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International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital

International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital (IJLIC)

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International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital (14 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • The effects of intellectual capital on risk and return of banks: nonlinear modelling approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Nicholas Asare, Joseph Mensah Onumah, Alex Dontoh 
    Abstract: This study examines the nonlinear effects of intellectual capital (IC) on the risks and returns of banks. Using the annual data of 366 banks from 26 African countries from 2007 to 2015, the study estimates: IC using the value-added intellectual coefficient (VAIC), risks and returns of banks using net interest margin, risk-adjusted return on assets, and insolvency risk. The results indicate that the relationship between net interest margin/insolvency risk and IC is nonlinear, U-shaped/ inverted U-shaped. The study’s findings provide evidence for the extent of IC’s contribution to the performance and stability of banks in Africa. This study’s multidimensional conceptualisation of IC, risks and returns provides a robust systematic approach to a comprehensive understanding of aspects of the banking sector in emerging economies in Africa.
    Keywords: intellectual capital; nonlinear; performance; stability; banks; Africa.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLIC.2022.10048341
  • Is intellectual capital related to telecommunications industry financial performance during COVID-19?   Order a copy of this article
    by Afdol Muftiasa, Lili Adi Wibowo, Agus Rahayu 
    Abstract: This study aims to examine the influence of intellectual capital on the financial performance of the telecommunications industry during the COVID-19 pandemic. The population includes the telecommunications companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2019-2020. Moreover, the intellectual capital performance was measured by the value-added intellectual capital coefficient (VAICTM) approach while the model was developed and hypotheses tested using linear regression analysis. The results showed that intellectual capital has a positive and significant effect on return on assets and return on equity but has no influence on earning per share. Recommendations are later made for researchers and practitioners.
    Keywords: earnings per share; EPS; financial performance; intellectual capital; return on assets; ROA; return on equity; ROE; VAICTM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLIC.2023.10049256
  • The impact of intellectual capital on financial performance of commercial banks: the mediating role of competitive advantage   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Suleiman Awwad, Ali Muhammad Qtaishat 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of intellectual capital on the financial performance of Jordanian commercial banks and the mediating role of competitive advantage. The value-added intellectual coefficient (VAICTM) model was used to measure intellectual capital; asset utilisation ratio to measure competitive advantage; and return on assets to measure commercial banks' performance. This empirical research was conducted using panel data from the financial reports of 13 Jordanian commercial banks listed on the Amman Stock Exchange for the period 2009-2018. Data analysis was achieved using STATA 15. The findings indicate that intellectual capital and competitive advantage positively impact the financial performance of commercial banks. Also, competitive advantage mediates the relationship between intellectual capital and financial performance. In this context, intellectual capital plays a significant role in creating value for a firm's stakeholders and developing a competitive advantage that enables the firm to face the increasing competition, especially in the banking sector.
    Keywords: value-added intellectual coefficient; VAIC™; intellectual capital; value-added; competitive advantage; financial performance; assets utilisation ratio; return on assets; ROA; commercial banks.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLIC.2023.10049257
  • Trends of human capital development in Ethiopia: a comparative analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Misganu Legesse Bareke, Birhanu Haile Agezew, Negash Haile Dedho, Adane Hailu Herut, Mesfin Molla Demissie, Berhanu Mekonnen Yimer, Mulugeta Fufa Lebeta 
    Abstract: This study attempted to address the trends of human capital development (HCD) in Ethiopia compared to the sub-Saharan African region and the world's standards. The study was purely quantitative, employing secondary data. The World Banks time series data from 1981-2018 was considered for the study. An average year of schooling was taken as the major proxy indicator of HCD for the analysis. Descriptive statistics like mean, standard deviation, and mean differences were used. Compared to the status of Ethiopia's HC, it remains the lowest and least ranked among countries, even less than the sub-Saharan standard. From these findings, it can be concluded that the average years of schooling remained low as it was challenged by low completion rates at primary and secondary levels. Therefore, Ethiopia is advised to work vigorously beyond universalising primary education and better focus on the introduction of compulsory secondary education, even beyond, to boost its HC.
    Keywords: trends; human capital; comparative analysis; Ethiopia; descriptive statistics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLIC.2022.10049841
  • Intellectual capital and firm performance: the moderating effect of controlling shareholders in Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Irene Wei Kiong Ting, Jawad Asif, Qian Long Kweh, Imen Tebourbi 
    Abstract: This study examines: 1) how intellectual capital (IC) investment nonlinearly affects firm performance; 2) how controlling shareholders moderate the nonlinear association between IC investment and firm performance. This study utilises the value-added intellectual coefficient to proxy for the efficiencies of IC and its components, namely, human capital, structural capital and capital employed. Panel regression analysis is conducted utilising data from 733 Malaysian public listed companies for the period 2009-2018. The positive effects of intangible components of IC investments vanish after a certain optimal breakpoint. Regression results also indicate that controlling shareholders moderate the nonlinear impacts of IC and component investment on firm performance except for human capital efficiency. This study is the first to examine the role of controlling shareholders in moderating the relationship between IC investment and firm performance with a joint investigation of controlling shareholders, IC, and firm performance.
