International Journal of Human Factors Modelling and Simulation (8 papers in press)
Lower body bracing behaviours during externally supported tasks with extended reaches
by Jessica Cappelletto, Jim R. Potvin
Abstract: In many jobs, objects in the task environment can restrict a workers posture, by constraining how close their body is to the object being acted on. Although this provides an obstacle for the worker, these objects can be used to externally support their body by means of lower body bracing. The purpose of this study was to determine when participants would brace, and to quantify the amount of force used for bracing. At 4 task hand locations, participants performed 6 exertions, with all combinations of 2 forces and 3 directions, and participants chose whether they braced or not. Participants were twice as likely to brace when the task had a far reach. Average brace forces were 117 N for upwards and pulling exertions, and 67 N for downward exertions. These data can be used to guide the prediction of external forces during work simulation and proactive ergonomics assessments.
Keywords: bracing; posture prediction; constrained reaching; external support.
Assessment of the Required Human Capacity Factor Using Flight Simulator as an Appropriate Accelerated Test Vehicle
by Ephraim Suhir
Abstract: Flight simulator can be employed as an appropriate and successful test vehicle that could be used to quantify, on the probabilistic basis, the required level of the human capacity factor (HCF) with respect to the expected mental workload (MWL) during fulfillment of a particular aerospace mission or in an extraordinary situation. In the analysis that follows it is shown how this could be done. The main concepts are illustrated by a numerical example.
Keywords: human capacity factor; mental workload; flight simulator; accelerated test; probabilistic approach.
The benefits of advanced exposure metrics to estimate occupational shoulder demands
by Meghan E. Vidt, Nicholas J. La Delfa, Jacquelyn M. Maciukiewicz, Andrew J. Ho, Jack P. Callaghan, Clark R. Dickerson
Abstract: Physical exposure assessment is a critical component of ergonomic analysis in occupational settings. This work used a computational model to obtain quantitative measures of shoulder moment, glenohumeral joint contact force, and rotator cuff muscle demand based on recorded postures and manual force estimates during the performance of 10 different occupational tasks. Outcomes of simulation analyses demonstrated that advanced model outputs can enhance resolution of shoulder-specific exposures currently unavailable with standard ergonomics assessment techniques. A novel composite injury risk score effectively discriminated between shoulder exposure levels. It includes multiple complementary parameters into a single exposure risk assessment tool. The major contribution of the work is to establish the feasibility and utility of incorporating a computational model into ergonomic assessments across occupational tasks.
Keywords: Occupational; ergonomics; muscle; model; computational; shoulder; rotator cuff; glenohumeral; injury risk; assessment; biomechanical; work; exposure.
Optimization-based Identification of Parameters in a Mathematical Model of Muscle Fatigue
by Laura Frey-Law, Frank K. Urban, III
Abstract: A number of mathematical muscle fatigue models have been developed; however, the determination of optimal parameter values defining model behaviour is not trivial. Typically, parameter identification relied on estimates of endurance time (ET) for sustained static contractions. However, this is not feasible for more complex tasks, such as intermittent contractions, in which ET is not achieved or reported due to long task durations. Here we present numerical methods, which use multiple time-varying measures of fatigue development to find best-fit fatigue (F) and recovery (R) parameter values for one fatigue model. While we used the three-compartment controller model (3CC), the approach using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm could be applied to other fatigue models. This method determines best-fit parameter solutions as those resulting in a minimum least squares difference between measured and modelled data. We present a summary of this approach with two extreme examples with multiple on:off cycle repetitions from the literature to demonstrate determination of the two model parameters, F and R for each dataset. Thus, the method works with repetitive contractions, utilizing multiple data points over time, not just a single endurance time point, as in previous studies.
Keywords: muscle fatigue; mathematical models; fatigue models; numerical techniques; numerical analyses; optimization; gradient-based optimization; parameter identification; parameter estimation; least squares; Levenberg-Marquardt method.
