Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Knowledge and Learning

International Journal of Knowledge and Learning (IJKL)

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International Journal of Knowledge and Learning (33 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Determining the efficacy level of online education in higher studies during COVID-19 pandemic: evidence from Bangladesh   Order a copy of this article
    by Sumayya Begum, Mohammad Amzad Hossain Sarker, Afzal Hossain, Md Yusuf Hossein Khan 
    Abstract: Online education is a flexible instructional delivery system that includes any kind of learning that takes place via the internet. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to determine the efficacy level of online education in higher studies during the COVID-19 pandemic in the contexts of Bangladesh. This research used both quantitative and descriptive analysis methods. A standardised questionnaire was used to collect 348 data points from university students using an online purposive sampling method. A partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) approach was used to assess the data and test the hypotheses. The results of the PLS-SEM analysis method demonstrated that course curriculum, internet self-efficacy, and self-motivation had a positive and significant association with online education in higher studies during the COVID-19 pandemic. For the successful implementation of the digital education system in tertiary level education in this period of pandemic and after pandemic new normal condition this study findings will play a significant role for the policymakers of Bangladesh.
    Keywords: COVID-19; online education; higher studies; university students; structural equation modelling; SEM; Bangladesh.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2023.10053429
  • The orientation of knowledge sources and knowledge transfer towards innovation capabilities are moderated by absorptive capacity: an empirical study in perspective of manufacturing industries.   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Shahid Tufail, Kanwal Shaheen, Sana Mehmood, Nausheen Syed, Iram Bashir, Anum Jamil 
    Abstract: This paper intends to explore the impact of knowledge sources on innovation capabilities of the firm. Firms tend to improve their innovation capabilities for the long-term survival. In process of innovation, firms increasingly rely on the several knowledge sources. Objective is to find the effects of knowledge sources on firm’s innovation capabilities. On the bases of self-administered survey, data was collected to achieve the convenience sample of 181 respondents. Different manufacturing industries in Faisalabad division were targeted for this purpose. Different manufacturing industries’ owners, managers, directors or supervisors were consulted and collected the valid responses of 181 sample size. Data analysis was completed by using the SPSS, AMOS and Process macro. The results of this study signpost that the knowledge sources positively influence the innovation capabilities of the firm. Particularly, the knowledge sources’ direct effect is fully mediated by knowledge transfer. Furthermore, the knowledge sources’ effects are contingent upon the absorptive capacity. The contribution of this study is not only to investigate the effect of knowledge sources on firm’s innovation capabilities in the literature of knowledge sources but also it contributes to the knowledge management research by illustrating the moderating effect of absorptive capacity.
    Keywords: innovation capabilities; absorptive capacity; knowledge sources; knowledge transfer.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2023.10053431
  • Exploring employers perceptions on public universities quality and graduate employability in Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Amal Ahmad Almasri, Noor Azman Ali, Amer Hamzah Jantan 
    Abstract: This study was conducted to explore the employers’ perceptions of the relationship between the quality of public universities and graduate employability. This study adopted a qualitative research design by using a semi- structural interview with ten employers. The findings indicate the determinants of university quality, including university outcomes, reputation, academic program and curriculum, infrastructure and support facilities, academic staff, and training as influential factors on graduate employability. In addition, employers commented that graduate employability could be influenced by top management commitment, especially when they seek to communicate with stakeholders to determine the workplace’s needs to improve their graduate employability. Whilst, employers consider admission requirements of public universities are not based on academic excellence, but on the quantity of students. Therefore, this study recommends that the higher authorities in public universities and employers need to strengthen the associations between them and activate partnerships for all parties’ benefit. As well, public universities need to pay more attention to the determinants of quality, which contribute to enhancing graduate employability.
    Keywords: quality assurance; public university; employability; employers.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2023.10053503
  • The role of personality traits on learning styles of engineering and management students studying the internet of things knowledge areas   Order a copy of this article
    by Arjun V. Singar, Shashi Jain 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to assess the role of personality traits on learning styles amongst engineering and management students studying the internet of things (IoT) related knowledge areas. The final year engineering and management students from Karnataka, who studied the IoT related knowledge areas, were the target respondents of this study. The total number of respondents for the study was 2,315 students out of which 1,588 were from the engineering programme and 727 were from the management programme. The data collection instrument was questionnaire-based and was prepared by referring to the big five model for personality traits and Felder and Silverman model for learning styles. The study revealed a significant relationship between the personality traits and the learning styles in the sample population. However, the study also concluded that there is no significant difference in the path of the relationship between the personality traits and the learning styles amongst engineering and management students.
