International Journal of Intellectual Property Management (26 papers in press)
Analysing the financial state of selected Indian information technology companies: the assessment towards foreseeing the future of industry
by Ashutosh Kolte, Avinash Pawar, Matteo Rossi, Digvijay Rasal
Abstract: The Indian economy is growing and have a huge potential market with ability to garner wide businesses due to unique business environment and reforms from the government. The economic indicator of comparative gross domestic product have indicated the accelerated growth for India from the last decade. Currently, Indian IT firms are targeting newer business domains with wide and newer footprints across the globe with acquiring new subsidiaries and incorporating new partnerships to fuel this growth. Moreover, Indian IT-ITES industry has a lower debt to equity profile and analysis of stocks is considered as safe investment. Therefore, it becomes essential to study and access the state of financial health in the industry. In this paper, the Indian IT-ITES industry is analysed with the help of financial metrics and standard models of Altman Z-score and Piotroski F-score to compare performance, predict solvency of companies, test the strength of the companies and foresee the future of Indian IT-ITES industry.
Keywords: IT Industry; ITES Industry; Financial Performance; Altman Z Score; Piotroski F Score; Foreseeing Future; Industry Forecasting; Computer Software Industry; India.
Technological surveillance and competitive intelligence as opportunities for Argentina in the deployment phase of the information and communication technologies era
by Mariana Cuello, Analia Marlene Montenegro
Abstract: Currently, the latest technological revolution of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is a fact. It has reached to the most inhospitable areas. In this setting, the massive expansion of information technology, the Internet, and telecommunications has put in check principles that were installed from developed countries to the rest of the world. At the same time, the practices, which were linked to information free access, knowledge, and tools for collecting, processing, and disseminating knowledge, have been expanding strongly. It seems to represent an opportunity to improve the conditions of competitiveness of Argentina, as a growth country and technologies recipient, practices, and legislation about this topic. This work puts into discussion these possibilities, taking into account the features characteristics of our country as a peripheral economy and other particularities that differentiate it from the rest, based on the presence of cycles of advances and setbacks.
Keywords: technological surveillance; competitive intelligence; technological revolution of information and communication technologies; knowledge; centreperiphery; cycles; competitiveness.
Historical and contemporary conceptions of knowledge management as an element of the capital
by Aneta Michalak
Abstract: The objective of the paper is to indicate the stages of the conceptions development of knowledge management. Initially, classifying knowledge as capital was not clear, due to a turbulent process of conceptualisation of the very notion of capital and its form. The discussions on the grounds of theory and practice have led to a broad theory of capital management, also concerning knowledge management. The paper is of theoretical and cognitive character. It bases on analysis, comparison, generalisation and assessment of the management conceptions related to a special type of capital, that is knowledge. The originality of the research described consists in a compact presentation of the conceptions evolution of knowledge management in the view of the development of capital theory. The conclusions resulting from the research process conducted are of universal character. They may contribute to further indepth research on theory, forecasting further development of capital theory towards knowledge management.
Keywords: capital theory; capital management; knowledge; knowledge management.
Impact of transformational and transactional leadership behaviour on the organisational performance
by K.A. Harish, B. Jeya Prabha
Abstract: Every employee influences the organisational direction but leadership styles is the most explicit ramification on the organisations policies, procedures and practices, which whirls around the empowerment of the employees in terms of the growth and profitability of the organisation. This study analyses the various leadership styles adopted by an organisation at the workplace and also portrays the impact in the development of the organisation. The tool performed was a structured and a close-ended questionnaire comprising of ten key elements covering the study. They are rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The data was collected from a sample of 50 respondents belonging to four companies in Chennai. The data obtained were analysed by use of statistical techniques such as mean, standard deviation and t-test. The findings suggested that organisations who follow transformational leadership style and keep employees satisfied achieve high growth and profitability.
Keywords: empowerment; inter-personal relationships; lack of support; leadership styles; traits; role-conflict.
