International Journal of Intelligent Systems Technologies and Applications (31 papers in press)
Detection of Glaucoma based on Cup-to-Disc Ratio using Fundus Images
by Imran Qureshi, Muhammad Attique, Muhammad Sharif, Tanzila Saba
Abstract: Glaucoma is a permanent damage of optic nerves which cause of partial or complete visual loss. This work presents a glaucoma detection scheme by measuring CDR from fundus photographs. The proposed system consists of image acquisition, feature extraction and glaucoma assessment steps. Image acquisition discusses the transformation of a RGB fundus image into grey form and enhancing the contrast of fundus features. While, boundary of optic disc and cup were segmented in feature extraction step. Finally, a cup-to-disc ratio of an exploited image will compute to assess glaucoma in the image. The proposed system is tested on 398 fundus images from four publicly available datasets, obtaining an average value of sensitivity 90.6%, specificity 97% and accuracy 96.1% in glaucoma diagnosis. The achieved results show the suitability of proposed art for glaucoma detection.
Keywords: Cup-to-disc ratio (CDR); fundus images; glaucoma; image processing; optic disc; segmentation.
DESIGN OF GENERALIZED PREDICTIVE CONTROLLER FOR DYNAMIC POSITIONING SYSTEM OF SURFACE SHIPS
by Werneld Ngongi, Jialu Du, Rui Wang
Abstract: This paper presents a generalized predictive control algorithm (GPCA) for ship dynamic positioning (DP) controller using Controlled Autoregressive Integral Moving Average (CARIMA) model to describe the controlled object. The proposed control system is capable of making position and heading of the ship converge to the desired values by choosing the error correction coefficient, parameter adaptation and feedback correction techniques. Firstly, the basic principle of the generalized predictive control algorithm is introduced. Secondly, the generalized predictive control algorithm is used to design the ship dynamic positioning controller. Finally, the simulation of the designed controller is given. Simulation results prove the effectiveness and robustness of the controller.
Keywords: Dynamic positioning; Generalized Predictive Controller; feedback correction; Rolling Optimization; performance index; surface ships.
Meta-Heuristic Techniques for Path Planning: Recent Trends and Advancements
by Monica Sood, Vinod Kumar Panchal
Abstract: Path planning is a propitious research domain with extensive application areas. It is the procedure to construct a collision-free path from specified source to destination point. Earlier, classical techniques were widely implemented to solve path planning problems. Classical techniques are very easy to implement but they are time-consuming and are not effective in case of uncertainties. But meta-heuristic techniques have the ability even to perform in an approximate and uncertain environment. This makes the use of meta-heuristic techniques in a more focused manner for the optimal path planning research. This paper presents the Overview, recent trends and advancement from year 2001 to 2017 in the field of optimal path planning using meta-heuristic techniques. During the study, different meta-heuristic algorithms are analyzed and classified into three categories: swarm based meta-heuristic techniques, other than swarm based techniques and combinational meta-heuristic techniques. In addition, basic understanding and applicability of specific algorithms for path planning are also discussed along with its strengths and downsides.
Keywords: Path Planning; Meta-Heuristic Techniques; Optimization; Swarm Intelligence; Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Computational Intelligence.
A Novel and Improved Developer Rank Algorithm for Bug Assignment
by Asmita Yadav, Sandeep Kumar Singh
Abstract: Analytical studies on automatic bug triaging approach have the main objective to recommend appropriate developer for bug report with reduced bug tossing length, time and effort in bug resolution. In bug triaging process, if the first recommended developer cannot fix a bug, it is tossed to another developer and the tossing process is continued till the bug gets assigned and resolved. Existing approaches to the best of our knowledge have not considered developers contributions and performance assessment metrics for bug triaging process. In this paper, we proposed a novel and improved two phase Bug Triager that involves a developer profile creation and assignment phases. In this, developer profile is built by using individual contributions (IC) and performance assessment (PA) metrics. Contribution and performance of a developer in pre-fixed bug reports are analyzed to calculate a developers weighted score. This score indicates the level of expertise to fix and resolve a newly reported bug. This approach is tested on two open source projects- Eclipse and Mozilla. Empirical results show that proposed approach has achieved a significantly higher F-score up to 90% for both projects and has effectively reduced bug tossing length up to 11.8% as compared to existing approaches.
Keywords: Bug Repository; Bug Triaging; Developer’ Expertise; Bug Assignment; Bug Reports; Bug Tossing; Developer Contribution Assessment.