    Keywords: personality traits; learning styles; internet of things; IoT; big five model; engineering; management; learning style index.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2023.10054536
  • Loan delinquency analysis using predictive model   Order a copy of this article
    by Riktesh Srivastava, Sachin Kumar Srivastava, Khushboo Agnihotri, Anviti Gupta 
    Abstract: The research uses a machine learning approach to appraising the validity of customer aptness for a loan. Banks and non-banking financial companies (NBFC) face significant non-performing assets (NPAs) threats because of the non-payment of loans. In this study, the data is collected from Kaggle and tested using various machine learning models to determine if the borrower can repay its loan. In addition, we analysed the performance of the models [K-nearest neighbours (K-NN), logistic regression, support vector machines (SVM), decision tree, naive Bayes and neural networks]. The purpose is to support decisions that are based not on subjective aspects but objective data analysis. This work aims to analyse how objective factors influence borrowers to default loans, identify the leading causes contributing to a borrower’s default loan. The results show that the decision tree classifier gives the best result, with a recall rate of 0.0885 and a false- negative rate of 5.4%.
    Keywords: non-banking financial companies; NBFC; K-nearest neighbours; K-NN; decision tree; support vector machine; SVM; logistic regression; naïve Bayes; neural network.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2023.10054873
  • Role of career adaptability and optimism in Indian economy: a dual mediation analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Teena Bharti, Satish Chandra Ojha 
    Abstract: The face of the hospitality sector in India is continuously changing and in times of career transitiveness, it is important to know the factors that support a successful career. The current research aims to explore the relationship between career planning, employee optimism, career adaptability and career satisfaction in the Indian hospitality sector. The study included 283 employees from Indian hospitality sector. Additionally, the study used SEM and bootstrap method to measure the dual mediating relationship between career planning, employee optimism dimensions, career adaptability dimensions, and career satisfaction in Indian setting. The results indicated that optimism dimensions and career adaptability dimensions partially mediate the relationship between career planning and career satisfaction in Indian hospitality sector. The study suggests useful implications for academia and industrial purpose. The limitations and future research avenues have been discussed. The study would contribute to the sparse literature on employee optimism, career planning, career adaptability and subjective career success. It would contribute to the social cognitive career theory (SCCT).
    Keywords: career adaptability; career planning; career satisfaction; employee optimism; Indian hospitality sector; social cognitive career theory; SCCT.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2023.10054969
  • Clinical legal education in India through disruptive technology: the changing contours   Order a copy of this article
    by R.K. Rajkhanna, C. Rabbiraj 
    Abstract: Clinical legal education (CLE) has always been an integral part of legal education in India, and this study provides a quantitative assessment of the existing clinical legal education programs. The global spread of the idea is also accelerating. The paper also argues that CLE should bridge academic research and actual legal practice. India has made many attempts to establish a high-quality CLE system. However, this was all in vain, as the authorities failed to plan. The important period of meeting CLE and integrating technology into legal education is the focus of this study. As CLE concepts gain academic support, questions about legal education concepts and the form CLE should take have become increasingly important. More debate revolves around technology’s place in the classrooms of aspiring lawyers. Nonetheless, the resulting logical concerns are not trivial. Technology may simply be seen as a tool to complement more traditional forms of legal guidance. This study aims to find out how CLE has changed in India and what new initiatives and practises are being used in this field.
    Keywords: Bar Council of India; clinical legal education; Indian Constitution; legal education; pedagogy; technology; University Grants Commission.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2023.10055364
  • Enhancing speaking fluency in English through the use of open educational resources among secondary school students in Kazakhstan   Order a copy of this article
    by Akbota T. Toleuzhan, Galiya B. Sarzhanova, Gulnaz K. Tleuzhanova, Cem Erdem 
    Abstract: This study examines Kazakhstani intermediate students’ perspectives on using self-developed open educational resources (OER) to enhance their speaking skills in English as a foreign language (EFL). The survey analysis also aims to reveal whether there are differences based on participants’ gender. Using a purposive sampling technique, data was collected through Google forms from 302 students. The practical outcome has displayed that the self-developed OER, including an electronic textbook and a You Tube channel, has been warmly accepted by most participants. Due to OERs’ real-life context, simpler language, and entertaining features based on the essential elements of the language, participants’ fluency and confidence in speaking English enhanced, and its persistent use enabled students to become more independent learners in EFL, taking on the responsibility for their learning. Moreover, EFL learners’ motivation to learn the language has significantly increased due to the proposed OER entertaining content identified as the most appealing feature among EFL students.
