International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital (15 papers in press)
Intellectual capital performance model and comprehensive financial performance: evidence from firms listed in the Jakarta Islamic Index
by Ihyaul Ulum, Gatot Soepriyanto
Abstract: The objective of this study is to provide empirical evidence of the impact of intellectual capital performance (ICP) on companies financial performance. The study employs three measures of ICP (VAIC, MVAIC, and IC-Index) and six different proxies for financial performance. Using Indonesian public companies which are listed in the Jakarta Islamic Index (JII) for the period of December 2017May 2018, we found that when tested separately, VAIC and MVAIC both have positive effects on financial performance, while IC-Index does not influence the firms financial outcome. By incorporating those three ICP measures in one model, we discovered similar results, where VAIC and MVAIC have a positive influence on the financial outcome, but not IC-Index. We contributed to the discussion that VAIC and MVAIC are important measures of intellectual capital performance, especially in the context of firms operating with Islamic measures in Indonesia.
Keywords: intellectual capital; intellectual capital performance; ICP; IC-Index; MVAIC; VAIC; Jakarta Islamic Index; JII.
Students learning outcomes and satisfaction. An investigation of knowledge transfer during social distancing policies
by Domitilla Magni, Andrea Sestino
Abstract: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the researchers discovered that a billion students accessed digital channels, thus confirming the centrality of digital technologies in education. Considering that student satisfaction refers to a short-term attitude resulting from an evaluation of the educational experiences lived and that the perceived quality of an educational background is a consequence of student satisfaction, this paper investigates the role of e-learning practices in a knowledge transfers environment, such as the university. Mainly, through an exploratory analysis, the paper gives some specific insights, investigating students satisfaction in terms of interaction between students, technology, and original contents. The results show how digital technologies are transforming the education experience by shedding light on e-learning outcomes and students satisfaction. The principal managerial implications of the paper focus on the begin to understand the need to acquire digital infrastructures in Universities, reducing the technological gaps, and considering the implementation of online learning solutions.
Keywords: knowledge transfer; students’ satisfaction; digital environment; digital transformation; e-learning; digital technology; learning environment.
Internationalisation challenges of SMEs: role of intellectual capital
by Sajjida Reza, Muhammad Shujaat Mubarik, Navaz Naghavi, Raja Rub Nawaz
Abstract: The study examines the impact of internationalisation challenges on the internationalisation of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Second, the study investigates the role of intellectual capital in the association between internationalisation challenges and the firms internalisation. By collecting data
from 211 manufacturing sector SMEs of Pakistan, PLS-SEM was employed to analyze the hypothesised relationship. Second, one-way ANOVA was employed to check whether the internationalisation differs by the level of IC or not. The results depicted a significant negative influence of all four groups of internationalisation challenges on the firms international performance. Results also showed a significant and direct impact of human capital and structural capital on a firms international performance. Results showed that IC significantly and negatively moderated the association between internationalisation challenges and performance. Likewise, results also showed that firms with stronger IC were having better international performance as compare to the firms with weaker IC.
Keywords: small and medium enterprise; SME; internationalisation; intellectual capital; PLS-SEM.
Patterns of inequality in higher education: the case of students field choice
by Fekadu Mulugeta Asfaw
Abstract: In an expanding higher education system that focuses on access, understanding the dynamics of inequality in the effort to provide educational opportunity to the majority is central. The main objective of this study is to investigate the pattern of field choice and the factors that influence students field choice in two purposefully selected colleges. A total of 125 first-year students, 45 from law school in college of law and governance and 80 from language departments (one foreign and one local language department) in College of Humanities, Language Studies, Journalism and Communication (CHLSJC) participated in the study. The result indicated that students in law school have better socio-economic status and achievement than the students in the language departments. Similarly, students in law school seem to consider practical factors while students in the CHLSJC consider interpersonal factors as most influential in their field choice. The existing differences in the students background and the factors they considered in their field choice process are found to be a continuation of prior inequalities and that they further perpetuate inequality in the higher education system in Ethiopia.
Keywords: higher education; field choice; inequality.
On the relationship between intellectual capital efficiency and firm value: evidence from the Nigerian oil and gas downstream sector
by Ahmed Jinjiri Bala, Aminu Hassan, Kabiru Isa Dandago, Attahir Babaji Abubakar, Zahraddeen Salisu Maigoshi
Abstract: We use a multi-theory framework which combines the lenses of clean surplus theory, resource-based theory and stakeholder theory to examine the relationship between measures of intellectual capital efficiency and firm market value. We employ Prais-Winsten regression with panel corrected standard errors to estimate our model. We find that while capital employed and structural capital efficiencies significantly positively determine firm value, relational capital efficiency's positive effect appears mild. However, human capital efficiency appears to have no relationship with firm value. The significance of our findings is demonstrated by two key contributions to the literature. Firstly, this study is the first of its kind conducted in the Nigerian oil and gas industry. Secondly, our results provide further evidence in support of the clean surplus theory in its function of facilitating the role of accounting numbers in determining and explaining market values. These results are robust to an alternative time-series estimation at aggregate downstream sector level.
