International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics (5 papers in press)
Human-factors lessons from a longitudinal, in-vivo study of operations at a low-cost carrier
by Simon A. Bennett
Abstract: Apart from Ginnetts (1990) seminal paper, there are few in vivo studies of flight operations generally, and of crew resource management (CRM) specifically. This paper presents an ethnographic account of fifty-six intra-European flights and an in-house CRM training course. The subject airline provided the author (referred to as the observer) with an airside pass. At the subject airline, pilots and cabin crew are jointly trained in CRM. It was found that (1) pilot-cabin crew teams functioned effectively under a variety of conditions, (2) safety-critical flight-deck routines, such as programming the flight-management computer, were subject to interruption, (3) pilots and cabin crewmembers provided emotional support to colleagues which promoted efficiency and effectiveness, and (4) pilots who had not operated for a considerable time could be rostered to operate services to challenging airfields. The findings suggested that (1) joint training of pilots and cabin crew in CRM delivers safety and efficiency benefits, (2) benefits would accrue from expanding the CRM training catchment to include key ground personnel, (3) services to challenging airfields must be crewed by pilots who operate regularly. The study showed that despite the passage of time and evolution of the industry, the observations made by Ginnett twenty-years ago still hold. It is recommended that the industry develops a complete understanding of the lived-reality of flight operations. This can only be achieved through candid in-vivo studies of ground-schools and flight-deck/cabin labour.
Keywords: Crew resource management; safety; ethnography; inductive; lessons.
Flexible office, flexible working? A post-relocation study on how and why university employees use a combi-office for their activities at hand.
by Antonio Cobaleda Cordero, Maral Babapour, I.C. MariAnne Karlsson
Abstract: This study reports on a group of university employees, six months after their relocation from cell-offices into a combi-office. Data from interviews, observations and planning documentation was collected to gain an in-depth understanding of how employees use their office landscape and why. Activity Theory was taken as framework for the analysis. The findings show that the new office landscape was perceived to be more flexible and capable of supporting employees activities. The overall occupancy was low and backup spaces, such as quiet rooms, were barely used. Matches and mismatches between the employees, their activities and the office were identified that explain the occupancy rates and why spaces such as quiet rooms were unpopular spaces. This paper contributes with rich detail on the use of a flexible office landscape in a university context and shows the usefulness of Activity Theory in the study of employee-office interactions.
Keywords: office use; office landscape; flexible office; flexible working; combi-office; spatial attributes; Activity Theory; post-relocation study.
Preserving Auditory Situation Awareness in Headphone-Distracted Persons
by Keenan May, Bruce Walker
Abstract: Auditory distraction due to portable audio devices poses a hazard for pedestrians and cyclists. To explore solutions, auditory situation awareness (SA) was assessed within a simulated auditory roadway environment rendered via speakers. Participants' ability to report the presence and current/future location of vehicles was measured. The key manipulation was whether concurrently-presented distracting music was spatialized. Also manipulated were two common safety measures that impact spatialization quality: whether bone or air conduction headphones were used, and whether sounds were presented in one or both ears. Spatialization of distractors improved vehicle localization in some conditions, as did presenting to one ear and via bone conduction. In Experiment 2, distractors were spatialized adaptively, to be diametrically opposed to targets. This intervention improved localization without increasing workload. Results suggest that static or adaptive spatialization should be considered as a safety measure for sound presentation in computing systems used by cyclists or pedestrians.
Keywords: Safety; headphones; situation awareness; bone conduction; bicycling; roadway; hazard avoidance; spatial audio.
Impact of Military Footwear Type and a Load Carriage Workload on Slip Initiation Biomechanics
by Harish Chander, Sachini N. K. Kodithuwakku Arachchige, Samuel Wilson, Adam Knight, Reuben Burch, Daniel Carruth, Chip Wade, John Garner
Abstract: The impact of military footwear and workload on slip incidence and severity have been previously reported. Further analysis of slip initiation biomechanics is warranted in attempt to prevent slips. Sixteen participants were tested with two military boots, standard (STD) and minimalist (MIN), before (PRE) and after (POST) a load carrying task during normal gait (NG), unexpected (US) and expected (ES) slips. Joint kinematics, ground reaction forces and muscle activity from the slipping leg were analyzed using a 2 (MIN-STD)
Keywords: Military Footwear; Slips; Falls; Lower Extremity Kinematics; Lower Extremity Ground Reaction Forces; Lower Extremity Muscle Activity; Load Carriage.
Human Factors Validation for a Rheumatoid Arthritis Auto-Injector for the Adalimumab Biosimilar FKB327
by Talia Serrecchia, Kimberly Waller, Tomoyoshi Ishikawa, Rafael Muniz, Tom Varricchione
Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disorder, often treated with adalimumab. This study was designed to validate usability of the adalimumab biosimilar FKB327 auto-injector (AI) and document risk associated with the device. A total of 136 participants were enrolled, including patients with RA, caregivers of patients with RA, and healthcare providers of patients with RA. Use errors and close calls were evaluated during 2 simulated injections. A full dose was administered by 90.4% and 97.8% of users for the first and second injections, respectively. The most common use errors were failure to squeeze injection site, check expiration date, check medication in viewing window, and rotate injection site during the second injection. The device, packaging, and instructions received favourable user ratings. FKB327-AI is an easy-to-use device for patients with RA, their caregivers, and healthcare providers. Errors that could lead to incorrect dose were infrequent and not associated with serious harm.
Keywords: adalimumab biosimilar; autoinjector; human factors validation; medical device usability validation; rheumatoid arthritis; rheumatoid arthritis caregivers; rheumatoid arthritis healthcare providers; rheumatoid arthritis patients; safety analysis; simulated injections; user error analysis.