International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management
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International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management (19 papers in press)
Special Issue on: ICMC 2017 Culture, Conflict, Decision Making and Experience of Organisational Norms for an Individual
Abstract: This study examines the influence of cultural context in managerial decision-making by comparing the legitimacy views of Finnish and Italian business managers. In the business context, managers often make decisions based on economic interests only; but for moral decisions, other means of legitimacy are required. Although both Finland and Italy are members of the European Union (EU), they have significant differences in terms of culture and economy. Finland is a North-European country with Protestant religion and low level of corruption, while Italy is a South-European country with the Catholic religion and high level of corruption. The study contributes to previous research on managerial decision-making by showing, with a qualitative approach, that Finnish managers rely more on property and perception view of legitimacy in their decision-making, whereas Italian managers rely more on a process view of legitimacy in their decision-making.
Keywords: cultural comparison; moral dilemma; legitimacy; decision-making.
Abstract: This study aims to extend the understanding of stakeholder influence in megaprojects by examining a controversial pulp mill project in Uruguay. The theoretical framework is based on stakeholder theory, focusing on stakeholder influences in international megaprojects. The research data comprise 96 newspaper articles from 2005 to 2009, and qualitative content analysis is used in the empirical analysis. The findings present the main events of the megaproject and how the stakeholder-firm and inter-stakeholder influences emerged and evolved during the project. This research contributes to the existing knowledge of stakeholder influence in megaprojects by showing that stakeholder influences are interdependent and non-exclusive and that stakeholder influence evolves over time. Moreover, the study examines inter-stakeholder influence in addition to stakeholder-firm influence and extends the stakeholder-firm classification, contributing to the literature on secondary stakeholder influence. The managerial implications emphasise the importance of understanding how stakeholders can be influenced by or, alternatively, exert influence in megaprojects.
Keywords: stakeholder; influence; megaprojects; conflict; case study.
Customer Satisfaction: Impact of Hedonic Shopping in Delhi and National Capital Region
by Pooja Misra, Prachi Deepak Patil, Aparna Gupta
Abstract: The Retail sector in India is in a boom phase and is rapidly growing. 15% of the gross domestic product of India and 8% of current employment is contributed by the retail sector in India. It is anticipated that the Indian retail market will increase by approximately 60% and be USD 1.1 trillion by 2020. The overall growth of the industry is expected to be 12% with organized retail expanding at 20% and traditional retail format at 10%. Interestingly, along with the changing environment in the retail space, customer preferences and expectations have also been changing at a very fast pace. If we look at the customer of today, they demand more than just the product from their shopping. There are two dimensions of a customer on the basis of their intenthedonic, who relate to the feelings of sensation and utilitarian whose primary intent is to fulfil the task or requirement. In the Indian marketplace too, there are a fair number of hedonic shoppers. This implies that retailers have a task of creating an environment that would attract its customers. This, in turn, draws the consumers attention towards atmospheric factors. It is imperative to understand how a consumer looks at the atmospheric cues and if at all it influences their buying behavior. The impact of hedonic shopping on customer satisfaction in the Indian retail industry has not yet been analysed. The present research seeks to study the impact of atmospheric factors, i. e. store layout and physical structure, ambience and lighting, music and smell, crowd profile, staff profile, as well as the location on the sales and customer experience. The study would be conducted in the Indian Retail sector ie retail store operations in Delhi and national capital region (NCR).
Keywords: Hedonic shopping; customer satisfaction; store layout and physical structure; ambience and lighting; music and smell; crowd and staff profile; location.
The Conflictual Sense of Commercialization and Academic Entrepreneurship
by Jukka Moilanen, Tero Montonen, Paivi Eriksson
Abstract: This article draws attention to how scientists make sense of commercialization activities at the university. Using the critical sensemaking lens (CSM), it illustrates how the juxtaposition of the dominant discourse of academic research and the emerging discourse of commercialization in academic work (re)produces a tensioned and conflictual sense of commercialization and academic entrepreneurship (AE). The article is based on empirical data gathered from a 2-year study of scientists working on a project that included both research and commercialization activities. The contribution of this article is twofold; it argues that commercialization is not only about organizing and funding, but also about power dynamics; and it demonstrates how hybrid projects that aim to integrate research with commercialization activities offer rich data for the researchers of AE.
Keywords: academic entrepreneurship; commercialization; scientists; critical sensemaking; formative context; rules; discourse; power.
