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International Journal of Materials Engineering Innovation

International Journal of Materials Engineering Innovation (IJMatEI)

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International Journal of Materials Engineering Innovation (29 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Analysis optimization of machining aspects and wear characterization of Al6061 reinforced with SiC and Graphite   Order a copy of this article
    by Balasubramanya H. S, Nagesh B. V, Prasanna N. D, Yogesha Lakkegowda, Aradhya S. M 
    Abstract: Aluminium alloy confirming to Al6061 specifications was reinforced with 3%, 6%, and 9% SiC in powder form along with 1% graphite powder by weight basis. Stir casting route was employed to prepare the specimen. Micro structure examination and mechanical properties such as UTS, hardness measurements were carried out. Wear studies in the dry sliding condition were carried out using standard pin-on-disc apparatus confirming to ASTM G99 specifications. The structural examination revealed a uniform dispersion of the reinforcement. Tensile strength and hardness values increased with concentration of SiC. Wear resistance is improved with higher amounts of reinforcement. Decrease in the wear rate is observed with addition of graphite. Regression analysis was carried out for assessment of wear and the wear rate was obtained. The contribution of input parameters on the wear rate has been determined using ANOVA. Model and experimental data compare well with each other.
    Keywords: Al6061; SiC; graphite; metal matrix composites; MMC; wear; hardness; tensile strength; universal testing machine.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2022.10047995
  • Influence of Process Parameters on KERF Properties of GFRP with Abrasive Water Jet Machining   Order a copy of this article
    by Anil Kumar Dahiya, B.K. Bhuyan, Puneet Kumar, Sachin Salunkhe, Shailendra Kumar 
    Abstract: Abrasive water jet machine (AWJM) is used in industries to remove and shape the composite materials and other hard-to-cut engineering materials. In this study, experimental investigation on glass fibre reinforced polymers (GFRP) using AWJ machine for cutting performance is discussed. There are various factors which influence the quality of the surface in AWJM. Water pressure, traverse speed, standoff distance, and abrasive mass flow rate are only several of the variables evaluated in this paper. Minitab 18’s Taguchi technique is utilised to design the experiment, and ANOVA is performed to determine the significance and impact of process factors on responses.
    Keywords: abrasive water jet machine; AWJM; kerf taper; surface roughness; ANOVA; glass fibre reinforced polymers; GFRP.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2022.10047996
  • Study of Substitution of Carburized16MnCr5 used in Sub-Axis of Machine Tool Spindle by Carbonitrided Steel   Order a copy of this article
    by Mir Nariman Yoozbashi 
    Abstract: The focus of the current study is using carbonitrided 16MnCr5 instead carburised steel in the sub-axis of machine tool spindles by investigation on the impact fracture toughness and fatigue strength of 16MnCr5 steel. Samples after preparation, were surface treated by carburising and carbonitriding treatments. The characteristics of toughness and fatigue were presented through impact test and rotating bending fatigue machine. To clarify toughness variation mechanisms, and relation with microstructure, observations of microstructure and fracture surfaces carried out by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Microhardness tests and roughness were evaluated by using equipment. The experimental results showed that, carburised and carbonitrided specimens are relatively similar in properties such as microstructure feature and how to fracture and differ in properties such as hardness distribution, depth of hardened layer, impact energy and roughness. In general, it can be claimed that in the spindle sub-axis, carbonitriding treatment is a good alternative to carburising.
    Keywords: 16MnCr5; carburising; carbonitriding; spindle; microstructure; mechanical properties.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2022.10047997
  • A study on the sustainable machining of AISI 630 stainless steel under minimum quantity lubrication   Order a copy of this article
    by Sivakumar Subramani, N.M. Sivaram, Narendra Laxman Gajbhiye 
    Abstract: In this study, experiments were performed by changing the cutting velocity, feed rate, depth of cut, and type of machining [flood, dry and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL)] to evaluate the MQL system’s influence in turning AISI 630 (17-4 PH) stainless steel. Servocut
    Keywords: machining; steel; minimum quantity lubrication; MQL; sustainable machining; surface roughness; turning; optimisation; mineral oil.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10048811
  • Biomaterials for Artificial Knee Joint Replacement: A Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Omar Hussain, Babar Ahmad, Shahid Saleem 
    Abstract: Human knee works under lubrication conditions that are characterised as boundary or mixed lubrication. In these situations, the joint suffers from starved lubrication provided by the synovial fluid. Over an extended period of time, this starved lubrication causes excessive wear and leads to osteoarthritis. Biomedical implants are gaining increasing attention nowadays to improve the working lifespan of artificial implants like hip and knee joints. This stems from the fact that friction and wear are the key factors affecting the life of artificial joints. In this review, we discuss the processes affecting the normal functioning of the joint. In this model, we also discuss the materials used for the orthopaedic industry and the problems which lead to the failure of the same. The possibilities of improving the life span of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) are also discussed as UHMWPE is the gold in the orthopaedic industry.
