Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management

International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management (IJLSM)

These articles have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication but are pending final changes, are not yet published and may not appear here in their final order of publication until they are assigned to issues. Therefore, the content conforms to our standards but the presentation (e.g. typesetting and proof-reading) is not necessarily up to the Inderscience standard. Additionally, titles, authors, abstracts and keywords may change before publication. Articles will not be published until the final proofs are validated by their authors.

Forthcoming articles must be purchased for the purposes of research, teaching and private study only. These articles can be cited using the expression "in press". For example: Smith, J. (in press). Article Title. Journal Title.

Articles marked with this shopping trolley icon are available for purchase - click on the icon to send an email request to purchase.

Register for our alerting service, which notifies you by email when new issues are published online.

Open AccessArticles marked with this Open Access icon are freely available and openly accessible to all without any restriction except the ones stated in their respective CC licenses.
We also offer which provide timely updates of tables of contents, newly published articles and calls for papers.

International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management (93 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Integrated Inventory System with Freight Costs and two types of Quantity Discounts   Order a copy of this article
    by Ivan Darma Wangsa, Hui Ming Wee 
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate an integrated inventory model for single supplier-buyer considering stochastic demand. We consider two quantity discounts with freight environment. The objective is to minimize the integrated total cost incurred by the supplier and buyer. Freight costs are the function of shipping weight and distance with two transportation modes: truckload (TL) and less-than-truckload (LTL) shipments. We develop two optimal models considering all-units quantity discount and incremental quantity discount. The study shows how freight costs and the two discount policies affect the total cost of the supplier and the buyer. Numerical examples are used to illustrate of two models.
    Keywords: Integrated inventory; TL and LTL; stochastic demand; all-units quantity and incremental quantity discounts.

  • GREENING LOGISTICS OUTSOURCING: REASONS, ACTIONS AND INFLUENCING FACTORS   Order a copy of this article
    by Pietro Evangelista, Lodovico Santoro, Jukka Hallikas, Anni-Kaisa Kähkönen, Katrina Lintukangas 
    Abstract: This paper explores the environmental practices carried out in the transport and logistics industry. The study assumes the third-party logistics provides (3PLs) perspective and it examines reasons, green initiatives and factors affecting such initiatives. The research involved a case study analysis conducted on 31 Italian 3PLs. The approach used assumes that green initiatives implemented by 3PLs depends from different reasons. Accordingly, three clusters of companies characterised by different environmental sensitivity were identified. The results indicate that each of the three clusters is characterised by different environmental sensitivity, significant differences about the adoption of green initiatives and different influencing factors. The study findings allow to drawn a number of managerial recommendations for improving the environmental sustainability of logistics outsourcing and potential future research avenues.
    Keywords: Transport and logistics service providers; Reasons; Green actions; Drivers and inhibitors; Italian logistics service market; Case study analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2019.10013331
     
  • A review of medical distribution logistics in pharmaceutical supply chain   Order a copy of this article
    by Saâdia KHOUKHI, Chakib Bojji, Yahya Bensouda 
    Abstract: The management of inventories and the distribution networks of medical supplies and pharmaceutical products are among the most important issues in the healthcare world. Medicines stock-outs and improper use of drugs cannot only result in financial losses but also can endanger patient life. Hence, ensuring patient safety by ensuring the availability of pharmaceutical products is the main objective of all healthcare settings. To achieve this goal, many hospitals transfer managerial practices developed in the industrial sector to the healthcare environment. However, the pharmaceutical supply chain has its specific features. Ignoring these characteristics could hinder the process of implementing supply chain management practices and reduce the expected benefits. This paper presents a literature of operations research models developed for inventory control and distribution management across the pharmaceutical supply chain. For that purpose, this paper begins by classifying the reviewed articles into three main groups: 1) Inventory Management, 2) transportation management, and 3) coordination between inventory control and distribution activities. Starting from an analysis of current literature we intend to discuss different modes of supply chain coordination in a pharmaceutical supply chain. Also, in doing so, we point out potential future research directions. Finally, we shed new light on different enablers and barriers faced by practitioners and researchers when implementing supply chain management philosophy in the pharmaceutical supply chain.
    Keywords: pharmaceutical supply chain; OR models; drug distribution; pharmaceutical inventory management; combined inventory management and routing problem.

  • Optimal Allocation of Rolling Stock in Scheduled Transportation Services   Order a copy of this article
    by Sundaravalli Narayanaswami 
    Abstract: Passenger railway transportation services are planned, in advance. Many services are cyclic with 24-hour periodicity for Suburban (city) traffic and, weekly or longer duration periodicity. Railway operators assign physical cabins and locomotives (together known as rakes) to each service for a specified time duration to operationalise the timetables. Multiple constraints are imposed on such resource allocations and a cost is incurred, each in travel time, empty cabin runs and rake compositions. Some constraints are technical for safe operations and others are for system performance improvement by effective and efficient utilization of resources. Effective utilization requires that all demands be met. Efficient utilization refers to optimal utilization of available resources at minimum cost. A multi-commodity network flow model is developed to optimally allocate the given rolling stock, so that all service requirements are met. The network flow model is computationally expensive in resolving real-life problem instances. Therefore a relaxed model using a simulation based heuristic approach is developed and tested on real data from a division of the Indian Railways. The problem context, model, heuristic approach and solutions are discussed in detail in this paper. Managerial insights that emerged from this empirical study are interesting and are presented.
    Keywords: OR in Service Industries; Rolling stock; Optimal allocation; Network flow model; Simulation based heuristic.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2019.10013773
     
  • Selection of supplier management policies using clustering and fuzzy-AHP in the retail sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Nicolas Clavijo Buriticá, Monica Yoshida Matamoros, Felipe Castillo, Esteban Araya, Gerardo Ahumada, Gustavo Gatica 
    Abstract: Supplier development contributes to supply chain integration and performance, thus playing an essential role in any industry. In the retail market, no formal procedures exist for the selection-assignment of supplier development programmes, meaning that respective management is complex and unclear given actor and requirement heterogeneities. Multi-criteria techniques are currently used for selection and evaluation processes. However, no models exist that integrate clustering and multi-criteria techniques together to efficiently select-assign supplier development programmes. This study proposes a four-phase methodology diagnosis, programme design, assignment, and proposal that considers supplier clustering through K-means and multi-criteria fuzzification. Additionally, case-study analysis of 149 retail suppliers in Colombia clustered businesses into high (8), medium (32), and low (109) risk sets, each of which was assigned tailored development programmes. The obtained results support use of the proposed methodology to improve supply chain performance for organizations with many suppliers requiring development programmes
    Keywords: fuzzy logic; multiple criteria analysis; analytic hierarchy process; supplier selection; retail.

  • Efficient Supplier Selection - a three stage multi-criteria decision making approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Bhaskar Gardas, Rakesh Raut, Ayush Shrivastav 
    Abstract: The qualitative and quantitative factors influence the supplier selection problem. The selection of an efficient supplier is a difficult task and is a multi-criteria decision-making problem. In the present study a three stage, analytic hierarchy process (AHP)-technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS)-goal programming (GP) was employed for the evaluation and selection of suppliers. AHP was used for identifying relative weights of the selection criteria, then, these weights were taken as input for TOPSIS methodology for ranking the shortlisted suppliers. GP was used for the quantity allocation. This study is intended to guide the organizational managers for formulating the effective policies and strategies for the effective supplier selection process in the competitive environment.
    Keywords: Supplier selection; multi-criteria decision making (MCDM); AHP; TOPSIS; goal programming.

  • Determination of Green Vehicle Routing Problem via Differential Evolution   Order a copy of this article
    by Siwaporn Kunnapapdeelert, Ratchaphong Klinsrisuk 
    Abstract: This paper presents the comparison of PDPTW (pickup and delivery with time window) and Green-PDPTW (green vehicle routing for pickup and delivery problems, with time windows) by using DE (Differential Evolution) algorithm. The main idea of PDPTW is to design the optimal route for transportation by minimizing the total cost. Green-PDPTW aims to design the route by minimizing the emission of direct greenhouse gases i.e. carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). These two concepts were verified by eight standard benchmark instances. DE algorithm is proposed to design the optimal route for these two problems. The computational experiments demonstrate that designing route by minimizing greenhouse gases emission provides cleaner routes than designing routes by minimizing total cost. However, it is not as economical as considering the minimum total cost as the objective function. Since it requires more vehicles and total distance than route that designed based on the minimum total cost concept.
    Keywords: differential evolution; vehicle routing problem; transportation; green logistics.

  • The capacitated vehicle routing problem revisited: using fuzzy c-means clustering   Order a copy of this article
    by Henrique Ewbank, Peter Wanke, Henrique Correa, Otavio Figueiredo 
    Abstract: Distribution and/or e-commerce companies are facing delivery scenarios with increasing complexity. This paper proposes to simplify complex scenarios and find near-optimal solutions by applying a heuristic approach for solving the capacitated vehicle routing problem with a homogeneous fleet using fuzzy c-means as the clustering technique. It also uses a memetic algorithm to determine the number of clusters and an improved fuzzy c-means algorithm for allocating customers to routes. When benchmarked with other methods and compared with 50 known instances from the literature, it indicated an error average of less than 3 percent. These error results presented a lognormal distribution. Due to the nature of the errors studied, a tobit regression has been applied to predict the average percent error in terms of the characteristics of the demand and the distance of each customer. Results also suggest that kurtosis and skewness of the distances among all customers, capacity of the vehicles, and standard deviation of the demand could be used to predict the average percent error, providing a decision-making tool to apply this algorithm in the future for different instances. When compared with other fuzzy clustering techniques, the use of fuzzy c-means reinforced the idea that distant customers should be almost always served by a single vehicle, even if it is not fully loaded. The proposed method presented short execution times and a percent error of 5%.
    Keywords: capacitated vehicle routing problem; cluster-first route-second heuristic; fuzzy logic; homogeneous fleet; tobit regression.

  • Modelling the environmental impact of omni-channel purchasing in the apparel industry: the role of logistics   Order a copy of this article
    by Maria Giuffrida, Riccardo Mangiaracina, Giovanni Miragliotta, Sara Perotti, Angela Tumino 
    Abstract: This paper addresses an identified need of quantitative models in the rising field of omni-channel (OC) purchasing sustainability. It contributes with a detailed assessment of the environmental impact of two processes, Click and Collect (C&C) and Mobile Shopping in Store (MSiS), highlighting the weight of logistics activities. An activity-based model is developed and applied to a base case, that best represents the average purchasing process in the apparel industry, considering both the retailers and the customers perspectives. Sensitivity analyses are performed as well. Results show that MSiS is less sustainable than C&C, mainly due to the heavier impact of transport. For both configurations, the most critical parameter is the distance between the customer house and the store, whereas the customer profile and the location of the customer house (urban vs extra-urban area) are additional significant factors for MSiS. The results of this study are also compared to previous research in the field of e-commerce environmental sustainability.
    Keywords: omni-channel; environmental sustainability; logistics; click and collect; mobile shopping in store.

  • Development of an Automobile Industry Risk Index   Order a copy of this article
    by Satyendra Kumar Sharma, Ravinder Singh, Vishad Bhalodia 
    Abstract: The aim of this research is to construct a Bayesian Belief Network(BBN) Model, which encompasses all the risk factors relevant to the Indian automotive sector that can give a fair, empirical idea as to how much the risk factors drive down the gross turnover of the industry. The BBN model is used to gauge business, economic and external risks and evaluate its impact on gross turnover of the industry. Empirical model draws a lot of implications to streamline the risk effects in the industry, but it clearly shows that the three factors business risks, economic risks and external risks are not entirely independent and are positively correlated with each other. Bayesian networks provide a very useful risk assessment tool that takes into account the advantages of both quantitative and qualitative risk assessment methods. This is a novel, empirical effort to provide a generalized model to integrate all risks domestic, global, economic, legal relevant to the automotive industry.
    Keywords: Risk Assessment; Automobile Industry; Bayesian Belief Network; Risk Propagation; Sensitivity Analysis.