    Keywords: open educational resources; OER; speaking fluency; autonomous learning; motivation; confidence; digital technologies in EFL; You Tube videos; authentic materials; entertaining content.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2023.10055707
  • Artificial intelligence: a support system in inclusive education   Order a copy of this article
    by Manjula Balachandran, C. Rabbiraj 
    Abstract: Education develops and moulds humans into resourceful human capital. The use of artificial intelligence in education can fix some of the field’s most pressing problems to speed up the achievement of SDG 4. Alongside benefits are several issues that have thus far outrun policy discussions, regulatory structures, and implementation. UNESCO is dedicated to helping member states use artificial intelligence to advance the Education 2030 Agenda and uphold universally accepted standards of fairness and inclusiveness. Over the last few years, artificial intelligence tools have been devised, modified, and used accordingly to bring new approaches to education. The disabled community, who were the most neglected, are now educated in an inclusive setup, though divergent, an innovative pattern. This article delves into the application of artificial intelligence in inclusive education, how inclusive education can be shaped in the future through assistive artificial intelligence techniques, and by assessing its legal personality in today’s world.
    Keywords: artificial intelligence; inclusive education; education; children with disabilities; legal framework; functioning; impairment; health.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2023.10056100
  • Linking knowledge sharing with employee creativity: the relevance of organisational identification   Order a copy of this article
    by Sobia Hassan, Rabia Asif 
    Abstract: Sharing information via knowledge creation is considered as the main driving force for growth which allows organisations to obtain numerous benefits like better learning, innovation and strong decision-making. To manage creativity, highly trained and qualified individuals are required to create and apply innovative ideas in various domains. This would only be possible if universities have smooth knowledge sharing among staff to create identification in which employees and organisation share similar objectives and values. The current investigation observes the influence of knowledge sharing on academic staffs creativity from public sector universities, taking into account the role of organisational identification. The study used the quantitative research technique and indicated that knowledge sharing has significant positive effect on the creativity with the mediating emphasis of organisational identification. Findings of the current study are deliberated in the light of earlier researches and recommend implications for practice and viability in the organisations.
    Keywords: knowledge sharing; employee creativity; organisational identification.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2023.10056101
  • What shapes online mode of teaching impact on hospitality students’ academic achievement? An empirical assessment during COVID-19   Order a copy of this article
    by Girish K. Nair 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 has posed a challenge on hospitality education; nevertheless, the online mode of teaching came as the survival tool and it has provided an ideal platform for the continuance of educational services. As student engagement was the key aspect to be tackled by the online tool, specifically focussed on the impact of student-to-student, student-to-teacher, and student-to-content interaction on the student engagement. Further, the study has explored the dynamics between student engagement, student satisfaction, and student achievement during the COVID-19 situation. Six hypotheses were postulated based on the earlier studies on the antecedents of academic achievement of the students and they were tested empirically through the data collected (n = 207 through extrapolation) in higher educational institutions. Student-teacher interaction, student engagement, student satisfaction and student achievement are having significant positive association. The practical implications would help the education providers to fine-tune the online mode of teaching to deal with future eventualities.
    Keywords: hospitality education; student engagement; student satisfaction; student achievement; online learning; COVID-19.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2023.10056136
  • Developing agricultural literacy through USR and blockchain   Order a copy of this article
    by Chien-Pang Lee, Cheng-I. Wei, Tzong-Ru Lee 
    Abstract: This study proposed a concept of university social responsibility (USR) to develop agriculture literacy by involving students in actual procedure of agricultural production and sales. Through this study, students, teachers, and farmers’ associations were connected in a course. Blockchain technology was used for a complete and accurate record. This study was held at National Chung Hsing University Taiwan during the first semester of the 2019 academic year. Questionnaires were given to students to analyse their agricultural literacy. Descriptive analysis showed that the mean of students’ agricultural cognition, agricultural attitude, and agricultural behaviour were 3.3737, 3.7495, and 3.3912, respectively. The semantic analysis showed that students understood that they had cooperation and knowledge exchange with farmers’ association by the blockchain technology. It was concluded that the students tended to have a better agricultural attitude after participating in the course and this USR concept had a subtle effect on developing students’ agricultural literacy.