    Keywords: knee joint; osteoarthritis; UHMWPE; polymer-based composites; artificial joints.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10048812
  • An anisotropy study on microstructure and tensile strength of silicon carbide and graphite particle reinforced AZ91D hybrid composite   Order a copy of this article
    by Packia Antony Amalan A, N.M. Sivaram 
    Abstract: This present study aimed to evaluate the anisotropy property on microstructure and tensile strength of produced hybrid composite. To produce the hybrid composite, SiC (5 wt.%) and Gr (1 wt.%) were added with AZ91D alloy. The samples were prepared through the stir-casting. The samples in as-cast and ageing heat treated (T6) conditions were evaluated for microstructural, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and ductility. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) was applied to evaluate the microstructural and fracture behaviour of the materials. Tensile stress-strain curves of the prepared samples were studied both in longitudinal and transverse directions. In the longitudinal direction, the maximum obtained UTS, YS and ductility are 171 MPa, 69 MPa and 5.47%; similarly, 116 MPa, 43 MPa and 4.33% respectively obtained in the transverse direction heat-treated composite (T6). Maximum reported anisotropy on UTS was 35.94% for as-cast composite and on YS was 37.68% for T6-composite.
    Keywords: magnesium; tensile properties; hybrid composite; anisotropy; longitudinal direction; transverse direction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10048813
  • Modelling Frictional noise using Artificial neural network and Regression: The case of steel on steel reciprocating sliding   Order a copy of this article
    by Mir Mohsin John, M. Hanief 
    Abstract: The present work investigates the influence of the operating parameters on the frictional noise during reciprocating sliding of steel on steel using a ball-on-disc configuration. All the experiments were carried out in an anechoic chamber to mitigate the effect of surrounding noise to arrive at reliable frictional noise measurements during sliding experiments. The experimental outcomes reveal that the frictional noise increases with increase in surface roughness, frequency and the applied load. The regression and artificial neural network models were developed using the data generated by experimentation. The artificial neural network model predicts the frictional noise more accurately and closely to the experimental results as compared to the regression models. It has been found that the MSE, MAPE and R2 for the ANN model are 0.001100, 1.35 and 0.98385 respectively, while the corresponding values for the 2nd order regression model are 0.0661, 4.07 and 0.8995, respectively.
    Keywords: frictional noise; surface roughness; modelling; regression; artificial neural network; ANN; contour interpolation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10048814
  • Experimental analysis of compressive properties of arrowhead auxetic structure made by Fused Deposition Modeling process   Order a copy of this article
    by Harshit Dave, Ashish Prajapati, Ankit Kumar Nikum, Mihir Panchal, Sagar Macwan, Hardeep Singh, Saptarishi Pandey 
    Abstract: Since the 1980s, a new class of materials has been discovered called auxetic materials. These materials have a counterintuitive behaviour: when stretched longitudinally, they also expand in the perpendicular axis; when compressed longitudinally, they also become transversely thinner. They portray high indentation resistance, fracture toughness, and thermal fracture resistance. Auxetic materials are finding a variety of applications today, from aerospace usage, consumer goods, to the biomedical field, self-governing filters, springy shoe soles. In this study, compression behaviour of the arrowhead honeycomb auxetic structure sandwich has been analysed. These structures are 3D printed using polylactic acid (PLA) material. Further, the compressive properties of the sandwich structure are tested with different specimens by varying their gradient parameters. Nine specimens of varying parameters are tested, each with a different relative density due to changes in internal angles and arm length. The relationships between relative density against compressive strength is investigated.
