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International Journal of Intellectual Property Management

International Journal of Intellectual Property Management (IJIPM)

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International Journal of Intellectual Property Management (26 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Innovation Capabilities with Strategic Orientations towards Firm Performance in Technology Based Organizations: The Managerial Implications for Future of Business   Order a copy of this article
    by Avinash Pawar, Balkrishan Sangvikar, Retno Purwani Setyaningrum, Henry Loupias, Denok Sunarsi 
    Abstract: Information technology is the most innovative and fastest-growing industry in the world. In this context, this paper aims to discover the mediating role of innovation capability on the dimensions of strategic orientations and its outcomes in the performance of information technology firms in India. Moreover, it also explains the relevance of adopting innovative endeavours by high-tech information technology firms. The data is collected through the questionnaire. The study finds that innovation capability plays a predominant role in enhancing entrepreneurial and technological orientation behaviours to lead efficacious performance firms. In contrast, marketing orientation does not augment its long-term growth even in the presence of intervening variables of innovation capability in information technology. The outcome of this study helps in fostering a culture for innovation while considering the dynamics of the interactions in the dimensions of a firms strategic orientation behaviours for realizing superiority in its performance for success.
    Keywords: business innovation; strategic orientation; technological orientation; entrepreneurial orientation; marketing orientation; innovation capability; firm performance; information technology firms.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2021.10041684
  • Reporting and disclosure of intellectual capital: a literature review   Order a copy of this article
    by Shilpa Bhide 
    Abstract: The objective of the paper is to review the literature on the measurement methods, valuation, and disclosure (reporting) of intellectual capital. Research papers from 1998 to 2021 were collected, studied, and classified into relevant and non-relevant for the present study. Out of 150 research papers, 91 papers were identified and studied in detail, out of which around 64 research papers appear in the literature review. The results of the literature review were that it was observed in many cases the disclosures are voluntary and there seems to be no harmonisation in the disclosure requirements. Disclosure and reporting can help in decision-making to the stakeholders, even if the measurement and valuation are difficult. It can also be observed that in different types of businesses the degree of reporting and disclosures are different and influences the profit and the firms financial performance, making it an important component of disclosures and reporting.
    Keywords: intellectual capital; valuation; measurement; disclosure; reporting; firm performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2022.10047184
  • IP management of an academic institute: a case study of an Institute of Eminence from India   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyadarshini Singh, Gouri Gargate 
    Abstract: Intellectual property (IP) is one of the key assets and empowers an organisation. It helps the organisation to realise the value of an IP associated with it. Academic and research institutes have capability to generate various forms of IP. However, in developing countries, these academic and research institutes are not always well equipped to identify and efficiently manage IP. In India, Institutes of National Importance (INIs) including Institute of Eminence (IoE) have recognised the importance of IP and developed their intellectual property management system (IPMS). This paper focuses on IPMS of one of Indias IoE. Authors have applied an IPM audit model to understand various IPM processes followed by an IoE to channelise resources for generating revenue through IP. Case study methodology is employed for this study.
    Keywords: innovation; intellectual property; technology transfer; incubators; start-ups; IP management; IP audit; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2022.10047856
  • Intellectual property education with serious games: predictors of perceived learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Jorge Bacca-Acosta, Jenny-Paola Lis-Gutiérrez, Mercedes Gaitan-Angulo, Cecilia Avila-Garzon 
    Abstract: Intellectual property education plays an important role to support innovation and production of knowledge in our society. However, the predictors of perceived learning are not clearly defined when a serious game is used to support learning processes in intellectual property education. To fill this gap, in this study, a serious game for intellectual property education is evaluated and some predictors of students perceived learning are identified. A structural model based on the flow theory was validated using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) with data from 81 university students who used a web-based serious game for learning about what is eligible for patentability or not for a period of five weeks. The results show that the game increases the students learning performance. Moreover, the predictors of perceived learning are concentration, challenge, and ease of use. The implications for theory and practice in intellectual property education are also discussed.