The effectiveness of leadership development in the military context from a gender viewpoint
by Heli Häyrynen, Anna-Maija Lämsä
Abstract: In this case study, leadership development is investigated from the viewpoint of women in a military context. In particular, the effectiveness of a leadership development program in a specific context, namely the Finnish Defence Forces, is explored. The program being studied is unique because it is concerned with developing volunteers, not professional soldiers. A longitudinal, interview-based study of the topic was conducted with women who had participated in the program. The data consists of 45 open-ended interviews with 15 women. Each woman was interviewed three times: at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the program. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. The results show that the current leadership model for effective leadership in the Finnish Defence Forces would benefit especially from the addition of an intrapersonal leadership competence dimension, to better take womens needs into consideration. By making the female point of view visible and acknowledging womens views, new resources can be created for military organizations.
Keywords: case study; effectiveness; gender; leadership development; military leadership; woman.
Liminality and Hybridity of Academic Entrepreneurship
by Tero Montonen, Päivi Eriksson, Eeva Aromaa
Abstract: This article explores identities in-between and the experience of liminal and hybrid identities in academic work. The longitudinal qualitative case study illustrates how liminal identities crossing organizational boundaries can create a space for employee agency, in contrast to those within the organization that are influenced by the employer. Using the concept of third space of hybridity, this article illustrates how employee agency can be exercised when identities that cross organizational boundaries are constructed as meaningful. The study is based on repeated narrative interviews with one university scientist over 2 years, and the experiences of in-between identities were analyzed with narrative analysis. The article offers two contributions. First, it suggests that in-between identities are about liminality and hybridity at the same time. Second, it illustrates how the third space of hybridity provides a new ground for the study of changing academic work.
Keywords: Human resources; employee; identity; change; narrative; liminality; hybridity; university; business; case study.
Workplace Bullying in the Top Management: A Constructivist Grounded Theory Study
by Shreya Mishra, Manosi Chaudhuri, Ajoy Kumar Dey
Abstract: Workplace bullying is a worldwide phenomenon, and the onus of safeguarding the employees from the same, remains with the top managers of the organisation. While exploring this phenomenon, the authors wondered what if the executives within the top management themselves become the target of bullying? Thus, this paper aims to explore aspects of workplace bullying within the top managers of organisations. A constructivist approach was taken for the study, which adopted a constructivist grounded theory method to capture and analyse thirteen in-depth interviews with top executives from public and private sector organisations in India. It was found that top managers face intensified bullying. The study explored the antecedents, forms, repercussions, and ways of coping with bullying. Findings show that targets primarily face peer bullying and/or mobbing. This study bridges a gap in the literature which lacks empirical studies on bullying at the top level of organisations.
Keywords: constructivist grounded theory; leadership; mobbing; workplace bullying; qualitative; top executives; top management; upper echelons.
by Ryan McCann, Stuart Allen
Abstract: The communication of information relevant to strategic human resource management (SHRM) has the potential to support SHRM implementation and should be reflected in the activity of an organisations inter- and intra-organisational communication networks as forms of organisational information processing. This multiple case study examined SHRM implementation levels in a sample of oil and gas companies with the aim of examining the extent to which communication flows reflect the level of SHRM implementation. The case studies showed similarly low levels of SHRM-related communication and SHRM implementation, suggesting the need for further research to explore this relationship. The authors propose that SHRM-related communication could be an additional factor in assessing SHRM implementation levels and that organisational design must be considered in understanding low levels of SHRM-related communication.
Keywords: strategic human resource management; organisational communication; organisational information processing; networks; oil and gas industry; case study; western Pennsylvania.
Professional training in the context of the diversity of workplaces: project teams and non-standard forms of employment
by Katarzyna Piwowar-Sulej, Dominika B?k-Grabowska
Abstract: This article presents the discussion on the approach to professional training of workers in the situation when employees work in an unusual, non-routine work organization, which has been illustrated by the example of work in project teams, or when workers are employed in non-standard forms. The purpose of the study is to indicate whether, and if so, what are the differences in approaching professional training of employees in the process of working in project teams or while working within the framework of non-standard employment forms. Both distinguished phenomena are a part of the diversity of workplaces in contemporary organizations. Apart from presenting the theoretical approaches, the analysed issues have been illustrated by the presentation of the previously conducted quantitative research results and case studies. The first two cases refer to work in project teams, the third covers employment in non-standard forms.
Keywords: human resources development; professional training; project management; project team; non-standard form of employment; contractors.