Patent prosecution highway and globalisation of national patent offices: a study on Indian perspective
by Soumya Prakash Patra
Abstract: The IPO and the JPO have signed an agreement for a pilot program on the PPH. The initiative is aimed to reduce pendency time for patent applications in India and to increase the quality of examination at a reasonable time for examiners. It also eliminates the duplication of work by examiners on patent applications that are cleared by the other patent office and allowed for a grant of patent. However, the number of patent applications is 100 per year which is too less for a market of size of India. Additionally, IPO needs to take additional steps to increase the efficiency of examiners of patents at IPO and to reduce the average time for clearing the patent applications in India.
Keywords: patent prosecution highway; PPH; Indian patent office; pendency time; patent examination; India.
SEPs and automotive brake system: a study on horizontal application of patent licensing under FRAND terms in India
by Soumya Prakash Patra, K.D. Raju
Abstract: Implementing safety norms such as ABS and CBS for two-wheelers is indeed the right step in preventing loss of life in road accidents in India. However, most of the technology development in these fields that are introduced in the market are linked to associated patents owned by select few organisations. Making the safety norms such as ABS and CBS for two-wheelers as mandatory, without any supporting mechanism for effective transfer of technology to local producers, could lead to unjust enrichment of such patent holders. This eventually would create a situation whereby the end-user suffers in terms of the un-affordability of such products as well as the inability of the system to adopt such safety systems to the vehicles that are already sold. The present paper aims to justify a horizontal approach of implementing principles of SEPs and their licensing under FRAND terms for two-wheeler safety systems in India.
Keywords: patents; standard essential patent; SEP; automotive; brakes; patent landscape.
Investigating the effect of intellectual and social alignment on organisational agility by mediating organisational inertia and emergent coordination
by Vahid Jabbari, Mohsen Alvandi, Mahyar Shahpouri Arani
Abstract: In this study, the impact of business-IT alignment on organisational agility was investigated. The research data were collected from 139 employees of Qazvin Telecommunication Company from Iranian telecommunication areas and analysed by structural equation modelling (SEM) and path analysis using AMOS software. Results obtained from the analysis of the research data show that intellectual alignment in the organisation can increase agility by influencing inertia as a mediator factor, does not confirm the positive effect of intellectual alignment on organisational agility, moreover social alignment with emergent coordination mediation has a positive effect on organisational agility, whereas intellectual alignment with organisational inertia mediation has no
significant effect on organisational agility.
Keywords: business-IT alignment; intellectual alignment; social alignment; agility; emergent coordination.
The cloud TV emerging challenge: forecasting and investment analysis
by Georgia Dede, Georgios Loupatatzis, Dimitris Grigoropoulos, Georgios Chatzithanasis, Thomas Kamalakis, Christos Michalakelis
Abstract: Cloud TV will play an important role in future pay-TV services and is quickly becoming the next arena for TV content providers. Since the number of cloud TV channels continuously increases, there is a crucial need for a techno-economic evaluation and analysis in terms of future investments in this area. In this context, the aim of this paper is to perform a techno-economic analysis in order to provide an assessment of the required investment for a new pay TV operator, using cloud TV technology in the internet of things (IoT) era. The adopted methodology includes demand forecasting, cash flows calculations and important economic indicators, such as net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR), for a time period of ten years, under different diffusion scenarios for the region of Greece. Results indicate that investing on cloud TV technology in Greece is feasible for the technologies of OTT, IPTV and smart TV. A sensitivity analysis is also performed, studying the case of a new entry for a pay TV operator in the local market, which may gain a significant percentage of customers.
Keywords: technoeconomic analysis; cloud TV technology; OTT; IPTV; smart TV.
University-industry collaboration for sustainable development: the case of Innovation intermediaries
by Alexandra Simon, Pilar Marques
Abstract: There are a number of theoretical reasons that suggest that intermediary organisations that support university-industry collaboration are a good tool for promoting sustainable innovation. However, not much attention has been paid to the drivers of success and sustainability for such organisations. This article fills this gap using a longitudinal multiple-case study of three intermediaries, created as support organisations to promote public-private collaboration intended to accomplish synergies between governmental interests, academic institutions and industry, to manage sustainable innovation projects. Understanding existing theories as complementary and defining an integrated approach to structure the analysis, we analyse how intermediaries are a means for transaction cost reduction and access to resources and capabilities to fulfil the needs of industry and simultaneously meet the sustainable development goals of the public agents involved. In this way, intermediaries prove to be a useful tool to reconcile both economic and social goals.