    Keywords: agricultural literacy; university social responsibility; USR; blockchain technology.

  • Female academics in higher education institutes and their work-life balance strategies: a voiceless saga   Order a copy of this article
    by Rabia Naseem, Kanwal Iqbal Khan, Sobia Naseem, Quratulain Akhtar 
    Abstract: Work-life balance (WLB) is a widely explored topic in the academic discourse. The researchers are trying to find strategies to effectively balance their work and home responsibilities for women in management. This study aims to analyse how gender roles and inequalities shape the strategies of female academics in higher education institutions. 18 faculty members participated in the semi-structured interviews. The trustworthiness of qualitative inquiry was ascertained by using triangulation, thick descriptions, and peer reviews. Three major themes emerged from the analysis: emotional, religious and social strategies. Despite available support, faculty noted challenges in managing work and family roles and fighting with gender stereotypes. This research adds to the emerging concept of WLB literature from the developed countries viewpoint. It also shows how WLB discourse varies from Western sensibilities and collaborates with the previously established strategies that female academics formulate in WLB.
    Keywords: gender roles; female academics; work-life balance strategies; professional careers; gender stereotypes; higher education institutions.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2023.10056663
  • Demystifying design thinking: insights from a systematic literature review   Order a copy of this article
    by Arabinda Bhandari 
    Abstract: Design thinking (DT) becomes a recognised terminology in management nowadays. The concept of DT is predominantly framed as an approach to innovation and creative problem-solving methods on designers processes and practices. It is considered that DT can comprehend customer needs, can shape a firms value creation processes, and contribute to the formalisation of the design task. Considering the importance of DT in a current business and social scenario, the objective of this research is to review past performance and the intellectual structure of DT. To do so, this study has done a comprehensive and systematic review of 124 A* and A category ABDC indexed articles from 2007 Scopus indexed articles based on the PRISMA framework. A systematic literature review reveals the performance, themes, and sub-themes in the intellectual structure and identifies five different future research directions with 20 different theories which have contributed to DT research.
    Keywords: design; design thinking; innovation; problem-solving; bibliometric analysis; solution.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2023.10057009
  • Building authentic assessment criteria in teaching Mathematics in the direction of competence development for primary students   Order a copy of this article
    by Nguyen Thi Thu Trang, Vu Dinh Phuong 
    Abstract: Authentic assessment is an assessment form that can assist teachers in conducting the assessment as well as improving student learning. Criteria are considered one of the necessary tools for authentic assessment. In what ways do various contextual circumstances influence the creation of credible assessment standards? How does one actually go about creating valid assessment criteria? This article aims at stating the research findings about the influence degrees of several factors on the authentic assessment criteria building process and authentic assessment criteria building procedure in teaching Mathematics in the direction of competence development. Through studies of several authors, this article analyses the role of learning outcomes, standards, and several particular factors in authentic assessment for authentic assessment criteria. The authentic assessment procedure is proposed and consulted by several education experts based on the experimenting process. In addition, the proposed procedure is analysed and clarified through an assessment task used in Mathematics for class 5th students.
    Keywords: authentic assessment; criteria assessment; competency assessment; assessment task; teaching mathematics; primary students.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2023.10057089
  • Virtual learning styles based on learning style detection   Order a copy of this article
    by G. Bhuvaneswari, B.R. Aravind, S. Suman Rajest, S. Arun Kumar 
    Abstract: Online learning spaces are virtual learning environments that have evolved alongside breakthroughs in information technology and the continual growth of educational ideals. Physical classes are always difficult for any instructor, and online classes have added to the burden by requiring teachers to consider the ethics, values, and viewpoints of students towards online learning. While distance learning has been viewed as useful for learners who cannot afford physical learning owing to a variety of causes, it has progressed in such a way that student viewpoints have reached a point where ethics are not considered. This paper attempts to find out the learning styles of students in the context of online classrooms and the data are collected using a questionnaire. The study was done with 322 students who belong to first year engineering stream and their perspectives based on their answers are analysed. The central tenet of behaviourism is that all actions are acquired through interactions with the environment. According to this learning theory, environmental circumstances have a much greater impact on behaviour than innate or inherited traits.