    Keywords: 3D printing; auxetic structures; negative Poisson’s ratio; fused deposition modelling; FDM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10048815
  • Investigation of Chicken Feather Fiber / Poly-Lactic Acid reinforced composites prepared using the Sandwich method   Order a copy of this article
    by Adil Khan, Amarish Badgujar, M.N. Qureshi 
    Abstract: Natural fibres from animals, such as chicken feather fibre (CFF), exhibit good adhesion and high wettability, required to have strong composite materials. This research article utilises white chicken feathers to reinforce poly-lactic acid (PLA) for structural applications. First, the avian fibres are trimmed from chicken feathers. Then, the composite samples are prepared at a fibre ratio of 5 wt% CFF with PLA. The sandwich and compression moulding methods are used to create the biocomposites. CFF is sandwiched between 3D printed PLA strips before hot compression moulding. The composite samples are characterised to determine their tensile and flexural strength, water absorption, and hardness following ASTM D3034, ASTM D790, ASTM D570, and ASTM D2583-95 standards. The results of the tests indicate that the addition of CFF to PLA enhances the mechanical properties compared to pure PLA. Therefore, the study will assist in developing biocomposites using waste-chicken feathers.
    Keywords: chicken feather fibre; CFF; poly-lactic acid; PLA; biocomposites; sandwich method; compression moulding.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10049058
  • Wear Characteristics of Al-Mg2Si Alloys of Various Weight Fractions   Order a copy of this article
    by R. Sundaramoorthy 
    Abstract: Industrial applications such as aerospace and defence can benefit from its high strength-to-weight ratio, low thermal expansion coefficient, and good wear resistance. Because of its light weight and simplicity of machining, it has become a popular choice for manufacturing. It is also worth noting that the finish is excellent. These changes necessitate further investigation of Al-Mg2Si alloys. The wear properties of the alloys were examined in this study. Casting was used to develop magnesium-silicide aluminium alloys. Microstructural analysis revealed the existence of a hitherto unidentified magnesium silicide proeutectic. Disc wear behaviour and life span were determined using a computerised pin-on-disc testing procedure. As the sliding distance and time grew, the alloy began to show signs of wear.
    Keywords: alloys formulations; Al-Mg2Si alloys; microstructure; wear test; worn surfaces.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10049119
  • Optimization of cold extrusion process parameters on AA 2024 alloy using Grey Relational Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Kothasiri Anupama Francy, Chalamalasetti Srinivasa Rao 
    Abstract: The present work investigates the influence of process parameters on cold extrusion process. Die angle (DA), ram speed (RS) and coefficient of friction (CoF) are chosen as input parameters. The output responses are extrusion force, damage factor, work piece displacement and extrusion time. AA 2024 material is considered as work piece material. The input process parameters are subjected to three levels of variation. Numerical simulations are performed by using DEFORMTM-3D. The simulations are conducted as per L27 orthogonal array. The percentage of contribution of DA, RS and CoF on extrusion force, damage factor, work piece displacement and extrusion time are analysed by using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Multi variable optimisation also done by using grey relational analysis (GRA). From the individual analysis, it is noticed that DA and RS have significant influence on extrusion force and work piece displacement whereas CoF is insignificant. However the CoF shows significant impact on damage factor and extrusion time. The highest grey relation grade is obtained for experiment conducted at 27th. The optimum combination of process parameter for extrusion force, damage factor, work piece displacement and extrusion time are 30?DA, 4.8 mm/min RS and 0.1 CoF.
    Keywords: AA 2024; extrusion force; grey relational analysis; GRA; die angle; DA; ram speed; RS; and coefficient of friction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10049848
  • Flux-Bounded TIG welding process in Duplex Stainless Steel: A Performance Enhancement Study   Order a copy of this article
    by DIPALI PANDYA, Amarish Badgujar, M.N. Qureshi, Nilesh Ghetiya 
    Abstract: A new variant of activated tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) welding is flux-bounded tungsten inert gas (FB-TIG) welding. The present study explores the nature of flux gap and variation of flux as a single component over the geometry of weld bead in 2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) FB-TIG weld joint. Significant improvement in penetration depth is observed at the flux gap at 2 mm with SiO2 flux, which is 193% higher than the TIG weld. Constriction of the arc is a predominant mechanism responsible for high penetration depth. Along with this, the article discusses the variation of welding current as a heat input over weld bead geometry, microstructure, and mechanical properties. The peak value of tensile strength of the FB-TIG weld is 10% higher than the TIG weld metal. However, the maximum microhardness of FB-TIG weld metal is 2% less than that of TIG weld metal.
