Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management

International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management (IJHRDM)

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International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management (23 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Sustainable HRM as a Contextual Antecedent of Organizational Effectiveness A Moderated Mediation model   Order a copy of this article
    by Nitin Vihari 
    Abstract: Sustainable HRM signifies a paradigm shift in the way business processes are perceived in general and HRM in particular. The aim of the present study is to examine the influence of Sustainable HRM on Organizational Effectiveness and also to examine the interaction effects with reference to Employer Attractiveness and Person Organization Fit. The study has undertaken a conclusive research design and a survey instrument are used to collect data through five point Likert scale, using both web based and manual channels. Respondents were chosen based on Purposive Random Sampling technique, from the select pharmaceutical companies in India. A total of 546 questionnaires are circulated among the select pharmaceutical companies in India and 322 completely filled responses were received, after terminating the improperly filled responses, thereby achieving the response rate of 58.97%. Some of the empirical insights, which can be drawn from the study, are that Sustainable HRM practices have a significant impact in enhancing the Organizational Effectiveness. The study also suggests that Employer Attractiveness partially mediates the relationship between Sustainable HRM and Organizational Effectiveness and Person Organization Fit acts as a moderator, thereby strengthening the relationship between Sustainable HRM and Employer Attractiveness.
    Keywords: Sustainable HRM; Organizational Effectiveness; Employer Attractiveness; Person Organization Fit; Structural Equation Modeling.

  • Do Passionate Engineering and IT Job Seekers Use More Recruiting Sources?   Order a copy of this article
    by Jannifer David 
    Abstract: Work Passion (WP) is considered a potential process variable in Breaugh and Starkes (2000) model of organisational recruitment. The research reported here is the first to examine WP in the recruiting process. Newly hired employees completed a questionnaire about their Work Passion, recruiting sources used in their recent job searches, and their reasons for using these sources. Results showed that higher levels of WP were not related to using different recruiting sources. Higher WP job seekers, however, were more likely than low-WP job seekers to indicate that their use of these sources was related to the high quality of information found in these sources. This finding suggests organisations trying to find high-WP employees should craft their ads to include higher quality information.
    Keywords: Employee Recruiting; Work Passion; Job Search; Recruiting Sources; Engineering and IT Job Seekers.

  • Lean Production and Organizational Performance: Moderating Roles of Ability- and Motivation-Focused Human Resource Management   Order a copy of this article
    by Liao Wan-Chun, Tzu-Shian Han 
    Abstract: Lean production (LP) is crucial for improving organizational performance. On the basis of AbilityMotivationOpportunity theory, this paper provides a new theoretical perspective to explain the interaction effect of human resource management (HRM) and LP on performance. Data from multiple informants from 212 manufacturing plants indicated that when organizations implement ability- and motivation-focused HRM to a high degree, LP is profitable. However, when organizations implement ability- and motivation-focused HRM to a low degree, LP is negatively associated with performance. Therefore, the synergy of LP and these two forms of HRM is critical for performance. Without HRM, LP could damage an organization. Manufacturers in charge of LP must cooperate with HRM professionals because improving employees abilities and motivation through HRM supports LP implementation.
    Keywords: Lean production; human resource management; Ability–Motivation–Opportunity theory.

  • Personality of Leaders in the Context of Transformational Leadership in the UAE   Order a copy of this article
    by Amal Al Hadabi, Mehmood Khan, Matloub Hussain 
    Abstract: Purpose Evaluates the impact of the Big Five personality dimensions of leaders, focusing on how, and to what extent, they influence transformational leadership in the United Arab Emirates. Design/methodology/approach Online-survey data were gathered from 202 leaders and middle-managers from government, private, and non-profit organizations across the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The questionnaire developed comprised six sets of questions: five assessing the Big Five personality dimensions; and one measuring transformational leadership. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were employed to construct leadership models. Findings A positive relationship was found between transformational leadership and different personality traits: agreeableness, extroversion, and openness. There was no statistically significant difference between men and women in relation regarding the relationship between personalities and transformational leadership. Practical implications The study identifies personality factors related to leadership performance in different work environments or contexts. Results can be used to help leaders willing to rediscover themselves in the context of their defined roles and objectives, ultimately encouraging leaders to focus on their journey toward self-development and make improvements wherever possible. Originality/value This is the first study of its kind to examine the relationship between the Big Five personality factors and leadership in different organizational contexts in the UAE. It identifies extroversion as an important predictor of leadership, while showing that organizational context affects the Big Five personality factors that influence leader performance. Agreeableness and openness appear to be more influential in multi-national and active work environments, whereas conscientiousness and neuroticism have greater significance in academic and business settings.
    Keywords: Transformational leadership; “Big Five” personality traits; United Arab Emirates.

