International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics (10 papers in press)
The relationship between the dynamic model of crew resource management and line operational safety audits
by Don Harris, Heikki Mansikka, Kai Virtanen
Abstract: The essential skills underlying crew resource management (CRM) are described in the competency frameworks published by the International Civil Aviation Organization and International Air Transport Association. CRM dynamic model (CRM-DYMO) demonstrated that CRM processes based upon these competency frameworks could be described as a simple input-output-process (IPO) model. This paper illustrates how the major characteristics in the Line Operations Safety Audits (LOSA) threat and error framework relate directly to components in CRM-DYMO. It provides a basis for understanding error within the LOSA framework with respect to a competency-based model of CRM. The approach is illustrated with reference to examples of CRM performance taken from aircraft accident reports. CRM-DYMO forms a practical basis for translating LOSA data into effective CRM training by making explicit the functional linkages between these two constructs.
Keywords: crew resource management; CRM; threat and error management; TEM; evidence-based training; EBT; pilot competencies.
The effects of mindfulness and repeated cold exposure on cold tolerance and motor skill performance
by Kaitlin Mugford, Heather Barry, Michael King, Gal Ziv, Heather Carnahan
Abstract: The ability to withstand cold temperatures and perform motor tasks in cold environments is a requirement in various industries. This study aimed to determine whether being read a mindfulness passage along with repeated cold exposure could improve motor performance and tolerance in cold conditions. Participants were assigned to either a cold exposure, or a mindfulness plus cold exposure training group. For training, the cold exposure group submerged their hand in cold water (2 C), and the mindfulness group did the same as they were read a mindfulness script. Following training both groups performed a maximum duration exposure to cold test, and then performed a cold grooved pegboard and knot untying post-test. Both groups performed similarly on the motor tests. Maximum cold exposure duration was greater in the mindfulness group. Individuals exposed to cold/wet environments could increase their ability to withstand cold exposure by implementing mindfulness techniques.
Keywords: cold exposure; cold training; mindfulness; hand function; cold tolerance; discomfort; sensation; dexterity.
The impact of Covid-19 pandemic on the psychological fatigue of control room operators in oil, gas and petrochemical industry
by Budiyanto Soinangun, Ivan Novendri, Jaka Matsana, Fergyanto E. Gunawan, Muhammad Asrol, A.A.N. Perwira Redi
Abstract: In industries which run continuous and heavy-duty plants such as oil, gas, and petrochemical industries, shift work is commonly applied to ensure production flow. After the outbreak of Covid-19, business needs to adapt quickly so that their activities can run. This study discusses the influence of Covid-19 on control room operators' psychological fatigue in the oil, gas, and petrochemical industry. A simple yet effective method was implemented to measure sleep quality and quantity, cognitive performance, and fatigue incidents. It was used to observe the effect of the Covid-19 situation on the psychological fatigue of control room operators due to the new policy implemented. Because of the pandemic, it is important to examine the fatigue effect on control room operators during. This study aims to provide a suggestion that can be used by decision makers to address human errors with fewer workplace accidents during the Covid-19 pandemic.
Keywords: control room operator; oil and gas industry; petrochemical industry; Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; PSQI; psychological fatigue.
Usability of e-learning and usability of adaptive e-learning: a literature review
by Monica Mazon-Fierro, David Mauricio
Abstract: In this paper, a review is performed to the literature related to usability of e-learning (UEL) and usability of adaptive e-learning (UAEL). It identifies the most researched aspects, the tools and frameworks that have been developed and that take into consideration usability, as well as the factors and metrics. The methodology carried out in this research includes planning, development, and the results. In addition, the descriptive analysis and the presentation of the articles are based on distribution of articles over time, distribution of articles between journals, and types of publications. The usability factors found in this review appear in a general context, but there is the need to adapt and propose new usability factors specific for a learning environment, in a tool aimed for students learn effectively. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate aspects of usability that can improve or enhance the learning experience in e-learning and adaptive e-learning.
Keywords: usability; e-learning usability; usability adaptive e-learning; learning process.
Evaluation of the human cognitive performance and physiological responses in different thermal situations; a simulated study in controlled climatic room
by Hamidreza Heidari, Ahmad Soltanzadeh, Mohsen Mahdinia, Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi, Zahra Jafari, Matin Roshan
Abstract: This work aimed to investigate the effects of heat discomfort on some cognitive functions and physiological responses. Twenty-one healthy females were exposed to different level of thermal discomfort in a simulated climatic room for 90 minutes. Physiological responses (heart rate, tympanic temperature and mean skin temperature), as well as cognitive functions of participants were recorded. Our findings showed that both of the tympanic temperature and mean skin temperature were changed significantly in different comfort situations (p < 0.05). In addition, in both of the focused and dispersed attention, the reaction time was the only parameter that increased significantly with worsening thermal conditions (p < 0.05), however, the relation was based on a nonlinear rule. The mean and standard deviation of response time as a criteria of cognitive function for comfort, moderately comfort and discomfort were 435.71 +- 36.94 ms, 388 +- 31.18 ms and 485.71 +- 145.04 ms, respectively.
Keywords: thermal discomfort; cognitive; performance; working memory; physiological responses.