  • System optimal relaxation and Benders decomposition algorithm for the large sized road network design problem   Order a copy of this article
    by Saeed Asadi Bagloee, Majid Sarvi, Abbas Rajabifard, Russell Thompson 
    Abstract: Given a set of candidate road projects with associated costs, finding the best subset with respect to a limited budget is known as the Discrete Network Design Problem (DNDP). The DNDP is often cast as a bi-level programming problem which is known to be NP-hard. Despite a plethora of research, due to the combinatorial complexity, the literature to address the problem for large sized networks is scarce. To this end we first dissolve the bi-level problem to a single-level problem by relaxing it to a System-Optimal traffic flow. As such the problem turns to a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) problem. Second, we develop an efficient Benders decomposition algorithm to solve the ensuing MINLP problem. The proposed methodology is applied to three examples, a pedagogical network, Sioux Falls and a real-size network representing the City of Winnipeg, Canada. Numerical tests on the network of Winnipeg at various budget levels demonstrate promising results.
    Keywords: Discrete Network Design Problem; Benders decomposition; Bi-level optimization; System optimal relaxation.

  • Determining an optimal warehouse location, capacity, and product allocation in a multi-product, multi-period distribution network: A case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Chau Le, Jirachai Buddhakulsomsiri, Chawalit Jeenanunta, Aussadavut Dumrongsiri 
    Abstract: This paper addresses the distribution network design problem in a complex 4-echelon supply chain system that includes factories, internal warehouses, external warehouses and customers. The distribution network contains a large number of products, and considers 20 periods of planning horizon. Product deliveries are made using two shipment methods, direct shipment from internal warehouse and through shared external warehouse, to two groups of customers, domestic and overseas, with deterministic demands. The objective is to determine an optimal location of a new external warehouse, its capacity, and product-facility-market allocation so as to minimize the total logistics cost, including transportation and warehousing costs. A real-world large-scale problem from industry is solved optimally using a mixed integer linear programming model. A sensitivity analysis on three key parameters, product demand, unit transportation cost, and unit warehousing cost, is conducted to find the final solution.
    Keywords: Facility location; capacity; product allocation; distribution network; 4-echelon supply chain; multiple products; multiple periods; multi-modal; multiple storage types; case study.

  • Logistics Management Requirements and Logistics Performance Efficiency: The Role of Logistics Management Practices - Evidence from Egypt   Order a copy of this article
    by Hend Amin, Tamer Shahwan 
    Abstract: This study examines the availability of logistics management requirements, i.e., organizational requirements (OR), informational requirements (IR), and human resource requirements (HRR) and their impact on logistics performance efficiency, particularly the mediation effects of logistics management practices in this relationship within Egyptian engineering industries firms. Data is collected based on a survey questionnaire directed to 194 observations within the selected firms. The operating costs average is used as an indicator of the logistics performance efficiency since it measures the efficiency inversely. Our findings reveal significant variations in managers perception of logistics management concept among the selected firms. The findings also reveal significant differences among the selected Egyptian corporations according to the availability degree of logistics management requirements and practices. At the same time, the study partially supports the significant impact of logistics management requirements on logistics performance efficiency where logistics management practices play full and partial mediating roles in this relationship.
    Keywords: Logistics Management Requirements; Logistics Management Practices; Logistics Performance Efficiency; Emerging Markets; Egypt.

  • Collaborative last-mile delivery and pick-up in city logistics   Order a copy of this article
    by Aishwary Bhasker, Sarada Sarmah, Taebok Kim 
    Abstract: Collaborative strategy helps city planner and logistics companies to plan for last-mile delivery and pick-up strategy such that it reduces fuel consumption and thus pollution within the city. This paper proposes a mathematical model to evaluate fuel consumption for a routing plan in last mile delivery (or pick-up) for non-collaborative (or traditional) and collaborative strategy. Comparing both the scenario for last-mile delivery and pick-up, the latter strategy outperforms the former with 19.02% reduction in fuel consumption. Results are also analyzed in terms of total carbon emission caused by vehicles of individual companies. Sharing of surplus among the companies due to collaborative strategy is also presented in this study. Furthermore, the paper assesses the implementation of an electric fleet of vehicles in the context of collaborative urban transportation of goods and determines corresponding energy consumption. The results exhibit an improvement of 24.16% in electric vehicles (EVs) in a collaborative scenario compared to diesel vehicles.
    Keywords: City logistics; Collaboration; Vehicle routing; Fuel consumption; Electric vehicles.

  • IT Adaptation in Sugar Supply Chain: A Study at Milling Level   Order a copy of this article
    by Rupesh Kumar 
    Abstract: The purpose of the study is to catalog issues in the sugar supply chain at the procurement and sugar production levels. By a review of prior art and expert panel discussions, certain issues were identified for the facilitation of e-Applications in the sugar production process. The relevance of the issues identified was checked by conducting a field survey. A total of 30 sugar mills in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, India were targeted, and 120 were collected from the mill managers to identify issues at procurement and sugar production stages. For checking the scope of IT applications, a total of 180 respondents were collected from 120 mill managers and 60 employees of IT companies who provide supply chain IT solutions. On the basis of the findings, the paper proposes certain IT solutions for solving the identified issues which will help in improving sugar cane processing at the sugar production level.
    Keywords: Supply Chain Management; Sugar Mills; Procurement; Sugar Production; Factor Analysis; ANOVA; Information Technology.

  • Reverse logistics practices in Indian pharmaceutical supply chains: A study of manufacturers   Order a copy of this article
    by Haidar Abbas, Jamal A. Farooquie 
    Abstract: In the era of integration and globalization, considering oneself as an independent profit making entity is like believing in a zero sum game. Under the challenges like constantly increasing customers expectations, fierce competition, high product variety, shrunk product life cycles etc. a better option for companies is to win the customers delight (eliminate/reduce their dissonance) as well as recapture the value by their efficient reverse logistics process. Such provision becomes of utmost important when it is related with costly and health &/ life affecting products like medicines. Thus, this study aims to explore the reverse logistics operations of companies manufacturing the medicines in India. Using suitable statistical tests, the data collected online from sixty five (65) senior level managers/entrepreneurs have been analysed in order to identify and examine the various reverse logistics practices, drivers and barriers of reverse logistics, and the performance parameters thereof. Redistribute as it is if non-defective, customer satisfaction, lesser predictability about returning medicines and helpful in image building are the most cited practice, driver, barriers and perceived performance indicator respectively. Besides enriching the body of knowledge, the findings of this study are expected to help the governments, regulatory bodies as well as pharmaceutical companies to ensure sustainable development whereby the manufacturers receive their fair returns through ethical, environmentally conscious and socially accountable means.
    Keywords: Logistics; Reverse logistics; Pharmaceutical supply chains; Pharmaceutical companies; Reverse logistics in pharmaceutical supply chains.

  • Determination of Criteria Affecting the Executive Dashboard Design to Support Decision Making in Port Authorities   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehmet Oguz, Yavuz Keceli 
    Abstract: Senior executives of a port authority spend most of their time by collecting information and making individual decisions via the collected information. They need customized decision support systems to support these decisions. It is necessary to develop executive dashboards specific to them although very few of them possess such dashboards. Hence, it is a necessity to determine the criteria needed to design such dashboards for an effective decision making. The purpose of this study is to determine the criteria needed to design executive dashboards for port executives so that they can make effective decisions. Within this scope, a target group study comprising of field experts was conducted, and the data obtained were analyzed with the Delphi technique. Consequently, 61 criteria in total were determined in four different criterion groups.
    Keywords: Port Management Information Systems; Customized Decision Support Systems; Port Authority Executive Dashboard; Delphi Technique.

  • Vertical and horizontal impacts of information sharing on a divergent supply chain   Order a copy of this article
    by Mansour Rached, Zied Bahroun 
    Abstract: Despite the tremendous advancements in communication technologies, convincing decision makers in supply chains to establish cooperation mechanisms remains a challenge. This paper aims to raise awareness among supply chain partners regarding the importance of information sharing by assessing the value of upstream (supplier lead time) and downstream (customer demand) information sharing in a divergent supply chain. Through a simulation study, this work investigates the impact of information sharing on the logistic cost of each link horizontally and vertically and for each cost component for three different structures of the distribution network. The results show that the warehouse benefits the most from information sharing and should implement revenue-sharing contracts to motivate its partners to share their information. In addition, the gains are not sensitive to the structure of the distribution network, and the retailers gains are proportional to their level of demand and unit holding and penalty costs. Moreover, the holding and penalty costs for the warehouse are sensitive to the sharing of supplier lead time information when only holding costs are sensitive to the sharing of customer demand information at the warehouse and retailers.
    Keywords: Information sharing; divergent supply chain; vertical impact; horizontal impact; lead time; demand.

  • Collaborative transportation and urban routing problems: state of classification and literature   Order a copy of this article
    by Mouna ATIK EL FTOUH, Naoufal SEFIANI, Mohamed FOURKA 
    Abstract: Carriers collaboration is achieved when two or more carriers share their requests and resources in order to reduce their routing costs and increase their total profit. In this article we present a classification of carriers collaborative routing problems according to type of planning (centralized or decentralized) and a review of the most popular routing problems related to city logistics, i.e. Multi Trips (MTVRP), Multi depot (MDVRP), Pickup and Delivery Problem (VRPPD) and loading constraints. Based on an existing taxonomy we review those problems in term of variants, objectives and resolution methods. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive and relevant characterization of carriers collaboration problems in urban context.
    Keywords: Carrier collaboration; collaboration problems; routing problems; multi trips; multi depots; Simultaneous pickup and delivery; loading constraints; classification; literature review; urban.

  • ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE CRISIS ON ZARAGOZA LOGISTICS PLATFORM (PLAZA)   Order a copy of this article
    by Rubén Sainz-González, Ingrid Mateo-Mantecón, Jose Baños-Pino, Susana Val-Blasco 
    Abstract: Undertaking economic impact studies serves to determine the importance of transport infrastructures to the regions and cities in which they are located. While such studies have focused on large infrastructures such as ports and airports, few have examined logistic infrastructures. In this paper we calculate the economic impact of Zaragoza Logistics Platform (PLAZA) for 2012 and determine the effect of the world economic crisis on this infrastructure. We study the different levels of economic impact (direct, indirect and induced impacts) and these are measured in terms of employment, wages and gross added value (GVA). The results show that the infrastructure improved its business performance in 2012, with higher levels of the main variables studied, in comparison with those obtained before the crisis in 2005.
    Keywords: Economic impact; Input-Output; logistics platform; PLAZA.

  • Improving company-wide logistics through collaborative track & trace IT services   Order a copy of this article
    by Fabian Dunke, Stefan Nickel 
    Abstract: Under the objective of improving intra-organizational logistics processes, this paper investigates the use of collaborative IT applications based on track & trace technology. We report on company-wide logistics improvements attained through the introduction of a collaborative track & trace IT solution. In a chemical company, we considered the dependent processes of truck arrivals at the main gate and loading operations at stations inside the site. Without track & trace assistance, uncertainties in processing steps and driving times as well as space limitations lead to uncontrolled truck inflow to stations. To achieve a controllable situation, we developed an online IT application where at gate and station real time data is collected. Based on the data, we employed a site entry control ensuring smooth station operations. Logistics performance indicators such as the average and maximum truck number at the station and site sojourn times of trucks were reduced significantly.
    Keywords: logistical systems optimisation; logistics information systems; collaboration tools; information sharing; on-site logistics.