    Keywords: tungsten inner gas; flux-bounded TIG welding; duplex stainless steel; DSS ; microstructure; tensile strength; microhardness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10049849
  • Tribological Behavior of Al6061-SiC Hybrid MMC Reinforced with 4% MoS2/Cu/Gr   Order a copy of this article
    by Bhanudas Bachchhav 
    Abstract: The Al6061-SiC MMC was prepared by stir casting method with 4% of MoS2, Cu, and C separately. Experiments were performed by using Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array on a pin-on-disc set-up to study the friction and wear behaviour of the composite materials. Effect of speed, pressure, and time on the friction and wear rate were studied. Analysis of variance and ranking of parameters were done using Minitab statistical analysis software. The friction coefficient of composites against EN-31 disc was found to be in the range of 0.22 to 0.36. Minimum and maximum wear rate is observed when Al6061-20SiC is reinforced with 4% MoS2 and 4% Gr respectively. The surface characteristics were analysed using SEM. The composite materials finds potential to be used as a light weight material in various sliding contact conditions. Further investigation on heat dissipation characteristics with addition of MoS2/Cu/C is recommended.
    Keywords: Al6061-20SiC; metal matrix composite; MMC; friction; wear; pin-on-disc; Taguchi method.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10050224
  • Using Fuzzy Logic Predict the Influence of the Tool Shoulder Geometry of Friction Stir Welded Al 6082 T6 Alloy   Order a copy of this article
    by M.N. Qureshi, Dhairya Vyas, Saumil Joshi, Karishma Qureshi 
    Abstract: Friction stir welding (FSW) and its variants are important welding processes in many industries, including aerospace, railway, robotics and computers. Since welding plays a vital role in enhancing production and productivity, the effect of tool shoulder geometry on weld quality must be investigated. The weld quality is affected by tool geometry, welding speed, tool traverse speed, tool inclination angle, and so on. Consequently, the interaction of such parameters influences the weld quality, which becomes difficult to predict. In this research, welding was performed on Al 6082 T6 alloy using two separate shoulder geometries (raised and recessed shoulder) at three different welding rates and tool transverse speeds. Further, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and the microhardness of the material were used in weld quality evaluation. Two adaptive network-based fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) were used to train and evaluate the UTS and microhardness, respectively. The Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy inference system was used to find the effect of tool shoulder geometry on the weld quality.
    Keywords: adaptive network-based fuzzy inference systems; ANFIS; artificial intelligence; artificial neural network; ANN; friction stir welding; FSW; genetic algorithm; Al 6082 T6 alloy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10050707
  • Utilization of White Aluminium Dross Based Briquetted Synthetic Slag during Secondary Steelmaking Process   Order a copy of this article
    by S.K. Wasim Haidar, Albin Samiraj Rozario 
    Abstract: Aluminium dross which is a waste product of aluminium manufacturing process is toxic and hazardous in nature. Therefore, search for a suitable disposal method becomes crucial to process this dross effectively. Recycling is recognised as the best way out for sustainable development. Present study discussed the utilisation of white aluminium dross-based briquetted synthetic slag (WADBBSS) in place of pre-melted synthetic slag (PMSS) during secondary steelmaking. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of WADBBSS shows around 9% of metallic aluminium. Viscosity analysis of WADBBSS and PMSS shows a difference of 0.04 Pa.s at steelmaking temperature. Industrial trials carried out with the addition of WADBBSS shows a reduction of 0.07
    Keywords: aluminium dross; synthetic slag; recycling; secondary steelmaking; FactSage; viscosity; liquidus temperature.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10050708
  • Assessment of mechanical properties subsequent to thermal degradation of commercially available woods in south Asia   Order a copy of this article
    by Samiul Kaiser, Sheikh Ahmed, M.S. Kaiser 
    Abstract: Effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of garjan, rain tree and gmelina commercially available woods in South Asia are made. The wood samples are heat treated isochronally for two hours at different temperatures up to 250
    Keywords: wood; annealing; mechanical; properties; fracture; microstructure; absorbance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10050986
  • Re-entrant Auxetic Cellular Structures Fabricated by Material Extrusion Technique: An Investigation on Mechanical Properties under Shear Loading   Order a copy of this article
    by Swapnil Vyavahare, Soham Teraiya, Shailendra Kumar 
    Abstract: Re-entrant auxetic cellular (REC) structures are recently employed in various automotive, aerospace, biomedical and sports applications. For fabrication of these structures with good mechanical strength, material extrusion (ME) technique is most economical additive manufacturing technique. Mechanical properties of ME fabricated parts majorly depend upon process parameters. The present paper describes an experimental study of influence of process parameters under shear loading for ME fabricated REC structures. Structures of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and poly-lactic acid (PLA) materials are fabricated. Three process parameters of ME namely layer thickness, raster width, and build orientation are considered to investigate their influence on responses namely strength, stiffness, and specific energy absorption (SEA) under shear loading. Experiments results are analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). It is observed that all parameters along with their interaction significantly influence all responses. In ABS structures, shear strength initially decreases and then increases with increase in layer thickness; while for PLA structures exact reverse trend is observed. Based on the analysis of experimental results, regression models are developed. Also, optimal configurations of the specimens are determined to maximise responses using desirability function.