Intuitive and subtle motion-anticipatory auditory cues reduce motion sickness in self-driving cars
by Justyna Maculewicz, Pontus Larsson, Johan Fagerlönn
Abstract: Motion sickness may be a factor detrimental to the experience of self-driving cars. This study investigates whether auditory displays can support in lowering passengers feeling of motion sickness by allowing them to anticipate upcoming manoeuvres. Twenty participants took part in the study and rode on a specially designed test track with and without auditory display while performing a reading task. The display provided information about upcoming car manoeuvres which were identified as being motion sickness inducing and the sounds were designed to resemble the actual sound of the manoeuvres taking place. Sounds representing acceleration, deceleration and left and right turns were played slightly in advance of the upcoming manoeuvre. Participants rated their motion sickness at regular intervals during the ride as well as before and after the ride. The results showed that illness ratings in the auditory display condition were statistically significantly lower compared to the condition without sound. The sounds were also judged as intuitive and helpful by the users who reported willingness to use them when riding autonomous cars in the future, especially while reading or working. These results have implications for the interaction design of self-driving cars and can guide future auditory display research.
Keywords: motion sickness; sonification; autonomous drive; autonomous car; car intention; car perception; self-driving vehicles; auditory display; interaction design; auditory display guidelines; experiment; automation technology; user acceptance.
Genuine co-design: an activity theory analysis involving emergency nurses in an interdisciplinary new product development project of a novel medical device
by Siw Eriksson, Pontus Wallgren, Leif Sandsjö, MariAnne Karlsson
Abstract: This study analysed a series of workshops and explored prerequisites for interdisciplinary co-design among industrial designers, design engineers and users in the development of a novel medical device. Presented as a case study, this paper focus on what affects participants transformative processes towards genuine participation in co-design processes. Based on activity theory, we suggest that co-design activities have to support not only users, but all participants, shifting their perspectives beyond their own domains rules, motives, objects and division of labour, i.e., beyond their own activity system, to support users participation as equal members in design teams. We propose that genuine co-design requires a holistic approach where a neutral arena, an impartial facilitator, clear rules of play, along with representational artefacts as mediating tools in the formation of a new collective activity system to foster equality, mutual value and long-term knowledge generation. Such approach requires a process over time.
Keywords: co-design; interdisciplinary collaboration; facilitating user involvement; power distribution; mediating tool; activity theory; activity system; healthcare; medical technology.
Human factors, ergonomic considerations and hospital bed designs: a review
by Atul Andhare, Anil Onkar
Abstract: This paper discusses the issues related to hospital bed designs for the bedridden patients. With the growth of the population, the number of elderly and bedridden patients is increasing rapidly. Bedridden patients always wish to be less dependent on the caregiver. They feel discomfort and embarrassment while using bedpans. Also, patient handling can cause musculoskeletal injuries to the nursing staff. Therefore, reducing the effort in managing such patients and making the patients less dependent on the caretaker is necessary. This reduction is possible by the proper design of beds. The paper reviews and analyses various works related to the following. Patient comfort in beds, utilisation of bedpans, bedsores, effects of patient handling on the nursing staff, and different designs reported in the literature. The results are presented in the form of tables. The conclusion is that current bed designs need to be more ergonomic, patient-friendly, and allow the effortless handling of patients. Recommendations for the improvement in the bed designs are listed.
Keywords: bed design; patient; bedridden; handling; ergonomics; bedsores; bedpan.
The effect of motion sickness on presence and user experience for head-mounted virtual reality
by Yung-Cheng Chen, Huey-Min Sun, Yu-Hsiang Shih
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyse and evaluate the effect of motion sickness on presence and user experience for the virtual reality system of 3D head-mounted display integrated with a six-axis dynamic platform. According to literature review, we identified three characteristics of motion sickness, presence, and user experience based on two views of sensorial mode and cognitive mode. We conclude there are some associations among motion sickness, presence, and user experience based on two perspectives. In the experimental results, there is a significant negative relationship in the sensorial mode from the sensory disorder of motion sickness to the sensory fidelity of presence, while a significant positive relationship from the sensory fidelity of presence to the perceived attractiveness of user experience. In the cognitive mode, there is a significant positive relationship from the involvement of presence to the perceived ergonomic quality of user experience.
Keywords: sensory fidelity; involvement; sensory disorder; somatic imbalance; perceived attractiveness; perceived ergonomic quality.
The effect factors of motion sickness induced by sensory conflict and posture instability theories
by Yung-Cheng Chen, Huey-Min Sun, Yu-Hsiang Shih
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore the effect factors of motion sickness for the HMD virtual reality (VR) system with six-axis dynamic platform. We would like to understand the influences of duration of simulator use, operational control training, and the first/third person perspective on motion sickness from related literature review. We constructed the hypotheses based on a systematic view of thinking from the postural instability theory and the sensory conflict theory. In order to efficiently realise the perception of motion sickness, we make use of the fast motion sickness (FMS) scale to assess the level of motion sickness of subjects. Experimental results show that the above factors have significant impacts on motion sickness. In addition, there is a significant relationship between the FMS scores of motion sickness and the heart rate.
Keywords: sensory conflict theory; postural instability theory; motion sickness; virtual reality; six-axis dynamic platform.