Biased Face Patching Approach for Age Invariant Face Recognition using Convolutional Neural Network
by Mrudula Nimbarte, Kishor K. Bhoyar
Abstract: In recent years, a lot of interest is observed among researchers, in the domain of age invariant face recognition. The growing research interest is due to its commercial applications in many real-world scenarios. Many researchers have proposed innovative approaches to solve this problem, but still there is a significant gap. In this paper, we propose a novel technique to fill in the gap, where instead of using a whole face of a person, we use horizontal and vertical face patches. Two different feature vectors are obtained from these patches using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). Then fusion of these two feature vectors is done using weighted average of features of both patches. Lastly, SVM is used as a classifier on the fused vector. Two publicly available datasets, FGNET and MORPH (Album 2) are used for testing the performance of the system. This novel approach outperforms the other contemporary approaches with very good Rank-1 recognition rate, on both datasets.
Keywords: Face Recognition; AIFR; Aging Model; Deep Learning; CNN; Weighted Average.
Automatic Sizing of CMOS based Analog Circuits Using Cuckoo Search Algorithm
by Pankaj Prajapati
Abstract: The increasing complexity of physical models ofMOSFETand process
variations with downscaling of CMOS technology have made the manual design
of analog circuits challenging and time-consuming. Therefore, development of
efficient automatic analog circuit design techniques looks very attractive. In this
work, the Cuckoo Search (CS) algorithm has been tested for the optimum design
of CMOS based analog circuits with high optimization fitness. The CS algorithm
has been implemented using C language and interfaced with Ng-spice circuit
simulator. In this work, the CS algorithm has been used as a searching tool
for transistor sizing and Ng-spice has been used as a fitness creator. Various
analog circuits like CMOS common-source amplifier, CMOS cascode amplifier
and CMOS differential amplifier using a current mirror load have been optimized
using this automatic optimization tool with BSIM3v3MOSFETmodels using 180
nm CMOS technology. This technique gives more accurate results and consumes
less time as compared to manual circuit design.
Keywords: Cuckoo Search algorithm; Optimization; Fitness; Simulator ;
Product Service Model Constructing Method for intelligent home based on Positive Creative Design Thinking
by Weiwei Wang, Ting Wei
Abstract: With the booming market economy, companies need to maintain competitive advantage through positive and innovative design thinking. Building a service model is an indispensable part of this approach. The design aims to improve the competitiveness of the enterprise by extracting effective user value, establishing a product service system, satisfying the user's needs, and analyzing the method of extracting the shape. In this paper, the researcher first selects the target user, draws the user journey map, analyzes the user's psychological activities, and uses the innovative design thinking to extract the user value. Secondly, according to the positive value element, the human-object three-dimensional ecological circle is created, at the same time, using AHP Hierarchical Analysis software to analyze product modeling and build the product service model. Finally, the reliability of the model construction method was verified by the intelligent air-housekeeper product service system, and the requirements to meet the needs of users were met. At the same time, it can also provide certain reference for other product service design, reflecting the market competitive advantage of the product.
Keywords: Product Service Model; User Value; Positive Creative Design Thinking; Intelligent Air-housekeeper Product Service.
Local and Global Features Fusion to estimate Expression Invariant Human Age
by Subhash Chand Agrawal, Anand Singh Jalal, Rajesh Kumar Tripathi
Abstract: Human beings can easily estimate the age or age group of a person from a facial image where as this capability is not prominent in machines. This problem becomes more complex in the presence of facial expressions and due to age progression. In this paper, we introduced a novel method for age prediction using combination of local and global features. After detecting the face from image, we partition the facial image in 16*16 non-overlapping blocks and apply Grey-Level Co-Occurrence matrix (GLCM) on these blocks. After calculating four facial parts (Eyes, forehead, left cheek and right cheek) from facial image, features from second local feature Gabor filter are obtained. Global feature, Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) is used to extract features from complete face image. Experimental results show that fusion of local and global features perform better than existing approaches and reported 6.31years mean absolute error (MAE) on PAL dataset.
Keywords: GLCM; Local feature; Global feature; Facial Expression.