Keywords: intermediaries; innovation; sustainability; resource-based view; transaction cost economics; case studies.
Bringing social challenges to the classroom: connecting students with local agents
by Alicia Jordán-Fisas, Marta Mas-Machuca
Abstract: The aim of this research is to go beyond the traditional universityindustry collaborations and explore how students and local agents can benefit when collaborating in projects with a marked social character. The analysis took place through the experience of an innovation project in which students had to solve a challenge proposed by a local agent (Sa
Keywords: university-industry collaboration; challenge-based learning; social challenges; competition; higher education; design thinking; social innovation; student engagement; employability; social impact; student empowerment.
Adoption of mobile wallet services: an empirical analysis
by Ravi Kumar Gupta
Abstract: Uses of mobile wallet across the world is tremendously increasing, this provides several advantages and disadvantages to the users. Number of users in India is also increasing at significant level. But unlikely to the developed nations, developing nations like India have numerous challenges to its potential users of mobile wallet. Paper investigates determinants of uses of mobile wallet in India in the study area. Data have been collected from 500 respondents in Gorakhpur District of Uttar Pradesh. Regression, factor analysis and structural equation modelling (SEM) have been applied to examine the objectives of the paper. Result of the paper shows risk is significant concerns to the users of mobile wallet in India. Risk factor is negatively impacting usefulness, reasons to use, purpose to use to the users of mobile wallet. Simplification of mobile wallet and social influence positively impact to the users.
Keywords: mobile wallet; simplification; usefulness; perceived risk; social influence; perceived reason to use; perceived purpose of use; India.
Enhancing resolution: semantic analyses of the alignment between a patents claims and description on different levels
by Bennet Bruens, Martin G. Moehrle
Abstract: There is need for a strong alignment between a patents claim and description sections due to patent law. We enhance previous semantic analyses that were aimed at measuring this alignment. In addition to an analysis that compares the entire claim and description section, we suggest an analysis, which compares on the level of so-called claim elements. We test both analyses on a patent set concerning blockchain technology. We manage to suggest a new typology of different alignment patterns, separating between predominantly, consistently, and poorly supported patents. Furthermore, a combination of both analysis types leads to a higher resolution for the understanding of alignment. Practitioners may use the suggested alignment measurements to classify their own as well as third party patents in order to understand the application style. Furthermore, they can identify those independent claims within a granted patent or a patent application, which are no sufficiently supported by the description.
Keywords: blockchain technology; patent alignment; patent quality; semantic analysis; similarity measurement; text mining.
SEPs, FRAND and its impact: a comparative study of recent case laws in the US, EU, and India
by Soumya Prakash Patra, K.D. Raju
Abstract: Popular innovations often combine multiple inventions. For instance, a simple musical headphone device might incorporate inventions and related patents on telecommunications, the radio, memory devices, etc., that are related via standards. These complex commercial and technology standards are based on an established legal jurisprudence in SEPs. Legal jurisprudence in all three jurisdictions viz, India, EU, and the US revolve around the common factor of good faith in addition to the local patent and competition laws. The judicial system in these jurisdictions aims to create a balance between the growth of technology as well as the rights of technology implementers. However, there is a fundamental difference between the US and EU laws on the anti-competitive nature of various agreements related to license fees based on FRAND principles. The difference lies in the use of the dominant position in the market for deciding the license fees for the relevant technologies.
Keywords: Standard Essential Patent; SEP; FRAND; patent; license; technology dominance; US; EU; India.
The measurement of digital skills and competences: a bibliometric analysis
by Maria Orero-Blat, Hugo De Juan Jordán, Daniel Palacios-Marqués
Abstract: The definition and measurement of digital skills and competences needed to succeed in the 21st century context has been a widely researched topic within the last years. Academics and professionals consider that it has an increasing importance due to the process of digital transformation in which the organisations and society are immersed, which is pushing to achieve a knowledge society. For these reasons, a bibliometric analysis of the topic plays a key role to have a big picture of the conducted research since the date and establish key countries, authors and journals which lead the investigation on the topic. Moreover, the analysis of the knowledge frontier and research gaps has discovered the stage in which this research line is situated and the needs for the establishment of future research guidelines.