    Keywords: virtual classroom; online learning; learning styles; learning models; kinesthetic learners; visual learners; auditory learners; learning preferences; virtual environment; learning space; online medium.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2023.10057158
  • Legal study on the role and importance of technology in education for children with disabilities   Order a copy of this article
    by Manjula Balachandran, C. Rabbiraj 
    Abstract: Education at all levels is becoming more dependent on technology. To provide universal access to technology, educational institutions must make sure that the employed technology is available to all people, including those with disabilities also. Technology offers a lot of untapped promise for supporting inclusive education. Universal learning design coupled with technology-supported learning has much potential, but the gap lies in accessibility and lack of resources. This paper examines inclusive education technology use, access, and need. The Information Technology Act of 2000 legalises electronic communication and commerce. Education for children with special needs (CWSN) is dealt with under the Right of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016. Coalescing these enactments is a boon to the education system as it helps target CWSN who are diverse. The study is purely doctrinal and refers to the Indian context. Indian education lacks technical and legal infrastructure, according to research. Technology will change special education. New technology and instructional methods improve special education.
    Keywords: technology; information and communication; education; children with special needs; CWSN; assistive technology; Indian context; universal learning design.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2023.10057268
  • Global warming awareness among Jordanian university students   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashraf F. Kan'an 
    Abstract: This study aimed to assess the level of GW in Jordanian university students and compare the level of awareness of students according to their academic level (high and low), faculty (science and humanities), gender (male and female), and year of study (first and final years). A quantitative research that provides a comprehensive view of GW in Jordanian universities. A total of 383 university students of currently registered undergraduate programs from six independent universities in Jordan were recruited. An online questionnaire covering three aspects of GW was sent to participants in December 2020. Inferential and descriptive statistics were used to analyse data. Participants had good (67%) overall knowledge about GW, a very good level of GW causes (81%), and a poor level of knowledge about the GW impacts on humans and the environment (47%) and knowledge about GW possible solutions (59%). Significant differences were founded between males and females, students from scientific faculties and students from other faculties, students with higher academic achievement than lower achievement in the total GW knowledge. But, no significant differences were between students in the first year and the final years.
    Keywords: global warming; knowledge; awareness; university; students; Jordan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2023.10057277
  • Comparative analysis of the impact of urban music on students of state, private and parochial educational institutions   Order a copy of this article
    by Agustin Angel Roberto Chumpitaz-Avila, Luis Fernando Castro-Llacsa 
    Abstract: Urban music has become a cultural phenomenon of a worldwide scale that invades social spaces and can determine the lifestyle of many teenagers. Likewise, music plays a very important role in the academic formation of students. The present study aims to determine urban musics influence on students behaviour in their final year of secondary education at state, parochial, and private institutions. To this end, exploratory research was conducted to identify behavioural patterns and their influence on their learning achievement. Moreover, a quantitative methodology was utilised through the literature review method to establish a foundation in previous works and enable the creation and implementation of instruments based on these indexed articles. The preliminary results obtained from applying the questionnaire and interview to students in their final year of secondary education demonstrate that socio-economic status, the ethnic origin of students, and the social spaces where these adolescents frequent all influence the choice of preferred musical genre and shape their social behaviour.
    Keywords: urban music; social behaviours; secondary education; adolescents; ethical values; cultural development; globalisation; academic formation; interculturalism; influence.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2023.10058257
  • Why do people disclose themselves on social networking sites? Evidence from Vietnamese Facebook users   Order a copy of this article
    by Nam Tien Duong 
    Abstract: Based on the theory of personal needs, this study aimed to understand how individual self-presentation and interpersonal needs formed by social networking sites (SNSs) influence self-disclosure to friends. Besides, the study would like to examine whether there are differences in personal self-disclosure due to personality traits. Specifically, the research model used two personality traits (extraversion and narcissism) as moderators. Furthermore, we conducted a questionnaire survey with 532 Facebook users. All the hypotheses are tested using SPSS and Smart PLS. The findings showed that: 1) self-presentation, expressed inclusion, wanted affection, and express affection positively influence self-disclosure; 2) wanted inclusion negatively influences self-disclosure; 3) personality traits with high and low extroversion and narcissism also have different effects on users’ self-disclosure. Finally, the study provides SNS operators with information to improve user interaction quality and enrich social networking sites’ content.