Short note adequate trust, human-capacity-factor, probability-distribution-function of human non-failure and its entropy
by Ephraim Suhir
Abstract: This note is an extension, a generalization of and an attempt to quantify, on the probabilistic basis, the message of the recent Kaindl-and-Svetinovic publication Avoiding Undertrust and Overtrust. The author of the present analysis addresses some important aspects of the human-in-the-loop problem for safety-critical missions and situations, in which trust can be viewed as an essential part of the human-capacity-factor (HCF). This factor, as has been recently shown, should be evaluated vs. mental workload (MWL), when there is a need to assure a successful and safe outcome of a particular human effort, such as, e.g., an aerospace mission or an extraordinary situation. The double exponential probability distribution function (DEPDF) for the random HCF is revisited. It is shown particularly that the entropy of this distribution, when applied to the trustee (a human, a technology, or a concept), can be viewed as an appropriate quantitative characteristic of the propensity of a decision maker to an under-trust or an over-trust judgment and, as a consequence of that, to the likelihood of making an incorrect or even an erroneous decision.
Keywords: human factor;trustworthy;entropy;.
Development and Evaluation of an Anthropometric Module for Digital Human Modelling Systems
by Erik Brolin, Dan Högberg, Lars Hanson, Roland Örtengren
Abstract: This paper presents the development of a software module and a graphical user interface which aims to support the definition of anthropometry of manikins in a digital human modelling (DHM) tool. The module is developed from user interviews and literature studies, as well as mathematical methods for anthropometric diversity consideration. The module has functionality to create both single manikins and manikin families, where it is possible to combine or analyse different population datasets simultaneously. The developed module and its interface has been evaluated via focus group interviews and usability tests by DHM tool users. Results from the studies show that the developed module and its interface has relevant functionality, fits well into industrial work processes, and is easy to use. The study also identifies possibilities to further increase usability.
Keywords: anthropometry; digital human modelling; user interface; human diversity; manikin.
Simulation-based Evaluation of Patient Appointment Policies for a Primary Care Clinic with Unscheduled Visits: A Case Study
by Waldemar Karwowski, Afrifah Bobbie
Abstract: Appointment scheduling represents an effective strategy to improve the health delivery process. The main objective of this study was to develop a discrete-event simulation model to evaluate the impact of appointment scheduling policies on a primary care clinic with unscheduled, walk-in patient visits. A teaching hospital primary care clinic employing faculty and resident physicians was modeled and evaluated. The investigated clinic system included various types of patients, patient paths, and multiple clinic staff that served them under conditions of patient no-shows and unscheduled patient arrivals. The developed simulation model can be used to evaluate trade-offs in appointment scheduling policies in a primary care clinic that utilizes a multi-server queueing process with stochastic arrivals and multiple processes. Recommendations for setting the number of treated walk-in patients with modifications to the appointment scheduling decisions were also provided.
Keywords: Appointment scheduling; discrete event simulation; primary care clinic; walk-ins; patient access; simulation; human factors.
Predicting Respirator Size and Fit from 2D Images
by Eric Biagiotti, Medhat Korna, Daniel O. Rice, Daniel Barker
Abstract: Individuals rely heavily on the efficacy of respirators when there is potential for chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear threats (CBRN). The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) requires personnel to undergo time-consuming fit tests for full face respirators, which are a critical component of the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) ensemble. The quality of respirator fit directly contributes to its effectiveness. Leveraging the ubiquity and capabilities of mobile devices, machine learning, and advances in computerized 3D modeling, we seek to make this process simpler, faster, and more accurate. This paper introduces the Mask Analysis and Size Quantification (MASQ) framework: an extensible mobile-based semi-automated system that (1) combines 2D images of a subjects head, an existing 3D headform model generation approach, and an analytic model to recommend a size; and (2) establishes a platform for future research of the shape and anthropometric features of the human face and respirator sizing and fit effectiveness.
Keywords: 3DMM; 3D morphable model; landmark detection; camera calibration; mobile devices; anthropometry; chemical; biological; radiological; or nuclear threats; CBRN; respirator; sizing; fit; machine learning; 2D images; Mask Analysis and Size Quantification; MASQ.