Keywords: autoregressive distributed lag; ARDL; clean surplus accounting; human capital development; HCD; intellectual capital efficiency; ICE; labour participation rate; oil and gas downstream sector; panel corrected standard errors; PCSE; Prais-Winsten regression; resources-based theory; RBT; stakeholder theory; SHT; time-series cross-sectional; TS-CS.
Determinants of work life balance among white collar female in private sector of Bangladesh
by Zerin Momtaz Chowdhury, Maniam Kaliannan
Abstract: Bangladesh, being a developing country, has been observing growth in female workforce in recent years, and work-life balance for female has become a prevalent yet less talked issue there. However, few available literatures recognised this issue but mostly for blue-collar female employees. Whereas in reality, white collar working female are also burdened with major challenges to balance their work and life. Therefore, the study was carried out with an aim to investigate the determinants of work-life balance among the white-collar female employees working in private sector of Bangladesh. The study employed a mixed methodology of online questionnaires with 189 responses from the private sector white collar females and semi-structured interviews on four varied background human resources personnel. The main findings show personal and family-social life are affected most due to their job and these two determinants can significantly influence overall balance between
work and life.
Keywords: work-life balance; private sector; female; white collar; Bangladesh.
Assessing the impact of different components of intellectual capital on the performance of not for profit organisations in the UK
by Muhammed Azhar Baig, Esinath Ndiweni
Abstract: The paper examines the relationship between intellectual capital (IC) determinants and performance in non-profit organisations (NPOs) in the UK. It focuses on the productivity of human capital in social housing associations (SHA) and other charities (OC). We analysed the efficiency and effectiveness of 64 NPOs using Pulics value added intellectual coefficient. We employed ordinary least squares regression analyses on data obtained from annual reports over two years. We found that. SHA had lower levels of IC efficiency than OC. Our results revealed that value added intellectual capital coefficient was negatively associated with performance of SHAOC, whereas, the value added capital employed coefficient was positively associated with the effectiveness of SHAOC. We concluded that HC was an important component than capital resources in SHA. Our results were limited due to a small sample and short period that was considered.
Keywords: UK; intellectual capital; housing associations; other charities; performance; value added intellectual coefficient; effectiveness; efficiency.
Corporate governance and intellectual capital disclosure
by G. Bharathi Kamath
Abstract: Corporate governance (CG) characteristics of firms do have influence on the financial and intangible performance of firms. Recent research studies find significant impact of CG on voluntary disclosures in annual reports of the firms. Intellectual capital disclosures are voluntary disclosures that have gained significant attention in recent years. This paper tries to analyse the nature and extent of intellectual capital disclosure of four groups of firms from manufacturing and service sector in India for the financial year 20172018. Further it explores CG characteristics of the firms and its influence on extent of IC disclosures. The results of paper indicate that there is a significant difference in the level of disclosures in service and manufacturing sector. The nature of disclosures is varied among four sub-groups. Human capital disclosures are highest in manufacturing sector, whereas customer capital disclosures are more in service sector. Board size, its independence has a significant positive impact on the extent of overall IC disclosures. The age of the firm and its size has a very strong impact on the level of IC disclosures in almost all industries. The financial performance measured by return on assets of the firms also show association in some cases.
Keywords: corporate governance; intellectual capital disclosure; IDC; board independence; board size; India.
Intellectual capital in SMEs: a review and research agenda
by Maria Chiara Demartini, Valentina Beretta
Abstract: Given the increasing relevance of IC for SMEs and the need for more research in the field, this study adopts a structured literature review to analyse extant research related to IC in SMEs. Results of this study contribute in advancing a proposed future research agenda. Three main areas have been outlined: non-traditional areas of investigation could be analysed, more attention could be devoted to this topic from journals in the small business area and, finally, the analysis of the specific effect that IC could have on SMEs performance could be deepened.
Keywords: intellectual capital; small and medium-sized enterprises; SMEs; literature review; research agenda.
Measuring the human capital strategic readiness based on organisational capabilities
by Mohammad Abooyee Ardakan, Naghmeh Ebadi
Abstract: The human resource can create value for the organisation by having high performance, when individuals have competencies aligned with the organisations strategy. Since organisational capabilities translate strategies into actions and they are a common terminology of strategies and organisational components, the goal of the present research is to measure the HR strategic readiness regarding organisational capabilities. The proposed mechanism has been reviewed by a case study research method. The study findings indicate that product development, market development, product promotion and stabilisation of quality are the strategies emphasised by the organisation. Among six strategic job families identified, the strategic readiness of one group was weak, one group was moderate and other job families had acceptable
Keywords: organisational capabilities; HR strategic readiness; competency profile.