Improving English-Arabic statistical machine translation with morpho-syntactic and semantic word class
by Ines Turki
Abstract: In this paper, we present a new method for the extraction and integrating of morpho-syntactic and semantic word classes in a Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) context to improve the quality of English-Arabic translation. It can be applied across different statistical machine translations and with languages that have complicated morphological paradigms. In our method, we first identify morpho-syntactic word classes to build up our statistical language model. Then, we apply a semantic word clustering algorithm for English. The obtained semantic word classes are projected from the English side to the featured Arabic side. This projection is based on
available word alignment provided by the alignment step using GIZA++ tool. Finally, we apply a new process to incorporate semantic classes in order to improve the SMT quality. We show its efficacy on small and larger English to Arabic translation tasks. The experimental results show that introducing morpho-syntactic and semantic word classes achieves 7.7 % of relative improvement on the BLEU score.
Keywords: Morpho-syntactic word classes; semantic word classes; alignment; Statistical machine translation.
A QoS-aware virtual resource pricing service based on game theory in federated clouds
by Tienan Zhang
Abstract: Recently, federated cloud platform has become a promising paradigm to provide cloud services for various kinds of users in a distributed manner. To compete for cloud users, it is critically important for each cloud provider to select an optimal price that best corresponds to their service qualities as well as remains attractive to cloud users. In this paper, we first formulate the pricing strategy of individual cloud provider as a constrained optimization programming problem to analyze the behaviours of both cloud users and cloud providers. Then, we present game-based model which introduces a set of virtual resource agents to help providers adjusting their prices with aiming at achieving a global optimal solution. Theoretical analysis is present to prove the validity and effectiveness of the proposed game model, and extensive experiments are conducted in a real-world cloud platform to evaluate its performance. The experimental results show that the proposed pricing model can significantly improve the resource revenue for cloud providers and provide desirable quality-of-service (QoS) for user tasks in terms of various performance metrics.
Keywords: cloud computing; pricing strategy; virtual machine; quality-of-service.
On Collaborative Filtering Model Optimized with Multi-Item Attribute Information Space for Enhanced Recommendation Accuracy
by Folasade Isinkaye, Yetunde Folajimi, Adesesan Adeyemo
Abstract: Recommender system is a type of information filtering system that is designed to curtail the difficulties of information overload by automatically suggesting relevant items to users tailored to their preferences. Bayesian Personalized Smart Linear Methods (BPRSLIM) is a variant of item-based collaborative filtering technique used in information filtering system. Although, this algorithm has shown outstanding performance in a range of applications, nevertheless it suffers serious limitation of inability to provide accurate and reliable recommendations when the user-item matrix contains insufficient rating information, this always reduces its accuracy. In this paper, we propose a framework that integrates multi-item attribute information besides the classic information of users and items into BPRSLIM model in order to ease the sparsity problem associated with it and hence improves its performance accuracy. The enhanced model is expected to outperform the original BPRSLIM model
Keywords: BPRSLIM; Sparsity Problem; Recommender System; Collaborative Filtering; Item Attribute Information; Optimization.
Image Matching Technique Based on SURF Descriptors for Offline Handwritten Arabic Word Segmentation
by Maamar Kef, Leila Chergui
Abstract: Image matching is an important task with many applications in computer vision and robotics. Recently, several scale-invariant features have been proposed in the literature and one of them is the local descriptors namely Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF). Those features are scale and rotation-invariant descriptor, and have the advantage to being calculated quickly and efficiently. In this paper we presents a new segmentation system of handwritten Arabic words based on SURF descriptors. Firstly, a set of Arabic characters images were used to build 106 characters' patterns, which are used by a segmentation process based on an image matching technique. Tests were performed on our new databese of handwritten Arabic words. A high correct segmentation rate was reported.
Keywords: Image Matching; SURF Descriptors; Arabic Handwriting Recognition; Keypoints; Segmentation.
