International Journal of Knowledge-Based Development (10 papers in press)
Boosting the entrepreneurial scene in cities: experiences and reflections from the InFocus networka short communication
by Willem Van Winden
Abstract: This short communication contains a reflection on local entrepreneurial ecosystems and how to boost them, in the context of smart specialisation strategies of cities and regions. It is based on a literature study and inputs from 10 member cities of the InFocus project (sponsored by the EUs URBACT programme), that exchange and develop knowledge about the development of smart specialisation strategies on the urban level. In September 2017, the network held a meeting in Turin, dedicated to the topic of promoting an entrepreneurship ecosystems. The paper discusses several specific aspects of policies regarding entrepreneurship: the relation with smart specialisation approach, startup promotion policies, fostering a culture of entrepreneurship, and the different development stages in entrepreneurship: Starting, scaling, growing, with examples from cities in the InFocus network. Among other things, it concludes that a stronger alignment between the urban and regional policy levels is required to link the urban-focused startup ecosyetems to the regional industrial tissue.
Keywords: entrepreneurship ecosystems; startups; smart specialisation; cities; incubators; innovation systems.
Capturing Innovation in Surgeries: An Evaluation from a Management Perspective
by Gökçen Arkalı Olcay, Hacer Özgen Narcı, Metin Gürler, Melih Bulu
Abstract: Surgery is considered as an integral part of any health system, comprising 30% of global burden of disease alongwith serious access problems and catastrophic payments across the world. And more than 230 million major surgeries are done every year. Surgical innovations typically represent the greatest part of innovations in terms of their contributions to ensuring safer and high-quality care and thus saving lives in the field of healthcare management. Such innovations also contribute significantly to the knowledge society. Correctly identifying innovations in surgery and enabling them to be known and adapted by other surgeons is a critical concern for all stakeholders in healthcare. There exists no information on surgical innovations from a managerial perspective in Turkey. This study aims to explore how surgeons identify surgical innovations based on their real experiences of past surgeries using a semi-structured questionnaire distributed to surgeons in a major hospital chain in İstanbul, Turkey. The results shed light on recognizing and evaluating surgical innovations provided by the practicing surgeons via a management perspective.
Keywords: Surgery; Surgical innovation; Innovation process; Healthcare management.
Knowledge management in developing regions: the case of Valle de Aburr
by Walter Darío Castro-Ramírez, Martine Gadille, Juan Ramón Gallego-Bono, Margarita Ramírez-Carmona
Abstract: This study aims to identify the components of a knowledge management (KM) model to support innovation governance in a Colombian cosmetics cluster. The inter-organisational management of knowledge applied to innovation governance, and the perspective of endogenous economic development emphasises the structural specificities of developing countries. In line with this objective, the community-based participatory research (CBPR) and Delphi methods were combined to collect information from the clusters different stakeholders, among them dependent shareholders who expressed their views through spokespersons. In an initial stage, a knowledge management model was built. After a second stage with a planning exercise, it integrates organisational and contextualisation proposals, together with the specificities of each of the clusters stakeholders.
Keywords: knowledge management; knowledge management model; endogenous knowledge; developing regions; cosmetics; community-based participatory action research; territory; cosmetics cluster; governance; dependent stakeholders; minority groups; knowledge-based development; Columbia.
Knowledge-based environments in the city: Design and urban form in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area
by Tommi Inkinen
Abstract: Knowledge-based development is of interest to cities, as it promotes economic growth and boosts dynamic urban image. Creative environments are arguably highly dependent on sociality, and they are usually located near city centres. The focus of this study is on three knowledge-based locations in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) in Finland. The research material composes of field observation data and photographs. Results indicate that knowledge-intensive environments include several elements of good city design, for example, pedestrian-friendly street networks and green areas, but they tended to lack vibrant urban life, that is, human activity. The findings support the claim that ICT-based companies are not very dependent on the sociality of environment. As cities are spaces for individuals working, studying and visiting, attention must be paid to the urban design of these areas.
Keywords: Knowledge-based urban development; Urban design; Planning; Qualitative research; Visual methods.
Perspective paper: Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management, Politics and Billionaires
by Eduardo Tome
Abstract: In this paper we analyse if Intellectual Capital can have an impact in political terms namely in what comes to influence the outcome of elections. More specifically we analyse how Intellectual Capital helps billionaires in becoming political actors that may have success in those elections. The question is relevant because it is globally perceived that the political landscape changed dramatically in the last decade and that change was marked by the ascension to power of the billionaires or of people that are closely related with those billionaires. It may also be argued that Intellectual Capital and billionaires also have been having massive influence in defining some of the questions around which elections are decided such as inequalities, marketing brands and new routines like social media. We base our analysis in usual and well-known concepts and theories about Intellectual Capital which has been widely used in relation with companies, organizations, and regions, and that in this paper we extend to apply to billionaires in the context of political power. We find that both conceptually and in practice Intellectual Capital seems to have a major impact in the political process and in the political results, particularly when it is the case of billionaires. Politics changed because Intellectual Capital
elements became the decisive in elections. Intellectual Capital generates billionaires and is also a major enabler of the political success of billionaires. However, and quite decisively, Intellectual Capital only becomes decisive if billionaires are good at political Knowledge Management. This means that a billionaire may have the Intellectual Capital and may not be elected if he does not do good Knowledge Management. Finally, this influence in elections is itself a mirror of the growing influence of Intellectual Capital in societies.