    Keywords: re-entrant auxetic cellular structures; mechanical properties; material extrusion technique; process parameters; shear.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10050987
  • Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of SiC coated graphene Composites   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) surface was modified by reducing the precursors of SiO to silicon carbide (SiC) coating at a temperature of 1,350
    Keywords: graphene nanoplatelets; GNP; SiC coated GNP; SGNP; specific surface area; SSA; carbothermal; nanoindentation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10050988
  • CRYOGENIC TREATMENT ON M2 HSS TOOL & IT'S PERFORMANCE   Order a copy of this article
    by Onkar Nath Choubey, Vikas Kumar Shukla, Ajay Pratap Singh Chauhan, Bipin Kumar Singh 
    Abstract: In this study, an effective approach of deep cryogenic treatment has been selected to analyse the mechanical properties of AISI M2 tool steel and C45 steel. The microstructural analysis of deep cryogenic treatment AISI M2 tool steel reveals an improvement of 5.81% and C45 steel by 4.59% in hardness, due to better homogeneity of carbide density inside the metal matrix. An interesting result is observed in the case of power consumption, which is found minimum for treated tools and treated workpiece. This happens may be due to softening of the workpiece, by rising high temperature at tool and job interaction. A favourable effect on surface roughness, power consumption and material removal rate is observed with an increase in cutting speed. The increase in feed rate and depth of cut deteriorates the quality of the surface that also increases the tool wear and power consumption. The deterioration in machined surface may be observed due to presence of more unmachined material per revolution at high feed rate and depth of cut.
    Keywords: deep cryogenic treatment; AISI M2; C45; turning; microhardness; microstructure.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10051244
  • Effect of elevated temperature on indentation response of glass/epoxy laminates hybridized with milled fibers   Order a copy of this article
    by Saravanakumar K, Suresh Kumar C, Arumugam V 
    Abstract: This work investigates the effect of elevated temperature on quasi-static indentation response of glass/epoxy laminates. The glass/epoxy laminates with cross-ply [0/90]3S configuration were fabricated by hand lay-up technique and subjected to quasi-static indentation test at elevated temperature of 60
    Keywords: indentation response; milled glass fibres; elevated temperature; contact stiffness; residual load.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10051245
  • An experimental evaluation of mechanical properties and tribological behavior of A380/nanohBN composite   Order a copy of this article
    by Jaivir Singh, Noé G. Alba-Baena, Rajeev Trehan, Vishal Sharma 
    Abstract: Generally, hip implants are fabricated by metals and ceramics due to their excellent mechanical strength. However, the body fluid causes severe corrosion of these materials, deteriorating the implant’s structural integrity and mechanical strength. The present work is intended to design and fabricate the epoxy-based hip implant with enhanced physical and mechanical characteristics. The epoxy-based hip implant was designed using manual calculations and modelling software. The analysis shows that the maximum stress acting on the neck of the hip implant is 27.18 MPa which was lower than the yield strength of epoxy resin (107.52 MPa). It was observed that the stresses are concentrated on the neck of the implant. Further, we poured epoxy into a 3D printed PLA mould to manufacture the epoxy-based hip implant. The hip implant was tested experimentally using polariscope and a universal testing machine. The polariscope results reveal similar stress behaviour to simulated results obtained by modelling software. The maximum stress of 5.22 MPa was applied to the neck of the implant. The compression test shows that the fabricated hip implant has mechanical characteristics similar to human bone, making it suitable for implant application.