  • CRITERIA FOR CARRIAGE OF DANGEROUS CARGO CLASS I EXPLOSIVES IN BRAZIL   Order a copy of this article
    by Sandra Helena Da Silva De Santis, João Paulo Pereira Marcicano 
    Abstract: This study proposes a set of criteria for the operational procedures of control, handling and road transport of explosive hazardous cargo, its importance is associated with the performance, which facilitates the movement of volatile and extremely dangerous materials. The objective is to identify the parameters for logistical movement, which preserve environmental safety and obey the rules of law. The proposed framework can guide the movement and maintain the quality of the services. The theme is relevant for socio-environmental security and risk prevention in the logistics process. Thus, to obtain the information was used an exploratory research with qualitative approach obtained by means of secondary data as books, decrees, ordinances, and legislation. The research identified points relevant to the quality of the services in road transport of explosive material.
    Keywords: Criteria; Explosives; Handling; Quality.

  • Redesigning a Transportation Network: The Case of a Pharmaceutical Supply Chain   Order a copy of this article
    by AFAF HAIAL, Abdelaziz Berrado, Loubna Benabbou 
    Abstract: Designing transportation networks as one of the most important decision problems in supply chain management has become the focus of research attention in recent years. This paper introduces a framework which deals with the design of a transportation network for pharmaceutical supply chains. It consists of three steps: (i) identifying the configuration of the current distribution network, (ii) designing an optimal distribution network while determining the appropriate location-allocation decisions, and (iii) choosing the most appropriate transportation network through the application of the appropriate multi-criteria decision analysis method (MCDA). The proposed framework is illustrated in redesigning a transportation network for a pharmaceutical supply chain.
    Keywords: Pharmaceutical products supply chain; Supply chain Transportation network; Location-allocation; Multi-criteria Decision Analysis.

  • Reinforced revenue sharing contract thru sharing in sale point by adopting Semi-TDPD   Order a copy of this article
    by Mahdi Shafiei 
    Abstract: In this paper we develop a new coordination contract of manufacturer-retailer in a distribution system. A revenue sharing contract that sharing the revenue between the distribution systems members at sale point as coefficient of product price which integrated Semi-TDPD (Semi Third Degree Price Discrimination) into the model. Semi-TDPD strategy makes it possible to exploit the opportunity of customers behavior that they willing to pay different price to owning the product and bargaining for lower price, by adopting price discrimination strategy. To illustrate the proposed approach, we present some numerical examples. Through these examples we investigate the impact Semi-TDPD on decision variables as well as the well performance of proposed revenue sharing coordination.
    Keywords: Revenue sharing; Distribution channel; Pricing; Semi-TDPD; Stackelberg game model.

  • Rough-Inerval in a Two-Stage Solid Transportation Problems and its Solution   Order a copy of this article
    by Akash Singh, Uttam Kumar Bera, Deepshikha Sarma 
    Abstract: The paper attempts a study on a two-stage formulation of a cost minimization solid transportation problem, where the parameters are considered as rough interval form. A rough interval is based on approximation space and hence the solution of the proposed model obtained with the help of approximation theory. In order to solve the expected value model has been derived and the corresponding deterministic model so obtained is solved with LINGO 13:0 optimization solver. Finally, the methodology and model is illustrated by a simple numerical example at the last.
    Keywords: Solid transportation problem; Rough Interval; Expected Value.

  • Service Quality in Manufacturing Supply Chains: A Bi-directional perspective from Indian SMEs   Order a copy of this article
    by Surjit Gandhi, Anish Sachdeava, Ajay Gupta 
    Abstract: This study investigates the role played by service quality in the supply chains of Indian small-medium manufacturing units and presents models at different junctions which propose and validate that the contributions made by supply chain partners towards service quality lead to satisfaction and loyalty. The research design for this study includes a combination of literature review, exploratory interviews and a questionnaire survey conducted through interview schedule with respondents working in different SMEs situated in Northern India. Both internal and external customer perspectives have been considered. Structural equation modelling has been used for data analysis. Three models showing linkages of manufacturer (manufacturing unit's) service quality with supplier service quality, employee service quality and distributor service quality are developed. The models are empirically tested and are found to be fit. This study would be of interest to SME practitioners interested in strengthening relationships with supply chains partners to achieve win-win situations.
    Keywords: Service quality; supply chain; SMEs; service quality factors; supplier; employees; distributor; EFA; CFA; Reliability; Validity; SEM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10014791
     
  • Selection of Third-Party Logistics Services for Internet of Things Based Agriculture Supply Chain Management   Order a copy of this article
    by SANJEEV YADAV, Dixit Garg, Sunil Luthra 
    Abstract: Third-party logistics (3PL) service providers can play a major role in the agriculture supply chain management (ASCM) for customer's satisfaction and cost reduction in managing supply chain. Selection of the suppliers is one of the important factors that need to be considered. Since, by deciding best 3PL supplier, competiveness and sustainability of supply chain has been increased. However, this decision become complicated when there is multiple 3PL suppliers having multiple criterion and inaccurate parameters. Moreover, the ambiguity and doubtfulness of expert's opinions enhance the problem. Therefore, a decision making tool based on multi criteria has been used widely as fuzzy-analytic hierarchical process (AHP) approach can be used for selection of best 3PL service providers. The main aim of this research is to develop an outline of different criterion for supplier's selection based on literature review and techniques used for selection of the best 3PL suppliers. Furthermore, this research paper provides a more precise, effective and efficient decision support tool for selecting best 3PL providers. This research may help in increasing the tendency for towards the logistics activities outsourcing to enhance sustainability of IoT-based agriculture supply chain.
    Keywords: Third-Party Logistics (3PL); Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP); Fuzzy set theory; Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM); Logistic outsourcing; Internet of Things (IoT); Freight time; Goods and Service.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10014792
     
  • An Integrated Approach to Order Picking Systems in Warehouses   Order a copy of this article
    by Judit Oláh, Zoltán Lakner, Jozsef Popp 
    Abstract: Locating technologies represent one of the main resource and time saving opportunities of the order picking system. The aim of this study is to examine the two types of order picking strategy used in the warehouse of the enterprise from the perspective of time saving. In order to shorten the picking travel time, a change was initiated in the order of products on the order picking list. The order picking list based on the numerical increase of the original ascending code article international identifier was switched to an order picking list based on the alphabetical order of storage locations. Consequently, preparation based on the desired new order picking list is more effective with higher storage location involvement. Employees performing the order picking system can obtain an ideal route with the order picking list based on the ascending alphabetical order of storage location names.
    Keywords: Warehouse management; Order picking list; Order picking system; Time saving; Storage location.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10014896
     
  • Impact of Technology Based Integrated Responsive Supply Chain on Operational Performance: A Case of a Volatile Market   Order a copy of this article
    by Sehar Ishtiaque, Danish Ahmed Siddique, Waqar Ahmed 
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to develop a comprehensive model that facilitates an understanding of relationships among information and communication technology, integrative capabilities, operational responsiveness and dimensions of performance in a developing economy. Data were obtain from a survey administered to 140 firrms in the manufacturing industry in Pakistan. Hypotheses testing was done by PLS-SEM using SMART-PLS software. The results show that the best way to achieve operational performance is to better invest in information and communication technology which improves the integrative capabilities along with operational responsiveness, which in turn improves the operational performance. This paper provides insights to many supply chain practitioners to configure their supply chain responsiveness from customer facing to supplier facing through integration.
    Keywords: Supply chain integration; supplier operational performance; information and communication technology; operational responsiveness; operational performance; customer operational performance; and PLS-SEM.

  • Determinants of logistics outsourcing performance among small and medium enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Joash Mageto, Gerrie Prinsloo, Rose Luke 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to establish determinants of logistics outsourcing performance and their relationship with logistics performance among manufacturing small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The increasing use and challenge of logistics outsourcing require that SMEs establish relationship factors that determine high outsourcing performance to enhance overall logistics performance. Data was collected from 406 SMEs using a structured questionnaire. Factor analysis was applied and four constructs were extracted; three were found to be determinants. Partial least squares structural equation modelling was performed to determine the associations among the constructs. Communication-trust, innovation, and cooperation between the manufacturing SMEs and logistics service providers were identified as key determinants of logistics outsourcing performance. Strong associations were validated between communication-trust, innovation, and cooperation. Only communication-trust was positively associated with logistics performance. The results guide SME managers to promote communication-trust in logistics outsourcing relationships.
    Keywords: Logistics outsourcing performance; SMEs; factor analysis; logistics service providers; structural equation modelling; logistics performance; communication; trust; innovation; cooperation.

  • Benchmarking Efficiency of Indian Retailers using Parametric and Non-Parametric Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Nishant Agrawal 
    Abstract: The purpose of this research paper is to study the performance of Indian retailers to conclude meaningful insights which can help management of retailers and improve further decisions. The paper has been discussed efficiency of 12 Indian retailers during 2015-2017 using data envelopment analysis (DEA), Malmquist productivity index (MPI) and stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) which is latest powerful efficiency measurement techniques. Total asset and total expenditure considered as input and gross sale, total income considered as output. In DEA technique, CCR and BCC model has been used. Under CCR model, only 4 out of 12 retailers are found to be efficient and 7 out of 12 retailers found to be efficient under BCC model. MPI shows 4 out of 12 Indian retailers progression. SFA is one of parametric approach shows that, no of employee and total expenditure can be considered to driving force for influencing total income of Indian retailers.
    Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis; Malmquist Productivity Index; Stochastic Frontier Analysis; Efficiency; Indian Retailer.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10015108
     
  • A column generation on 2-dimensional cutting stock problem with fixed size usable leftover and multiple stock sizes   Order a copy of this article
    by SUPPHAKORN SUMETTHAPIWAT, Dr. BOONYARIT INTIYOT, Chawalit Jeenanunta 
    Abstract: We investigate a two-dimensional two-stage cutting stock problem (2D-2CP) with multiple stock sizes when fixed-size usable leftovers are considered. A fixed-size usable leftover is an object with the predefined size that could be used later. Fixed-size usable leftovers can reduce the waste area and therefore can help construct better cutting patterns. A mathematical model is proposed in a set-partitioning form where the sub-problems corresponding to two-dimensional knapsack problem (2DKP) with fixed-size usable leftovers are generated for optimality testing. A column generation technique is applied in an attempt to find a solution that minimises a total waste. Moreover, two different practical integer solution finding strategies are proposed. The algorithms are tested on a real-world dataset using various initial solution patterns and analysed. Additionally, the effect of the usable leftovers is investigated when compared with the prior literature that used the same dataset on the 2D-2CP problem without considering usable leftovers.
    Keywords: two-dimensional cut; cutting stock problem; column generation; usable leftover; master problem; sub-problem; guillotine cut; stock size; b&c; heuristics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10015110
     
  • On the Optimality of Inventory and Shipment Policies in a Two-level Supply Chain under Quadratic Price Dependent Demand   Order a copy of this article
    by Dega Nagaraju, Burra Karuna Kumar, S. NARAYANAN 
    Abstract: In this paper, a two-level supply chain consisting of a single-manufacturer supplying a single kind of product to a single-retailer is considered. A mathematical model is developed for both the centralised and de-centralised supply chain. The novel idea of the proposed model is that the demand is expressed as a quadratic function of the retailer's unit selling price. Ordering/setup costs, carrying costs and transportation costs are considered for model development. Replenishment quantity at the retailer and shipment frequency from manufacturer to retailer are considered as the decision variables. The objective of the proposed model is to demonstrate the optimality of total variable costs of the respective retailer, manufacturer and the supply chain under quadratic price dependent demand. Computer program is written in MATLAB and the model is solved with the help of a case study data. Further, the sensitivity analysis is carried out and finally, managerial implications are derived.
    Keywords: Two-level supply chain; Quadratic price dependent demand; Replenishment quantity; Shipment frequency; Sensitivity analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10015734
     