    Keywords: self-disclosure; self-presentation; interpersonal needs; personal trait; social networking sites; SNSs; Facebook.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2023.10059980
  • Does smartphone usage affect academic performance during COVID outbreak?   Order a copy of this article
    by Binod Kumar Rajak, Sumanjeet Singh, Vimal Kumar, Minakshi Paliwal, Manh-Hoang Do 
    Abstract: Pandemic has compelled the entire world to change their way of life and work. To control the infection rate, academic institutes deliver education online similarly. At least one smartphone is available in every home, and students use their smartphones to attend class. The study investigates the link between smartphone usage (SU) and academic performance (AP) during the pandemic. 490 data were obtained from various institutions and undergraduate students using stratified random sampling. These components were identified using factor analysis and descriptive methods, while the relationship of SU and AP based on gender classification was tested using Smart-PLS-SEM. The findings show that SU has a substantial relationship with academic success, whether done in class or outside of it. Even yet, the study found that SU and AP significantly impact both male and female students. Furthermore, the research focuses on SU outside and within the classroom to improve students’ AP.
    Keywords: smartphone usage; SU; academic performance; AP; stratified random sampling; gender; Indian students.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2024.10061644
  • Inspiring future entrepreneurs: an investigation into the green entrepreneurial behaviors of students   Order a copy of this article
    by Van Ky Long Nguyen, Thi My Hanh Le, Nhu Hoa Vo, Thi Thu Hien Le, Thi Thanh Huong Nguyen, Khoa Nguyen Vu 
    Abstract: Many higher education institutions worldwide have implemented courses focusing on entrepreneurship for students. However, green entrepreneurship and green entrepreneurial behaviours are the crucial aspects often overlooked. This research endeavours to examine the determinants influencing students’ green entrepreneurial behaviours. A survey was distributed to students at a Vietnamese university, who had completed courses related to entrepreneurship. A research framework is proposed to explore the factors shaping green entrepreneurial behaviours among undergraduates. After analysing, the factors that positively and significantly influence students’ green entrepreneurial behaviours are investigated, and future research directions are also proposed based on the findings. The findings of this research contribute to the literature reviews concerned with green entrepreneurial behaviours by proposing a research framework. Additionally, the practitioners and scholars could apply the results of this study to make the decisions or do further research on green entrepreneurial development in higher education.
    Keywords: green entrepreneurial behaviours; GEB; university entrepreneurial support; UES; green entrepreneurial intentions; GEI; entrepreneurial motivation; ENM; entrepreneurial education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2024.10062531
  • Financial stability towards instructional behaviour and work fulfilment of teachers in the Philippines   Order a copy of this article
    by Husna T. Lumapenet, Melanie A. Agarcio 
    Abstract: In the Philippines, a significant problem has been the lack of financial security for educators. It is common knowledge that having a secure financial situation is an essential component of successful work behaviour and attitudes, both of which can lead to feeling fulfilled in ones work. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not there is a correlation between teachers stable financial situations and their levels of work fulfilment and instructional behaviour. The data and findings were obtained by sending out questionnaires in the form of a survey to a total of one hundred elementary school teachers working in public schools in the Philippines. According to the results of the study, teachers, on the whole, have favourable financial stability, positive instructional behaviour, and a sense of professional fulfilment in their employment. In the meantime, research has shown that the instructional practices of teachers are linked to their financial security. It was also found that the instructional behaviour of teachers is what determines how much they feel like they have accomplished with their work.
    Keywords: financial stability; instructional behaviour; work fulfilment; fulfilment of teachers; environmental values; comprehensive support systems; career advancement and promotions; nurturing future generations; Philippines.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2024.10063876
  • Project-based learning to enrich the impact of machine learning algorithms for medical data analysis in engineering education   Order a copy of this article
    by Yogita Dubey, Prachi Palsodkar 
    Abstract: Many higher education institutions (HEI) are implementing project-based learning (PBL) as innovative pedagogy in their curriculum for effective teaching learning. PBL engages students with various phases such as identifying a problem statement, providing a solution to that problem, designing or implementation of that solution with best accuracy. This paper presents the effective methodology for teaching learning process in higher education using PBL to study the impact of machine learning (ML) algorithms for the analysis of medical data for diseases classification. The methodology is supported by hands on workshop conducted for a final year engineering students with feedback and impact analysis, followed by project implementation for five case studies on medical data. To assess the impact of PBL, report submission on these case studies was carried out with rubrics and assessment tools.