    Keywords: intellectual property education; serious games; perceived learning; flow; patent.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2022.10049892
  • From innovation to integration of drones in business ecosystem: commercial and civilian drone opportunities and regulatory challenges   Order a copy of this article
    by K. Kirthan Shenoy 
    Abstract: From military history to city factories, Commercial and civilian use of drones has seen an exponential rise in a few years. As a result of the consistent development of technology, the drone invention has made its way into various countries commercial and civilian sectors. There has been a lot of change in aviation technology recently, and the legal framework is still trying to catch up on both the international and national levels. The widespread use of drones will benefit the business ecosystem, which includes companies that manufacture drones and companies that use drones as a service. The rapid adoption of technology raises many important issues that must be addressed to keep the drone ecosystem growing. Restrictions on export, import, intellectual property rights (IPR) management, product liability, insurance, and safety and security affect people and property rights. Civil and commercial drone use is growing, requiring a consistent regulatory framework and an agreement on important issues.
    Keywords: drones; unmanned aircraft systems; innovation to integration; civil and commercial opportunities; technology management; regulatory challenges; aviation ecosystem.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2023.10054914
  • Copyright: an effective remedy against image-based sexual abuse in the UK   Order a copy of this article
    by Smarnika Srivastava 
    Abstract: Technological advances have led to the harm of sexual violence being perpetrated online, through image-based sexual abuse. While existing criminal and privacy laws against this harm are being strengthened to provide justice to the victims, the court process is tedious, time consuming and expensive, while the private images remain on the internet, thus continuing the harm. The UK copyright laws can be used to curb this spread. By relying on intermediary liability under the E-Commerce Directive 2000, victims can use the takedown notice approach to remove their images, which despite its drawbacks, remains to be effective. However, this approach can only be relied on by victims who are the authors/owners of the copyright in their private images. Often, victims private images/videos are taken without their knowledge, resulting in their copyright belonging to the perpetrator. In such cases, I have argued that delivery-up of copyright to the victim will prove to be an appropriate remedy to take down such content from the internet.
    Keywords: image-based sexual abuse; copyright law; e-commerce directive; intermediaries; private sexual images; takedown; authorship; delivery-up; revenge pornography; privacy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2023.10056368
  • Incidence of speculations in equity return: evidence from Indian share market   Order a copy of this article
    by Jimnee Deka, Meghna Sharma, Kamesh Tiwari 
    Abstract: The capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and the efficient market hypothesis (EHM), two essential aspects of theorising traditional financial theories, assume rationality in investors and the overall market. These challenge the assumptions of investors being rational and making informed decisions. Human sentiments, behaviour, and emotions have started conquering the study of financial markets. Several studies are already dedicated to learning the risk-return component of the financial market. But there has been less devotion towards understanding what makes equities investments to be considered inherently riskier than debts. The analysis here attempts to separate fundamental and speculative factors from the performance of the Indian market indices. The fundamental element mimics the pattern in the firms profits and how that affects investment returns. The impact of a change in the valuation of earnings on investment returns, or in other words, a movement in the P/E values, is shown in the speculative component. The optimism and pessimism level of investors is the cause of this. Statistical analysis of the markets overall returns demonstrates a considerable prevalence of speculative elements.
    Keywords: behavioural finance; equity returns; financial markets; Indian share market; fundamental analysis; speculative returns.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2023.10056386
  • Bankings new frontier: overcoming anti-money laundering challenges with innovative technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhishek Thommandru, Benarji Chakka 
    Abstract: Emerging technology can help in mitigating money laundering and other financial crimes. Blockchain is considered one of the worlds best-known emerging technologies. It can change many processes, payments between peer-to-peer, trade agreements and reducing compliance cost. The banking sector is identified as the main means for laundering illicit money, banks generally have access to both banking mechanism and legal authority to make decisions. Money launderers and those financing terrorism are conveniently accessing financial institutions and making their profitable channel of loopholes in its mechanism like manipulating know-your-customer (KYC). To bridge this gap this current paper focuses on issues of compliance and anti money laundering policies in the banking sector by using blockchain; the paper keenly focuses on KYC manipulation and the financial burden on banks for anti-money laundering (AML) compliance policies. This work examines the fault lines in the current financial system followed by regulators and questions how better these gaps could be remedied. This research uniquely relates to the capability of blockchain technology to bring banking systems with recalibrated mode of compliances polices.