  • Prioritization of Success Factors to Sustain Buyer-Supplier Dyadic Relationship and its Impact on Business Performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Sushobhan Dutta, SANJIB KUMAR DAS, Milind Akarte 
    Abstract: The study elucidates critical success factors to sustain dyadic relationship between buyers and suppliers of Indian pharmaceutical industry and its influence on business performance. The success factors were identified based on social exchange, transaction cost, relationship marketing theories and an extensive literature review, though such literature relevant to Indian pharmaceutical sector is scanty. Data was collected through a questionnaire survey related to relationship information from buyers and suppliers of several pharmaceutical industries. Statistical analyses like regressions, one-way ANOVA, post hoc, were applied to analyse the data. Analytic hierarchical process was applied to validate prioritisation of success factors obtained from the statistical analysis. The authors analysed prioritisation of success factors and its impact on business performance from both buyers' and suppliers' perspective. The study deliberates in macro-ergonomic approach in formulating healthier relationship between buyer-supplier for better supply chain and enhanced performance in strategic procurement.
    Keywords: buyer-supplier dyadic relationship; business performance; supply chain; pharmaceutical industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10015735
     
  • Presenting a Model for Scheduling Natural Gas Transmission via Pipeline Using a Mathematical Programming Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Amir Abbas Shojaie, Tayebe Pour Ebrahimi Baghaei 
    Abstract: Given that natural gas is among the most important yet low-cost sources of clean energy, the need for gas transmission facilities for dispatching from production hubs to the consumption nodes has been grown increasingly. Considering the high cost of such facilities, optimal design of the facilities and optimization of the gas transmission operation are of paramount importance. In the present research, the aim is to present a hybrid model based on weighted sum and scale method to optimize the operation of gas transmission networks. The model has two objective functions: (1) minimization of the operation and annual maintenance costs, and (2) optimization of the system performance during its useful life. Hybridization of the two objective functions has been the main focus of this research. The problem is constrained by such limitations as maximum allowable pipe operation pressure, critical gas flow velocity, gas flowrate and pressure at different inlet and outlet points, temperature at injection and withdrawal points, operational constraints of the gas compressor stations, operational costs, and annual facility maintenance costs. The proposed model was tested on a real case, which data was provided by National Iranian Gas Company, and solved using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, with the results indicating appropriate efficiency of the presented model for solving real cases.
    Keywords: hybrid model; weighted sum method; scale method; PSO; optimization; gas transmission.

  • Comparing the development of Turkey and Poland as a potential logistic hubs in context of international logistics   Order a copy of this article
    by A. Zafer Acar, Zbigniew Bentyn, Batuhan Kocaoğlu 
    Abstract: By the reasons of the new plans to reinvigorate the trade route between Asia and Europe, the countries Turkey and Poland may become important international hubs of logistics. Thanks to the unique location of the countries and potential to economic development they create a pair of alternatives for investors willing to interconnect Asia and Europe. The comparison of the development in logistic performance allowed to stress the differences in the development of both regions. The analysis of logistics infrastructure indicates directions and possible development in the future. The aim of this paper is to compare current developments of both countries in terms of logistics performance. As data suggest the position of the countries is similar and promising. That allows forming a positive influence on future development of business especially focused on international logistics.
    Keywords: international logistics; transport; logistic performance; trade; infrastructure.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10015972
     
  • Inventory control in Healthcare supply chain management using Apriori and Gravitational Search algorithms   Order a copy of this article
    by J. Arul Valan, E. Baburaj 
    Abstract: Due to this kind of demand, healthcare supply chains (SC) need to keep high inventory levels to ensure high availability of medicines to save people' lives. We develop a method that effectively utilises the data mining concepts as well as gravitational search algorithm (GSA) for optimal inventory control. The proposed method consists of two key functions, mining association rules for inventory and choosing SC cost-impact rules. Initially, the association rules are mined from EMA-based healthcare inventory data. After that, SC cost-impact rules are chosen for every SC member using GSA. The obtained SC cost-impact rules will possibly signify the future state of inventory in any SC member. Furthermore, the level of holding or reducing the inventory can be determined from the SC cost-impact rules. Thus, the SC cost-impact rules that are derived using the proposed method greatly facilitate optimal inventory control and hence make the supply chain management more effective.
    Keywords: Apriori; SC cost; SC cost-impact rule; EMA-based inventory; Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10016185
     
  • Augmented Reality in Logistics: qualitative analysis for a managerial perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Marco Remondino 
    Abstract: Immersive technologies, namely virtual and augmented reality, are witnessing a growth in popularity, especially in creative fields, like videogames and film businesses. These technologies can also be effectively applied in other industrial sectors and their use can foster value creation and enhance efficiency and effectiveness, in a managerial perspective. The applications of augmented reality are analysed within the industrial field of logistics, according to three directives: training, operations and transport. A qualitative analysis is carried on to identify potential uses in this (and related) fields and a managerial perspective are proposed, identifying specific KPIs and heuristics for the three aforementioned areas. Results from the literature, field analysis and classification through KPIs point to effective utilisations of AR in logistics, both for training new (and often temporary) resources and in specific and core operations, like picking in warehouses and transport of goods.
    Keywords: augmented reality; logistics; value creation; training; warehouse operations; transport; managerial KPIs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10016187
     
  • Green Supply Chain Network Design Considering Inventory- Location- Routing Problem: A Fuzzy Solution Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Hassan Mina, Sobhgol Gholipour, Amir Ashoftehfard 
    Abstract: The growing rate of population and technological advancement have led to an increase in natural resource consumption, which has caused irreparable damage to the environment. The implementation of green supply chain management is one of the most effective ways to deal with environmental degradation. Therefore, in this paper, a bi-objective mixed integer linear programming model is developed to design a green supply chain network. In the proposed model, the possibility of customer storage, being faced with shortage, locating of distribution centres, green vehicle routing problem, split delivery, multi-depot vehicle routing problem (VRP), capacitated VRP, and uncertainty in demands will be considered. The aim of the proposed model is to minimise the total cost and total shortages simultaneously and, therefore, a fuzzy solution approach is applied for this purpose. The results of implementing this model in a production chain of automotive parts in Iran indicate the exact and efficient performance of the proposed model.
    Keywords: Green supply chain management; Mathematical programming; Location-routing problem; Fuzzy theory.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10016337
     
  • An EOQ deteriorating inventory model with different types of demand and fully backlogged shortages   Order a copy of this article
    by Abu Hashan Md Mashud  
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to develop a deteriorating EOQ inventory model according to consideration of the price, stock dependent demand and fully backlogged shortages. In this model, it is described that the demand functions are: 1) a linear price with stock dependent; 2) price with negative power of constant; 3) exponential function of the price. The deterioration is considered as an instantaneous, i.e., when the item stock in retailer's house after any time deterioration will start. If there any shortages are allowed then it is fully backlogged. The corresponding inventory problem forms a nonlinear constraint optimisation problem. To optimise the problems, the Taylor series expansion is used and considered up to second order term to find the closed form of cycle length and total cost. To validate our result, a comparative approach between our result and some of other meta-heuristics algorithm is given. Also, a sensitivity analysis is being carried out to study the effect of changes of different inventory parameters while changing one parameter at a time and keeping the others value of parameters unchanged.
    Keywords: fully backlogged shortages; inventory; deterioration; different price dependent demand.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10016452
     
  • A meta-heuristic for a bi-objective multi-commodity green distribution network   Order a copy of this article
    by Malika Nisal Ratnayake, Voratas Kachitvichyanukul, Huynh Trung Luong 
    Abstract: This paper presents a bi-objective optimisation model for solving the location-allocation problem (LAP) of a distribution network that consists of four echelons including suppliers, manufacturing plants, distribution centres and customers. Multiple product types and raw materials are considered. A bi-objective mathematical model is formulated to minimize the total costs and the green-house gas emissions arising from the location-allocation decisions. A meta-heuristic algorithm is developed to solve the proposed mathematical model. The proposed algorithm was implemented using Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimisation (MOPSO) and Multi-Objective Differential Evolution (MODE) solution methods and results were analysed.
    Keywords: meta-heuristics; location-allocation problem; multi-commodity distribution network problem; multiple objective optimisation; green supply chain design.

  • Exploring the moderating role of product type in Indian m-commerce fashion and electronics market   Order a copy of this article
    by Shekhar Singh, Sandeep Shrivastav 
    Abstract: With m-commerce now contributing up to 70% of total sales for Indian e-tailers, research efforts into related marketing strategies tailored for improved customer experience across touch points and platforms have intensified. This paper has two main objectives: to empirically test a research model advancing the understanding of smartphone-based mobile shopping in India and to study the impact of product purchase context on consumer behaviour through a multi-group analysis performed on two broad product categories, i.e., electronics and fashion. Structural equation modelling was performed on primary data collected from 344 existing online customers in order to validate and examine the proposed research model. The findings provided evidence regarding the importance of perceived usefulness, perceived risk and perceived self-efficacy for long-term continued usage. Additionally, the findings also revealed the moderation influence of product type on two relationships: one between perceived risk and purchase intention and second between perceived self-efficacy and purchase intention.
    Keywords: e-commerce; m-commerce; online shopping; moderation effect; product type; traditional platform; smartphone.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10017564
     
  • Sustainable open-loop supply chain network design considering location routing problem: A hybrid approach based on FAHP, FTOPSIS and mathematical programming   Order a copy of this article
    by Shiva Zandkarimkhani, Mohammad Mahdi Nasiri, Jafar Heydari 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a two-stage approach for designing the sustainable reverse supply chain network. In the first stage of the proposed approach, the values of potential locations from the social perspective will be evaluated and computed using a hybrid approach of fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) and fuzzy TOPSIS (FTOPSIS). Then, in the second stage, a multi-objective mixed-integer linear programming model is applied to develop a sustainable open-loop supply chain network for cost minimisation and for the maximisation of the social value of the established locations. In the proposed model, location-routing decisions, discounts on purchases from suppliers, storage, and encountering with shortages are simultaneously taken into account. Finally, the proposed model is validated using the data of a PET manufacturing company in Iran. The results confirm the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed approach.
    Keywords: Reverse logistics; Sustainable supply chain; Mathematical programming; Multi-Criteria Decision Making; Fuzzy theory.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10017774
     
  • A Multi-Objective Model for Minimizing Makespan and Total Travel Time in Put Wall Based Picking Systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Ehsan Ardjmand, Eyad Youssef, Gary R. Weckman, William A. Young II, Heman Shakeri, Adam Moyer 
    Abstract: In this study, a multi-objective order batching and picker routing model for minimising the total travel time and makespan in a put wall-based picking system is proposed. A put wall is a hardware composed of containers that is usually used as a sorting station. Put walls usually have limited capacity and can accommodate only a part of received orders at a time. Thus, in put wall-based picking systems, order batching and picker routing should be considered along with the scheduling of the orders on the put wall. To solve the problem, a genetic algorithm (GA), a coevolutionary genetic algorithm (COGA) and an archived multi-objective simulated annealing (AMOSA) are proposed. It is found that GA and COGA offer a more diverse set of solutions to the problem compared to AMOSA.
    Keywords: Order Batching; Picker Routing; Order Picking; Put Wall; Genetic Algorithm; Simulated Annealing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10017782
     
  • Optimizing multi-objective facility location/allocation using the fuzzy group decision making   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed Ali ELLEUCH, Frikha Ahmed 
    Abstract: Selecting a set of potential facility sites is a difficult multi-criteria issue and the objectives weighting is a critical part of the decision making process. However, in order to include as much information as possible, analysts usually try to combine the opinions of several experts. This paper work presents a hybrid approach based on the actual conditions of a case study and on the opinions of four industrial Tunisian experts. The overall objective of this paper is to consider multi-criteria to calculate global priority weights using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) and PROMETHEE method. After that, a new multi-objective facility location/allocation problem model, which combines FAHP-PROMETHEE and mathematical programming (MP), namely the PROMETHEE-MP model, is tested. The novelty of the proposed model is the simultaneous combination of relevant factors, which are difficult to interpret and cost factors which require network distribution.
    Keywords: Criteria weighting; Expert opinions; Fuzzy multi-criteria decision making; FAHP-PROMETHEE; PROMETHEE-MP; Location/allocation problem.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10018049
     