  • Models of Leadership Development: A Conceptual Framework Linking Theory to Strategic Practice   Order a copy of this article
    by Gail F. Latta 
    Abstract: Developing leadership capacity is a complex, multifaceted process. Models provide valuable tools for understanding and navigating these intricate developmental trajectories. The existence of multiple models of leadership development presents challenges for HR professionals seeking to design effective interventions targeting specific developmental needs of leaders and the organizations they serve. Models provide a missing link between leadership theory and developmental techniques, but have been omitted from strategy discussions. This comparative analysis identifies theoretical and operational distinctions among strategic models of leadership development, highlighting the utility of each for practitioners, scholars and educators. A Models of Leadership Development Framework (MoLD) is introduced, along with guidelines to promote the selection of appropriate models for enhancing leadership capacity among individuals, groups and organisations. Implications are explored with particular attention to facilitating effective practice, educating development professionals, and identifying the empirical evidence needed to enhance existing models and address conceptual gaps highlighted by this analysis.
    Keywords: Leadership development; leadership capacity; human resource development; organisational development; conceptual models; theoretical analysis; comparative framework; adult development; leadership education; development professionals.

  • The role of principals values and leadership styles in developing organizational commitment among Arab teachers in Israel   Order a copy of this article
    by Aaron Cohen, Ibrahem Abd El Majid 
    Abstract: In this study, the relationship between (1) values of the principals, (2) transformational leadership, and (3) dimensions of organizational commitment (OC) was examined in a sample of 1268 teachers and 64 principals employed in Arab schools in Israel. Through questionnaires, the principals reported their values, and the teachers reported their leadership style and OC. Specifically, the authors posited that the principals values are transmitted to the teachers and thereby affect their OC. The results of hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) showed that the principals values, particularly those of tradition and benevolence, were related to two forms of commitment, affective and normative. The dimension of continuance commitment was uninterpretable in the current sample. Contrary to expectations, the principals positive evaluation of teacher achievement affected both forms of the teachers commitment. The findings also showed a strong positive relationship between transformational leadership and the two forms of commitment. However, this strong relationship did not eliminate the effect of the principals values on teacher achievement. The authors conclude the paper by suggesting several directions for future research on the relationship between values and commitment.
    Keywords: Organizational commitment; Individual values; Transformational leadership; Israeli educational system.

  • Employee Relationship and its Effect on Organizational Commitment: A Critical Look at a Japanese Subsidiary of India   Order a copy of this article
    by Kaushik Chaudhuri 
    Abstract: Japanese management system is renowned for their employee-friendly, egalitarian, and participative work practices. However, their philosophy erodes considerably overseas owing to possible mismanagement and ill-effect of economic realities. The objective of this study is to explore the impact of their philosophy on employee perceptions about the employment relation with their management in the Japanese organizations located overseas. Our specific concern is to probe whether implementation of the management practices in the shop floor induced stressful working condition and affected employee commitment. A qualitative study is conducted on Indian employees in a leading Japanese automakers plant located at the national capital region (NCR) of India. In-depth interviews from twenty general employees across different sections of the shop floor have revealed a depleting relationship and dwindling commitment with their management owing to over intensified work pressure, strain, and stress. In this paper, the author has proposed four profiles of employee commitments by explaining the phenomenon of employment relationship and employee behavior through a matrix model coined as BION Balanced, Idealists, Opportunists and Non-committals. The study yielded a majority of respondents, 9 employees associating with the profile of the Opportunists, followed by 7 respondents with the profile of the Balanced and only 4 employees were identified with the Idealists. The theoretical and practical implications with limitations of the findings have been discussed.
    Keywords: BION; Commitment; HPWS; India; Job intensity; Workplace stressors; Japan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHRDM.2018.10014998
     