Service-Profit Chain: Literature Review and Recommendations for Future Research within the Restaurant Industry
by Abbie Lambert, Suzanne Clinton, Lee Tyner
Abstract: The restaurant industry has historically struggled with poor management, low wages, and high employee turnover, which inevitably affect customer service and business results. Increasing pressure has been placed on the industry concerning the employee-employer relationship and organizations struggle to implement strategies that successfully address workforce concerns while continuing to optimize financial performance. Service management and service-profit chain literature have offered initial support for a framework in which employee perceptions influence customer perceptions of service, which in turn affect financial results. The following paper examines the growing body of service-profit chain literature and provides suggestions for future research within the industry.
Keywords: Service-profit chain; restaurant industry; service management; employee engagement.
Comparison of the Analytic Hierarchy Process and the Analytic Network Process in Human Resource Management
by Stanislav Peregrin, Josef Jablonsky
Abstract: Employee selection is one of the essential functions of human resource management. The main aim of the paper is to analyze the application of multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods in the process of the employee recruitment process to establish frameworks that help accepting best decisions. Information about the candidates, which was acquired by managers during various kinds of testing and personal interviews at the assessment center, constitutes the input data of our research. Subsequently, this information was processed and analyzed using two of the most popular MCDM methods ? the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Analytic Network Process (ANP). These were chosen because of their versatility and high efficiency in solving various types of decision-making problems. Finally, we compared the outcomes obtained by both methods. We discuss their potential for practical use. The application of AHP seems to be preferable for this group of problems because of its simplicity, and because less information is required from decision makers.
Keywords: Human resource management; decision making; multiple criteria decision making; analytic hierarchy process; analytic network process.
The importance of organizational justice on schedule satisfaction: A study of Latin American call center employees
by Randi L. Sims, Yuliya Yurova, Peter Zeidler
Abstract: Using organizational justice theory as a basis for hypotheses formation, we consider the relationship between fairness perceptions in how employee work shifts are assigned and reported employee satisfaction with their work schedule. Secondary survey data (N = 3,871) from employees working in call centers in Costa Rica, Brazil, and Argentina were supplied by the employing organization. We randomly drew 400 replies from each country for use in hypothesis testing. The results suggest that feelings of justice are positively related to employee feelings of satisfaction with their work schedule. Procedural and distributive justice are the strongest predictors. Length of time with the company was found to moderate the relationship between interactional justice and satisfaction with the schedule, with the effect significantly greater for recently hired employees. We also consider the impact of national culture on the relationship between justice perceptions and reported schedule satisfaction. The findings suggest that the relationship between distributive and procedural justice and satisfaction with schedule is stronger for employees from the high power distance national culture of Brazil. Implications for theory and recommendations for practice are offered.
Keywords: organizational justice; national culture; call center; moderation; tenure.
Generation Z Workers and Sexual Harassment
by Susan Stewart, H. Kristl Davison
Abstract: The focus of workplace policies and training workshops on the topic of sexual harassment has often been directed toward adult workers. However, the youngest members of the workforce, that is, members of Generation Z are increasingly finding themselves as victims of this behaviour. The purpose of this article is to (1) discuss the rights and responsibilities of Generation Z workers regarding sexual harassment, (2) share legal issues including recent court cases involving Generation Z workers, and (3) suggest ideas for future research and organisational actions to address this phenomenon.
Keywords: sexual harassment; Generation Z; teenage workers; human resources; human resource development; HRD; human resource management; HRM; management.
Understanding the Effects of Inclusive Strategic Decision Making on Embodiment of Organizational Values
by Linda Christie, Katherine Dubrowski
Abstract: This teaching case study examines strategic decisions made at a non-profit organization to elevate staff and improve morale following voluntary employee turnover. A values survey administered before, and after, implementation of strategic decisions provides insight regarding personal and organizational values centered on collaboration, empowerment, accountability and embracing change. Analysis of employee ratings across the two-time periods revealed employees views of the organization had changed following employee turnover. Further analysis of the perceived rationale for ratings was used to explain how recent efforts to reorganize resulted in the collective embodiment of organizational values.
Keywords: non-profit management; strategic decisions; organizational change; empowerment; collaboration.