  • Green Supply Chain Management in an Emerging Economy: Prioritizing Critical Success Factors Using Grey-Permutation and Genetic Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Yong J. Wang, Amir Karbassi Yazdi, Alireza Rashidi Komijan 
    Abstract: This study attempts to find and prioritise critical success factors (CSFs) for green supply chain management (GSCM) in an emerging economy. First, extant literature is reviewed and initial 67 CSFs from previous studies are extracted. Then, responses are collected from logistics industry leaders in Iran based on Delphi method. The remaining 41 CSFs are prioritised by grey-permutation method and genetic algorithm. The ranking of the 41 CSFs for GSCM is created and then discussed. The ranking provides important implications for implementing GSCM in emerging economies and draws managers' attention to critical issues in an uncertainty environment.
    Keywords: Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM); Critical Success Factor (CSF); Grey Relational Analysis; Permutation; Multi-Criteria Decision Making; Genetic Algorithm (GA); Logistics; Emerging Economy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10018056
     
  • Optimization of an integrated parallel distribution system by including network marketing   Order a copy of this article
    by Mahdi Shafiei, Mohammad Modarres Yazdi 
    Abstract: Network marketing is a business model that depends upon a network of distributors for growth, such as in multilevel marketing. A direct selling method features independent agents that make up a distribution network for goods and services. This paper provides a framework to study the network marketing by adopting the traditional channel. To motivate all distributers in network marketing as well as retailers, it is required to design a well-balanced distribution and pricing system. The allocated commission for distributers in different layers of network marketing is part of pricing system, which is vital. In this paper, we develop an approach to determine all elements of system, including product price, wholesale price as well as commissions in network marketing simultaneously. A game model is applied to optimise the pricing and determine commission and number of layer of network marketing structure. A numerical example illustrates our proposed approach for better understanding.
    Keywords: Distribution channel; Pricing; Network marketing; Optimization; Game theory.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10018655
     
  • Logistic Resources Allocation in Supply Chains: A Utility Decentralized Optimization Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Doraid Dalalah 
    Abstract: In this paper, a continuous review policy in a supply chain is considered in which risk averse suppliers ship products to their corresponding retailers. The suppliers non-cooperatively compete by acquiring more logistic resources of the supply chain to satisfy the random retailers demand so as to increase their benefits in a decentralized manner. An optimization problem is formulated to model this SC with two main constraints: the demand and the stocking delays. The solution allocates the suitable shipping rates that increase the social benefit of the supply chain players. Different experiments were conducted to validate and demonstrate the merits of the model. It was found that the shipping protocol employed at the supplier side rapidly drives the SC to optimal shipping rates that maximize the utilities in decentralized approach. The model can be applied to fast response supply chains such as short shelf-life products, food supply chains, blood supply chains and perishable items.
    Keywords: Supply Chains; Resource allocation; Inventory; Utility; Non-Linear Optimization.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2019.10021601
     
  • Logistics capabilities measurement in the fractal supply network   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramin Bahadori, Sameh M. Saad 
    Abstract: Measurement of logistics capabilities will enable firms to provide order winners by adding value for products and services during the different stage of supply chain to win the competition and enhance firm's performance and customer's satisfaction. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to develop a fuzzy-AHP multi-criteria decision-making model to measure logistics capabilities in the fractal supply network. The key areas of measurement within a fractal supply network are identified and a hierarchical model is proposed with a set of generic measures. In addition, a questionnaire is developed for pair-wise comparison and to collect opinions from practitioners, researchers and managers to validate the proposed model. The relative importance of the measurement criteria is assessed using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy-AHP. Hence, the validity of the model is confirmed with the results obtained.
    Keywords: Fractal supply network; logistics capabilities measurement; supply chain; multi-criteria decision-making; Fuzzy-AHP.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10018905
     
  • Supply chain innovation performance evaluation based on cross efficiency concept: Case study of Supply Chain Innovation Award’s Winners, Runner-ups and Finalists   Order a copy of this article
    by Hassan Arabshahi, Hamed Fazlollahtabar 
    Abstract: This paper suggests a DEA-based structure for efficiency evaluation of supply chain innovations considering innovation risk and performance improvement. In this model, risk paradigms of supply chain innovation and popular supply chain performance measures are considered as the input and output of CCR-output oriented model respectively. Defect of DEA in ranking the efficient units has been solved by cross-efficiency concept and a practical case study of Supply Chain Innovation Award's winners, runner-ups and finalists is implemented. The obtained results lead to develop the 'effective innovation' concept within the supply chain management field which provides an innovation with the lowest possible risk and the highest positive effect on supply chain performance measures.
    Keywords: Supply Chain Innovation; Innovation Risk; Efficiency Evaluation; Data Envelopment Analysis; Supply Chain Innovation Award.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10019236
     
  • The Supply Chain as part of Knowledge Management in Organizational Environments   Order a copy of this article
    by Carlos Alberto Schettini Pinto, Augusto Da Cunha Reis, Marco Antonio Barborsa Braga 
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to evaluate how the existing processes flow in supply chain management (SCM) and knowledge management (KM) work and how they are applied in organisational environments. Both areas of knowledge knowledge management and supply chain management are usually handled independently. Based on the review of the literature, mainly with the databases of Science Direct and Emerald, we propose a hybrid model that embraces the two forms of interaction. Finally, the article presents the conclusions of the study and presents proposals for future research.
    Keywords: Supply Chain; Knowledge Management; Organizational Environments; Collaborative Intelligence; Action of knowledge management in the supply chain management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10019292
     
  • Transforming towards a Smarter Supply Chain   Order a copy of this article
    by Shubham Tripathi, Manish Gupta 
    Abstract: Present day supply chains are becoming complex and uncertain, and numerous technological innovations are being incorporated to enhance them, making supply chains smarter. The purpose of this paper is to build up a transformation map to move towards smart supply chain. The paper presents a framework to formulate transformation strategy and discusses implementation strategy in detail. Several factors to consider while taking the transformation decision are also discussed. Various reported case studies and actual implementation reports of individual technologies are considered to understand and report the impacts (observed and speculated) of these transformations. Smart supply chains are critical for Industry 4.0 (fourth industrial revolution) and their need has been highlighted by numerous researchers but the literature on how to evolve into one is scant. Understanding transformation towards smart supply chain and its impacts will guide and motivate practitioners in restructuring their supply chain.
    Keywords: Smart supply chain; Supply chain transformation; Supply chain innovation; Enabling technologies; Digitization; Digital supply chain; Industry 4.0; Smart.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10019293
     
  • A note on the stochastic nature of lead times in multi-echelon supply chains   Order a copy of this article
    by Subrata Saha, Peter Nielsen, Zbigniew Michna 
    Abstract: Recent supply chain research has concluded that stochastic lead times are a significant source of bullwhip effect in reorder-based supply chains. Despite this, the study of lead times and their nature has received remarkably little attention in literature. In this research we prove there exists an interdependency between lead time and service level measure, and thus the magnitude of the bullwhip effect. In a multi-echelon supply chain setting, the decision maker can experience disproportionate bullwhip effect. One cause of this is the fact that lead time distribution may likely stem from skewed and peaked distributions. As a member of a multi-echelon supply chain, a firm can experience an order variance that depend on the total number of echelon and information about their lead-time dependencies. These results correspond well with the few contributions found in literature showing actual lead times.
    Keywords: Stochastic lead times; bullwhip effect; supply chain.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10019299
     
  • Supply chain routine issues in Indian FMCG manufacturing firm   Order a copy of this article
    by Sachin Modgil, Rohit Kr Singh, Vandana Sonwaney 
    Abstract: Supply chain is an integral part of operations at any firm especially in manufacturing environment. Supply chain also helps in managing and coordinating the business activities effectively. Today, every business needs to look for the changes that are impacting the business. This continuous monitoring of the market helps firms to make strategic moves to keep business successfully. The sustainable objective of the firm can be achieved with the help of smoothly running supply chain system. The present study aims to analyse a case from biscuit manufacturing company from India. The study identifies the status of firm performance in supply chain and identification of issues. The study can provide the solutions for tangible and intangible benefits for the firm. A situations-actors-processes-learning-action-performance (SAP-LAP) approach has been applied. This analysis can help the firm to compare the existing status of performance with preferred performance for the firm.
    Keywords: Performance Issues; SCM; SAP-LAP; Biscuit Manufacturing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10019480
     
  • A DEA APPROACH FOR EVALUATION OF OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY: CASE STUDY OF A LOGISTICS FIRM   Order a copy of this article
    by Radha Ramanan, D. Jayakrishnan, M. Vishnu 
    Abstract: Cost minimisation is one of the key challenges faced by logistic industries across the world. As the number of customers increases, it becomes absolutely essential to make maximum utilisation of the existing resources to ensure quality customer service. The huge amount of data available with the firm under study is analysed using data envelopment analysis (DEA) and turned into valuable insights that could be used by management in taking right informed decision. The results show that about half of the transporters have efficiency value less than the average, indicating a huge scope for improvement. Related suggestions for efficiency improvement using DEA slack results are also presented. The decision making units (DMU) that are considered are the individual trucks. The findings of the study provide useful insights to the management in decision making at all the three levels, viz. operational, tactical and strategic.
    Keywords: Logistic firms; Efficiency; Data Envelopment Analysis; Decision Making Units.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10019481
     
  • Enhancing Queuing efficiency using Discrete event Simulation   Order a copy of this article
    by Kimsy Gulhane 
    Abstract: Operational efficiency of the hospitals should be taken care of. Purpose of research is to manage queues in hospital through simulation. For simulation, data is collected from real or original system. Arrival times of patients and service time of the server is collected from hospital. Data is identified with a particular distribution and then new data is generated using random variate generator of that distribution. Simulation is conducted and output is analysed. If one server is overloaded, then suggestion to add another server is given. The hospital keeps a benchmark that waiting time should not be more than two minutes. Waiting time in queue is calculated with two servers. Then t-test is applied to check the benchmark. The objectives of the research are: 1) to analyse the existing queuing system using discrete event simulation; 2) to suggest the changes in the system; 3) to analyse the performance of the system after change. This research aims to contribute to the body of knowledge. Issues in hospital are resolved through simulation and modifications in queuing are done.
    Keywords: Queuing system; Discrete Event Simulation; Replications in simulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10019489
     
  • A mixed integer linear programming model for designing a green closed-loop supply chain network considering location-routing problem   Order a copy of this article
    by Alvand Sadeghi, Hassan Mina, Niloofar Bahrami 
    Abstract: In today’s business environment, reusing the products could result in a great deal of supply chains cost reductions. Additionally, environmental regulations and customers’ increasing expectations leave companies no choice but applying the return policy. In this regard, designing a supply chain network incorporating the reverse flow can provide environmental requirements in addition to economic objectives. In this paper, a new mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model is developed for a closed-loop supply chain network (CLSCN) design. The proposed model is multi-period and multi-product that covers facility location and routing of heterogeneous vehicle fleets, simultaneously. The efficiency of the model is validated based on a real case in production and distribution chain of automotive spare parts manufacturing company in Iran. Managerial insights are gained through the numerical results.
    Keywords: Closed-loop supply chain; Location-routing problem; Mixed integer linear programming model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10019491
     
  • Mapping Supplier Selection Methods and Criteria in the Scoring and Assessment Sourcing Process: Case of Logistics Activities   Order a copy of this article
    by Samia LAGHRABLI, Abdelaziz Berrado, Loubna Benabbou 
    Abstract: This research brings to evidence interesting associations between supplier selection methods and criteria when outsourcing logistics activities. The study was conducted in two phases. First phase dealt with a systematic literature review that was carried out to identify characteristics of the supplier scoring and assessment process. It generated an exhaustive presentation and classification of supplier selection methods and criteria needed for evaluation and selection of logistics suppliers. Second phase handled an association analysis which allowed to unfold interesting associations between supplier selection methods and criteria. This research study yielded important findings, that is, the criteria and methods typically used for supplier scoring and assessment are not homogeneous across logistics activities. In general, each logistics activity is linked to specific selection methods and criteria. Meanwhile, some interesting high order association rules linking supplier selection methods to selection criteria emerged to be commonly used across all the logistics activities.
    Keywords: Logistics; Outsourcing; Associations Rules; Supplier Selection Methods; Supplier Selection Criteria; Supplier Scoring and Assessment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10019492
     