    Keywords: blockchain; money laundering; AML compliance; banking laws; KYC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2023.10056685
  • Road safety and patents: a study for sustainable development   Order a copy of this article
    by Soumya Prakash Patra 
    Abstract: Cross-functional application of legal principles in technology is rare but necessary. Technologies now have cross-functional roles in various research areas. For instance, in the automotive field, efforts to develop safer technologies by integrating learnings from embedded systems, IoT, etc. are ongoing. Balancing public interest in making technologies affordable and commercial interests of innovators is necessary when implementing such inventions in big markets. In this regard, legal jurisprudence and technological learnings from the management of telecom patents by SSOs under FRAND can be followed in other areas such as automotive safety systems. This article proposes a sui-generis model for regulating standard essential patents (SEPs) in the automotive domain and explores legal reasoning for legislation that balances private and public interests in developing economies like India.
    Keywords: standard essential patent; SEP; patents; automotive standards; antilock brake systems; ABS; combined brake systems; CBS; standardisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2023.10056769
  • Developing intellectual property management skills and the entrepreneurial university element: an educator perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Robert Crammond 
    Abstract: The successful journeys of university students can be witnessed through qualifications, industry-relevant skills, and networking opportunities. A core element of this, now prevalent within universities, is the development of entrepreneurial attributes towards new ventures or start-ups. Universities wish to centralise the entrepreneurial process, through problem solving, creativity, and start-up activities. This results in the building of intellectual capital (IC) amongst students and staff, acknowledging intellectual property (IP) and intellectual property management (IPM), presenting added value. However, there is a lack of empirical investigation assessing the development of IPM-relevant skills within undergraduate courses. This paper explores a pathway of courses within a Scottish university, including leadership, acceleration, enterprise, and management topics with cohorts totalling over 350 students. Viewed through the educator perspective, multi-staged coded analysis realises the necessary points of IPM intervention, to orientate skills acquisition for IC. Subsequently, a model of factors and anticipated outcomes appreciates university-based exposure to IPM.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; higher education; innovation; intellectual property management; IPM; intellectual capital; university.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2023.10057335
  • Emotional intelligence and managerial leadership in the fast moving consumer durable goods industry in Indias perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Mithila Roy Bardhan, Madhurima Ganguly 
    Abstract: Dynamic nature of the FMCG sector perpetually provides a tricky challenge for organisational leaders to nurture their employees. High demand for products, less shelf life and tough competitors always challenge the leaders to uphold their products in the market. Due to technology and e-commerce, many new competitors have joined the market, vying with the industrys veterans. Due to their unique business models that match client needs, these firms are expected to boost FMCG industry income in the future. Managers leadership styles depend primarily on emotional intelligence. This quantitative study examines how emotional intelligence influences West Bengal FMCG senior managers leadership styles. 500 FMCG managers were selected. PLS-SEM is used to study. Emotionally competent leaders choose transactional and transformational leadership styles depending on the occasion. Managers transactional leadership style is strongly influenced by their sympathetic awareness, as shown by a path coefficient of 0.755. Transformational leadership style has a path coefficient of 0.693, indicating that managers empathy affects their organisational management. Thus, sympathetic awareness and emotion regulation predict good management leadership.