  • Strategic Human Resource Management in Small and Medium Enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Emil Knezović, Senad Bušatlić, Ognjen Riđić 
    Abstract: Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are seen as one of the main drivers of economic growth in the modern economy that is characterized with free markets, private ownership, entrepreneurship, and a major change in the basic approach to business and management. As a result, today, human capital is regarded as the most important asset of the organization and needs to be managed effectively to ensure the highest possible performance. Therefore, organizations are directing their focus to the strategic human resource management (SHRM) in order to develop their human capital. Recent research has supported the positive relationship between SHRM and organizational performance. In order to grow and prosper, SMEs need to embrace the strategic approach to the human resource management (HRM) which should, in return, increase their competitiveness and responsiveness to the market changes. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of strategic human resource (HR) practices on organizational performance. This work is based on a quantitative research instrument and for its purposes, the cross-sectional survey method for collecting primary data was applied. The results of hierarchical regression used to test the hypothesis supported the relationship between strategic HR practices and organizational performance. The findings presented in this study were used for making recommendations to the SMEs managers in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
    Keywords: strategic human resource management; small and medium enterprises; business performance; universalistic approach; Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  • Work-Life Conflict Costs: A Canadian Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Said Baadel, Stefane Kabene, Asim Majeed 
    Abstract: With current trends showing increased work hours, dual-earner households, and less time spent with family, it is evident that there is a work-life conflict. It is important for human resource managers in Canada to adapt to this changing trend by implementing new policies and programs. Our goal was to discover if there was a correlation between the work-life conflict and absenteeism. Our research study demonstrated that there are no significant correlation between hours worked and time spent with family, but there is a positive significant relationship between time spent working and absenteeism. Our study also indicates a positive correlation between time spent with family and absenteeism. Canadian companies can ease the implications of worklife conflict by adopting some work-life best practices. These practices include reduced work hours, flexible schedules and workplace social support that are already prevalent in European countries.
    Keywords: flextime; job spill; work-life balance; work-life conflict; work-life best practices.

  • Rebooting Strategic Human Resource Management: Integrating Technology to Drive Talent Management   Order a copy of this article
    by Stacy Wassell, Marcia Bouchard 
    Abstract: This study of the literature explored how organizations innovatively integrate technology into strategic human resource management (SHRM) practices, which are driving talent management and creating greater competitive advantages. SHRM ensures the company has the number of employees and systems with the levels and types of skills required to promote and achieve the goals of the companys strategic plan. Talent management considers the people and talent acquisition analytics consisting of recruitment and succession planning. The playbooks and platforms analytics involve incorporating technologies in workflows, retention and turnover metrics, collaborations, and training and development initiatives. Combining technology with SHRM processes leads to higher organizational performance. Innovative ways of using technologies to recruit, hire, train and develop, and retain high-potential human capital pools are sources of competitive advantages. Human resource departments and technologies are the most influential players in the strategic planning of an organization. Therefore, management should engage in stronger complementary and autonomous roles within SHRM.
    Keywords: strategic human resource management; SHRM; technology; talent management; innovation; talent acquisition; competitive advantage; human capital; retention; turnover.

  • Resources for development: The relationship of HRM practices and continuous learning culture with training success   Order a copy of this article
    by MICHEL ZAITOUNI, Arezou Harraf, Amjad Kisswani 
    Abstract: We tested the importance of two hypothesized resources HRM practices and continuous learning culture - in determining training success in the service industries in Kuwait. Using a sample of 605 employees from different Kuwaiti service firms, our results demonstrate that HRM practices have a positive association with training success by boosting employees ability to learn and apply the newly learned skills to their work. Moreover, we found that organizations with continuous learning culture were more likely to achieve higher level of training success when they cultivate a climate of encouragement where employees learn and develop their full potential to complete their tasks better and with less mistakes. Furthermore, we tested the role of continuous learning culture in the relationship between HRM practices and training success and found that this relationship is partially mediated by continuous learning culture which illustrates and confirms the existence of a missing link between the two variables.
    Keywords: Continuous learning; employee development; career development; training success; Human Resource Practices.