Keywords: Intellectual Capital; Knowledge Management; elections; billionaires; politicians.
The Digital, Quaternary, or 4.0 Web Economy: Aspects, Effects and Implications
by Philip Cooke, JinHyo Joseph Yun, XIAOFEI ZHAO, YoungDuk Kim
Abstract: The world economy is changing dynamically with the expansion of information technology (IT). The change is not only happening at the technology industry itself; other industries are also being disrupted with the appearance of smart factories, autonomous cars, smart e-commerce, and the like. This paper preliminarily analyzes the economic effects and concrete aspects of the quaternary economy, the knowledge-based part of the economy, which typically includes services such as information technology, information generation and sharing, media, research and development, as well as knowledge-based services. First, it analyzes the economic effect of the quaternary economy on the United States, United Kingdom, and Israel in addition to the technological base of the quaternary such as Internet of Everything and financialization effects. Second, it investigates the concrete aspects of the quaternary economy in five main areas including interactive or crossover innovation in artificial intelligence, appearance of cybersecurity from firewalls to cyber warfare, precision agriculture and smart farming, smart grid, electric vehicles and pilotless planes, and precision medicine. Third, the paper discusses the governance of the quaternary economy along with thin globalization and relevant regulatory issues of the digital culture of our time.
Keywords: Quaternary economy; the fourth sector; Web 4.0; knowledge economy; and information technology.
The Roles of Universities in Knowledge-Based Urban Development: A Critical Review
by Andrew Johnston
Abstract: Universities are increasingly recognised as key actors in the knowledge-based development process, occupying a crucial role of knowledge creators and transmitters. This paper takes a critical view of these roles and reviews the extant literature to present a synopsis of relevant work examining universities and open innovation, the uncertainties involved in the process of knowledge transfer, and the spatial scope of university-industry links. The paper proposes a number of areas for future development: understanding the heterogeneity of universities and how this influences their potential roles in knowledge-based development; a better understanding of how uncertainties in the partner selection process may prevent efficient university-industry collaboration to promote knowledge based development; further exploration of the micro-level processes involved in knowledge transfer between universities and firms; and a broader understanding of the roles of proximities in facilitating these links.
Keywords: university-industry links; knowledge-based development; innovation; collaboration.
Exploring the evolution of urban emotions in the city of Seoul using social media information
by Rachida Benabbou
Abstract: The city is a complex combination of various features that create our everyday living environment. It influences our perception of the urban surroundings and generates in us different feelings and emotions. Today, thanks to new technologies, social media provide multiple networking platforms where people can share their emotional experiences. These platforms generate a wide range of data and make available open information for all. However, their potential benefits are still not largely explored. This research focuses on visualizing the evolution of urban emotions in the city of Seoul, using emotion information from social media platforms. The main purpose of this study is to explore the evolution of Koreans feelings about their city for the last five years, through processing their urban emotions in geospatial and temporal dimensions. The insights brought by this research may help understand the interaction between humans and the urban landscape. Thus, help improve existing urban spaces and create emotionally enjoyable places that meet the citizens expectations.
Keywords: Evolution; urban emotions; social media; urban space; geo-mapping.
Computer Modelling Reveals the Optimal Development for the Organisational Structure of Business Clusters
by Mousa Al-kfairy, Souheil Khaddaj, Robert B. Mellor
Abstract: Science and Technology Parks (STPs) foster innovation between firms inhabiting the cluster. Networking channels are considered as integral parts of the knowledge exchange process, and therefore the innovation process. We simulated three organizational topologies for STPs; firstly, in the star model all are connected to the cluster initiative (CI), secondly the strongly connected model, when all are connected to each other, and finally the randomly connected model, where the network follows no centralised topology.
Analyses used adjacency matrixes and Monte-Carlo simulation, trading transaction (networking) costs against knowledge benefit. Results show that star topology is the most efficient form from the cost perspective, and this is especially the case for start-up STPs. Later, when the cost of knowledge transformation is lowered, then the strongly connected model becomes the most efficient topology, but this transition to high transaction costs is very risky if direct ties do not quickly result in tangible benefits.
Keywords: Cluster; innovation; network; tech-hub; simulation; modelling; Monte Carlo.
Computer Modelling and Identification of Factors Important for the Success of Business Clusters.
by Mousa Al-kfairy, Souheil Khaddaj, Robert B. Mellor
Abstract: Business clusters are often intended to provide the environment needed to stimulate the financial growth of corporate inhabitants. This study identifies factors influencing the growth of high-technology firms by analysing a longitudinal dataset from Ratsit database for both on- and off-cluster firms with industrial code 62x (computing and related industries) in Mj
Keywords: Business Clusters; Innovation Networks; Science Parks; Success Indicators; Success Factors.