International Journal of Knowledge-Based Development (11 papers in press)
The role of social innovation for a knowledge-based local development: insights from the literature review
by Valentina Ndou, Giovanni Schiuma
Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive structured literature review of articles published with a focus on social innovation for knowledge-based local development. The papers published in journals in the range 19972019 are analyzed to derive insights and implications about the role of social innovation for local development according to a knowledge-based perspective. The analysis of the literature highlights the lack of a homogenous investigation of the relationships between social innovation and knowledge-based local development. However, findings show the growing importance of the theme and underline some relevant research streams: 1: Dynamics of social innovation for territorial development; 2: Promoting participatory development processes for interactive learning, networking and knowledge exchange; 3: The role of institutions to promote, sustain and develop knowledge-based territorial development systems. The paper concludes with a discussion of the open questions for future research.
Keywords: knowledge based development; structured literature review; social innovation; future research.
Urban Civic Networks as the relational space for social innovation.
by Alessandra Ricciardelli
Abstract: The aim of this study is to present the case on Urban Civic Networks carried out in the City of Bari, which suggests how civic networks, with their own organisational models and tools, generate social innovation in urban spaces.
This study is guided by three complimentary theories which form the theoretical background: Community Governance, Social movements theory, Social innovation theory. All three are inextricably interconnected to each other as to lay the foundation to comprehend concepts associated with policies of social change and social innovation.
This paper reflects on the experience of involving communities in dialogues about cultural choices that support urban regeneration policies through a participatory and network-based approach as the kernel of the truth of community governance. Cities have a relational nature and require all types of individuals, operating across different sectors, to integrate their stakes, interests, and aspirations, in the context of local urban regeneration initiatives. Local community may need considerable help to portray an image of a City where they would like to live in as they may be less readily convinced of the hard design skills and engineering (i.e. buildings and infrastructures) but more capable of designing software skills (i.e. system of activities, roles and relationships). The practice of Urban Civic Networks in the city of Bari will shows that community engagement is important to make change happen in the direction community is willing to go to. Therefore, this paper would stand as a thematic deliverable of social innovation practice as it will contribute to explain methodologies, skills and tools enabling social innovation practices at a community level.
This study uses a research methodology based upon a single case analysis. This method is particularly well suited to the research in question, as it is very effective for the analysis of complex phenomena which constitute a new field of research (Eisenhardt, 1989). Due to the uniqueness of this case, it is necessary to adopt a single case-study methodology. If such methodology creates, at one side, problems in terms of generalisation of results, at the other side, it represents a required and obligatory choice due to lack of comparative situations.
When poorly introduced in a community, social change can work against the community itself simply because it will be considered as a social form of rebellion from the citizens. However, when a soft stakeholder engagement and consultative approach is used to guide social change, multiple community stakeholders feel proud and are much willing to live by the promise spelt out in it. Cited notable benefits of social change include community empowerment, inclusiveness, increased possibilities of wining cross-border cooperation and collaboration among like-minded social stakeholders, self-determination. In the efforts to guide community empowerment, communication was observed as an indispensable activity. Lastly, managing communitys multiple stakeholders influences is a curvilinear fashion and involves back and forth consultations.
The lessons learnt from Urban Civic Network can be borrowed and used by all communities, especially those facing challenges living by the promise of innovation and development. That is, all communities can use the suggested process to help citizens, civil society and local stakeholders in their neighbourhoods development to come up with an overall Citys regeneration as well as guide the communitys consultative process which results in transformational processes to advance societal well-being and urban regeneration outputs.
Keywords: Civic Networks; organisational models; social innovation; social change; stakeholder engagement.
Innovation in knowledge-based destination: technology-driven versus social-driven
by Mariapina Trunfio, Salvatore Campana
Abstract: Although academics and policy makers around the world recognize the disruptive power of the innovation, the research on innovation in tourism destinations is fragmented and manifests grey areas. The technology-driven approach in innovation prevails, neglecting the nature of destination, as a complex system of relationships among diverse public and private actors, generating innovation based on the knowledge sharing and dissemination. This paper contributes to the debate on innovation in destination proposing an integrative theoretical framework, which interprets the co-evolutionary processes of innovation in knowledge-based destination. It considers two diverse processes of innovation in destination: the technology-driven innovation and the social-driven innovation. An exploratory multiple-case study was used to investigate an Italian and Finnish destination, in which actors have invested in social capital and ICT infrastructures, stimulating a co-evolutionary sequential process of pervasive innovation. The discussion and the conclusion suggest future research and challenges for academics, policy makers and destination managers.