  • An Integrative Model to explore the relationship of Work-Family Interface with Organizational Commitment   Order a copy of this article
    by Hemamalini Ramalingam 
    Abstract: Abstract: An integrative model of the work-family interface with organizational commitment is developed and tested. The model stands as an expansion of various other work-family models from the review of literature. The study has tried to integrate various assumptions of work and family to design this model. First, the model has attempted to evaluate the mediation effect of work satisfaction and family satisfaction between work-family conflict, work-family enrichment towards work-family balance. Second, the understanding of the relations between work-family conflict, work-family enrichment and work-family satisfaction on work-family balance has been differentiated. Finally, the direct and indirect path effectiveness in increasing the organizational commitment with the help of work-family interfaces is incorporated into the model. Data were obtained from a sample of 410 medical sales representatives who were male and married using snowball sampling. Satisfaction has a positive effect on the relationship between work-family conflict, work-family enrichment and work-family balance. The conceptual model with indirect path shows that less conflict at work is associated with high job satisfaction, high enrichment and positive family satisfaction towards work and family.
    Keywords: Key words: Work family conflict; family work conflict; work family enrichment; family work enrichment; work satisfaction; family satisfaction and organizational commitment.

  • Training and the competitiveness of the Quebec multimedia-IT sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Louis Rhéaume, Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay 
    Abstract: This article studies the hypothesis that training is essential to contribute to the competitiveness of the Quebec multimedia-IT sector. We also hypothesized that intermediary organizations and associations contribute to this development of training and competitiveness. The research is based on 30 interviews (15 firms and 15 non-business) in 7 different sub-sectors of the multimedia-IT ecosystem, with 11 different types of organizations, in order to determine to what extent training and development of competencies are adequate and do effectively contribute to the competitiveness of the sector. Based on these interviews, we conducted a SWOT analysis of training in the Quebec multimedia-IT sector. This article focuses on the quality of training, diversity of competencies and highlights the challenges in training for firms and non-business organizations, as reported by the interviewees. We conclude that while there are good quality training programs, there are some elements related to entrepreneurship and business issues that are lacking. An increased diversity of workers would be important and integrating more women and foreign workers could help for this.
    Keywords: Training; innovation; collaboration; multimedia; IT; intermediary organizations; incubators; accelerators; SWOT analysis; competitiveness; human resources management.

  • The effects of social capital and physiological resilience on employees positive work attitudes   Order a copy of this article
    by Asghar Afshar Jahanshahi, Tahereh Maghsoudi, Khaled Nawaser 
    Abstract: This study analyzes the antecedents and consequence of employees psychological resilience (PR) in the workplace. We first examined the three dimensions of the effects of social capital (structural, relational and cognitive) on employees PR. Then, we tested the effects of PR on employees positive work attitudes. A cross-sectional survey data from 204 employees working in an Iranian state-owned organization supports the positive effects of three dimensions of employees social capital on their psychological resilience. We also found that PR contributes to increasing positive work attitudes toward the achievement of organizational goals among employees.
    Keywords: psychological resilience; social capital; positive work attitudes of employees; goal achievement; Iran.

  • Turnover Intentions of Employees of Information Technology Outsourcing Suppliers in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Paul Alpar 
    Abstract: Voluntary employee turnover creates considerable direct and indirect cost for a company. It can also harm customers. In the case of information technology (IT) outsourcing, the turnover often decreases the quality of delivered services because the newly assigned employees need to adjust to the new tasks and customer. Reports indicate that turnover of IT employees in offshore locations is very high. The research on this phenomenon is still limited and inconclusive, but there are indications that the standard model of employee turnover developed for Western industrialized countries does not apply equally for emerging industries, which are prime destinations for IT outsourcing. We analyse which factors determine employee turnover at IT outsourcing suppliers in Vietnam, a growing IT outsourcing destination. The results show that compensation and job alternatives play an important role like in Western countries. However, relationships with superiors and peers also significantly affect employee turnover intention, which reflects cultural differences.
    Keywords: employee turnover; IT outsourcing; offshoring; job satisfaction; job alternatives; social context; Vietnam.

  • New Hires Job Satisfaction Time Trajectory   Order a copy of this article
    by Ralf Bebenroth, Jose Berengueres 
    Abstract: This study is aimed at quantifying the job satisfaction trajectory of new hires. The authors compared job satisfaction of 815 new hires to 1,925 non-new employees, asking all participating employees a simple daily question for ten months: How happy are you today at work? With a sample of 187.137 data points, we found a high heterogeneity in job satisfaction among employees from 12 different companies that participated in our study. On the tenets of acculturation theory and more fine-grained data, we support previous research that new hires started with a 27% higher job satisfaction compared to the non-new employees. The level of job satisfaction kept on decreasing (until 64th day), continuing at a slower pace, gradually bottoming out after 8 month. The ratio of new hires job satisfaction to non-new employees began an upward trend between the 6th and the 7th month (195th day).
    Keywords: Job Satisfaction Time Trajectory; New Hires; Acculturation theory.

