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International Journal of Healthcare Policy (5 papers in press)
Estimating The Economic Impact of the 2014 Ebola Virus Outbreak in West Africa: An Empirical Approach by Mohamed Jalloh Abstract: The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa is one of the most devastating in history .The devastating nature of this epidemic drew world-wide attention as it spread across borders. This study therefore, aimed at evaluating the economic impact of the epidemic in countries affected. The study adopted an innovative methodology that captures the contemporaneous impact of the outbreak on key economic variables of interest. The results from the study revealed that in addition to the adverse impact of the Ebola disease, the isolation of countries affected by the epidemic contributed immensely in worsening their economic conditions. Thus, the study noted the need for strengthening health care systems, enhancing the capacity of health workers, non- restriction on the movement of persons and goods and the need for regional coordination of efforts in combating epidemic outbreaks in the future. Keywords: Ebola; outbreak; economic; epidemic; devastating; West Africa; combating.
Health care expenditure and income generation: a U.S. case by Claudio Socci, Maurizio Ciaschini, Rosita Pretaroli, Francesca Severini Abstract: As well as a policy variable that has the potential to affect economic growth, a reform of health care expenditure involves the change of GDP because of its role played inside the processes of generation and distribution of income. In this paper, an effort is made to verify, through the Macro Multipliers approach, the possibility to design a convenient policy for Health care expenditure. Such a policy permits to rule the incidence of health's expenditure with respect to total output and without neglecting the effects that it originates on the main macroeconomic variables like as GDP. The empirical analysis is built on an Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) framework developed for the United States of America socio-economic system. The convenient policy differs from selective policy for health sector. The first one implies a complex redistribution of the resources in order to achieve the best result in terms of reduction of the ratio between health expenditure and GDP but without depressing total industrial output and income generation. Keywords: Health care expenditure; Social Accounting Matrix; Multisectoral extended model; MM approach.
Effectiveness of Health Systems Strengthening Interventions in Africa: A Systematic Review by Olaiya O. Fatodu, Olusola O. Oyenuga Abstract: Background: World Health Organisation devoted World Health Report of 2000 to health systems performance. Since then, many international development partners and national governments have been funding Health Systems Strengthening (HSS) interventions.
Methods and Findings: Interventions that are included in this review are those that were carried out in single or multiple African countries. Among other criteria, such interventions had to directly target at least one of six HSs building blocks. 18 relevant evaluations were critically appraised for quality from 200 potentially relevant evaluations. No intervention concurrently strengthened all the 6 HSs building blocks and none improved all 4 overall outcomes of HSS.
Conclusion and Recommendation: HSS intervention in Africa deserves more attention by policy makers, global health funders, and public health professionals in Africa. This systematic review reveals shortcomings of HSS interventions in Africa and makes 4 evidence-based recommendations to guide and improve future HSS interventions in Africa to enable them have impacts on all intermediate and overall HSS outcomes indicators.
Keywords: Health systems strengthening; health systems; Africa; health systems intervention.
Dismay and disparities - Economic Development and Cancer Incidence by Susanne (Sue) Cruickshank, Bryan McIntosh, Michael Fascia Abstract: Understanding the distribution and determinants of cancerous diseases in specified populations attempts to prevent and control cancer-related public health issues. These insights are used to inform prevention and cancer control public health strategies Quantifying cancer occurrences in a given population is therefore an essential step in epidemiological studies. During economic growth, however, every society undergoes several substantial structural changes in healthcare demand and supply. In this paper, we discuss the relationship between economic growth and cancer incidences. The purposes of the paper are to describe and measure the influence of an increasing per capita income on the overall incidence of cancer. By using worldwide cross-sectional data from 162 countries, regression results with crude and age-standardised rates, allows us to measure the elasticity of cancer incidences with respect to per capita income and to decompose the elasticity coefficient into two components: age-effect and lifestyle-effect.
Understanding how cancer incidence evolves during economic growth is increasingly useful for forecasting the economic impact of cancerous diseases and for governing the process of resource allocation in planning health services. In this article we sketch a macroeconomic theory of cancer incidence. We introduce some basic hypotheses about how demand-side economic structural changes may affect the evolution of cancer incidence. Finally, we try to develop a basic framework in order to explain how economic structural changes on the demand-side can affect the evolution of cancer incidence. Keywords: Cancer incidence • economic growth • structural change • per-capita income • lifestyle effect • age effect.
United States Healthcare International Comparisons: What Are We Comparing? by David Jordan, David Boucher Abstract: International comparisons between the United States quai-market and other nations nationalized healthcare or insurance models have, and continue to generate significant debate. Discussions inevitably cite the World Health Organizations or Commonwealth Funds work, but what these comparisons actually examine is somewhat unclear when examining the complexity of what is being compared. Often international healthcare comparisons are presented as one based on the quality of healthcare in subject national systems. This paper discusses some of the complexities associated with international comparisons, provides some additional perspectives for metrics often cited in international comparisons, and suggests we may be served better by adjusting the premises of continued discourse in the matter. If the purpose of international comparisons is to evaluate the world laboratory of health care policy and processes, which it should, this paper suggests the discussion needs redirected in both focus and content. rn Keywords: International Healthcare Comparisons; United States Healthcare; Healthcare Model Comparisons; Quasi-market Versus Nationalized Healthcare Insurance or Socialized Healthcare; Single Payer Versus Quasi-market Healthcare; International Healthcare Quality Comparisons.