Keywords: bibliometrics; digital competences; digital skills; digital behaviours.
The entrepreneurial activity of university students in Costa Rica: the role of the university ecosystem
by Juan C. Leiva, Ronald Mora-Esquivel, Dyalá De La O-Cordero, Rytha Picado-Arroyo, Martín Solís
Abstract: The paper examines the role of specific properties of the university ecosystem on the entrepreneurial activity of university students in Costa Rica. We examined the influence of four predictors of entrepreneurial intention, specifically university environment, entrepreneurship education, learning program, and entrepreneurial reputation. The study tested four proposed hypotheses using hierarchical linear regression models on a sample of 4,158 Costa Rican university students drawn from the GUESSS 2018 database. The findings reveal that the skills, abilities, and values that students acquire on university courses, and a recognised entrepreneurial reputation acknowledged by students contribute positively to their entrepreneurial intention. Overall, this study provides further evidence that a universitys environment, entrepreneurship education, learning program, and entrepreneurial reputation all contribute separately to entrepreneurial intention. However, the results differ considerably when taken in combination, whereupon it is a universitys learning program and entrepreneurial reputation that contribute most positively to entrepreneurial intention.
Keywords: entrepreneurial intention; Costa Rican university students; entrepreneurial university ecosystem; entrepreneurship education; GUESSS database.
Collaboration of universities with productive actors in an age of knowledge-based inequality
by Rodrigo Arocena, Judith Sutz
Abstract: Knowledge has become a strong cause of inequality. Consequently, the collaboration of universities with inclusive innovation and sustainable development needs to pay specific attention to actors that are weak in terms of knowledge. That poses problems that go beyond those seen in university-industry usual type of collaborations. Intermediary roles are needed. The paper discusses some of those problems and roles. They are exemplified by considering two Uruguayan cases, the Center of Industrial Extension mainly focused on small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and the University-Society-Production Relationships Program that connects academic research with a wide diversity of collective actors. Some conclusions stem from the combination of the general framework with the lessons of such experiences. For collaborating effectively with weak knowledge actors, universities need to build experimentally specific policy instruments and organise teams of mediators between academy and such actors that are endowed with specific cognitive and coordinating capabilities.
Keywords: universities; inclusive innovation; sustainable human development; weak knowledge actors; small and medium enterprises; SMEs; industrial extension; university-production-society relations.
Transforming universities to address grand societal challenges: a case study of organisational and institutional change at Lund University
by Bo Göransson, Cristina Chaminade, Blaise Booponoyeng Bayou
Abstract: Todays societal challenges require social innovative processes of co-creating knowledge. As a central actor in knowledge creation, universities can effectively contribute to transformative social innovation by instituting organisational and institutional change. The paper analyses how different strategies, policy mechanisms and incentive structures affect the long-term sustainability of social innovation initiatives at universities. Empirical data from interviews with top management, researchers, teachers and students at Lund University shows that the institutional logic for the change process has manifested itself in the triple helix innovation model, emphasising industry-university-government collaboration for strengthening national industrial competitiveness. This narrow interpretation of the third mission is challenged by internal as well as external pressures for the university to actively participate in solving social challenges beyond the sphere of industrial application. The case study illustrates the dynamics of competing institutional logics and how a traditional and research-oriented university struggles to embed social innovation ideas and practices into its policy framework.
Keywords: university-industry collaboration; social innovation; inclusive innovation; third mission; institutional change; institutional logics; co-creation processes.
