferro alloys (ferro-chrome, ferro-nickel and ferro-manganese) with and without the addition of yttria by varying the weight percentages (0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 wt% respectively) to get the required composition of Fe-21Cr-4Ni-9Mn-0.5C-0.4Si by high energy ball milling for 10 hrs. The subsequent milled powders were vacuum hot pressed at 1200˚C with a pressure level of 56 MPa with a holding period of 2 hrs under the vacuum level of 10-2 torr. Hot pressed samples were solution treated at 1200
Keywords: 21-4N Austenitic stainless steel; Oxide dispersion strengthening; Mechanical alloying; Vacuum hot pressing; Solution treatment; Aging treatment.
Special Issue on: Innovations in Manufacturing for the Engineering of Modern Materials
Optimization of Drilling Parameters for Minimum Circularity Error in FRP Composite
by Dinesh Shinde
Abstract: In composite materials, the damage is characterized by the delamination and circularity error of drilled holes. The amount of delamination and circularity error depends on different ma-chining parameters such as spindle speed, feed Rate, and plate thickness. The present paper attempts to investigate an optimal combination of process parameters for drilling of compo-site laminates. The work is carried out on industrial grade FRP composite laminates with varying process parameters. The experiments are designed using a Box-Behnken design,' grounded in the response surface methodology. Circularity error is considered as the output response as it is prominent in the drilling of composite laminates. ANOVA test is carried out to find the significance of the input parameters and test the empirical model. The effect of input parameters on the amount of circularity error is also investigated. Genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to predict the optimal settings of input machining parameters.
Keywords: Box-Behnken design (BBD); FRP Composite; Response surface methodology (RSM); GA; PSO.
A Comprehensive Modelling, Analysis and Optimization of Adhesive Bonded Single Lap Glass Fiber Reinforced Composite Joints
by Hanumantharaya Rangaswamy, Irappa Sogalad, BASAVARAJAPPA S., Manjunath Patel G C
Abstract: This paper presents a detailed study on failure load and shear strength of adhesive bonded single lap glass fiber reinforced composite joints. The Composite laminates were prepared by conventional hand-layup method, and thus prepared joints were tested against tensile load according to ASTM D5868 standard. Taguchi L27 orthogonal array with four factors (adhesive thickness, overlap length, surface roughness, and adherend thickness) operating at three levels was used for conducting experiments and collected the failure load and shear strength data. The results reveal that all the factors are influencing, but adhesive thickness being the most dominant and surface roughness has less dominant on failure load and shear strength of adhesive bonded single lap glass fiber reinforced composite joints. Response surface plots shows that surface roughness being less dominant, wherein its interaction with overlap length is found to be significant for failure load. The adherend thickness and overlap length interactions also helps to produce stronger joints. Multi objective particle swarm optimization based on crowding distance (MOPSO-CD) was used to optimize the bi-objective functions (failure load and shear strength) simultaneously under the input variable constraints. The fitness value obtained for multi objective functions were found to be close to unity (i.e., 0.944). The confirmation tests were conducted for optimized conditions to know the appropriateness of the MOPSO-CD tool. It has been found that at the optimized conditions the improvement is 52.94% and 61.12% respectively for failure load and shear strength.
Keywords: Bonded joints; Glass fiber; Epoxy resin; MOPSO-CD algorithm.
Morphological Evaluation of Ultra low-density Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) Microcellular Plastic Developed through Cyclic Foaming Technique
by Abhishek Gandhi
Abstract: In this article, the cyclic microcellular foaming technique has been employed to develop low-density Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) Microcellular foamed composite material. Influence of saturation pressures both at the first as well as at second saturation stage were evaluated for its effect on the morphological attributes as well as on the foam density in the eventual microcellular foamed composites. Further, the cell collapse phenomenon which can be predominant in many conditions were analysed in depth by utilizing scanning electron micrographs. With the increase in the saturation pressures at stage 1 of sorption, it was found to reduce the foam density considerably, however, in the second stage, the sorption property got significantly reduced and the overall expansion ratio was also reported to reduce. The average cell size is approximately 150
Keywords: Microcellular; Foam; PMMA; Cyclic; cellular polymers.
Mechanical and Wear Characterization of Modern Hybrid Composite Material
by Gurpreet Singh
Abstract: In this research, stir casting technique was employed for composite fabrication. AA6082 alloy alongside Al2O3 particles with 5% weight and nano-SiC (n-SiC) particles with weight percentage of 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% were used as the constituent materials. Effects of n-SiC were investigated on the hardness, tensile strength and dry sliding wear behaviour of AA6082/5 wt.% Al2O3/ x wt.% n-SiC (x = 0, 3, 6 and 9) hybrid composites. Speed of 1m/s and normal load of 10N and 30N are used for experimental trials. The sliding distance was kept as 3200 m and the rotational velocity was kept as 400 rpm for the whole test run. The result demonstrates significant improvements in tensile strength and hardness of the hybrid composites. It was found that the wear decreases with the addition of SiC, whereas the normal load contributes in higher loss of material. Furthermore, SEM analysis shows the presence of abrasion and delamination wear in the hybrid composites.
Keywords: AA6082/ 5 wt.% Al2O3/ x wt.% n-SiC; Hardness; Tensile strength; Wear Behaviour; Worn surface.
Artificial Neural Network Modeling and Analysis of Carbon Nanopowder mixed Micro Wire Electro Discharge Machining of Gold Coated doped Silicon
by Sams Jarin, Tanveer Saleh
Abstract: In this article, an effort has been made to machine gold coated doped Silicon (Si) wafer using micro wire electro discharge machining or uWEDM process in the presence of Carbon(C) Nanopowder mixed dielectric oil. Effects of uWEDM parameters namely voltage, capacitance, powder concentration and coating thickness on average surface roughness (ASR), material removal rate (MRR) and spark gap (SG) have been analyzed. All the three output parameters, i.e. material removal rate (MRR), spark gap (SG) and average surface roughness (ASR) were found to follow the parabolic trend with the variation of the nanopowder concentration. SG and ASR both were observed to be increased with the coating thickness. However, MRR was decreased with the same. The reason could be due to the fact that higher coating thickness could have caused abrupt large spark to trigger false short circuit detection, hence the machining rate became slower. Artificial neural network models separately for each individual response have been developed. The performance of the model was tested with independent experimental results. The overall model prediction was found to be in good agreement (average error less than 10%) with the experimental results for the corresponding input process parameters. The best surface roughness 28 nm has been obtained for Si wafer machined by uWEDM.
Keywords: uWEDM; Nano Powder; Silicon; Artificial neural network; Conductive coating.