Improved motorized spindle control using a biogeography-based optimization algorithm
by Yuhou Wu, Zhen Ning Pan, LiXiu Zhang
Abstract: The control performance of motorized spindle affects the development of equipment manufacturing technology. The control theory, represented by direct torque control (DTC), is applied to the control of motorized spindle, which makes more intelligent algorithms applied to the control of motorized spindle. The biogeography-based optimization (BBO) algorithm is introduced to estimate the equivalent stator resistance in the classical DTC method. The random disturbance operator is added to the algorithm because it can enhance the exploitation ability by maintaining the original exploration ability and can effectively identify the equivalent stator resistance to obtain an accurate estimation of the stator flux and improve the control performance of the DTC. The paper designs a new BBO-DTC algorithm according to the characteristics of the BBO algorithm. Using the classical DTC, BBO-DTC and ANN-CBR (artificial neural networks and case based reasoning) algorithms to simulate the online identification of stator resistance, the results show that the BBO-DTC algorithm has higher accuracy in identifying the equivalent stator resistance, which verifies the effectiveness of the algorithm. BBO-DTC algorithm achieves the purpose of suppressing current harmonics and reducing torque by improving the online identification accuracy of the stator resistance of the motorized spindle, thus improving the performance of the motorized spindle control system. The DSP (digital signal processing) and IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) modules are used to establish the hardware of the experimental circuit. The results show that the vibrational speed of the motorized spindle is significantly reduced at each operating frequency after using the BBO-DTC algorithm. The torque ripple of the motorized spindle is obviously reduced, especially at 150 Hz and from 450~600 Hz. Additionally, the fluctuation in the no-load relative input torque is also reduced, and the torque takes only 0.03 s to reach a relatively stable state. Analyses of the electromagnetic vibration speed of the motorized spindle and the experimental input torque data indicate that the control performance of the BBO-DTC algorithm is improved. Not only is the dynamic performance of the system improved, but variations in the electromagnetic flux and the electromagnetic torque are also reduced. The control performance of motorized spindle is effectively improved.
Keywords: DTC; BBO; BBO-DTC; Migration operator; Perturbation operator; Stator resistance; Stator flux.
Deploying NSBA algorithm for Bi-Objective Manufacturing Cells Considering Percentage Utilization of Machines
by Tamal Ghosh, Kristian Martinsen
Abstract: Percentage Utilization of Machines is considered as an important production factor for manufacturing Cell Formation Problem (CFP) in Cellular Manufacturing (CM). This recently developed concept correctly emphasize ration data in context of CM. In this paper, a utilization based bi-objective mathematical model is developed, which minimizes the total machine utilization induced by bottleneck machines and number of voids. Thereafter, a new data-generating algorithm is introduced. The abovementioned bi-objective CFP is solved using a Non-Dominated Sorting Bat Algorithm (NSBA), which is compared with published Multi-Objective Bat Algorithm (MOBA) successfully. Statistical tests are conducted and data consistency is confirmed on obtained results. The computational experiments depict that the Pareto solutions of NSBA are 35.7% improved. The contribution of this research is threefold. First, an accurate bi-objective mathematical expression is developed for utilization based CFPs. Second, a novel data-generating algorithm is stated. Third, NSBA technique is successfully tested.
Keywords: Machine Utilization Percentage; Cellular Manufacturing; NSBA; Bi-Objective Mathematical Model.
Application of Artificial Intelligence to Wind Power Generation: Modeling, Control and Fault Detection
by Hadjira BOUAZZA
Abstract: Power converters play a key-role in the grid-integration of wind power generation and as any physical device, they are prone to mal function and failure. There is, therefore, a need for converter health monitoring and fault detection to ensure a reliable and sustainable operation of the wind turbine. This paper presents different artificial intelligence-based fault detection using fuzzy and neuro-fuzzy techniques. The proposed methods are designed for the detection of one or two open-circuit fault in the power switches of the rotor side converter (RSC) of a doubly-fed induction generation (DFIG) wind energy conversion system (WECS). In the proposed detection method only the average values of the three-phase rotor current are used to identify the faulty switch. Alongside these condition monitoring strategies, the paper also present two fuzzy logic-based controllers for the regulation of the real and reactive power flow between the grid and the converter. The performances of the controllers are evaluated under different operating conditions of the power system and the reliability, feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed fault detection have been verified under various open-switch fault conditions.
Keywords: Wind energy; DFIG; MPPT; fault detection; open-switch fault; type 2 fuzzy logic; ANFIS.
Efficient blind nonparametric dependent signal extraction algorithm for determined and underdetermined mixtures
by Fasong Wang, Rui Li
Abstract: Blind extraction or separation statistically independent source signals from their linear mixtures have been well studied in the last two decades, which is realised by searching for local extrema of certain objective functions. In this paper, by employing nonparametric non-Gaussianity (NG) measure, a blind source separation/extraction (BSS/BSE) algorithm is derived to separate or extract statistically dependent source signals from their underdetermined or determined linear mixtures. Firstly, we show that maximisation NG measure can separate/extract statistically weak dependent source signals. Then, the nonparametric NG measure is defined by statistical distances between different cumulative distribution function (CDF) of separated signals, which can be estimated by quantiles and order statistics (OS) using L2 norm efficiently. Finally, the nonparametric NG measure aided algorithm is optimised by a deflation procedure. Simulation results for synthesis and real world data show that the proposed algorithm can extract the desired dependent source signals and yield expected performance.
