International Journal of Human Factors Modelling and Simulation
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International Journal of Human Factors Modelling and Simulation (3 papers in press)
Lower body bracing behaviours during externally supported tasks with extended reaches by Jessica Cappelletto, Jim R. Potvin Abstract: In many jobs, objects in the task environment can restrict a workers posture, by constraining how close their body is to the object being acted on. Although this provides an obstacle for the worker, these objects can be used to externally support their body by means of lower body bracing. The purpose of this study was to determine when participants would brace, and to quantify the amount of force used for bracing. At 4 task hand locations, participants performed 6 exertions, with all combinations of 2 forces and 3 directions, and participants chose whether they braced or not. Participants were twice as likely to brace when the task had a far reach. Average brace forces were 117 N for upwards and pulling exertions, and 67 N for downward exertions. These data can be used to guide the prediction of external forces during work simulation and proactive ergonomics assessments. Keywords: bracing; posture prediction; constrained reaching; external support.
Assessment of the Required Human Capacity Factor Using Flight Simulator as an Appropriate Accelerated Test Vehicle by Ephraim Suhir Abstract: Flight simulator can be employed as an appropriate and successful test vehicle that could be used to quantify, on the probabilistic basis, the required level of the human capacity factor (HCF) with respect to the expected mental workload (MWL) during fulfillment of a particular aerospace mission or in an extraordinary situation. In the analysis that follows it is shown how this could be done. The main concepts are illustrated by a numerical example. Keywords: human capacity factor; mental workload; flight simulator; accelerated test; probabilistic approach.
The benefits of advanced exposure metrics to estimate occupational shoulder demands by Meghan E. Vidt, Nicholas J. La Delfa, Jacquelyn M. Maciukiewicz, Andrew J. Ho, Jack P. Callaghan, Clark R. Dickerson Abstract: Physical exposure assessment is a critical component of ergonomic analysis in occupational settings. This work used a computational model to obtain quantitative measures of shoulder moment, glenohumeral joint contact force, and rotator cuff muscle demand based on recorded postures and manual force estimates during the performance of 10 different occupational tasks. Outcomes of simulation analyses demonstrated that advanced model outputs can enhance resolution of shoulder-specific exposures currently unavailable with standard ergonomics assessment techniques. A novel composite injury risk score effectively discriminated between shoulder exposure levels. It includes multiple complementary parameters into a single exposure risk assessment tool. The major contribution of the work is to establish the feasibility and utility of incorporating a computational model into ergonomic assessments across occupational tasks. Keywords: Occupational; ergonomics; muscle; model; computational; shoulder; rotator cuff; glenohumeral; injury risk; assessment; biomechanical; work; exposure.