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International Journal of Intellectual Property Management

International Journal of Intellectual Property Management (IJIPM)

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International Journal of Intellectual Property Management (22 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Analysing the financial state of selected Indian information technology companies: the assessment towards foreseeing the future of industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashutosh Kolte, Avinash Pawar, Matteo Rossi, Digvijay Rasal 
    Abstract: The Indian economy is growing and have a huge potential market with ability to garner wide businesses due to unique business environment and reforms from the government. The economic indicator of comparative gross domestic product have indicated the accelerated growth for India from the last decade. Currently, Indian IT firms are targeting newer business domains with wide and newer footprints across the globe with acquiring new subsidiaries and incorporating new partnerships to fuel this growth. Moreover, Indian IT-ITES industry has a lower debt to equity profile and analysis of stocks is considered as safe investment. Therefore, it becomes essential to study and access the state of financial health in the industry. In this paper, the Indian IT-ITES industry is analysed with the help of financial metrics and standard models of Altman Z-score and Piotroski F-score to compare performance, predict solvency of companies, test the strength of the companies and foresee the future of Indian IT-ITES industry.
    Keywords: IT Industry; ITES Industry; Financial Performance; Altman Z Score; Piotroski F Score; Foreseeing Future; Industry Forecasting; Computer Software Industry; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2020.10031325
  • Impact of transformational and transactional leadership behaviour on the organisational performance   Order a copy of this article
    by K.A. Harish, B. Jeya Prabha 
    Abstract: Every employee influences the organisational direction but leadership styles is the most explicit ramification on the organisations policies, procedures and practices, which whirls around the empowerment of the employees in terms of the growth and profitability of the organisation. This study analyses the various leadership styles adopted by an organisation at the workplace and also portrays the impact in the development of the organisation. The tool performed was a structured and a close-ended questionnaire comprising of ten key elements covering the study. They are rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The data was collected from a sample of 50 respondents belonging to four companies in Chennai. The data obtained were analysed by use of statistical techniques such as mean, standard deviation and t-test. The findings suggested that organisations who follow transformational leadership style and keep employees satisfied achieve high growth and profitability.
    Keywords: empowerment; inter-personal relationships; lack of support; leadership styles; traits; role-conflict.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2020.10034105
  • SEPs and automotive brake system: a study on horizontal application of patent licensing under FRAND terms in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Soumya Prakash Patra, K.D. Raju 
    Abstract: Implementing safety norms such as ABS and CBS for two-wheelers is indeed the right step in preventing loss of life in road accidents in India. However, most of the technology development in these fields that are introduced in the market are linked to associated patents owned by select few organisations. Making the safety norms such as ABS and CBS for two-wheelers as mandatory, without any supporting mechanism for effective transfer of technology to local producers, could lead to unjust enrichment of such patent holders. This eventually would create a situation whereby the end-user suffers in terms of the un-affordability of such products as well as the inability of the system to adopt such safety systems to the vehicles that are already sold. The present paper aims to justify a horizontal approach of implementing principles of SEPs and their licensing under FRAND terms for two-wheeler safety systems in India.
    Keywords: patents; standard essential patent; SEP; automotive; brakes; patent landscape.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2021.10034928
  • Adoption of mobile wallet services: an empirical analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Ravi Kumar Gupta 
    Abstract: Uses of mobile wallet across the world is tremendously increasing, this provides several advantages and disadvantages to the users. Number of users in India is also increasing at significant level. But unlikely to the developed nations, developing nations like India have numerous challenges to its potential users of mobile wallet. Paper investigates determinants of uses of mobile wallet in India in the study area. Data have been collected from 500 respondents in Gorakhpur District of Uttar Pradesh. Regression, factor analysis and structural equation modelling (SEM) have been applied to examine the objectives of the paper. Result of the paper shows risk is significant concerns to the users of mobile wallet in India. Risk factor is negatively impacting usefulness, reasons to use, purpose to use to the users of mobile wallet. Simplification of mobile wallet and social influence positively impact to the users.
    Keywords: mobile wallet; simplification; usefulness; perceived risk; social influence; perceived reason to use; perceived purpose of use; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2021.10035526
  • SEPs, FRAND and its impact: a comparative study of recent case laws in the US, EU, and India   Order a copy of this article
    by Soumya Prakash Patra, K.D. Raju 
    Abstract: Popular innovations often combine multiple inventions. For instance, a simple musical headphone device might incorporate inventions and related patents on telecommunications, the radio, memory devices, etc., that are related via standards. These complex commercial and technology standards are based on an established legal jurisprudence in SEPs. Legal jurisprudence in all three jurisdictions viz, India, EU, and the US revolve around the common factor of good faith in addition to the local patent and competition laws. The judicial system in these jurisdictions aims to create a balance between the growth of technology as well as the rights of technology implementers. However, there is a fundamental difference between the US and EU laws on the anti-competitive nature of various agreements related to license fees based on FRAND principles. The difference lies in the use of the dominant position in the market for deciding the license fees for the relevant technologies.