  • An interactive multi-objective fuzzy linear programming model for hub location problems to minimize cost and delay time in a distribution network   Order a copy of this article
    by Fahimeh Rahmanniyay, Jafar Razmi, Andrew J. Yu 
    Abstract: Hub location models are used to design a distribution network. Hubs are particular facilities that work as connecting, and dispatching points in distribution systems. This study presents a new multi-objective mixed-integer linear programming model for a multi-capacity p-hub median problem under uncertainty. Since delivery time is one of the essential factors considered in the design of a distribution network, the presented model aims to minimise the shipment and establishment cost, as well as delay time of a distribution network in a supply chain where demand, transportation time and establishment cost are uncertain. To cope with these uncertainties and the multiple objectives in the model, we applied an interactive fuzzy framework. Furthermore, the viability and effectiveness of the model and the framework are explored with a number of sensitivity and business analyses.
    Keywords: Supply chain; Distribution network; Hub location problem; Multi-objective; Fuzzy multi-objective linear programming; Delay time; Uncertainty; Logistics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10019541
     
  • Literature review on successful JIT implementation: benefits, obstacles and critical success factors.   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatima Ezzahra Sebtaoui, Ahmed Adri, Said RIFAI 
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to review the literature related to just-in-time (JIT) implementation. After going through a large number of papers related to the subject, the JIT implementation practices employed by successful manufacturing organisations have been extensively reviewed and analysed. This study also discusses the critical success factors and facilitators of JIT implementation in an organisation, and contains a comprehensive listing of publications in the field of JIT implementation. The study has reported 21 different benefits obtained by companies after a successful JIT implementation. In addition, this research reduces the list to identify the essential benefits that must be focused on. The study further indicates that management commitment, quality management, education and training are the main critical success factors in the JIT implementation, and that management, employee and knowledge are the main obstacles of JIT implementation.
    Keywords: Just-in-time; JIT; JIT implementation; inventory management; pull manufacturing; Lean manufacturing; waste reduction; Kanban; MRP.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10019674
     
  • Location routing problem with delivery modes   Order a copy of this article
    by Junko Hosoda, Takashi Irohara 
    Abstract: To realise efficient delivery, the location routing problem (LRP), which determines the locations of the facility and the vehicle routes, needs to be solved. Previous studies have attempted to improve the delivery efficiency of a route delivery, which is an efficient delivery mode if customers are densely located. However, if customers are sparsely located, route delivery is not efficient because the fixed costs of the vehicle become too expensive. In this case, courier delivery, i.e., delivery by a third party, is more efficient than route delivery because the courier delivery costs are proportional to the weight of the delivery amount and delivery distance. In this paper, we extended the LRP model to add the courier delivery model. Our model can select a suitable delivery mode for each customer by evaluating the trade-off between the courier delivery costs and the route delivery costs. The results of numerical experiments are shown.
    Keywords: location routing problem; delivery mode; mixed integer programming; courier delivery.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10019962
     
  • Assessing the Impact of Containership Size on Port Demand and Infrastructure Development: A Case of the Busan Hub Port   Order a copy of this article
    by Hokey Min, Gunwoo Lee, Chan-Young Jun, Min-kyu Lee 
    Abstract: In parallel with the continuous growth of international trade, the size of containerships has grown rapidly over the last several decades. The rationale being that the larger the capacity of a containership, the lower the shipping cost per TEU and the greater the shipping volume it can handle. The increased use of larger containerships, however, causes serious concerns for many ports around the world, since the existing port infrastructure and shipping network configurations are not designed to handle mega-containerships such as post-Panamax containerships. One of those concerns includes the vicious circle of never-ending port capacity expansion following the vessel size arms race. To ease such concern, the port authority should develop wise port development and reconfiguration strategies, which can accommodate the need for larger vessels and subsequently increase port revenue while minimising the financial burden associated with port development and reconfiguration. With this in mind, we examined whether the port’s ability to handle larger containerships had any impact on its attractiveness for inducing greater demand based on the case study of the Busan hub port in Korea.
    Keywords: Maritime logistics; port demand management; stochastic model; a mixture of normal distributions; case study.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10020218
     
  • Impact of additive manufacturing in different areas of Industry 4.0   Order a copy of this article
    by Abid Haleem, Mohd Javaid, Shanay Rab 
    Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies are becoming an essential part of tomorrow’s smart factories, where software, technologies, and processes are being integrated to deliver world-class results. AM is to provide extensive inputs to smart manufacturing systems using digital design, and specialised software-based manufacturing technology. AM helps to create product innovation, thereby impacting different areas of Industry 4.0. The purpose of this study is to understand how AM can impact various areas of Industry 4.0. A large number of research papers on additive manufacturing in Industry 4.0 and other related articles in the manufacturing field have been studied to identify its fifteen significant impacts and subsequent research direction. In future, AM will create technological advancement in design, manufacturing and provide a maximum contribution in Industry 4.0 to the self-optimise production system. AM helps to reduce a considerable amount of unused inventory and helps fulfil the customised demand of consumer and market. AM creates any customised prototype for specific users in lesser time. It provides innovative product concepts by assessing market demand and minimise the supply chain cost.
    Keywords: Additive Manufacturing (AM); Areas of Industry 4.0; Customisation; Industry 4.0; Requirements of Industry 4.0.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10020219
     
  • Farm Level Sustainable Cotton Supply Chain Management, an Empirical Study of Pakistan   Order a copy of this article
    by Sonia Nazeer, Puwanart Fuggate, Muhammad Shafiq 
    Abstract: Cotton is a highly non-sustainable crop due to the requirement for substantial amounts of water and energy resources in the overall supply chain, from farm to finished product. There is a need to assess the sustainability of the cotton supply chain management system which may be achieved through more reasonable use of inputs and resources, hence lesser environmental impact, while maintaining sustained income for farmers. This research investigates the current status of sustainability in the farm level cotton supply chain and explores the influence of sustainability paradigms (economic, environmental and social) on farmers' supply chain management decisions. A survey was held (157 small and medium level cotton farmers) and data was analysed using the SPSS software with descriptive statistics of t-test, correlations and regression analysis. Results shown that small and medium level farmers are only focused on using less expensive inputs, with little concern for environmental and social matters.
    Keywords: Sustainable cotton supply chain management (SCSCM); Cotton supply chain management (CSCM) Cotton sustainability factors (CSF); Sustainable cotton growers (SCG).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10020351
     
  • Auction based algorithm for solving scheduling problem in cross-docking centres.   Order a copy of this article
    by ELDHO PAUL, Brijesh Paul 
    Abstract: A cross-docking centre reduces the amount of storage and transportation in a distribution system compared to an ordinary warehouse. This paper proposes an auction-based mechanism for optimum scheduling of inbound trucks in cross-docking centres, thereby reducing the storage and transportation costs. Auction mechanisms are commonly used in different real life applications for better allocation of limited resources. Here, an effort is made to integrate the auction mechanism with the functioning of cross-docking centres. A mathematical model is developed for the optimal scheduling of inbound trucks. As expected, the determination of exact schedule for problems involving large number of variables was found to be computationally complex, and hence a heuristic methodology is also proposed in this study. In our computational experiments, we found that the proposed heuristic method is capable of producing good schedules in minimal time.
    Keywords: Auction mechanism; Combinatorial auction; Cross-docking centre; Genetic algorithm; Heuristics; Mathematical modelling; NP hard; Optimization; Resource allocation; Scheduling of trucks.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10020416
     
  • A Study on Using LARG (lean, agile, resilient and green) Index to Assess the Sustainability of Egyptian FMCGs Supply Chains   Order a copy of this article
    by Sara Elzarka 
    Abstract: Sustainable or green supply chain (GSC) management has gained significant importance over the past few years in Egypt as global awareness on preserving natural resources and the environment have been increasing. Sustainable operations of the supply chain became an essential requirement for Egyptian products to enter the European and the American markets which are the two major exports’ markets for Egypt. Therefore, this research would assess the leanness, agility, resilience and greenness of Egyptian fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) supply chain by the use of the lean, agile, resilient and green (LARG) index proposed by Azevedo et al. (2016). This research will use the case study approach in assessing the practices of three major FMCG companies’ supply chains. Conducting this assessment on a set of companies and to their supply chain will allow the researcher to benchmark the performance of the supply chain members; thus, highlighting the gaps and emphasising on the improvement opportunities.
    Keywords: Supply Chain Management; Sustainability; Green Supply Chain; Egypt; FMCG; Fast Moving Consumer Goods; Lean; Green; LARG index; Resilience.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10020426
     
  • THIRD PARTY LOGISTICS PROVIDERS: SUSTAINABILITY PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT FRAMEWORK   Order a copy of this article
    by Jirapan Liangrokapart, Yurawan Nitisaroj 
    Abstract: Over the past two decades, the concept of outsourcing has driven the growth of third party logistics (3PL). Intensive competition led to the necessity of sustainability for 3PL firms. Although there are studies on 3PL sustainability; there is no comprehensive framework for measuring 3PL sustainability performance. Based on triple bottom line (TBL) framework, the purpose of this paper is to develop a sustainability performance measurement framework for 3PL, which can be used as a guide for the development of sustainable 3PL businesses. Related research and academic papers were reviewed; content analysis was used. Subsequently, two rounds of Delphi survey were carried out to derive the set of measures and dimensions of a sustainability performance measurement framework. This study shows that in addition to the TBL framework, two additional dimensions emerge. Sustainability performance measurement framework for 3PL includes five dimensions: economic performance, environmental performance, social performance, operational excellence and service capabilities.
    Keywords: Outsourcing; Performance Measurement; Sustainability; Sustainability Framework; Third Party Logistics Providers; Logistics Service Provider.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10020517
     
  • Optimal inventory strategies for two-echelon supply chain system involving carbon emissions and fuzzy deterioration   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Priyan, P. Mala, R. Gurusamy 
    Abstract: The industry sector is an vital direct and indirect source of carbon emissions. Today industries are looking for solutions to reduce carbon emissions associated with their operations. Operational adjustments, such as modifications in batch sizes or order quantities, have proven to be an effective way to decrease emissions. This paper provides a new mathematical model which integrate cost and emissions in transportation and storage to execute optimal operational adjustments for deteriorating products under the framework of two-echelon inventory system. The deterioration rate is treated as the triangular fuzzy number, and we use the extension principle to find the membership function of the fuzzy total cost and defuzzify by the centroid to find the estimate of the total cost in the fuzzy sense. Numerical example is performed to show the effectiveness of the proposed model, and several managerial insights are observed from sensitive analyses which may help both the government and the industry to adopt appropriate carbon reduction regulations.
    Keywords: Deteriorating product; Fuzzy number; Centroid method; Carbon emission.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10020520
     
  • Designing and Developing the Strategic Foresight Capabilities of Medical Universities in the Accidents and Crises of the Country with Emphasis on Human Resource Agility   Order a copy of this article
    by Hasan Hosseini, Hosseinali Rastegari, Hasanali Ghayoor 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to design and develop the strategic foresight capabilities for crisis management with respect to the mediating role of human resource agility in Universities of Medical Sciences of Isfahan, Shahre Kord, Kashan and Yazd. In this study, the research components and variables were identified based on the research background and using the Delphi method. The statistical population includes managers and experts, who overall were 160 people. The results showed that the impact of strategic foresight capabilities on crisis management is 37%, which means that 37% of the crisis management changes are related to the strategic foresight capabilities; also it was found that the strategic foresight capabilities influenced the human resources agility as much as 95%, which means that 95% of the human resource agility changes are due to strategic foresight capabilities, and that the human resource agility affected (55%) on crisis management.
    Keywords: Strategic Foresight Capabilities; Human Resource Agility; Crisis Management; Unforeseen Events.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10020613
     