Keywords: blind source separation; non-gaussianity measure; independent component analysis; PDF; probability density function; dependent component analysis; underdetermined blind source extraction.
Modelling and simulation of fuzzy-based MPPT control of grid connected PV system under variable load and irradiance
by Subhashree Choudhury, Pravat Kumar Rout
Abstract: The photovoltaic (PV)-based distribution generation system has a nonlinear power characteristic curve under random variation in solar irradiance, ambient temperature and electric load. As a result, for the accurate detection and tracking of the maximum power points (MPPs), it is necessary to design an optimal controller with dynamic control capability. As solution to the above issue, this paper presents an intelligent Mamdani-based fuzzy logic controller (M-FLC) for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a PV system. Different test cases with respect to different possible load and irradiance variations in grid connected mode of operation are investigated. To confirm the power quality indices within IEEE standards specification, fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis of voltage and current at the point of common coupling has been done. A detailed comparison has been made in between PV without MPPT, with incremental conductance and proposed fuzzy logic control (FLC). The results show an enhance efficiency of energy production from PV and reflects the effectiveness of the proposed scheme justifying its real time application.
Keywords: photovoltaic (PV) array; maximum power point tracking; MPPT; dc-dc boost converter; incremental conductance; IC; Mamdani-based fuzzy logic controller; M-FLC; fast Fourier transform; FFT.
Collaborative approach to secure agents in ubiquitous healthcare systems
by Nardjes Bouchemal, Ramdane Maamri, Naila Bouchemal
Abstract: In sensitive domain such as healthcare, lives of people are controlled and it is very important to have fast access to health information especially in case of emergency (e.g., chronic diseases). For that, agent paradigm is very promising in ubiquitous healthcare systems. But, the inherent complexity of information security is bigger because agents are characterised by autonomy, intelligence and not under the control of a single entity. Indeed, the big challenge in agent-based ubiquitous healthcare systems is to assure that emergency workers and doctors can access personal information fast and whenever needed but with high level security. The idea, in this paper, is to lighten agents with simple cryptography concepts while strengthening the surveillance and make it collaborative. Consequently, all agents of the system are concerned by security and collaborate to maintain it. The proposed agents are implemented in JADE-LEAP platform designed for restricted devices.
Keywords: security; ubiquitous healthcare; u-healthcare; collective decision; collaboration; ubiquitous agents; u-agents.
Statistical assessment of nonlinear manifold detection-based software defect prediction techniques
by Soumi Ghosh, Ajay Rana, Vineet Kansal
Abstract: Prediction of software defects has immense importance for obtaining desired outcome at minimised cost and so attracted researchers working on this topic applying various techniques, which were not found fully effective. Software datasets comprise of redundant features that hinder effective application of techniques resulting inappropriate defect prediction. Hence, it requires newer application of nonlinear manifold detection techniques (nonlinear MDTs) that has been examined for accurate prediction of defects at lesser time and cost using different classification techniques. In this work, we analysed and tested the effect of nonlinear MDTs to find out accurate and best classification technique for all datasets. Comparison has been made between the results of without or with nonlinear MDTs and paired two-tailed T-test has been performed for statistical testing and verifying the performance of classifiers using nonlinear MDTs on all datasets. Outcome revealed that among all nonlinear MDTs, FastMVU makes most accurate prediction of software defects.
Keywords: dimensionality reduction; fast maximum variance unfolding; FastMVU; machine learning; manifold detection; nonlinear; promise repository; software defect prediction.
A game-based virtual machine pricing mechanism in federated clouds
by Ying Hu
Abstract: In a federated cloud environment, diverse pricing schemes among different IaaS service providers (ISPs) form a complex economic landscape that nurtures the market of cloud brokers. Although pricing mechanisms have been proposed in the past few years, few of them address the issue of competitive and cooperative behaviours among different ISPs. In this paper, we employ the learning curve to model the operation cost of ISPs, and introduce a novel algorithm that determines the cooperative pricing mechanism among different ISPs. The cooperation decision algorithm uses the operation cost computed based on the learning curve model and price policies obtained from the competition part as parameters to calculate the final revenue when outsourcing or locally satisfying users' resource requests. Extensive experiments are conducted in a real-world federated cloud platform, and the experimental results are compared with three existing pricing mechanisms. Our experimental results show that the proposed pricing mechanism is effective to improve resource utilisation as well as reduce the profit loss caused by request rejection.