    Keywords: mpathetic awareness; transactional leadership; transformational leadership; managerial employees; India’s perspective; fast-moving consumer durable; FMCG; managerial leadership.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2023.10057769
  • The effects of employee engagement on workplace motivation, growth opportunities, and retention pattern   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Kasinathan, M. Rajee 
    Abstract: This research aims to determine how employee engagement (EE) impacts employee retention in the IT industry. This research was conducted in Chennai city (capital of the Indian State of Tamil Nadu). This cross-sectional study has been designed to combine descriptive and analytical elements to assess two distinct components, namely workplace motivation and growth opportunities. These two elements were carefully examined: their importance to EE and their effect on employee retention (ER). This study has been designed with a sample of 472 respondents to get the necessary data. The Social Sciences Statistical Package (SPSS v.16) Software was employed for quantitative and qualitative data analysis. The association between the factors highly linked to EE and ER was used to test hypotheses. The report suggests that the IT sector should regularly assess motivational factors and provide possibilities for growth to retain potential talent.
    Keywords: employee engagement; motivation; opportunity for growth; retention; employee retention pattern; IT industry; cross-sectional study; individual outcome; degree of commitment; employee involvement.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2023.10058777
  • Protecting intellectual property in low trust environments: game theoretic modelling of overproduction in contract manufacturing   Order a copy of this article
    by Zachary A. Collier, Dale A. Henderson, Jerry M. Kopf 
    Abstract: The deverticalisation of the global semiconductor supply chain has resulted in the common practice of contract manufacturing, in which a design house outsources fabrication to a third-party manufacturer. Despite cost savings associated with this practice, there exist risks associated with the unauthorised intellectual property use represented by the chip design. For example, overproduction occurs when the manufacturer produces additional units beyond the contracted amount and sells them at a discount, undercutting the design house. We conceptualise and model the overproduction problem as a risky make or buy decision for the chip designer using decision analysis and game theory. We find that when the problem is viewed as an iterated game, strategies emerge to incentivise cooperation between the designer and manufacturer. However, we also find that a means to detect whether overproduction has occurred is required.
    Keywords: overproduction; contract manufacturing; outsourcing; supply chain risk management; intellectual property.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2023.10059124
  • South African dagga: piping on the related intellectual property rights and indigenous knowledge systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Desmond O. Oriakhogba, Chijioke I. Okorie, Livhuwani Sosanah Lavhengwa 
    Abstract: The use of dagga has been partially legalised and decriminalised in South Africa and there is increasing awareness with regards to its importance to national development. Thus, a dagga industry is emerging in South Africa. Intellectual property rights (IPR), and indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) are potential means for harnessing the economic benefits of dagga and developing the emerging dagga industry. Currently, there exists a scarcity of South African literature on the significance of IPR and IKS to the emerging dagga industry in South Africa. However, existing foreign literature on the subject demonstrate the intricate, varied and heterogeneous implications of IPR and IKS on the use, cultivation, and growth of dagga for national economic development. Based on desk research, this paper determines the legal and policy strategies for the protection of IPR and IKS stakeholders and indigenous communities within the emerging dagga industry in South Africa. It examines the current legal and policy reforms surrounding the partial legalisation and decriminalisation of dagga in South Africa, the ensuing IPR and IKS issues and the various strategies applicable for harnessing their economic benefits.
    Keywords: dagga; cannabis; intellectual property rights; IPR; indigenous knowledge systems; IKS; legalisation; decriminalisation; South Africa.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2023.10059757
  • Intellectual property protection for virtual assets and brands in the Metaverse: issues and challenges   Order a copy of this article
    by Karun Sanjaya, P.R.L. Rajavenkatesan 
    Abstract: Intellectual property rights face new obstacles and possibilities as a result of the emergence of the Metaverse, a simulation of the actual world. This paper explores the current status of intellectual property rights in the Metaverse and examines the challenges and opportunities for enforcement. The article describes virtual assets and investigates their copyright and trademark protection. It also examines the protection of user-generated content in the Metaverse and the potential liability for copyright infringement. The article concludes with a consideration of the technological and jurisdictional obstacles to enforcing intellectual property rights in the Metaverse, as well as possible solutions for stakeholders. This paper will appeal to lawyers, policymakers, developers of virtual assets, platform owners, and anyone interested in the convergence of technology and intellectual property rights.