    Keywords: Standard Essential Patent; SEP; FRAND; patent; license; technology dominance; US; EU; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2021.10036275
  • Perception of the audience of interests on the qualitative characteristics of financial reporting   Order a copy of this article
    by Alim Al Ayub Ahmed 
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate what motivates financial analysts to participate in the accounting standard-setting process. We focus on financial analysts because they are an essential group of financial statement users. This study was designed to analyse and examine the quality and quantity of disclosure and assess experts views on the qualitative characteristics of corporate financial disclosure: financial analyst, professional accountants, stockbrokers, accounting professors and bank loan officers. It also emphasises the point of view of the different user groups that the information sources consider to be important to them in their preference, the reasons for the use of financial information, the importance they see about the different sections of the annual report and their points of view on the adequacy and reliability of the annual report information. When the respondents had opinions on the listed companies conformity with the IASs, it was noted that the null assumptions were rejected at level 0.014 based on significant distinctions between the respondent classes opinions. Research has led to an understanding of listed firms financial reporting concerns in developed countries in general in financial reporting.
    Keywords: financial reporting; qualitative characteristics; user’s perception; developing countries; mindsets; entity theory; incremental theory; opportunistic financial reporting.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2021.10038267
  • A holistic tool for improving technology transfer offices performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Massimiliano Granieri, Peter Frederick 
    Abstract: Public-to-private technology transfer, featuring translational efforts from academia to market, does not achieve homogeneous results across the board. European universities and public research organisations (PROs) prove less performing than colleagues from the USA and this lag has been a major policy issue for European institutions in the last two decades, since R&D investments do not yield appropriate returns in terms of intellectual property, licenses and spin-out companies. Barriers to successful technology transfer are relevant and technology transfer offices (TTOs) as intermediaries in the technology market are underperforming. While studies have been conducted in technology management literature to identify barriers, so far there seems to be a lack of a holistic tool that help measure and improve TTOs performance. In an effort to provide such tool, we use the CCODE
    Keywords: intellectual property management; technology transfer; technology transfer offices; TTOs; capacity building; best practices; performance; public research organisations.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2021.10041524
  • Innovation Capabilities with Strategic Orientations towards Firm Performance in Technology Based Organizations: The Managerial Implications for Future of Business   Order a copy of this article
    by Avinash Pawar, Balkrishan Sangvikar, Retno Purwani Setyaningrum, Henry Loupias, Denok Sunarsi 
    Abstract: Information technology is the most innovative and fastest-growing industry in the world. In this context, this paper aims to discover the mediating role of innovation capability on the dimensions of strategic orientations and its outcomes in the performance of information technology firms in India. Moreover, it also explains the relevance of adopting innovative endeavours by high-tech information technology firms. The data is collected through the questionnaire. The study finds that innovation capability plays a predominant role in enhancing entrepreneurial and technological orientation behaviours to lead efficacious performance firms. In contrast, marketing orientation does not augment its long-term growth even in the presence of intervening variables of innovation capability in information technology. The outcome of this study helps in fostering a culture for innovation while considering the dynamics of the interactions in the dimensions of a firms strategic orientation behaviours for realizing superiority in its performance for success.
    Keywords: business innovation; strategic orientation; technological orientation; entrepreneurial orientation; marketing orientation; innovation capability; firm performance; information technology firms.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2021.10041684
  • New firms in the creative and cultural industries as drivers of regional growth: the role of trademarks   Order a copy of this article
    by Roberta Piergiovanni 
    Abstract: Comprising activities as different as publishing of books, visual arts and entertainment, multimedia activities, design, architecture, advertising, and so on, the creative and cultural industries have been shown to represent a major driver of economic growth. The present paper expands on this research by studying, for the period between 2007 and 2014 the impact of the endowment of creative potential on the economic growth of Italian provinces (NUTS 3 regions), alternatively measured in terms of employment and value-added dynamics. Estimating ordinary least squares (OLS) and fixed-effect (FE) models, it contributes to research on drivers and economic impact of the emergence of the new creative and cultural industries. Findings show that presence and entrepreneurial dynamism of the creative and cultural industries, favoured by the use of trademark as preferred type of Intellectual Property Rights protection, represented in the aftermath of the Global Financial Crisis a significant driver of employment and value-added growth.