  • An Investigation on sustainable supply chain management challenges for Indian thermal power plants   Order a copy of this article
    by Suchismita Satapathy 
    Abstract: The coal option for power generation has to play most important role in the Indian power sector for long times to come. Though it is most obvious and viable option, it comes with some salient issues like coal quality, import tie ups, mining, transport and port infrastructure, etc. which need to be analysed and addressed with long-term perspective. A low-quality, high-ash coal also creates problems for power stations, including erosion in parts and materials, difficulty in pulverisation, poor emissivity and flame temperature, low radiative transfer, and excessive amounts of fly ash containing large amounts of unburned carbons. The awareness against the environmental pollution and clean energy is increasing all over the world. As the thermal power sector is blamed for creating environmental pollution, so they are more focused on sustainability issues and subsequently trying to develop a sustainable supply chain strategy to carry out their business.
    Keywords: SSCM:ANN:QFD:iSM,Indian thermal power sector:coal.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10020884
     
  • The Role of Logistics Strategy on Firm Performance of Garment Industry in Bangladesh   Order a copy of this article
    by Md. Sazzadur Rahman Khan, Vichayanan Rattanawiboonsom 
    Abstract: The logistics strategy has an indispensable effect on routine decision making and imminent arrangements of the firms. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of logistics strategy on firm performance, e.g., tangible and intangible benefits of garment industry in Bangladesh. The study utilised quantitative method and furthermore recognises confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine the association between observed variables and latent constructs. This research exploits SPSS version 20 and structural equation model (SEM) based on AMOS version 23 to analyse the data surveyed in the 120 garment factories positioned in export processing zone in addition to domestic factories of Bangladesh. The results reveal that logistics strategies are not significantly (p ? 0.05) associated with tangible and intangible firm performance of garment industry. The findings emphasise about upgradation of logistics infrastructure to formulate appropriate strategy in the garment industry of Bangladesh.
    Keywords: Keywords: inventory strategy; low cost strategy; purchasing strategy; information flow; resource based view (RBV); structure conduct performance (SCP); firm performance; garment industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10023029
     
  • Process-based Common Supply Chain Management Practices in Manufacturing Firms.   Order a copy of this article
    by Maqsood Memon, Bruce Gurd, Hussain Bux Marri 
    Abstract: Present study explore common supply chain management practices (SCMPs) and investigate how these practices facilitate the development of supply chain capabilities. The study adopts an exploratory case study approach with the content analysis of the data collected through semi-structured interviews, followed by site visits to 14 Australian manufacturing firms. The findings show six common SCMPs in the case study firms. Findings also demonstrate how these practices promote and further develop inter-organisational and intra-organisational integration, coordination for increased responsiveness and delivering valued services to customers in supply chain. The practices explored can be used as a supply chain framework for the manufacturing industry which can provide an effective tool for developing increased responsiveness in the supply chain through capabilities of integration, coordination and valued services delivery. Moreover, this study for the first time explores how supply chain capabilities emerge from SCMPs and how do both differ.
    Keywords: Supply chain management practices; Supply chain management capabilities; manufacturing firms; case study.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10023035
     
  • Logistics Performance Index: What is Brazil’s logistics performance in the international market?
    by Camila Bazani, Janser Pereira, Edvalda Leal 
    Abstract: The present study aimed to evaluate, in light of strategic positioning theory, the logistics performance of Brazil in the international market based on the Logistics Performance Index (LPI) presented by the World Bank. It is a descriptive study with a quantitative approach. Data were collected in documents issued by the World Bank and from the World Bank, AliceWeb and UNComtrade databases. Cluster analysis and multiple comparison of means were used to analyse the data. The results showed that Brazil has medium logistics performance compared to other countries. Its worst performance was in the customs dimension and its best was in timeliness. Moreover, developed countries are mostly grouped in the cluster with a high logistics performance.
    Keywords: Logistics performance; Competitive advantage; LPI; Brazil.

  • Exploring the factors that drive Use of Self-Service Technologies in Air-travel in an African country   Order a copy of this article
    by Benjamin Agyei-Owusu, David Asamoah, Grace Birago Asenso 
    Abstract: Self-service technologies (SSTs) refer to technological interfaces that enable customers to produce a service independent of direct employee involvement. The use of SSTs in air-travel in African countries has seen remarkable growth in recent years, yet little is known about the factors that account for this. Using the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology as a theoretical lens, this study examines the factors that drive both behavioural intention to use and actual usage behaviour of three SSTs used in air-travel (self-booking, self-ticketing and self-check-in) in an African country. Data was obtained from 250 international air travellers in Ghana. Findings of the study revealed that social influence, facilitating conditions, and effort expectancy significantly impact behavioural intentions towards the use of air-travel SSTs. Also, behavioural intentions, user satisfaction and facilitating conditions were found to significantly impact SST usage behaviour. The study concludes by discussing the implications for research and practice.
    Keywords: Self-service technologies; SSTs; Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology; UTAUT; air-travel; Africa.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10023298
     
  • Distance Metrics Matter: Analysing Optimisation Algorithms for the Last Mile Problem   Order a copy of this article
    by Jay Brown, Maxim Bushuev, Alfred Guiffrida 
    Abstract: This research compares and contrasts the performance of 11 optimisation algorithms and two new combined optimisation algorithms for solving the last mile delivery problem. The last mile delivery problem is modelled as a circular region with a central depot and customers randomly distributed throughout the region. The performance of the optimisation algorithms is studied with respect to expected travel distance and computation time needed to achieve a solution for problems with varying numbers of customers and where travel distance is measured with Euclidean and Manhattan distance metrics. The paper represents the first analytical comparison of different algorithms for optimising last mile delivery when the number of customers varies stochastically under both Manhattan and Euclidian distance metrics. Findings show that the number of customer deliveries and the metric used to measure travel distance impacts a decision maker's choice of the best algorithm and that employing multiple algorithms is recommended.
    Keywords: last mile problem; supply chain optimisation; algorithms; heuristics; Manhattan distance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10023787
     
  • Simulation-based optimisation of replenishment policy in supply chains   Order a copy of this article
    by Tomasz Wi?niewski, Rafa? Szyma?ski 
    Abstract: Classic replenishment strategy may no longer be effective due to the increasing complexity of supply chains. The article presents the problem of inventory management while presenting a practical methodology for supporting inventory replenishment decisions in order to reduce maintenance costs. Therefore, the possibility has been shown of using simulation modelling of the supply chain. The aim of the article is to present the methodology, using computer simulation with optimisation, of searching for the optimal strategy of replenishment of stocks in supply chains, especially when there is a problem of uncertainty of the demand. A case study was presented
    Keywords: supply chain; replenishment strategy; optimization; simulation modelling.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10023792
     
  • Adoption Level of Maritime Green Supply Chain Management: Preliminary Findings from a Pilot Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Yudi Fernando, Muhamad Fairuz Ahmad Jasmi, Ishak Ismail 
    Abstract: It is essential to investigate the awareness of maritime industry concerning environmental practices that could cause damage and pollution to coastal and marine ecosystems. The perception of maritime firms in Malaysia was examined with a view to understanding the adoption level of maritime green supply chain management and its correlation with financial outcomes. Three statistical tests were utilised. The first adopted assessment was the internal consistency test which measured the scale reliability. Afterwards, the different variations among group means level of adoption (seed, start-up, expansion, monitoring and control) in the sample was examined using one-way ANOVA analysis. The results showed that the aggregate value of MGSCM practices has positive correlation with maritime supply chain financial efficiency. This paper, apart from establishing that small sample size is sufficient for a pilot study. It is necessary to conduct a pilot study prior the actual data collection.
    Keywords: maritime; green supply chain management; green adoption; financial performance; pilot study.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10023798
     
  • Assessing Logistics Capability for the Australian Courier Firms   Order a copy of this article
    by Michael Wang 
    Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to identify and assess the logistics capability in the Australian courier firms. Logistics capability is an important ability for transport and logistics firms to deliver the value and services to the customers. It may directly influence both firm performance and customers’ experiences. An empirically validated measurement model of logistics capability for Australian courier firms is presented in the paper. Empirical data is collected through a web-based survey. According to the factor analysis, the key underlying factors of logistics capability has been identified in the Australian courier firms. They are including operation flexibility-focused capability, innovation-focused capability and process optimisation-focused capability. The results indicate that the Australian courier firms have relatively strong logistics capabilities. The implication of the measurements of logistics capability is not only for further studies, but also it provides practical guidance for policy-making and developing the logistics capability to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. It also contributes to the literature in courier and logistics. Moreover, the findings help both academics and practitioners to gain a better understanding of logistics capability in the courier industry.
    Keywords: logistics capability; logistics management; courier; Australia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10023801
     
  • Outcome of Selective Dis-integration on Supply Chain Efficiency and Organisation Performance   Order a copy of this article
    by P. D. D. Dominic, Sarit Maitra, Parthiban Palanisamy 
    Abstract: Supply chain has become the spine of commerce. Business today consistently demanding coordinated and integrated way to manage the supply and demand flow. Marketplace has evolved into a dynamic, customer centric smarter and agile ways of working. This has prompted to relook at the information technology (IT) linked integration. IT and systems integration are facilitating supply chain management (SCM) for improved supply chain efficiency (SCE). This study examined the direct relationship between SCI and SCE and SCI and PER (organisation performance) and the relationship between SCE and PER by classifying different variables associated and drawing an analytical model. Furthermore, to fit into the demand driven economy, this study introduces a new attribute named selective dis-integration (DIS) and examined its’ impact on SCE and PER. Data sample for this study are collected through mixed survey and model is tested using non-parametric partial least square regression.
    Keywords: Information Technology; Organisation Performance; Supply Chain Management; Supply Chain Integration; Supply Chain Efficiency; Dis-integration.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10023802
     
  • Advancements in Industrial Supply Chain through Lean Implementation   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmed Zainul Abideen, Fazeeda Binti Mohamad 
    Abstract: Previously, lean management was adopted to reduce wastes in the core production processes. But now, it has started addressing issues in other operational scenarios. Its scope can be expatiated several notches higher, even after attaining
    Keywords: Lean; Lean Supply chain Management; Green; Green Supply Chain; Agile Supply Chain.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10023803
     
  • Mixed contracts for supply chain management based on newsvendor problem by including real option and classic contract with continues demand   Order a copy of this article
    by Mahdi Shafiei, Mohammad Modarres Yazdi 
    Abstract: In this article, we study a newsvendor contracting framework based on real option under continuous stochastic demand. We consider a mixed contract in which the retailer is allowed to order a portion of the product he/she needs, q units, under the influence of the classic newsvendor conditions and Q real options of the same product, to satisfy the rest of her need. We develop a closed form solution for the problem according to the fact that demand is continuous and discussed some its features. In this regard, we illustrate that the outcome of the mixed contract is better, compared to pure real option contract, or classic newsvendor contract.
    Keywords: Supply chain management; Real option; Newsvendor problem; Mixed contract.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10023812
     
  • Interpretive Structural Modeling Approach to Assess Financial Attributes of the Air Cargo Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Robert Walton, Aman Gupta, Ronald Mau 
    Abstract: Air cargo represents about one-third of the total value of global trade carried and is therefore an essential player in the world economy. Monitoring the financial stability of air cargo carriers is vital to the industry, governments, and stakeholders. To detect financial difficulties within the aviation industry numerous prediction models have been developed, but most focus on the passenger airlines. In addition, these prediction models typically do not take into account essential non-statistical factors. This paper identified qualitative factors that could influence the financial health of all-cargo airlines and attempted to understand the interaction among them. The factors were identified based on previous research and validated by expert opinions. Interpretive structural modelling (ISM) was used to determine any mutual influences among the factors. Further, the ISM methodology was able to establish the level of the factors and determine their driving power and dependence. The results are very useful for air cargo management in that they can use the findings of this study to overcome dominant factors.
    Keywords: Air cargo; Bankruptcy; Financial models; Interpretive Structural Modelling; ISM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10023816
     