    Keywords: intellectual property rights; Metaverse; virtual assets; user-generated content; UGC; liability; challenges.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2023.10060216
  • Intellectual property management in technology management: a comprehensive bibliometric analysis during 20002022   Order a copy of this article
    by Gao Yuan, Rahimi Abidin, Faisal Zulhumadi 
    Abstract: Presently, there are many existing academic studies on the development, protection and operation of intellectual property management (IPM). Therefore, provides a comprehensive econometric analysis in order to provide scholars, with a clearer understanding of the evolution and development of IP management research during 2000 to 2022. The study is aiming to help scholars to better discern the expanding IPM research field from a multidimensional perspective. The database used for this analysis is the Web of Science Core Collection database. After retrieval through keywords and using a variety of tools such as CiteSpace, VOS viewer, Bibliometrix and HistCite, 1033 documents were refined to conduct the econometric analysis, and produce graphs. The findings indicate that the US is a highly active country/region in the field IP management research, and its expanding IP management research is branching out into other disciplines. The study also presents the future directions and possible challenges for IPM in technology management.
    Keywords: intellectual property; intellectual property management; bibliometric analysis; visualisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2023.10060735
  • Knowledge diffusion and new technologies: a spillover analysis on the artificial intelligence case   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmed Bounfour, Alberto Nonnis, Phuong Le, Clément Sternberger 
    Abstract: This paper studies knowledge diffusion between different types of organisations (platforms, large organisations, and smaller organisations) through spillovers within the artificial intelligence (AI) sector. Analysing patent-based data from 2000 to 2019 and a large panel of approximately 97,000 worldwide applicants, we observe that knowledge created by all categories positively influence knowledge creation within the sample. However, the benefits of spillovers vary across categories, with platforms that show limited gains from knowledge diffusion, while smaller organisations emerge as the primary beneficiaries of knowledge created by the other categories.
    Keywords: artificial intelligence; AI; knowledge; knowledge diffusion; patent analysis; digital platforms.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2023.10062733
  • Constitutional and international legal framework for the protection of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge: a South African perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by James Chapangara Mugabe, Lonias Ndlovu, Desmond Osaretin Oriakhogba 
    Abstract: The value and utility of traditional knowledge in conserving and commercialising genetic resources are increasingly becoming apparent due to advances in biotechnology and bioprospecting. However, the absence of an international legally binding instrument within the WIPO system means that traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources is not sufficiently protected like other forms of intellectual property. This means that indigenous peoples and local communities (IPLCs) do not benefit from the commercial exploitation of these resources. The efficacy of domestic tools to protect traditional knowledge and in balancing the rights of IPLCs and intellectual property rights (IPRs) is still debated. This paper employs a doctrinal research methodology based on desktop research of international and regional law instruments and the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, to determine the basis for balancing the protection of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge with competing interests of IPLCs and IPRs in South Africa.
    Keywords: genetic resources; traditional knowledge; biopiracy; indigenous peoples and local communities; WIPO-IGC; convention on biological diversity; CBD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2023.10062841
  • The danger of deepfakes, Indian laws and platform responsibility   Order a copy of this article
    by Smarnika Srivastava 
    Abstract: In the realm of digital media, deepfakes have become the most sophisticated means of spreading disinformation and indulging in harms such as pornography, commercial frauds, fake news, and political propaganda. This paper analyses a few current legal solutions in India which can be repurposed to apply to deepfakes, such as copyright, criminal laws, right to privacy, etc., however, it has been argued that these are insufficient to tackle these threats. In recent years, India has seen a shift towards platform responsibility and pro-active monitoring, in light of which, the author discusses the reasons why intermediaries should be responsible for moderating content. To do the same, platforms need to strike a balance between respecting the fundamental rights of users and due process principles while taking down harmful content. The author also suggests that criminal legislation should be updated to encompass the harmful uses of deepfakes so that platforms have a legal basis to respond to them, amongst other solutions. Further, some recommendations have been made in the paper on how platforms can update their policies and guidelines to combat the same.