    Keywords: regional growth; creative and cultural industries; IPR protection; trademarks; entrepreneurship.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2021.10042346
  • Complementarity between patents, trademarks and copyrights: evidence from the food and beverage industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Jasper Grashuis 
    Abstract: Many food and beverage manufacturers engage in product and process innovation to address segmented preferences. Manufacturers use various mechanisms to protect the intellectual property associated with innovation. Unfortunately, the empirical literature is defined by the inattention to copyrights as indicators of intellectual property and their complementarity to patents and trademarks. Therefore, we use data from 128 US food and beverage manufacturers for the 20102018 period to study if patents, trademarks, and copyrights are complements or substitutes when protecting the value associated with product and process innovation. Generally, we conclude that patents are complementary with both trademarks and copyrights. Put differently, food and beverage manufacturers who obtain patents also obtain more trademarks and more copyrights; food and beverage manufacturers who obtain trademarks or copyrights also obtain more patents. Trademarks and copyrights are only complementary for beverage manufacturers.
    Keywords: intellectual property; patents; trademarks; copyrights; innovation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2021.10042621
  • Technology policy, environmental conditions, and R&D organisations shaping: a combined population ecology and resource dependence perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Pilar Rico-Castro, Gregorio Sánchez-Marín, Maria Pemartin 
    Abstract: This paper analyses the influence of regional technology policy on the evolution of R&D organisations. Specifically, combining population ecology and resource dependence perspectives, this research examines how technology policies impact environmental conditions of technological centres (TCs) affecting organisational change and surviving. To empirically test our assumptions, this research uses a comparative case study research design analysing changes promoted by the Basque regional technology policy in the environment where the TCs inhabit, between 1980 and 2000. Our findings shed light to the understanding of policy making in R&D organisations, contributing to the debate on the importance of regional innovation systems, the organisational adaptation to multi actor governance, and the blurring organisational boundaries between public and private spheres of TCs.
    Keywords: technology policy; environmental conditions; R&D organisations; technological centres; TCs; organisational change.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2021.10043650
  • Patent insights on crack healing concrete   Order a copy of this article
    by Sayali Sandbhor, Amit Kumar Tiwari 
    Abstract: Concrete is extensively used in the construction industry. With technological evolution, various methods and materials are being used to attain aesthetic, sustainable and economic concrete constructions. Issues such as weathering, cracks, leaks and bending are predominantly encountered in structures. Crack formation is the foremost problem severely affecting the life of concrete structures. Sustainable construction materials are the pressing priority for reducing the environmental impact. The current work seeks to synthesise all unique research investigations undertaken on crack healing concrete composites, i.e. patents, from databases like Espacenet, Relecura, and Google patent and gives a patentometric analysis of the same. It also endows with up-to-date scholarly articles for the immediate reference of research groups working in the field of sustainable concrete composites. This comprehensive patinformatics study of the state-of-the-art innovation paves the way forward for further investigation in the research advancement of sustainable concrete composites and associated uses in crack control.
    Keywords: concrete composite; compressive strength; crack healing; patent; survey; pat informatics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2021.10043824
  • Internal and external organisational strategies: repercussion of information management on relationship selling behaviour and salesforce performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Sathish Mahendran, Balasudarsun NL, Hari Sundar G.Ram, Karthikeyan Parthasarathy, Deena Roy 
    Abstract: Organisational strategies always aim at maximising profit, one among the ways is to increase the sales, and ultimately the pressure falls on the salesforce. Personal selling of salesforce and has been considered as an internal and external strategy of any organisation. The organisation develops a relationship selling strategy by creating a personal rapport with customers by equipping the salesforce especially, in B2B sales. In this strategy, salesforce needs to manage numerous information about product profiles, customer basic information, competitor product portfolio, and external environment information. This study focuses on identifying the impact of information management on relationship selling behaviour and salesforce performance. Further, this study attempts to understand the direct link between information management (IM) and salesforce performance. Foundry raw materials manufacturing and trading industries were selected for the present study. The study identified that self-disclosure positively impacts relationship selling behaviour, and information management has a negative impact on salesforce performance. These findings will help the organisations frame internal and external strategies that improve the salesforces selling behaviour, resulting in better performance and brand positioning.