  • Benefits, Barriers and Risks- The Role of Technology in e-HRM Implementations in Public Sector Organisations: Evidence from Bangladesh   Order a copy of this article
    by Mushfiqur Rahman, Erhan Aydin 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to understand the role of technology in e- HRM implementations through considering focus of human agents and structural constraints of technology. In this respect, benefits- barriers- risks of technology is considered in order to create a framework that demonstrate agency and structure relations based on the structuration theory of Giddens. In order to provide a detailed understanding with regard to the role of technology in e- HRM implementations, a qualitative study was conducted. The data came from 30 semi- structured interviews that the first author conducted in Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry of Public Administration in the context of Bangladesh due to the fact that the country was considered as a case for developing countries. The findings of this research demonstrated that focus of human agent in implementing e- HRM and structural constraints of technology are the key findings based on the structuration theory of Giddens. Also, this research showed that data security, e- HRM system in IT support and infrastructure, and data centralisation are the key issues that must be considered in the relationship between technology and e- HRM. The qualitative nature of this research that was provided by semi- structured interviews was the most appropriate method to address the research question. Future studies can consider how the findings of this research can be generalised to larger populations. The main contribution of this research is to bring a new perspective to e- HRM as considering barriers and risks of technology in addition to the benefits of it through adopting structuration theory. For this reason, this research makes a comprehensive contribution to the e- HRM field that focuses on only benefits.
    Keywords: Structuration Theory; e-HRM; Bangladesh; Public Sector Organisations; Technologyrn.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHRDM.2019.10022601
     
  • Works Councils, Training Activities and Innovation: A Study of German Firms   Order a copy of this article
    by Ipsita Roy, Uwe Cantner, Wolfgang Gerstlberger 
    Abstract: Building on the distinction between general and technical human capital proposed by Becker (1962), the authors undertake a cross-sectional analysis on the role of works councils in the provision of workplace human resource training for innovative management in medium and large-size private sector establishments in Germany. Results from the first part of the empirical analysis confirm theoretical predictions that works councils are strongly and positively correlated with the provision of general training, while no such relation is found with respect to technical training. Addressing next the potential endogeneity issue, results from an instrumental variable estimation on the correlation between training types and innovation performance provide support that works councils are an effective instrument for promoting general training for incremental innovation in establishments, whereas technical training is found to significantly correlate with radical innovation when instrumented by the share of apprentices.
    Keywords: general training; technical training; works councils; instrumental variable; innovation.

  • Predictors for Strategic HR Management in German Small and Medium-sized Enterprises: What it takes to install a strategic HR Architecture as a contributor to success   Order a copy of this article
    by Martin Hirsch, Jens Nachtwei 
    Abstract: In Germany the requirements for strategic HR operations are predominantly to be found in large enterprises, the aim being an increased contribution to added value. As far as German small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are concerned however, this subject seems to hardly exist. Theories of knowledge-based competition focus on internal resources as the source of value creation. To this end an analysis is carried out that leads to an identification of predictors for a strategic HR architecture for SMEs. This architecture is then intended to enable optimum use of internal resources and thus contribute to the companys success. To achieve this, the status quo must first be analysed of how the strategic landscape of HR departments in German SMEs is structured. In this context, a qualitative survey of 60 personal interviews with HR managers, executives and HR consultants is conducted. This paper outlines the results and discusses the implications accordingly.
    Keywords: human resources strategy; strategic human resources management; HR role; qualitative research method; theories of knowledge-based value creation; resource-based view; predictors for strategic HR architecture; optimal use of internal resources; contribution to corporate success; status quo of the strategic landscape of HR departments in German SMEs; small and medium-sized enterprises; SMEs.