Keywords: cloud computing; pricing mechanism; resource market; game theory.
Real-time path planning for high speed UGVs
by Ajith Gopal, Elsmari Wium
Abstract: The application of a modified A-star (A*) global search algorithm and trajectory planner based on the tentacles algorithm approach are investigated for real-time path and trajectory planning on an unmanned ground vehicle operating at a speed of 40 km/h. The fundamental assumption made is that for high speed applications, the requirement for an optimal path is secondary to the requirement for short processing times, provided that a solution, if it exists, is found. The proposed solution is benchmarked against the original A* algorithm and shows a reduction in search space of up to 84% and a reduction in processing time of up to 97%. Results for the trajectory planner are also presented, though no direct comparative evaluation against the original tentacles algorithm was executed. The combined path and trajectory processing time of the proposed solution translates to less than 2 mm of travel distance before a reaction to a change in the environment can be processed.
Keywords: path planning; trajectory planning; unmanned ground vehicle; UGV; real-time; A-star.
Special Issue on: IRICT 2017 Reliable and Intelligent Information and Communication Technology
Arabic sign language recognition using vision and hand tracking features with HMM
by Ala Addin I. Sidig, Hamzah Luqman, Sabri A. Mahmoud
Abstract: Sign language employs signs made by hands and facial expressions to convey meaning. Sign language recognition facilitates the communication between community and hearing-impaired people. This work proposes a recognition system for Arabic sign language using four types of features, namely modified Fourier transform, local binary pattern, histogram of oriented gradients, and a combination of histogram of oriented gradients and histogram of optical flow. These features are evaluated using hidden Markov model on two databases. The best performance is achieved with modified Fourier transform and histogram of oriented gradients features with 99.11% and 99.33% accuracies, respectively. In addition, two algorithms are proposed, one for segmenting sign video streams captured by Microsoft Kinect V2 into signs and the second for hand detection in video streams. The obtained results show that our algorithms are efficient in segmenting sign video streams and detecting hands in video streams.
Keywords: Arabic sign language; ArSL; sign language recognition; SLR; video segmentation; histogram of oriented gradients; HOGs; hands detection; hidden Markov model; HMM.
Quality of service task scheduling algorithm for time-cost trade off scheduling problem in cloud computing environment
by Danlami Gabi, Abdul Samad Ismail, Anazida Zainal, Zalmiyah Zakaria
Abstract: In cloud computing environment, managing trade-offs between time and cost when executing large-scale tasks to guarantee customers minimum running time and cost of computation is not always feasible. Metaheuristics scheduling algorithms are considered as potential solutions but however, exhibit local trapping and imbalance between its global and local search. In this study, a multi-objective task scheduling model is first developed upon which a dynamic multi-objective orthogonal Taguchi-based cat swarm optimisation (dMOOTC) task scheduling algorithm is proposed to solve the model. In the developed dMOOTC algorithm, the Taguchi orthogonal approach and Pareto-optimisation strategy are used to reduced local trapping and balances between the global and local search which possibly increases its speed of convergence. Thirty independent simulation runs were conducted on CloudSim simulator tool. The results of the simulation showed that the dMOOTC scheduling algorithm showed a remarkable performance in minimising the time and cost compared to the benchmarked algorithms.
Keywords: multi-objective; quality of service; QoS; task scheduling; cat swarm optimisation; CSO; Pareto-optimisation.
Data stream management system for video on demand hybrid storage server
by Ola Ahmed Al-wesabi, Putra Sumari, Nibras Abdullah
Abstract: Video on demand (VOD) server requires a large storage capacity and rapid video retrieval from this storage to quickly stream these videos to users. The hybrid storage system, which combines HDDs and SSD in the server, has become popular because of such requirements. The combination of both storage modes is relatively weak in terms of optimising fast access prior and in supporting the production of a high number of simultaneous streams. This paper presents an enhanced hybrid storage system (EHSS)-based VOD server to improve the performance of the VOD server. The design of the EHSS and its streaming management scheme produce high performance and satisfy the performance requirements of a VOD server in terms of I/O throughput and access latency. The experimental results show that the proposed work provides better performance than the VOD server-based FADM because it enhances the average response times for the various scales of intensive workload by 69.89%.