  • Fuzzy bi-objective inventory-routing problem for blood products in a hospital network during disasters: two multi-objective meta-heuristic approaches   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamad Mehdi Lotfi, Mohammad Hajibabaie 
    Abstract: Post-disaster inventory-routing problem consisting of a blood products' supplier and a set of hospitals is investigated. With respect to the different scenarios of roads' availability, the goal of proposed model is to establish a trade-off between the minimisation of total costs and total delivery time of blood products. Due to the criticality of platelets and red blood cells in disasters, only these two perishable items are addressed. The shortage and wastage costs are predicted based on the conformity measures of patient and donator. The demands are considered as a set of fuzzy numbers due to the lack of sufficient precise data. The model is solved exactly using ?-constraint; however, for large-sized problems, two meta-heuristics, i.e., NSGA-II and MOSA are developed. Comparing the results of NSGA-II and MOSA to those of ?-constraint confirms the efficiency of solution algorithms. Moreover, NSGA-II outperforms MOSA regarding the solution quality; but, MOSA needs fewer computational efforts.
    Keywords: Disaster; Blood; Inventory-routing problem; ?-constraint; NSGA-II; Multi-objective simulated annealing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10023877
     
  • Reducing Post Harvest Losses of Fruits and Vegetables through Supply Chain Performance Evaluation: An illustration of the application of SCOR Model   Order a copy of this article
    by PHILIP KOFI ALIMO 
    Abstract: Previous research revealed many causes of postharvest losses of food along the value chain. This study illustrates the application of the SCOR model's performance metrics in evaluating the performance of the supply chain of fruits and vegetables towards reducing losses. The results of the experiment shows that the reliability, responsiveness and agility performance of the supply chain is a reflection of the rate of quantitative and qualitative losses as well as the ability to deliver orders within the customer-commit dates. These ultimately determine the value of returns on capital and supply chain fixed assets. The performance scores have also been attributed to the management processes and practices. The implication is that, the economic value of losses along the value chain is a reflection of decision making and had a direct link with the profitability of the company. SCOR is therefore recommended to all fruit and vegetable supply chain managers.
    Keywords: Keywords: postharvest losses; fruits and vegetables supply chain; SCOR Model; performance evaluation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10023883
     
  • Multi-item two warehouse inventory model for deteriorating item under partial credit period via Contractive Mapping Genetic Algorithm and PSO   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashoke Kumar Bera, Dipak Kumar Jana, Debamalya Banerjee, Titas Nandy 
    Abstract: Present study proposes a two warehouse ordering policy for multi product, deteriorating items when demand is stock and selling price dependent. It is assumed that the supplier offers a full and partial trade credit for a certain fixed period to entice more customers. Retailer has own warehouse (OW) W1 of finite capacity at the central location in the city and a rented warehouse (RW) W2 of infinite capacity situated just outside the city. Units are continuously transferred from warehouse W2 to warehouse W1 and sold from warehouse W1. The objective of this work is to maximise the profit for different models by using contractive mapping genetic algorithm (CMGA) and particle swarm optimisation (PSO). The order quantity, selling price and refilling point at the first warehouse are considered as the decision variables to maximise the objective. mathematical models are formulated by using two heuristic techniques and illustrated with a numerical example.
    Keywords: Multi-product; Two warehouses; stock dependent demand; Deterioration; Permissible delay in payment; Contractive Mapping Genetic Algorithm; Particle Swarm Optimization.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10023936
     
  • A robust optimization approach for designing a multi-echelon, multi-product, multi-period supply chain network with outsourcing   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamad Sadegh Sangari, Samaneh Moradi 
    Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of designing an integrated multi-echelon, multi-product, multi-period supply chain network under uncertainty in which products can be outsourced to improve responsiveness and the overall performance. The network consists of production plants, distribution centres, and retailers. The demands of retailers, production capacities, and transportation costs as well as costs of opening distribution centres are subject to uncertainty. A deterministic mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is developed with the objective of minimising sum of the fixed, transportation, and outsourcing costs. In order to capture the uncertainties, a robust optimisation model is proposed. A set of numerical experiments using nominal and realisation data is investigated and the relative performance of the robust and deterministic models is compared based on the standard deviation and mean of the objective function values. In case of data realisation, results confirm that the proposed robust model outperforms the deterministic counterpart.
    Keywords: Supply chain network design; Outsourcing; Robust optimization; Mixed integer linear programming (MILP).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10023949
     
  • Product Mix Decisions with Complete Shipment and Multiple Physical Resources as Constraints   Order a copy of this article
    by Neeraj Bhanot, Ajay Gupta, Arvind Bhardwaj 
    Abstract: Over the last three decades, the theory of constraints (TOCs) has emerged as a complete management philosophy. Fox extended the application of TOC to the product mix situations and suggested the theory of constraints heuristics (TOChs). This algorithm was applicable to single constraint situations only and later, Fredendall and Lea (1997) modified it to revised theory of constraints heuristics (RTOChs) for multiple constraint situations. Neither of these heuristics is applicable to the situations where complete shipment to different customers is an additional constraint over and above the physical constraints. In this paper, some modifications are suggested in RTOCh proposed by Fredendall and Lea (1997). By applying these modifications, the heuristics can be used in the complete shipment constraint situations. The working of this modified heuristics has been explained by taking two illustrative examples. By comparing the results obtained from the proposed heuristics with those obtained from the integer linear programming model, it has been proved that the heuristics give satisfactory results. Since the proposed heuristics provides the sequence of manufacturing, the effect of contingencies on actual output will be minimum. Ease of usage and better actual output are the advantages of proposed heuristic over integer linear programming.
    Keywords: Product Mix; Complete Shipment; Multiple Physical Resources; Theory of Constraints; Theory of Constraints Heuristics (TOCh); Integer Linear Programming.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10023950
     
  • Entry and Governance Modes in International Franchising: A case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Vanessa Pilla Galetti Bretas, Thelma Rocha, Renata Galhanone, George Bedinelli Rossi 
    Abstract: This paper analyses the entry and governance mode choices in the internationalisation process of a Brazilian franchisor. The study investigates the factors that helped this company, a supplier of fibreglass swimming pools, to achieve fast international growth and become one of the most internationalised Brazilian franchisors with presence in 40 foreign countries. Six interviews were conducted with the CEO/Founder, two directors and three experts from franchising associations (ABF and IFA). The analysis showed that this franchisor’s fast internationalisation process was due to trust, relationships and network building, factors that impacted its entry and governance mode choice in the foreign countries. The partnerships established with local players influenced the choice of the governance mode. This study may contribute to decision making in international franchising by showing the relevance of trust, local relationships and business networks for the internationalisation of franchise chains, considering the uniqueness of each foreign market.
    Keywords: International franchising; Governance modes; Market entry modes.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10023954
     
  • Adaptive Synchronization of Supply Chain System using Sliding Mode Control   Order a copy of this article
    by Hwan-Seong Kim, Xiao Xu, Sam-Sang You 
    Abstract: This paper addresses a chaos synchronisation problem in a three-echelon supply chain system. A parameter adaptation law is designed to deal with the influence of unknown parameters and system perturbations for the supply chain system. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, the sliding mode control synthesis with parameter update law provides its ability on driving the trajectories of supply chain system to the master system. The simulation results show that the adaptive sliding mode controller enables to synchronise the supply chain system with master system asymptotically and how information and materials flow between business entities and processes. The active supply chain management using control theory makes business organisation more flexible, and all participants in business enterprises can certainly adjust to new market trends and easily cope with market instabilities.
    Keywords: Chaos synchronization; Supply chain system; Adaptation law; Lyapunov stability; Sliding mode control.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10023974
     
  • Shopper Attitudes about Privacy and the Likelihood of Disabling an RFID Tag   Order a copy of this article
    by Ronald B. Larson  
    Abstract: Successful omnichannel retailing of consumer goods will probably require item-level RFID tags. Consumer concerns about privacy may limit implementations of item-level tagging and slow omnichannel growth. This study tests consumer reactions to a tag that can be disabled by customers after purchase. Two surveys examined relationships between support for and use of this type of RFID tag and privacy concerns, demographics, and behaviours. Many of the expected relationships were not found, suggesting that simply placing this type of tag on products is unlikely to significantly ameliorate privacy concerns. Targeted communications at individuals in specific segments (e.g., those nervous about new technologies, those actively involved in an organised religion, etc.) that explain the technology and reassure consumers may complement the adoption of these special RFID tags and help overcome the barrier created by privacy concerns.
    Keywords: Radio frequency identification; Omnichannel retailing; Privacy; Technology anxiety; Religiosity; Disabled RFID tag.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10023984
     
  • Traffic Time Series Forecasting on Highways - A Contemporary Survey of Models, Methods and Techniques   Order a copy of this article
    by JAYANTHI GANAPATHY, Jothilakshmi P 
    Abstract: Transportation research is dynamic and essential engineering prospect of all nations across the globe. Recent developments in intelligent transport systems (ITS) have established software system enabled transportation infrastructure to the public using which traveller information service and hassle free transport have become the prime objective of the transport industry. At present, innovation in technology driven infrastructure planning in transportation management is highly demanded research prospect in the area of intelligent transportation systems and services. Research effort towards development of ITS with statistical and machine learning (ML) approaches applied in time series analysis for traffic forecasting is enormous. But, the outcome of such researches is still under refinement considering various practical difficulties. Hence, the objective of this survey is to present a detailed insight on evolution of traffic time series forecasting with broad classification of methods and detailed summary of their results. Finally, comprehensive review results are presented with directions to address the research challenges.
    Keywords: Short term traffic prediction; Traffic operations; Parametric; Non-Parametric; Machine learning technique; Data Mining.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10024052
     
  • An exploratory study on logistician professional competencies: the case of Lithuanian logistics companies   Order a copy of this article
    by Neringa Vilkaite-Vaitone 
    Abstract: The main aim of the study is to provide a general understanding of the current competence requirements for specialists working in Lithuanian logistics sector. A review of literature on logistician competences was combined with a quantitative survey. A sample of 486 logistics specialists was chosen for a questionnaire research. The results indicated that the most important competences of logisticians are planning, quality assurance and customer relationship management. Obtained results are partially consistent with the results of researches made in the same geographical region. Results of the research of logistician competences in Lithuanian logistics companies suggested that there exist significant differences between importance of competences and gender, education, position of logistician, company's capital origin and number of employees. These findings provide considerable insights to managers and educators of logisticians: it might be useful to differentiate the strengthening of logistician competences in reference to demographical, professional and organisational characteristics.
    Keywords: Competence; professional competence; logistician; planning; quality assurance; customer relationship management.

Special Issue on: Operations Management of Various Logistics Flows

  • A Global Performance Analysis Methodology Using Taguchi Approach: Case of Cloud Computing and Supply Chain   Order a copy of this article
    by Awatif Ragmani, Amina El Omri, Noreddine Abghour, Khalid Moussaid, Moahmmed Rida 
    Abstract: Nowadays, performance optimization is identified as the major asset to maximize the quality-cost ratio of a given system. Particularly, the performance analysis of a complex system involving several processes and a multitude of stakeholders cannot be done without an efficient methodology. During this paper, we aim at the implementation of a generic methodology for performance analysis taking as a framework the case of Cloud computing and Supply chain. The proposed methodology is based on the fundamental idea of transforming a complex system into a black box which will be analyzed through different inputs corresponding to the influential factors and outputs which translate the key performance indicators. The analysis of the interactions between influential factors and key performance indicators is carried out on the basis of the Taguchi concept. The conclusions of the proposed methodology make it possible to identify diverse perspectives in order to enhance the performance of the entire system.
    Keywords: Cloud Computing; Performance Methodology; Key Performance Indicator; Balanced Scorecard; Taguchi; Supply Chain.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2020.10021521