    Keywords: organisational strategy; OS; relationship selling behaviour; RSB; information management; IM; salesforce performance; SP; business to business sales; interaction intensity; self-disclosure; SD; foundry industry; customer disclosure; CD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2021.10044084
  • Global innovation and competition in quantum technology, viewed through the lens of patents and artificial intelligence   Order a copy of this article
    by Zeki Can Seskir, Kelvin W. Willoughby 
    Abstract: In this work we elucidate international trends in the field of quantum technology (QT) by analysing a global patent database built from an operational definition of QT that was generated through the curated application of artificial intelligence (AI). In doing so we demonstrate how the sophisticated use of intellectual property information, enhanced by the artful deployment of AI techniques, may produce more reliable and useful revelations for policy makers and managers about global innovation in emerging fields of technology than is possible through conventional methods of data collection and analysis. We also demonstrate the utility of this approach for reliably characterising the evolving constituent sub-fields of QT. By adopting a hybrid human-AI approach to both the definition and the analysis of QT, we have produced some novel insights about global innovation and national organisational profiles in the QT field, particularly concerning dynamic competition between the USA and China.
    Keywords: quantum technology; quantum innovation; patent analysis; artificial intelligence; patent landscape; patinformatics; global technological innovation; quantum competition; quantum industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2021.10044326
  • Digitisation in retailing: the game-changing driver of industrial transformation   Order a copy of this article
    by Mahwish Sindhu, Tahir Masood Qureshi, Sonia Singh, Shabir Hassan Banday 
    Abstract: Digitisation is changing business patterns of different industries since the beginning of the 21st century. The purpose of the current study is to explore different retailing digitisation dimensions using MSDPs and their contribution towards customer readiness to use the platforms, customer satisfaction, economies of scale, and organisational sustainability. Following positive epistemology, this mixed-method explanatory research was conducted based on an inductive approach. Primary data was collected from 394 internal customers of Amazon, Alibaba, and eBay using a five-point Likert scale questionnaire. The analysis findings revealed that different MSDPs transformed the transaction logic and facilitated entrepreneurs to implement economies of scale for the sellers, reduce buyers costs, and bring ease to sale and purchase for sellers and buyers. The study portrays the essence of customers changing buying behaviour and modern business mechanics in the retail industry in addition to filling the gap by testing customer readiness as an essential mediator.
    Keywords: multi-sided digital platforms; MSDPs; customer readiness; customer satisfaction; economies of scale; organisational sustainability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2021.10044392
  • The impact of training and development programs on employees performance: the case of Lebanese SMEs   Order a copy of this article
    by V. Ramesh Kumar, M. Selvaraj, P.S. Venkateswaran, A. Sabarirajan, Khodor Shatila, Varsha Agarwal 
    Abstract: Training is the departments initiative to promote training among its workers and establish an initiative that relies more on improving an employees future accountability skills. Technical development initiatives may inspire and engage workers to increase results. One of the principal goals of leadership in human resources is to improve the circumstances under which employees latent talents are observed. Their contribution to achieving the organisation is safeguarded. The study applied quantitative methodologies in the survey technique distribution and interpretation of the data gathered using the methodological instrument of the SPSS. The findings revealed a clear correlation between training and growth, e-learning, information management and success because of a ratio below 5% in the regression study.
    Keywords: instructor-led; e-learning; knowledge management; training and development; employees performance; Lebanese SMEs; workplace experience; organisation; technical development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2020.10044393
  • The impact of public sector intangibles and their components on private productivity   Order a copy of this article
    by Alberto Nonnis, Ahmed Bounfour 
    Abstract: This paper studies public intangible capital effects on productivity. Using data from two recent data sources on private and public intangible capital (INTAN-Invest and SPINTAN), we build a panel of 19 countries observed for the period 20002012. Separating public capital both by type (R&D, software and databases, organisational capital) and by public sector of origin, we evaluate those that drive private productivity more, via fixed effects panel regressions. We find that positive spillover effects are generated by all public sectors intangible investments, except those coming from the health sector, that R&D investment is more important in the education sector, and that in the education sector private and public intangibles are more complementary than in the other public sectors.
    Keywords: intangible capital; public capital; productivity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2021.10044638
  • Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the digital transformation and digital frauds in the US economy   Order a copy of this article
    by Shashidhar  
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic had a huge impact on the US economy, especially in the tourism, aviation, real estate, information technology, hospitality, and food industries. An increase in companies opting for digital transformation and the work-from-home option has also increased the risk of internet fraud and identity threats. Change in the shopping patterns has witnessed 29% of individuals in the USA falling prey to digital fraud associated with COVID-19. This study witnessed a significant increase in the rate of internet thefts, phishing, scamming and financial frauds in the US during the COVID-19 pandemic. Meta-analysis performed using the previously reported data on the proportion of internet frauds and identity theft in the USA showed a pooled response rate of 44.71% (95% CI: 44.6844.73%), 15.18% (95% CI: 15.1715.20%), respectively from 2015 through 2019. The study also discussed the global forecast and prevention of such internet frauds and thefts post COVID-19 pandemic.