Human capital in a training programme
by Oraya Wisawapaisarn, Pitipong Yodmongkol
Abstract: This research proposed an approach, variables, and formula for measuring human capital in a training programme in a monetary value within an organisation that implemented an electronic trial master file (eTMF). The participants comprised of 25 employees in the programme, which had three phases. The required variables included the cost of the training, salary, hours utilised in the programme and percentage of time spent on the eTMF. The proportion of the competency and performance was collected and calculated based on the proposed approach and formula. The results provided the human capital in the programme in monetary values, comprising the investments and benefits, which most values were intangible. Contrastingly, investments were the training and opportunity costs and the benefits were value-added in the competencies and performances required for the eTMF. This case could determine the human capital and evaluate the effectiveness of the programme by comparing the investments and benefits.
Keywords: intellectual capital; human capital; human capital accounting; human development; training programme; electronic trial master file; eTMF.
Determinants of market to book value and financial performance of Chinese listed firms: implication of MVAIC model
by Shapan Chandra Majumder, Bismark Kusi Appiah, Obambi Chardel Cardorel
Abstract: The main motive of this current study is to measure the efficiency of intellectual capital along with its components by using modified value-added intellectual coefficient (MVAIC) and to find its impact on the market as well as financial performance of firms in China. This tool is the modified form of Pulics' VAIC tool which is widely used in numerous studies worldwide in order to find empirical evidence between the relations among intellectual capital with firms' market value. MVAIC is adopted in this study for the very first time in China which is the unique point of this study. The results show the cement industry has a different relationship between intellectual capital and market value and financial performance as compared to other sectors of the economy. This research is of enormous importance that can help CEOs, managers, shareholders as well as investors to analyse firms' performance and to obtain information that is explicitly missing in the financial reports of the firms.
Keywords: China; modified value-added intellectual coefficient; MVAIC; intellectual capital; financial performance.
Does work-life balance mediate the relationship between HR practices and affective organisational commitment? Perspective of a telecommunication industry in Indonesia
by Bachruddin Saleh Luturlean, Arif Partono Prasetio, Grisna Anggadwita, Faisal Hanura
Abstract: This study investigates the moderating role of work-life balance in the relationship between HR practices and affective organisational commitment. This study uses a quantitative method with a survey approach. Questionnaires were distributed to employees working in the telecommunications industry in Indonesia using random sampling techniques. A total of 363 respondents participated in filling out the questionnaire. This study found a significant effect of HR practices on work-life balance and affective organisational commitment of employees in the telecommunications industry. In addition, work-life balance has been proven to mediate the relationship between HR practices and affective organisational commitment. Research findings show that the telecommunications industry has maintained and improved effective HR practices to help employees achieve work-life balance. A conducive and supportive work environment will be embedded in an individual's mindset, thus they feel a stronger emotional attachment to the organisation. The implications of this study will be discussed further.
Keywords: HR practices; work-life balance; affective organisational commitment; telecommunication industry.
Determinants of academic staffs' participation in research activities in Ethiopian universities
by Vijay Kumar Pandey, Abebe Shanko, Firdisa Birru, Vipul Jain, Himanshu Kargeti
Abstract: The study aims to promote the knowledge creation activities for the under developing countries like Ethiopia, which is the need of the hour. Faculty members' participation in research not only helps in improving the quality of faculty members but also improves the quality of the institute. In this paper, we use survey data from Wollega University to understand the factors hindering the research participation decision of faculty members at the university level. This survey tries to analyse the determinants of participation of academic staff in Wollega University. The logit model was used for analysing the data. We conclude that availability of publication incentives, work experience, speed of internet, accessibility to research funds and colleague collaboration on research participation all enhance the probability of academic staff's research participation while teaching load is negatively related to the probability of academic staff's research participation in the study area.
Keywords: research participation decision; institutional factors; environmental factors; personal career development factors; demographic factors.
A value-added view of intellectual capital and financial performance in knowledge management: a case of Chinese insurance companies
by Chunya Ren, Irene Wei Kiong Ting, Qian Long Kweh
Abstract: Intellectual capital (IC) has a strong linkage to knowledge management thus influencing financial performance. Using resource-based view theory, this paper aims to explore the relationships between intellectual capital and financial performance based on the data of 220 Chinese insurance companies listed in China Insurance Yearbook, from 2008 to 2017. Our study is robust for using Value-Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC™) and ratios as the proxies of IC, as well as return on assets and return on equities as the proxies of financial performance. Panel data regression and ordinary least squares are applied to analyse the data. Apart from the popular direct effect, we also find significant positive (negative) effects of increasing (decreasing) IC on increasing (decreasing) financial performance. However, we find no dynamic relationship between IC and financial performance. This paper provides scholars and practitioners with new perspectives on IC learning and management.
Keywords: intellectual capital; VAIC™; financial performance; knowledge management; insurance companies; value-added view.