    Keywords: project-based learning; machine learning; teaching learning; case studies; assessment; impact analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2024.10064104
  • Exploring the impact of ChatGPT usability on attitudes and beliefs among Indian higher education students: a structural analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Parveen Kumar, Anu Lohan, Parmod 
    Abstract: Receiving prompt answers from the AI conversational application made drastic changes in students’ learning. This research investigates the influence of generative pre-trained transformers (ChatGPT) 3.5 usability on the attitudes and beliefs of Indian higher education students. In this study, data was collected from 380 students representing 14 higher education institutions through email and personal interactions. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was employed to validate the proposed model. Findings reveal a substantial positive correlation between ease of use and attitudes, as well as beliefs. Furthermore, it highlights a significant link between attitudes and the formation of beliefs among young individuals. These insights underscore the need for ethical AI interactions and provide valuable perspectives for educators, policymakers, and technology developers.
    Keywords: artificial intelligence; higher education institutions; generative pre-trained transformers; ChatGPT; ease of use; attitudes; beliefs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2024.10064106
  • Understanding the effect of system characteristics on e-learning adoption and usage during the COVID-19 pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by G. S. S. G. Krishna, Anup Anurag Soren, Shibashish Chakraborty 
    Abstract: E-learning in higher education and the professional workforce has surged in recent years. However, the influence of system characteristics on adoption factors of e-learning systems has not been extensively studied. This study aims to understand how system characteristics affect user expectancies and e-learning system adoption factors. The study employed the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) and included five system characteristic variables to expand the model. The results demonstrated that the characteristics of e-learning systems influenced users expectancies and highlighted the most crucial system characteristics. It was also exhibited that user expectancies, hedonic motivation, and habit affected users intention to use e-learning platforms. Findings provide directions for educational institutes and organisations to improve the design and use intention of e-learning systems.
    Keywords: e-learning; adoption; behavioural intention; BI; system characteristics; performance expectancy; PE; effort expectancy; EE; course content quality; system functionality; SF; system interactivity; SIT; system response; SR; user interface design; UID.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2024.10064444
  • Knowledge representation in generative lexicon: exploiting qualia structure for compound noun interpretation   Order a copy of this article
    by Vandana Dwivedi, Sanjukta Ghosh 
    Abstract: The paper is an attempt towards building a lexical knowledge representation model using generative lexicon framework especially exploiting the qualia information of the nouns. The interpretation of compound nouns is a challenging task in any natural language processing application. Some most frequently occurring terms that are found in popular and scholarly texts of ayurveda are compound nouns in nature. The compound used in this paper is rasaayana, 'a process of rejuvenation or a product of that process'. This term occurs both as a head word as the second element or a non-head first element of a compound noun. The GL model is able to represent the natural polysemy of the word either as a process or a result and explain the meanings of the compound words created with it based on the qualia structure representation and the principle of coercion.
    Keywords: generative lexicon; lexical knowledge representation; qualia roles; coercion; rasaayana compounds.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2023.10053232
  • Impact of COVID-19 on the students' learning: an empirical study in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Nirmal Chandra Roy 
    Abstract: The worse pandemic that has been experienced in this world is COVID-19. Each and every human being in this world has gained some sort of bitter experience due to the pandemic. The students have been largely affected. However, the present study aims to identify the factors that influence students' online learning during COVID-19 and the impact of online learning on their education. In the study, primary data have been used. A well-structured questionnaire has been framed to collect the primary data and for this purpose, a convenient sampling technique has been applied. Professional masters' level students have been considered in the study. Responses received from 583 sample respondents were analysed with the SPSS-23. Firstly, factors analysis has been conducted, and then multiple regression analysis has been performed to determine the impact of the identified factors of students' online learning on students' education.
    Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; student; learning; education; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2023.10053430
  • Looking beyond the leader in leadership   Order a copy of this article
    by Martin Sposato 
    Abstract: This article, which is based on a literature review, aims to present followership theory as a complement to the study of leadership. It first presents some common limitations of existing leadership theories and then suggests integrating followership theory into them to gain a more comprehensive understanding of leadership in organisations. Next, followership theory and its main characteristics are discussed. Finally, the article makes an original contribution by explaining how followership theory can be integrated into prominent leadership theories and showing how it can help advance leadership and organisational studies.