    Keywords: deepfakes; pro-active monitoring; content moderation policy; platform responsibility; intermediary liability; IT Rules 2021.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2024.10062876
  • An empirical study on message forwarding on social networking sites: a sample of Vietnamese users   Order a copy of this article
    by Quang Dung Truong, Nam Tien Duong, Thuy Dung Pham Thi 
    Abstract: The study aimed to explore the influence of message perceptions, social identity, and subjective norms on message-forwarding intentions among users on social networking sites (SNS). Integration of the information adoption model and the technology adoption model 2 was used as a theoretical background. With a sample of 350 participants, the study attempted to investigate the relationships among the constructs. SPSS and AMOS were used to perform statistical analysis. The findings showed that: 1) the message quality and the credibility of the message source affect users perceived message usefulness; 2) users sense of social identity with the SNS affects their subjective norm of the community; 3) the expectations and opinions of community members affect users intentions to forward messages; 4) users message perceptions (e.g., perceived message usefulness, playfulness) have a positive impact on their forwarding intentions. Finally, the findings can provide SNS operators and researchers with some insights.
    Keywords: forwarding; identity; user perception; subjective norms; source credibility.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2024.10062954
  • Understanding the possibilities, challenges, and opportunities in relationship between IPRs and food technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Khushboo Bhurat, Swapnil Sureshchandra Bhurat, Priyanka Dhoot 
    Abstract: The role of intellectual property rights (IPRs) in the context of food innovation and protection is of great importance in both global and Indian scenarios. It highlights the significance of IPRs in encouraging investment in research and development (R&D) within the food industry. This review emphasises the positive impact of IPRs in promoting R&D investment in the Indian food sector that have leveraged IPRs to foster innovation in food processing techniques and establish distinctive brand identities. The review also delves into the challenges and limitations of IPRs in food technology. The protection of traditional foods and cultural heritage is another area where IPRs have limitations, despite the existence of geographical indications (GIs) for certain products. The intersection of IPRs and food safety regulations has been examined distinctively to emphasise the need to balance intellectual property rights with public health concerns. Harmonisation of IPRs and food safety standards, facilitated by international organisations like the world trade organisation (WTO) and the codex alimentarius commission, is seen as a positive step towards ensuring compatibility and coherence between the two regulatory frameworks.
    Keywords: IPR in food industry; IPR and food safety; food patents; food GIs; trade secret.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2024.10063551
  • Supply and demand determinants of startup patents   Order a copy of this article
    by Bernadette Power, Gavin C. Reid 
    Abstract: This paper estimates simultaneously the supply and demand determinants of patent adoption by start-ups. It uses a partial observability bivariate probit model because the non-adoption outcome of the patent decision is unobserved. Econometric estimation of this model is undertaken on Kauffman Foundation start-up data, using a large representative unbalanced panel, collected by web survey and telephone interviews. This model is found to be robust. It challenges the view that patenting is either exclusively demand-side or supply-side determined. Instead, it provides a good joint explanation of supply and demand determinants of patent adoption in startups, emphasising the importance of sectoral choice, R&D spend, and competitive advantage on the supply-side; and complementary IP (e.g., trademarks, licensing-out), and venture capital, on the demand-side. Brief policy implications are drawn out.