University professional and citizenship education through service learning
by Mariona Graell Martin
Abstract: The continued advance of our societies will depend on how universities educate their students from this point on. Universities have the responsibility to train competent professionals and citizens. Some innovative, active and participatory methodologies, such as service learning, can afford opportunities in this context. The type of training prevailing up to now, centred on experts with no ties to real-life practice, has lost its validity, and needs to be complemented by a more holistic and respectful view of the world. This article analyses an experience of service learning in which students were invited to educate themselves as citizen professionals through the practical application, in specific social organisations, of their learning on a theoretical module titled language learning and reading-writing. The results showed the learning of multiple lessons and competences going beyond those learned in the traditional way on the module; for example, the opportunity to educate oneself in competences in an integrated way.
Keywords: service learning; educational innovation; social responsibility; sustainability competence; higher education; citizen professionals; participation; learning by doing; professional = identity; competence.
The role of co-worker support for tackling techno stress along with these influences on need for recovery and work motivation
by Hassan Hessari, Tahmineh Nategh
Abstract: Technology has direct impacts on the survival of the organisation. Its main negative consequence is destructive stress called technostress. This paper aims to survey the effect of co-worker support on reducing the technostress and need for recovery along with investigating the impact of technostress on work motivation and need for recovery. This paper presents proper solutions to help organisation managers in controlling and reducing the destructive consequences of technostress. This study performs a questionnaire survey, and 491 Iranian engineers contributed to this study. We used SEM to test our hypotheses. Results indicate that technostress has a negative and significant effect on work motivation and positively and considerably affects need for recovery. Also, need for recovery adversely impacts work motivation. However, co-worker support remarkably decreases technostress and need for recovery, and it causes enhancement in employees work motivation. Implications for both organisations and employees are discussed.
Keywords: technostress; co-worker support; need for recovery; work motivation; engineering companies.
Perception of the audience of interests on the qualitative characteristics of financial reporting
by Alim Al Ayub Ahmed
Abstract: This study aims to investigate what motivates financial analysts to participate in the accounting standard-setting process. We focus on financial analysts because they are an essential group of financial statement users. This study was designed to analyse and examine the quality and quantity of disclosure and assess experts views on the qualitative characteristics of corporate financial disclosure: financial analyst, professional accountants, stockbrokers, accounting professors and bank loan officers. It also emphasises the point of view of the different user groups that the information sources consider to be important to them in their preference, the reasons for the use of
financial information, the importance they see about the different sections of the annual report and their points of view on the adequacy and reliability of the annual report information. When the respondents had opinions on the listed companies conformity with the IASs, it was noted that the null assumptions were rejected at level 0.014 based on significant distinctions between the respondent classes opinions. Research has led to an understanding of listed firms financial reporting concerns in developed countries in general in financial reporting.
Keywords: financial reporting; qualitative characteristics; user’s perception; developing countries; mindsets; entity theory; incremental theory; opportunistic financial reporting.
Designing the architecture of a blockchain platform: the case of Alastria, a national public permissioned blockchain
by Javier W. Ibáñez, Salvatore Moccia
Abstract: The financial services industry is experiencing or better said, is suffering an enormous paradigm shift. New technologies, combined with new consumers, are redefining the way financial institutions design products and deliver services. Visa, for example, is working on bitcoin remittance services, while Mastercard and AMEX are investing in ABRA and the Digital Currency Group, two blockchain startups (Pejic, 2019). Furthermore, Mastercard has filed four blockchain patents to improve settlement systems. The Alastria case is a still rare phenomenon of national blockchain as a country territorial and jurisdictional case of public permissioned blockchain oriented to combine the satisfaction of public and private interests with full legal compliance.
Keywords: distributed ledger technology; DLT; blockchain governance; Alastria; validator nodes; automated trust; cryptocurrencies; Hyperledger; Ethereum.
Trademark Portfolio and Enterprise Performance: systematic literature review
by Ran Huaqing, Leandro Pereira, Yangao Xiao
Abstract: Since 2002, the number of trademark registration applications in China has continued to blowout, ranked first in the world. However, the discussion on the motivation of trademark registration and the value of registered trademarks has also become a topic of common concern in the theoretical and practical circles. This paper constructs the trademark portfolio matrix from two dimensions of trademark symbol attribute and registration category, and analyses the impact of different trademark portfolios on firm performance theoretically. This will further analyse the rationality of enterprise registered trademark behaviour and the reasons behind the surge of registered trademark applications in China, so as to provide a reference path for the research of trademark value.