Keywords: data streaming controller; DSC; hard disk drives; HDDs; cache hit ratio; hybrid storage; I/O response time; solid-state-drive; SSD; throughput; video on demand; VOD.
Interest emotion recognition approach using self-organising map and motion estimation
by Kenza Belhouchette, Mohamed Berkane, Hacene Belhadef
Abstract: Recognising human facial emotions by computer is an interesting problem. Although several approaches have been proposed the recognition rate, amount of used resources and calculation time remain factors for improvement. Our work presents a new approach for recognising basic emotions (joy, sadness, anger, disgust, surprise and fear) in image sequences. We introduced interest emotion and created its corresponding action units (AUs) based on psychological foundations. Our approach is mainly characterised by minimising used data and consequently optimising the computing time and improving the recognition rate. The proposed approach was divided into three steps: face detection using the Viola and Jones method, the extraction of facial features: here we exploited the facial action coding system, which is based on AUs. To detect AUs, we extracted face strategic points using an active appearance model and a block-matching approach. At the last, we classified the results by using the Kohonen self-organising map (SOM).
Keywords: emotion; interest; neural network; Kohonen; action units; facial expression; bloc matching.
Special Issue on: Recent Advancements in Autonomous Devices for Real-World Applications
Improving Network Lifetime and Speed for 6LoWPAN Networks Using Machine Learning
by Shubhangi Kharche, Sanjay Pawar
Abstract: Wireless communication networks have an inherent optimization issue of effectively routing data between nodes. This issue is multi-objective in nature, and covers optimization of routing speed, the network lifetime, packet delivery ratio and overall network throughput. In this paper, a machine learning (ML) based algorithm is proposed for minimizing the network delay and increasing network lifetime for 6LoWPAN networks based on RPL routing. The ML based approach is compared with normal RPL routing in order to check the performance of the system when compared to recent routing protocols. It is observed that the proposed machine learning based approach reduces the network delay by more than 20% and improves the network lifetime by more than 25% when compared to RPL based 6LoWPAN networks. The machine learning approach also takes into account the link quality between the nodes, thereby improving the overall QoS of the communication system by selecting paths with minimal delay, minimal energy consumption and maximum link quality.
Keywords: Machine learning; 6LoWPAN; RPL; Feedback mechanism; Artificial Intelligence;.
SMART AIRPORT MANAGEMENT AND FLIGHT SERVICE DELAY PREDICTION USING LINEAR REGRESSION TECHNIQUE
by D. Haripriya, S. Ramyasree
Abstract: In airports, there is a possibility of individual entry using fake tickets to involve in crime activities. The baggage mislaid and delay of flight service may lead to dissatisfaction among the passengers. The fake ticket identification, avoiding mislaid baggage and flight service delay notification are focused in this paper as existing systems are not attending all the issues together. An automated system is designed to increase the customer facilities in terms of flight delay notification, baggage mislaid alert and ticket bookings. The Baggage are handled using RFID tags whereas fake tickets are identified through QR scanning. The flight delays are predicted using machine learning based linear regression technique with 97% accuracy. Mobile app is developed for ticket booking to improve the passenger facilitation to a greater extent and web app is developed for airport management to verify the fake ticket. The proposed airport management system makes the air travel more customer friendly with high security.
Keywords: Linear regression technique; RFID; QR code; Machine learning; Airport management.
Design of BTI Sensor Based Improved SRAM for Mobile Computing Applications
by Kumar Neeraj, J.K. Das, Hari Shanker Srivastava
Abstract: Reliability of electronic components is the major concern as the CMOS technology is scaled down especially in mobile computing applications of MPEG video processor design. Scaling CMOS technology leads to increase in power density per unit area in an exponentially manner. BTI is one of the serious problems in SRAM cell design at low technology level. In this paper a detection technique is proposed which detects the BTI effect on SRAM using SNM calculation. The proposed prototype is used to detect faults during read and write cycle of aged SRAM, which affects the reliability of the circuit. The diagnostics of fault is done by detection of BTI effect on SRAM using static noise margin (SNM) calculation. The circuit design on CMOS technology is carried out using HSPICE simulator in cadence.
Keywords: Static RAM cell; CMOS technology; Bias Temperature Instability (BTI); Technology Scaling; Static Noise Margin (SNM).