    Keywords: controlling shareholders; intellectual capital; firm performance; nonlinearity; moderator; Malaysia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLIC.2022.10050020
  • Using the lens of human and social capital to clarify HR practices’ influence on individual and organisational performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Carlos Botelho 
    Abstract: This paper aims to explore potential mediation mechanisms between two core sources of intellectual capital, human (HC) and social (SC), and a set of human resources (HR) practices as a part of purported high-performance work systems to explain perceived individual and organisational performance. The data for this study were collected from 225 employees sampled from 75 organisations in different economic sectors. The theoretical research model and hypotheses were tested using structural equation modelling. The results support the mediating role of HC and SC on the HR practices system’s effects on perceived individual and organisational performance, and their distinct influence on the different performance criteria. Moreover, the findings provide additional evidence regarding the mechanisms linking human resource management (HRM) and performance, which is useful in consolidating and expanding our understanding of the black box perspective.
    Keywords: human capital; social capital; human resource practices; employee performance; organisational performance; human resource management; HRM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLIC.2022.10050204
  • The effects of relational capital on likelihood of conflict occurrence under the moderation effect of the propensity to trust   Order a copy of this article
    by Hizir Konuk, Goksel Ataman 
    Abstract: This study aims to contribute to the conflict literature by arguing that the relational capital between co-worker affect the likelihood of conflict occurrence, and investigating the moderation role of propensity to trust on this interaction. A random sample was drawn from 381 Turkish citizen white collar employees from SME companies in nine industries. The study was prepared to measure employees’ perceptions of the conflict and relationship capital they experience with their co-worker, with whom they interact the most. According to the findings: 1) an increase in relational capital decreases the likelihood of task and relationship conflict occurrence; 2) relational capital decreases the likelihood of task and relationship conflict occurrence more when the levels of propensity to trust are high.
    Keywords: relational capital; propensity to trust; conflict predictors; relationship conflict; task conflict.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLIC.2022.10050252
  • Intellectual capital efficiency and its impact on sustainable growth of Indian agribusiness sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Vaishnavi Balaji, Rajesh Mamilla 
    Abstract: The study focused on scrutinising the effect of intellectual capital (IC) components and financial capital (FC) on the sustainable growth of Indian Agribusiness companies. First, the Lagrange multiplier test is conducted, identifying whether the panel least square is more suitable than the fixed effects model (FEM) or random effect model (REM). Next, the Hausman test determines whether the REM or FEM model is appropriate for panel data analysis. Next, to investigate the groupwise heteroskedasticity in panel data, Breusch-Pagan/Cook-Weisberg test is used. Then, the effect of IC components on agriculture companies’ long-term success is investigated using a multiple regression model. The study’s results are based on a sample of 14 publicly traded Indian agribusiness companies. Results conclude that the efficiency of the capital employed, human capital (HC), relational capital, and FC are all highly significant in determining the long-term development of Indian agribusiness.
    Keywords: capital employed efficiency; CEE; capital intensity; financial capital; human capital efficiency; HCE; Indian agribusiness; innovation capital efficiency; owners growth rate of equity; relational capital efficiency; RCE; structural capital efficiency; sustainable growth rate; SGR.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLIC.2023.10050381
  • Thought leadership and strategic communication: proposal for a conceptual model   Order a copy of this article
    by Vânia Guerreiro, Sónia Pedro Sebastião, Leandro Pereira 
    Abstract: Strategic communication exists to enable decision making and will only have a place in organisations if the leader recognises its value. Leading, through thought, enables the co-creation of meanings. In a V.U.C.A. world, the companies’ life is reducing, so it’s mandatory to explicit the companies’ purpose to survive and prosper. In the act of co-creation, this study finds the necessary grounds for relations, and structures the foundations of organisational strategy. This inductive and exploratory study, based on 64 qualitative interviews with management professionals in Portugal, aims to construct a conceptual model that ascertains the competencies of a thought leader and allows for the discerning of attributes related to the concept of thought leadership. The results demonstrate that skills, innovation, communication, intelligence, and charisma are the most mentioned characteristics that encompass the idea of thought leadership. This study is justified by the need for leaders to understand the competencies they must possess and develop to be more effective in the context of communicatively constructed organisations.