Keywords: Knowledge-based destination; innovation; technology; social capital; engagement.
Organizational management suggestions for institutional viability of Public Administration. An analysis from the municipalities of the Canary Islands
by Ayoze González Hovi, Jaime Febles Acosta
Abstract: The recent organizational regulations for Public Administrations has set new targets for services quality improving. However, the practice reflects a gap between law aims and its effective implementation.rnFocused on the municipalities of the Canary Islands, this exploratory research attempts to study the opportunity of knowledge management potential through the mediation of organizational design, as a tool to achieve higher levels of quality on services rendering.rnThe potential of Rasch Analysis statistical methodology for objective measurement in qualitative research allows us to obtain results that reveal the organizational variables with greatest potential, so through the knowledge creation, can promote the way of change in its management model, as well as knowing the main barriers to fuller development.rn
Keywords: Knowledge Management; Organizational Management; Public Administration.
The Nexus between Digitization and Knowledge-based Economy in Low-income Countries: The Case of Post-Conflict Syria
by Ibrahim Alnafrah, Sulaiman Mouselli, Elena Bogdanova
Abstract: In the era of global economic structural transitions, evaluating the trade-off costs of prioritizing digitization over improving a sustainable social and economic development in low-income economies should be placed at the core of policymaking. This study endeavours to examine the impact of digitization on the transition to knowledge-based economy in low-income economies, post-conflict Syria as a case study.
We use the Documentary Research Method (DSM) to analyse documents related to digitization and ICT-related activities in Syria. Then, we run Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL) to investigate the short and long-run relationship between digitization process and the transition process towards knowledge-based economy in post-conflict Syria.
Our results indicate that the digitization process in Syria is not a priority at the short and long-run and cannot solely support the transition process towards knowledge-based economy in post-conflict Syria. On the contrary, digitization, in the absence of certain conditions, may harm the transition towards knowledge-based economy. Therefore, investing in human development by improving the economic and living standards of citizens is the highest short and long-run priority in Syria. After achieving this goal, the country can initiate a holistic digitization that covers all sectors. However, digitization could have a significant positive impact at the short-run on the transition to a knowledge-based economy if it coincides with intensified investments in socio-economic and human development.
Keywords: Digitization; Knowledge-based Economy; Low-income Countries; Post-conflict Syria; Human Capital; Information and Communication Technology.
Creative Placemaking Revisited: Exploring Major Drivers for the Making Practice and Co-Creation
by Onur Mengi
Abstract: The gap in the literature that demands attention for whether creative placemaking of today requires different interpretations beyond creative city formulas. A comprehensive approach towards reconsideration of creative actions of individuals that revolve around design, arts and craft, as expressing place-specific cultural values, social norms, and addressing problems within their communities is currently lacking. The main purpose of this article is to explore granular understanding of creative placemaking within the trajectories of creative city discourse, and to analyze creative placemaking strategies in terms of making in order to be exploited in todays creative city practices. The methodology draws on academic literature and research 1) to review the evolution of creative city discourse, 2) to explore the contextualization of the making practice via content analysis of the existing components of previous placemaking strategies since 2010, and 3) to delineate particular drivers by incorporating the co-creation and making practices to re-think about creative placemaking that follow: arts, design and craft as ways of making, individuals as creative initiators and makers, action areas as physicality of co-creation, and creative partnerships as channels of collaboration. The study contributes to a new narrative moving creative city from validating placemaking in primarily economic terms toward a broader consideration of social assets and place-specific values by integrating making with co-creation, production and community engagement.
Keywords: Creative city; creative placemaking; placemaking strategies; conceptual framework; making; participation; co-creation; arts; design; crafts.