Hybrid Genetic Algorithm in Partial Transmit Sequence to Improve OFDM
by Ravikumar Polukonda
Abstract: The work takes into consideration use of a technique known as the Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) for the diminution of a Peak-to-Average-Power-Ratio (PAPR) of the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) signal in that of the wireless communication systems. The conventional scheme of the PTS uses extensive random search to explore the combinations of the phase vectors to improve PAPR, but this elevates the complexity of the search and also exponentially increase the number of phase vectors that demands high computational cost and compromise on accuracy. Here in this work, there is a suboptimal algorithm used for the phase optimization which is based on an enhanced version of the Genetic Algorithm (GA) which is applied for exploring optimal combination of the phase vectors providing an enhanced performance which is compared with the currently active algorithms like the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm or the Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO) algorithm. This hybrid GA will enhance the accuracy and the rate of convergence of all conventional algorithms with only a few parameters that required adjustment. The results of simulation proved that the hybrid GA-PSO and the GA-BFO based PTS algorithm was able to attain a reasonable reduction in the PAPR by employing a simple network structure on being compared to the other conventional algorithms.
Keywords: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM); rnPartial Transmit Sequence (PTS); rnPeak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR); rnGenetic Algorithm (GA); rnParticle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and rnBacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO).
ADAPTIVE BEAM FORMING OF MIMO SYSTEM USING OPTIMAL STEERING VECTOR WITH HYBRID BACTERIAL FORAGING OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM FOR CHANNEL SELECTION
by Sekhar Babu, P.V. Naganjaneyulu, K. Satya Prasad
Abstract: The modern communication systemsface several issues that are quite challenging, more so in those involving smart antennas such as the antenna array beam. The antennas help the array in improving reception of that of a signal thereby improving the Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR). In the case of some of these coherent Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radar an optimal target signal and its processing can be achieved for any of the waveforms that are transmitted or the pattern of the radiation beam, thus making a transmit beam to be forming through a waveform design without bringing down the performance of target detection. There are several other techniques of that of Adaptive Beam Forming (ABF) which were proposed until now for optimizing the ability of steering of the array with regard to that of the main load and nulls, thus improving the Signal-to-Interference-Plus-Noise Ratio (SINR). In this work, an optimized neural network based on Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA) along with a Greedy Algorithm and a Tabu Search (TS) algorithm for the channel selection having an adaptive beam which is formed by using a steering vector is proposed. In the proposed hybrid, adaptive seed dispersion will make the BFOA-TS be able to converge faster when compared to a BFOA-Greedy. This type of behaviour has been duly verified by means of an application of the BFOA-TS and the BFOA-Greedy on the test functions which are well-known. The results of this experiment proved that the method proposed was able to achieve a better performance compared to that of the others.
Keywords: Beam Forming; Smart Antenna; Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) System; Channel Selection; Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA); Greedy algorithm and Tabu Search (TS).
Implementation and Evaluation of a Trust Model with Data Integrity Based Scheduling in Cloud
by A.V.H. Sai Prasad, G.V.S. Raj Kumar
Abstract: Cloud computing is a model which provide services to the users as per their demand using the infrastructure belonging to various systems on a cloud that can be accessed using internet. By means of a simple and easy to understand Graphical User Interface (GUI) or Applications Programming Interface (API), the cloud computer can hide the inherent complexity of the infrastructure and associated fine details. Jobs in cloud computing are created based on priorities. By assigning the job to a suitable resource until a valid or optimal schedule is reached, the job that has the highest associated priority is first executed. This has introduced several challenges and also risks, from a security point of view and this also decreases the efficacy of the conventional protective approaches. To address the cloud challenges, data integrity plays a vital role and provides accuracy and consistence of the stored data without modified. This work suggests a trust based Min-Min and Max-Min algorithm as several unknown parties or enterprises provide various services. Max-Min schedules the longer task first when the instance is being scheduled and the Min-Min allows the task having the shortest computation time to take precedence. The Min-Min and Max-Min is based on the completion time and execution time only. Hence the trust factor is added to the conventional Min-Min and Max-Min algorithm along with the completion and execution time to support security and integrity in cloud. The specific characteristics of security within the cloud environment are assured using Trusted Third Party (TTP). For making the confidentiality, integrity and the authentication of the data and communication that are involved, cryptography has to be used. A horizontal level of service is presented by the solution which is made available to all the entities that are involved, this solution makes use of security mesh inside which the required trust is maintained.
Keywords: Cloud Computing; \r\nScheduling; \r\nSecurity; \r\nMin-Min Algorithm; \r\nMax-Min Algorithm and \r\nTrust Model.