  • Employability of the disabled people: A Brazilian case in the light of the theory of social learning for sustainability   Order a copy of this article
    by Lucilia Notaroberto, Marcia D'Angelo 
    Abstract: This study aimed to identify how several social actors government, universities, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and firms are socially learning to engage in promoting the recruitment, retention and advancement of people with disabilities, in Brazil. This is a case study in a NGO and the unit of analysis was the social project entitled "Employment of People with Disabilities - Overcoming and Autonomy". The results show that, in Brazil, the recruitment, retention and advancement of people with disabilities is a complex situation. The various social actors are still socially learning to deal with it, since it involves daily living with restrictive, cooperative and leverage factors. Therefore, discuss the ontological, epistemological and practical implications for all involved social actors. In addition, a detailed process of social learning for sustainability, anchored in circularity, is shown in various stages, which is suggested to apply to several dimensions: environmental, social, economic, political, cultural, spiritual, geographical etc.
    Keywords: Social learning for sustainability; employability; people with disabilities.

  • Beyond organisational boundaries: The Complex Relationship between Transformational Leadership, Organisational Justice, and Work-Family Conflict   Order a copy of this article
    by Ivan D. Sanchez, Juan M. Andrade, Mauricio Losada-Otalora 
    Abstract: Several studies have examined the direct relationship between transformational leadership and work-family conflict, but only few have explored the mechanisms that explain this relationship. We hypothesise that perceptions of procedural and interactional justice can mediate said relationship. We collect data on 466 employees from three organisations located in three different economics sectors. Using structural equation modelling and a bootstrapping regression-based approach, our results reveal that the only factor that mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and work-family conflict is the perception of interactional justice. Thus, we conclude that organisational leaders should be more aware and take greater care with respect to their interactions with employees at work, as their behaviours go beyond the organisational boundaries and often affect their employees family lives. Transformational leaders seem to allow employees to better manage the interface of their work and family lives given the perceptions of justice that their behaviours produce.
    Keywords: Transformational leadership; work-family conflict; procedural justice; interactional justice; organisational justice; psychological mechanism.

  • What comes in the way of Engagement? Moderation analysis of Stress on Women Marketing Executives Work Life Balance   Order a copy of this article
    by Tanusree Chakraborty, Daisy Gohain, Raiswa Saha 
    Abstract: The aim of the present paper is to understand the nature of the relationship between work-life balance (hereafter, WLB) and employee engagement (hereafter, EE) among women marketing executives working in the FMCG (Fast Moving Consumer Goods) sector. The paper attempted to understand the link between WLB and EE through different stress factors that pertains to womans life. For this purpose, 350 women marketing executives from FMCG sector across India, in the age range of 25-45 years were taken as sample. Data collection was done through questionnaire administration in person, as well as, use of online Google forms. After statistical analysis, the results revealed that overall WLB has a positive relation to EE of the women marketing executives. Stress due to Workload, Stress due to Child Care, Stress due to Unmet Career Aspirations and Stress due to Family Dissatisfaction moderates the relation between WLB and EE of the Women Marketing Executives. Managers, psychologists and human resource practitioners of the day need to pay attention to the women workforce into marketing. Woman employees needs for autonomy and flexibility in addressing their stress factors and WLB is of utmost importance.
    Keywords: Work Life Balance; Employee Engagement; Stress; Marketing Executives; Women.

  • Job Satisfaction of Returnees to Japan   Order a copy of this article
    by Lara Makowski-Komura, Ralf Bebenroth 
    Abstract: We coin the term returnees and investigate how Japanese returnees job satisfaction is influenced by organizational identification, motivational cultural intelligence, and the degree of Japaneseness of the business system at the workplace. Based on the tenets of social identity theory as well as from the person-environment (P-E) fit perspective, we find that returnees with stronger organizational identification enjoy higher job satisfaction. Furthermore, the degree of Japaneseness of the firms business system is negatively correlated with the returnees job satisfaction. Firms with Western-oriented business systems have, in fact, more returnees who have a higher degree of job satisfaction. Also, even though we do not find any direct relationship between motivational cultural intelligence and job satisfaction, there is some weak evidence to suggest that motivational cultural intelligence moderates the influence of the Japanese business system on returnees job satisfaction. In this regard, there is a group of returnees with higher motivational cultural intelligence who state they have higher job satisfaction when working in firms with a rather Japanese business system.
    Keywords: Returnees; Japan; Job satisfaction; Organizational identification; Motivational cultural intelligence; ‘Japaneseness’ of the business system.