    Keywords: patent adoption; start-ups; intellectual property; partial observability bivariate probit; POBP; R&D spend; competitive advantage; venture capital.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2022.10052663
  • Copyright awareness and management in flexible learning: challenges and initiatives in the new normal   Order a copy of this article
    by John Joshua F. Montañez 
    Abstract: This study aims to determine the level of awareness of the Bicol State College of Applied Sciences and Technology (BISCAST) teaching personnel in terms of copyright ranging from basic and advanced knowledge, open educational resources (OERs) to creative commons (CCs). The survey, case study, and action research are the research methods used in the study. The survey questionnaire was divided into three sections: fundamentals of copyright, limitations of copyright and fair use, and creative commons. With the indicators from the questionnaire, 5 out of 7 from the first section, 7 out of 7 from the second section, and 7 out of 8 from the last section have an interpretation of 'aware'. Therefore, the copyright awareness of the BISCAST teaching personnel is considered above average. Moreover, the initiatives that can be conducted are capacity or capability building focusing on advanced concepts on copyright, especially creative commons in the context of the new normal.
    Keywords: copyright awareness; copyright infringement; COVID-19; creative commons; fair use; flexible learning; new normal.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2022.10052857
  • COVID-19 influence on the utility model registration activity in Bulgaria   Order a copy of this article
    by Fanny Koleva 
    Abstract: The aim of the paper is to reveal whether COVID-19 influenced on the utility model registration activity in Bulgaria and if so, in what direction. The paper discloses the utility model protection concept in the country based on a comparison with patents together with the trends in the relevant activity of applicants in the period 2007-2021 (i.e., before and after COVID-19 beginning) analysing the effect of the pandemics on it in a variety of dimensions. The paper respectively reaches the conclusion that although the general figures show that COVID-19 had no negative influence on the registration activity in the first pandemic year, the further in-depth analysis discloses that such an influence is at hand and moreover - that it is significant. The same conclusion for a negative impact is at hand for 2021 as well. The figures for the first half of 2022, however, show that a change starts taking place probably.
    Keywords: utility models; registration activity; Bulgaria; inventions; patents; COVID-19; applicants; technology; intellectual property; protection.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2022.10053946
  • India's manufacturing informal workers: measuring the decent work index property   Order a copy of this article
    by Dhirendra Bahadur Singh, Ravi Kumar Gupta 
    Abstract: In countries like India, which are dominated by informal employment; it becomes crucial to achieve decent working conditions for the personal development of individuals and economic development. This article attempts to investigate the decent work condition of manufacturing informal workers of the central region of Uttar Pradesh, India, by constructing micro-level security sub-indices and one individual-level composite decent work index based on seven work-based security dimensions also used in People Security Surveys (PSS) by ILO. Further, it evaluates the impact of supply-side variables on the working conditions of workers using OLS regression. Findings indicate that only 25% of total workers were working with satisfactory decent work status. And ineffectiveness of qualification in improving decent work conditions in the absence of skill-based learning. It also shows poor working conditions for third-party contract workers. The study strongly suggests vocalising education and better implementation of labour laws to improve informal workers' working conditions.
    Keywords: informal sector; decent work index property; security indicators; manufacturing sector; supply-side factors; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2022.10054087
  • The registration of an iconic movie theme as a trade mark: only 'diamonds are forever'   Order a copy of this article
    by Alexandros Antoniou 
    Abstract: The year 2022 was a landmark year for the James Bond franchise. It saw the 60th anniversary of the first Bond film Dr. No but also the death of the British composer Monty Norman who composed the hit music theme underlying some of the Bond universe's most iconic and nostalgic moments. On the 25th of February of that same year, a part of the musical score also achieved trade mark registration. However, this development attracted little attention by academics and practitioners. The article takes Case R 1996/2020-5 on the registration of the sound of the famous James Bond theme as a case study and considers the broader question of when a movie theme is sufficiently distinctive to be a worthy contender of a sound mark. It reflects on the potential scope of protection afforded to key acoustic identifiers of films, alongside any copyright protection that may otherwise subsist in the sound.
    Keywords: trade marks; sound marks; registrability; EU law; movie themes; film industry; James Bond; copyright.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2023.10054297