Collective Ownership: An Expo Mart for the Exporter by the Exporter
by Anuj Sharma
Abstract: Till early 2000s, barring few, there was lack of exhibition facilities in National Capital Region (NCR) of India. Rakesh Kumar who was heading Export Promotion Council for Handicraft felt that this was one of the major problem in improving handicraft exports from India. To overcome this, Rakesh consulted the industry and Government bodies and as a result, Expo Mart having state-of-art facilities for organizing exhibitions in NCR was conceptualized. This was planned as Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV), primarily funded by exporters and supported by other government and non-government bodies. The case highlights the challenges faced by Rakesh Kumar at every stage of development of Expo Mart, from conducting the feasibility analysis, allotment of land and till the complete facility was developed and also the future challenges like fighting the competition and arranging finances for future growth. The case also highlights the leadership qualities like shared ownership, mutual trust, determination, integrity, empathy, employee empowerment, crisis management, stakeholders integration and financial acumen that led to the success of Expo Mart
Keywords: leadership; collective ownership; handicraft export; exhibitions; special purpose vehicle.
PREDICTORS OF ORGANISATIONAL EMBEDDEDNESS: AN INVESTIGATION INTO PERCEIVED ORGANISATIONAL SUPPORT AND ORGANISATIONAL TRUST
by Riann Singh
Abstract: Research supports the idea that organisational embeddedness is a valid indicator of turnover intentions. An assessment of the predictors of embeddedness, however, is under-explored. This study addresses the gap by proposing that perceptions of organisational support and trust predicts the three dimensions (links, fit, sacrifices) of organisational embeddedness. Organisational embeddedness, in turn, is expected to shape turnover intentions. A three-wave sample of 799 employees from the country of Trinidad was used to test the research propositions. The results of the study suggest that perceptions of organisational support and trust each predicts the development of embeddedness. The findings also suggest that embeddedness predicts turnover intent. The implications of the results are discussed. Limitations and future research directions are finally assessed.
Keywords: organisational embeddedness; turnover intentions; perceived support; perceived trust; Trinidad.
An Applied Requirement Simulation Model to Forecast the Needs of Nursing Services in the Malaysian Health Sector
by M. Raziff Ramli
Abstract: This paper aims to forecast the requirement of the nursing workforce for the next 15 years in Malaysia. Healthcare services act as the benchmark to estimate the requirement of the nursing workforce. The services were estimated based on 11 types of preventive care and 91 diseases, which was modelled in order to calculate the total services that would be required. System dynamic has been used as computer aid approach to simulate the insight of all the models. This model results in the total number of nursing service time required to meet the demand of the healthcare services in a population. The results would be discussed with the supply model for gap analysis. The implication of the results discussed in this paper would help the planning division in theMinistry of Health Malaysia in determining the right number of nurses that are required to meet the needs and to improve the health outcomes.
Keywords: Needs; Nurse workforce; Health human resources planning; Policy analysis.
Interviewing Peers: A Cross-Curriculum Project with HR and Communications Students
by Mark Grimes, Amber DeBaise
Abstract: Research is beginning to show that students get more out of a class when it includes practical hands-on projects that simulate real-world experiences, either through service learning or through other forms of experiential learning which take book concepts and compel the students to perform the learning in a simulation. This article was based on an experiential learning project in one School of Business Administration that had students from one HR course design jobs and then conduct hiring interviews for those jobs with students from another Communications course, and reviews the procedure and findings when the project was replicated over seven semesters. Following each interview, the interviewees provided feedback on the process and on the interviewers. At the conclusion of the semester, participants in the HR class provided feedback on the experience through standard course evaluations.
Keywords: Interviewing; College Projects; Staffing; Communications; Cross-Curriculum; Experiential Learning; Real-world Projects; Human Resources.
Revealing Deep Interaction Patterns of Team Learning Processes through Video-based Interactive Analysis
by Lei Xie, Michael Beyerlein, Soo Jeoung Han
Abstract: New tools provide new lenses for a better understanding of how learning occurs within the team setting. A better understanding of team learning will enable human resource development (HRD) professionals to more effectively develop an enhanced level of performance in the workplace. Since teams represent complex learning systems, traditional questionnaires that take a static snapshot of the reality and interviews that capture retrospective member memories fail to reflect the dynamics or the holistic nature of teamwork. Deeper patterns of the dynamics of team learning will provide the foundation for more generalizable theories. We argue that a better understanding of team learning in HRD will grow when scholars generate new models of team learning systems based on new ways of measuring team behavior that capture the complex interactions among members. In this paper, we propose that video-based interaction analysis can offer more opportunities. We discuss the current research methods issues, profile the current state of the scholarship of team learning, and recommended a new data collection/analysis approach: video-based interactive analysis (VIA).
Keywords: video-based interactive analysis; team learning; human resource development.