    Keywords: COVID-19; digital transformation; identity theft; internet fraud; meta-analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2021.10045512
  • Intellectual property rights protection and prospect of industrial development in Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Solomon O. Okunade, Ahmed S. Alimi, Abiodun S. Olayiwola 
    Abstract: The incidence of infringement and violation of intellectual property rights (IPRs) especially in the nature of counterfeiting and piracy has been on the increase in Nigeria; and has deprived many producers and industrialists of the benefits of their creativity. This study explores how IPRs protection influences industrial development in Nigeria using quarterly data spanning 2007Q2 and 2019Q1. The result of Autoregressive Distributed Lag model reveals that IPRs protection exerts negative effects on industrial development due to weak enforcement and non-compliance with industry-related IPRs laws which discourage individuals and firms to develop new commercialisable inventions and innovations. Based on this finding, we conclude that IPRs protection cannot significantly improved the prospects of industrial development if not properly enforced with total compliance in Nigeria. Therefore, we recommend that government should strengthen IPRs laws with formidable policies that would create incentives for firm-level innovations/inventions through knowledge creation, adequate funding for R&D in Nigeria.
    Keywords: intellectual property right; IPR; protection; industrial development; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2022.10045741
  • What is in a name? Deciphering domain name protection in India and Russia   Order a copy of this article
    by Aneela Fatima, Nikolaos Voutyrakos 
    Abstract: Ever since the advent of the internet and e-commerce, buying and selling of goods and services has become easier and more efficient. Although this has brought development, it has also given way to challenges in handling ones intellectual capital, by allowing third parties to easily access and infringe intellectual property rights (IPR) through domain name infringement. This paper assesses domain name legal protection, with the main point of reference being trademark law, as it is used as the legal mechanism in dealing with domain name dispute resolution. More specifically, this paper focuses on how two large economies, India and Russia, which have chosen to deal with domain name-related concerns and disputes, in light of the latest international developments in the field. The two countries represent very distinct approaches towards domain name regulation, each with their merits and demerits, which the paper addresses, juxtaposes and evaluates.
    Keywords: intellectual property rights; IPR; domain names; trademarks; cybersquatting; top-level domain name; internet protocol; uniform domain dispute resolution policy; Indian law; Russian law; India; Russia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2022.10047024
  • Impact of the technological implications of teleworking on higher education teaching staff   Order a copy of this article
    by María De Las Mercedes De Obesso, Oliver Carrero 
    Abstract: Although the concept of teleworking has existed for more than 30 years, it was in 2020 when it experienced its greatest boom, when an unprecedented and virtually unplanned social experiment forced millions of people to work from home due to a global pandemic. In the case of higher education, face-to-face teaching became online in a matter of weeks, without having been so designed neither in terms of the training activities nor the teaching methodologies nor evaluation systems, with virtually no training for teachers and with unsuitable infrastructures. In this context, our study, based on the C.I.S. survey Trends in the Digital Society during the COVID-19 pandemic, conducted in March 2021, tries to analyse the perception of telework for 474 university teachers in relation not only to the technological resources available but also to the digital skills of teachers, concluding that they see it as positive for business, for employees, for family life and for society.
    Keywords: telework; university; higher education; hybrid training; digital competencies for teachers; innovation; technology management; organisational strategies; teaching; professors.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2022.10047183
  • Reporting and disclosure of intellectual capital: a literature review   Order a copy of this article
    by Shilpa Bhide 
    Abstract: The objective of the paper is to review the literature on the measurement methods, valuation, and disclosure (reporting) of intellectual capital. Research papers from 1998 to 2021 were collected, studied, and classified into relevant and non-relevant for the present study. Out of 150 research papers, 91 papers were identified and studied in detail, out of which around 64 research papers appear in the literature review. The results of the literature review were that it was observed in many cases the disclosures are voluntary and there seems to be no harmonisation in the disclosure requirements. Disclosure and reporting can help in decision-making to the stakeholders, even if the measurement and valuation are difficult. It can also be observed that in different types of businesses the degree of reporting and disclosures are different and influences the profit and the firms financial performance, making it an important component of disclosures and reporting.
    Keywords: intellectual capital; valuation; measurement; disclosure; reporting; firm performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPM.2022.10047184