    Keywords: strategic communication; thought leadership; skills; conceptual model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLIC.2023.10050522
  • The effect of self-efficacy, psychological safety and meaningfulness of job on teacher effectiveness: a study among Indian engineering college teachers   Order a copy of this article
    by Ganesh Mangadu Paramasivam 
    Abstract: The purpose of the study is to understand the role of individual (self-efficacy), job-related (meaningfulness of the job) and organisational (psychological safety) factors in influencing teacher effectiveness among private engineering college teachers in India. Cross sectional research design was used to collect data from 178 engineering college teachers. Data collected from standardised questionnaires were analysed using the hierarchical regression method. Results show a significant positive impact of self-efficacy on all three dimensions of teacher effectiveness. The perceived meaningfulness of the job had a positive impact on interpersonal openness and preparedness dimension of teacher effectiveness. It also moderated the relationship between self-efficacy and interpersonal openness dimension. Perceived psychological safety had a positive impact only on the preparedness dimension of teacher effectiveness and it did not show any moderation effect. The results reiterate the importance of nurturing confidence among teachers to improve their effectiveness.
    Keywords: engineering education; teacher effectiveness; psychological safety; teacher self-efficacy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLIC.2022.10050652
  • The agility challenge during organic growth   Order a copy of this article
    by Rui Pires, Leandro Pereira, Álvaro Dias, Rui Gonçalves, Renato Lopes Da Costa, Rui Vinhas Da Silva 
    Abstract: The growth of organisations naturally increases their complexity, often leading to a loss of agility which affects business performance. This research aims to study strategies for maintaining agility that keep up with the growth and consequent increase in complexity of organisations. This study was conducted with 21 interviews with consulting managers with the aim of knowing the main impacts, causes, and perceptions of organisational agility. The results showed that the main causes for the loss of agility are the non-prioritisation of organisational problems and the lack of standardisation and vagueness of processes, which has as main impacts the loss of efficiency, business, employee motivation and increased delivery time. To increase organisational agility the main findings, suggest critical actions to be taken: define and standardise processes, unify values and practices, and create coaching and training programs to consolidate concepts.
    Keywords: organisational agility; consulting; efficiency.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLIC.2022.10051228
  • Dangerous liaisons: human capital and structural capital in the VAIC model   Order a copy of this article
    by Giuseppe Marzo 
    Abstract: This paper analyses the perverse effects generated by the relationship between human capital efficiency (HCE) and structural capital efficiency (SCE) that lies at the core of the VAIC. First, the VAIC is positive even for negative values of HCE and negative for positive values. This means that a firm’s performance should be positive (negative) when the value added generated by human capital (HC) is negative (positive), which is non-sense from the economic point of view. Second, SCE being a function of HCE, the correlation between the two variables is given by the model and can be predicted in advance. Finally, a nonlinear relationship is hidden in the regression equation used in empirical analysis that dramatically changes the interpretation of the actual results. Some in recent articles’ findings are reframed to demonstrate researchers’ erroneous interpretations and the harmful impact they could have on managerial decision-making.
    Keywords: VAIC; intellectual capital; IC; intellectual capital efficiency; ICE; human capital efficiency; HCE; structural capital efficiency; SCE; nonlinear relationships.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLIC.2022.10051511
  • How to improve the vision and competitive advantage of a new product? What is the role of ICT and OLC in this improvement?   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Hossein Khasmafkan Nezam 
    Abstract: Human resources and capital are the basis of any successful organisation but nowadays, organisations that learn and are based on innovation are more successful. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on new product competitive advantage (NPCA) and new product vision (NPV) through the partial mediating role of organisational learning capability (OLC) by structural equation modelling (SEM). Iran’s Automobile Industry was selected as the statistical population. The results show that ICT has a significant effect on OLC and OLC has a significant effect on NPCA and NPV, which indicates the indirect effect of ICT on NPCA and NPV and confirms the mediating role of OLC. ICT also has a significant direct effect on NPCA and NPV, which confirms the partial mediating role of OLC. Finally, NPCA and NPV can be improved through OLC by using and implementing ICT.
    Keywords: information and communication technology; ICT; organisational learning capability; OLC; new product competitive advantage; NPCA; new product vision; NPV; structural equation modelling; SEM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLIC.2022.10051924
  • Benchmarking HR outsourcing literature: a critical literature review   Order a copy of this article
    by Siew-Chen Sim, Avvari V. Mohan, Maniam Kaliannan, Gowrie Vinayan, Davindran Harikirishanan 
    Abstract: This study synthesises more than 20 years of human resource outsourcing (HRO) empirical studies to answer research questions related to determinants of HRO decision. Using grounded coding technique adapted from Lacity et al. (2010), empirical papers published from 1997 to 2018 were coded. Two theoretical models emerged from the findings where the existence of definitional ambiguity, findings and competing theoretical perspectives which underlies HRO research were identified. This study offers insights from past HRO studies to help HRO researchers to better understand HRO phenomenon. It is acknowledged that coding technique neither generates statistical diagrams nor infographics, but it provides valuable insights for the overview of literature within the area of human resource outsourcing. Being the first HRO literature review using the grounded coded technique, this paper answers three research questions while laying important foundation for theory development.
    Keywords: outsourcing; HR outsourcing; literature review; grounded coding technique.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLIC.2023.10052281