Keywords: trademark; trademark portfolio; performance; value.
University-industry-government partnership working on sustainable development goals in Brazil
by Karen Louise Mascarenhas, Sigmar Malvezzi, Adam D. Hawkes, Drielli Peyerl, Pedro Gerber Machado, Julio Romano Meneghini
Abstract: This paper aims to provide insights into the capabilities of a university of working cooperatively with the industry and the government, to promote the sustainable development goals (SDGs) and foster the United Nations 2030 Agenda. Through the case study of a Brazilian research centre, structured in a triple helix model (university-industry-government), the potential of this tripartite partnership is explored in the context of long-term timeframe research. The contribution of the research centre towards the SDGs is analysed through its main activities. It suggests that information and dissemination of knowledge about the impacts generated by research, business, policy and behaviour are fundamental means to kindle a new mentality aligned with the SDGs. Therefore, it indicates that the triple helix model may boost a faster and more efficient trajectory that embraces a broad spectrum from research to implementation, which enables more feasible contributions to the SDG targets.
Keywords: university; sustainable development goals; SDGs; Agenda 2030; triple helix model; research centre; long-term project; partnership; energy; climate change.
COVID-19 vaccines and the role of patents
by Kelli Larson
Abstract: In a remarkable feat of science and technology, several vaccines have been developed at rapid pace to combat the global coronavirus (COVID-19) disease. It is a sign of what can be achieved for humankind with sufficient funding and investment in science and technology, accompanied by intellectual property laws that provide incentives to innovate. Patents help provide that incentive. Patents form part of a strong innovation ecosystem and play a significant role in ensuring that there is an incentive for entities to engage in innovation that may benefit society. Patents play a critical role in incentivising innovation, including incentivising the development of new vaccines. The valuable information disclosed in a patent specification allows for the public dissemination of knowledge to occur, allowing others to learn from current inventions and to build from them to create new, and potentially life-saving innovations.
Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; investment; patents; patent law; pharmaceuticals; vaccines.
A holistic tool for improving technology transfer offices performance
by Massimiliano Granieri, Peter Frederick
Abstract: Public-to-private technology transfer, featuring translational efforts from academia to market, does not achieve homogeneous results across the board. European universities and public research organisations (PROs) prove less performing than colleagues from the USA and this lag has been a major policy issue for European institutions in the last two decades, since R&D investments do not yield appropriate returns in terms of intellectual property, licenses and spin-out companies. Barriers to successful technology transfer are
relevant and technology transfer offices (TTOs) as intermediaries in the technology market are underperforming. While studies have been conducted in technology management literature to identify barriers, so far there seems to be a lack of a holistic tool that help measure and improve TTOs performance. In an effort to provide such tool, we use the CCODE
Keywords: intellectual property management; technology transfer; technology transfer offices; TTOs; capacity building; best practices; performance; public research organisations.
Innovation Capabilities with Strategic Orientations towards Firm Performance in Technology Based Organizations: The Managerial Implications for Future of Business
by Avinash Pawar, Balkrishan Sangvikar, Retno Purwani Setyaningrum, Henry Loupias, Denok Sunarsi
Abstract: Information technology is the most innovative and fastest-growing industry in the world. In this context, this paper aims to discover the mediating role of innovation capability on the dimensions of strategic orientations and its outcomes in the performance of information technology firms in India. Moreover, it also explains the relevance of adopting innovative endeavours by high-tech information technology firms. The data is collected through the questionnaire. The study finds that innovation capability plays a predominant role in enhancing entrepreneurial and technological orientation behaviours to lead efficacious performance firms. In contrast, marketing orientation does not augment its long-term growth even in the presence of intervening variables of innovation capability in information technology. The outcome of this study helps in fostering a culture for innovation while considering the dynamics of the interactions in the dimensions of a firms strategic orientation behaviours for realizing superiority in its performance for success.
Keywords: business innovation; strategic orientation; technological orientation; entrepreneurial orientation; marketing orientation; innovation capability; firm performance; information technology firms.