    Keywords: leadership; followership; followership theory; followers.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2022.10052801
  • Perception and preference towards distance learning in Nepali academic setting   Order a copy of this article
    by Manish Thapa 
    Abstract: With technological advancement in a progressive manner and increasing use in an academic setting, distance learning has been an on-debate topic in the current educational discourse. Through cross-sectional research design, this paper set an objective of exploring the perception among students towards the adoption of distance learning in Nepali academic settings. The research focused on areas such as preferred instruction method, perception towards the level of attentiveness and clarity of instructions, quality of existing technologies, internet facilities, and adaptability of distance learning based on course modality and academic level. Students are perceived to have a high level of distraction during class and have a moderate level of interaction and clarity in instructions. Students perceived having a low potentiality of adopting distance class for a technical and practical course but highly perceived their application in the theory-based course. The research concludes by emphasising on participant's preferred mode as a blended course (application of both online mode and traditional set-up mode).
    Keywords: distance; learning; academic; education; teaching-learning; students; modality.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2022.10052891
  • A study on mental distress amidst COVID-19: a path to reboot and resilience   Order a copy of this article
    by Ankita Saxena, Shashi Shekhar Gautam 
    Abstract: The present research paper figures out numerous factors which affected the mental wellbeing of employees amidst the pandemic especially at the time of second wave of COVID-19. The current study is exploratory in nature where various professionals working in organised sector of India completed an online survey from 3rd of April 2021 to 6th of June 2021. Total 403 participants completed the survey. Based on the primary data, the factors affecting mental wellbeing have been determined namely social isolation, job and future uncertainty, financial uncertainty, threat of infection and death rate, burnout due to official work and emotional factors during COVID. Further, in order to reboot the workforce morale and enthusiasm post COVID, the researchers proposed a theoretical model of resilience having three elements namely empathy, addressing mental health problems and developing positive aspects of work and strengths of workforce.
    Keywords: burnout; COVID-19; mental well-being; employee resilience; employee-centric approach.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2024.10063984
  • ICTs for reflective pedagogy: voices from teacher education   Order a copy of this article
    by Uzma Shahzadi, Bashir Hussain 
    Abstract: This study intended to examine the perspective of the use of ICTs for reflective pedagogy by teaching professionals and pre-service teachers. This study used triangulation mixed-method research design. Regular teaching professionals and enrolled pre-service teachers of teacher education departments in general public sector universities of Pakistan made the population of the study. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the sample size of 1,480, i.e., 110 teaching professionals and 1,370 pre-service teachers. Five-point Likert scale was used to collect data. The Cronbach alpha value was found to be 0.78. Quantitative data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistics. Qualitative data was collected using semi structured interviews from both teaching professionals and pre-service teachers. Analysis of data found that there is seldom use of ICTs for reflective pedagogy in the teacher education programs. The limited use of ICT as a tool for reflection in teacher education programs was also evident from the finding emerged from the analysis of interviews. Study recommended the focus on ICT integrated reflective teaching learning practices in teacher education programs.
    Keywords: teacher education; reflective pedagogy; ICT resources; blogs; journals.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2023.10053432
  • Comparing yinyang and fission-fusion algorithms for accelerating the k-means   Order a copy of this article
    by Marcelo Kuchar Matte, Maria do Carmo Nicoletti 
    Abstract: Given both, a set of data instances and an integer value k as input to the k-means clustering algorithm, a clustering represented as a partition of the given set into k groups (clusters) is produced by the algorithm. The k-means is considered relatively scalable and efficient in processing large sets of data instances. However, the inductive process the algorithm implements can have high time-related computational cost, depending on the given set of instances. Considering the algorithm invests most of its runtime in distance calculations, a way of accelerating its execution time is by avoiding calculations when possible. One way of doing that is by using a mathematical result known as triangle inequality. The main goal of the work described in this paper is to empirically investigate the contribution of the triangle inequality employed by two algorithms, the yinyang and the fission-fusion. Results from experiments using both algorithms on 17 datasets are evidence that, in general, the yinyang algorithm had a speed-up performance higher than that of the fission-fusion. However, in datasets where instances are described by a relatively small number of attributes (≤8), the fission-fusion had a better speed-up performance.
    Keywords: k-means; optimisation; triangle inequality; accelerating algorithms; yinyang; fission-fusion.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2023.10053502