    Keywords: hip implant; epoxy resin; polariscope; mechanical strength; stress.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10051246
  • Investigations on wear behavior of Al 6061-GNP metal matrix composites by using Taguchi L16 approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Siva Ram, V. Veeranna, A. Gopala Krishna 
    Abstract: High strength Al 6061 metal matrix composites with graphene in different weight percentages were fabricated through stir-casting followed by equal channel angular pressing. Dry sliding wear tests were conducted as per Taguchi-based L16 orthogonal array with control factors such as: 1) reinforcement (wt. %); 2) load (N); 3) sliding speed (m/sec); 4) sliding distance (m). Wear rate and coefficient of friction (COF) was the response characteristics studied. Subsequently, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to evaluate the significance of each control factor on the response characteristics. Reinforcement and load were identified as the highly influencing significant parameters on the wear rate and COF using ANOVA analysis. Furthermore, a confirmation test was also performed to verify the experimental results. Analysis of SEM of the worn surface reveals that abrasive and oxidation were the dominant wear mechanisms during the tribo-test of Al 6061-graphene composites.
    Keywords: 6061 alloy; graphene; wear properties; analysis of variance; ANOVA; Taguchi design.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10051247
  • Experimental investigation on mechanical properties of FDM fabricated hexachiral auxetic structure under compressive loading   Order a copy of this article
    by Shailendra Kumar, Soham Teraiya, Rushikesh Badhe 
    Abstract: The present paper describes an experimental investigation on mechanical properties of hexachiral auxetic structure under compressive loading. Structures of polylactic acid (PLA) are fabricated using fused deposition modelling (FDM) technique of additive manufacturing (AM). Influence of two geometric parameters namely node radius and ligament thickness on compressive strength, compressive modulus, plateau strength and specific energy absorption (SEA) of hexachiral structures is studied. It is found that modulus is significantly influenced by both geometric parameters. For compressive strength, plateau strength and SEA, only node radius is found to be a significant parameter. All compressive properties increase with decrease in node radius and ligament thickness. Regression models are also developed to predict compressive properties of structure. To maximise the responses, optimisation of geometric parameters is performed.
    Keywords: mechanical properties; hexachiral; auxetic; structure; compression; fused deposition modelling; additive manufacturing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10051276
  • Enhancement of weld penetration in 2205 stainless steel by TIG welding novel variants   Order a copy of this article
    by Dipali Pandya, Amarish Badgujar, M.N. Qureshi, Nilesh Ghetiya 
    Abstract: The study compares the effects of welding joints made in 2205 duplex stainless steel with activated tungsten inert gas (A-TIG), flux-bounded TIG (FB-TIG) and flux-zone TIG (FZ-TIG). To examine the effects of activated fluxes welded by the A-TIG and FB-TIG welding procedures, four single component oxide fluxes (Cr2O3, MoO3, SiO2 and TiO2) are chosen. The highest penetration is achieved with SiO2 flux among all selected activated fluxes in A-TIG as well as in FB-TIG welds. FZ-TIG welding is performed with eight unique combinations of selected oxide fluxes. The maximum penetration is achieved in FZ-TIG welding with SiO2 as the centre region flux and Cr2O3 as the side region flux. The robust arc constriction and reversal Marangoni convection lead to higher penetration. The microstructure study shows that A-TIG and FZ-TIG weld joints form a more balanced structure of ferrite/austenite by forming larger laths of Widmanst
    Keywords: activated tungsten inert gas; A-TIG; flux-zone tungsten inert gas; FZ-TIG; flux-bounded tungsten inert gas; FB-TIG; weld bead geometry; Marangoni convection.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10051277
  • Anti-Tetrachiral Auxetic Structures Fabricated by Material Extrusion: Numerical and Experimental Investigation on Influence of Design Parameters on Mechanical Properties under Compressive Loading   Order a copy of this article
    by Soham Teraiya, Swapnil Vyavahare, Shailendra Kumar 
    Abstract: The present article describes a numerical and experimental investigation on mechanical properties of anti-tetrachiral auxetic structures under compressive loading. The structures of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene material are fabricated by material extrusion technique of additive manufacturing. The influence of design parameters namely node radius and ligament thickness is studied on responses including strength, modulus and specific energy absorption (SEA) of in-plane and out-of-plane oriented structures. Experiments are planned using face-centred central composite design. From the experimental study, it is found that both design parameters significantly influence strength, modulus and SEA of structures. Also, it is observed that the stresses in plateau region of stress-strain curve remain almost constant till the densification phase during compressive loading of in-plane oriented structure, while the strength and modulus are high in out-of-plane oriented structure. Further, regression models for strength, modulus and SEA are developed, and optimisation of design parameters is performed to maximise the responses.