Special Issue on: IFKAD 2018 Social Innovation for Knowledge-based Local Development
Optional and necessary activities: Operationalising Jan Gehls analysis of urban space with Foursquare data
by Damiano Cerrone, Jesús López Baeza, Panu Lehtovuori
Abstract: The article presents a method to operationalise Jan Gehls categorisation of dwellers activity patterns in public space using Foursquare data. The Urban Activity Wheel method is instrumental in showing how location based social media data is beneficial to understand the distribution and variety of contemporary activity patterns. Re-organising both location-based social media data and statistical sources, unearths emerging activity patterns across scales from local to regional city making. Urban Activity Wheel shifts focus from the traditional functional analysis of urban space towards understanding activities and, thus, the human perspective of use, practices and new agencies. A specific analysis, the Shannon-Wiener Index of the complexity implemented on urban activities, gives further hints about the experiential qualities and development opportunities of urban spaces and neighbourhoods.
Keywords: Activities; Public Space; Social Media; Urban Analytics; GIS; Jan Gehl.
Knowledge-based social innovation for cultural endeavours revitalizing urban structures
by Mauro Romanelli
Abstract: Urban regeneration is a common challenge especially for post-industrial cities. Cultural and creative entrepreneurship is one possible option since culture-led urban development is a sustainable approach, involving different types of communities, increasing social cohesion, and cultural dynamism. The article aims to understand how knowledge exchange is connected to social innovation and urban regeneration, analysing several situations in Romania. Several dimensions are considered, such as the role of the policy framework and public administration, the dynamics of the relationship between the actors involved, knowledge sharing processes, innovation drivers and the impact of cultural and creative initiatives on the urban, physical and mental fabric.
Keywords: cultural and creative entrepreneurship; knowledge sharing; culture-led urban regeneration; Romania.
A Minimal Viable Process and Tools for Massive Participation in Urban Development
by Benjamin Stelzle, Fabrice Naumann, Jörg Rainer Noennig
Abstract: The paper aims at providing a framework for enabling massive citizen participation in urban planning projects. Derived from a structured analysis of existing formal and informal citizen participation processes in urban development we developed a comprehensive process supported by a set of digital tools for massive participation. This so-called Minimal Viable Process fulfils a) good practice standards for participation while b) utilising as few as possible technical means and procedural steps. rnThe newly developed procedure ensures proper citizen involvement from the very start of a project up to design selection. The framework involves all necessary stakeholder groups, who are addressed by specific tools and algorithms.rnThe results of a test run indicate the general applicability of the process and the tools, and provided insight for the further technical development of the IT tools and the procedure itself within the H2020 project U_CODE Urban Collective Design Environment.rn
Keywords: Urban design; urban development; participation; co-design; ICT.
Implementing Social Innovation in Real Contexts
by Francesca Rizzo, Alessandro Deserti, Tamami Komatsu
Abstract: Increasing attention is being paid towards the potential of social innovation in responding to societys greatest challenges. While measures have been taken to support the flourishing of these innovations, they have thus far been made on ideal models of development, misaligned with what occurs in reality. This has led to the creation of supporting infrastructures that fail to respond to social innovators real needs. The article seeks to provide a picture of the real social innovation development process through a case-based discussion coming from the results of, SIMPACT, a recently EU research project. The research demonstrates how SI actually takes place in constrained contexts and typically develops as a frugal answer to a social problem. The article offers substantial empirical evidence that a support system is fundamental in making. SI thrive, thus providing relevant insights and guidance for policy making, with particular emphasis on the concept of SI ecosystems.
Keywords: social innovation; innovation processes; spiral model; scaling; policy support; innovation tools; technological innovation; open innovation; participatory processes; design thinking.
Sharing cognitive, emotional and spiritual knowledge within smart and connected communities
by Ramona Leon, Mauro Romanelli
Abstract: The research concentrates on describing how knowledge is shared within private and public smart and connected communities. The focus is on the type of shared knowledge and also on the knowledge flow direction. Thus, the activity from TripAdvisor and Barcelona CityHall Facebook page is tracked and synthesized from September 1, 2017, until February 1, 2018; 469 posts with 150 users liking or commenting 38.119 times are extracted and processed based on social network analysis techniques. The results prove that the smart and connected communities foster the relationships developed among members, and support the acquisition and dissemination of emotional and cognitive knowledge. Furthermore, these findings have both theoretical and practical implications; on the one hand, it extends the theory from the knowledge management area, and on the other hand, it provides a valuable tool for co-creating economic and social value in the digital ecosystem.
Keywords: knowledge sharing; smart community; emotion; value; social media; collaboration.