    Keywords: mechanical properties; anti-tetrachiral auxetic structure; compressive loading; material extrusion; additive manufacturing; design parameters; strength; modulus.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10051278
  • Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on Non-Ferrous Materials: A Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Viren Parikh, Amarish Badgujar, M.N. Qureshi 
    Abstract: Enhancement of material properties has become an important factor in cost-cutting. To improve performance, materials are subjected to several processes such as heat treatment, peening, coating, and many more. Cryogenic treatment, or sub-zero heat treatment, is one such treatment that has made a substantial contribution to the improvement of several properties such as hardness, tensile strength, fatigue strength, wear rate, and corrosion rate of ferrous and non-ferrous materials. The present article focuses on the effect of cryogenic treatment on non-ferrous materials. The article discusses the variation in microstructure and mechanical properties of non-ferrous materials when subjected to cryogenic treatment. Furthermore, the effects of the soaking period, soaking temperature, number of cryogenic cycles, and other process parameters related to cryogenic treatment have been considered for discussion.
    Keywords: cryogenic treatment; heat treatment; non-ferrous material; mechanical properties; microstructure.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10051776
  • Prediction of Elastic Properties of Cotton Waste Reinforced Epoxy Composites for Structural Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Mantesh Basappa Khot, K.S. Sridhar, Sethuram D 
    Abstract: Fibre reinforced composite materials have become a popular engineering material type. They have excellent mechanical characteristics, a wide range of flexibility in design, and are simple to fabricate. Fibre reinforced composites (FRP) are gradually displacing traditional materials in a wide range of applications, including aircraft, automobiles, containers, space vehicles, offshore constructions and pipelines, sporting goods, and electrical appliances. The mechanics of FRPs, on the other hand, are complicated due to their anisotropic and heterogeneous properties. To determine the elastic behaviour of the composite, a representative volume model was considered in this paper, and a finite element model incorporating the required boundary conditions was developed using FEA ABAQUS software. The results of the analysis are compared to those acquired from numerical calculations, and it is seen that they are in good agreement and are applicable to all volume fractions of the composite.
    Keywords: cotton waste; effective elastic constants; ABAQUS; rule of mixture.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10051777
  • Photocatalytic degradation of pharmaceutical pollutants using titanium dioxide supported by mesoporous silica   Order a copy of this article
    by Mishal Ibrahim, Mudhar Al-Obaidi, Hendrik Kosslick, Axel Schulz 
    Abstract: This study focuses on presenting a promising route for the synthesis of mesoporous silica, which is an ideal support for nano-crystalline TiO2. To systematically conduct this research, several weight percentages of 10%, 20%, 30% and 50wt% of TiO2 in TiO2
    Keywords: titanium dioxide photocatalysts (TiO2 P25); mesoporous silica; TiO2 – SiO2 composites; photo degradation; ibuprofen (IBP); scanning electron microscopy; SEM; transmission electron microscopy; TEM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10051979
  • Development of Kevlar-Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Composites for Ballistic Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Santhosh Sundharesan, Anand Narayanan Nair 
    Abstract: The present study aims at developing a new composite material for bullet-proof vest used in defence applications. The components of the composite were Kevlar, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene, combined with and without natural date fibre mixed in epoxy resin. Different combinations of polymeric layers were fabricated to form compact sandwich plates by hard pressing. Then ballistic tests were done with standard 9 mm bullets to assess the suitability of the materials for real firing conditions at common firing ranges of 20 m and 25 m. A comparison in penetration resistance of the composite plates with and without date fibres was made and it was observed that the sandwich plates with date fibres was observed to be better resistant to the firings.
    Keywords: Kevlar; epoxy; armour; fibre; firing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMATEI.2023.10051980