International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics
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International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics (5 papers in press)
Assessment of stress among assembly-line workers: correlation between subjective and objective physiological measures by Auditya Purwandini Sutarto, Kamarulzaman Mahmad Khairai, Muhammad Nubli Abdul Wahab Abstract: The main objectives of this study were first to evaluate a correlation between self-reported stress and heart rate variability (HRV) as a physiological marker, and secondly to examine the HRV difference between high and low-stress level workers. The participants consisted of 36 assembly-line female workers who were divided equally into a high (HS) and low-stress group (LS). The HS group consisted of subjects who reported extremely severe of depression, anxiety, stress, scale (DASS) measures while the LS participants were randomly selected from the 99 participants who had normal to moderate levels of each scale of DASS. All participants attended one session HRV measurement. Pearson correlation coefficients showed negative associations between DASS and the HRV coherence scores as well as differences on HRV between two groups. These findings suggested that objective HRV physiological evaluations and self-reporting measures may be integrated when assessing stress to capture a well-rounded picture of participant's states. Keywords: stress; anxiety; depression; heart rate variability; HRV; physiology; psycho-physiological; blue-collar; DASS; biofeedback; physiological. DOI: 10.1504/IJHFE.2020.10031820
The training and practice of crew resource management: an in vivo study of the UK National Police Air Service by Simon Ashley Bennett Abstract: The UK National Police Air Service (NPAS) provides tactical air support to the police forces of England and Wales. Uniquely, crews are composed of civilian pilots and police officers [tactical flight officers (TFOs)]. Providing tactical air support makes big demands of pilots and TFOs. Threats include aerial hazards, marginal weather, no-notice re-tasking, malfunctions, attacks launched from the ground, a 12-hour shift and irregular meals. Mindful of the need to create flight-deck teams that are resilient, resourceful and, above all, effective, the NPAS jointly trains its pilots and TFOs in crew resource management (CRM). Behaviours trained in CRM ground-schools (such as methodical skepticism, mindfulness and canvassing) were observed on the flight-deck and were seen to impact performance. Joint training of pilots and TFOs in CRM, to the extent that it improves understanding and communication, may improve teamworking. Operators that separately train pilots and cabin crew in CRM should consider joint training. Further, operators should broaden the CRM training catchment to include dispatchers, engineers and other safety-critical personnel. Widening the catchment would acknowledge the systemic character of aviation (Harris and Stanton, 2010; Bennett 2019c). Further, it would acknowledge the Civil Aviation Authority's (2016) exhortation to improve inter-profession coordination. It is recommended that more inductive, in vivo studies of the flight-deck be conducted. Keywords: police helicopters; inductive study; crew resource management; CRM; joint training; performance. DOI: 10.1504/IJHFE.2020.10031357
Principal component analysis of upper-extremity joint moment variability during hammering by Joseph E. Langenderfer, Sumaya Ferdous, Nilanthy Balendra Abstract: The goal of this study was to examine effects of hammer symmetry of inertia on upper-extremity joint moment variability. Moment variability is important in quantifying tissue exposure to stress variations. Nineteen male participants (age: 20-40 year) swung four hammers with known inertial properties while movement was recorded. Joint moment components were calculated with inverse dynamics. Moment component variability was explained with principal component analysis. Higher inertia symmetry hammers resulted in greater explained variability (up to 18%) for wrist internal-external, elbow abduction-adduction and elbow flexion moment components. For the most inertia symmetric hammer a different structure of moment variability between principal components was found for some moment components. These results suggest that more inertia symmetric hammers result in decreased moment diversity. Decreased moment diversity represents a more constant dose of loading exposure applied to some upper-extremity tissues and may indicate less variable stresses and increased potential for musculoskeletal disorder. Keywords: kinetics; variability; diversity; strategy; principal component analysis; PCA; inertia; symmetry; moment; hammer; upper-extremity. DOI: 10.1504/IJHFE.2020.10031665
The influence of cockpit solar loading on offshore pilot cognitive performance by Michael J. Taber Abstract: The goal of this research was to develop greater understanding of how environmental factors such as passive heat stress (through cockpit solar loading) might influence performance of offshore helicopter pilots who are completing simulated in-flight emergencies. Real-time physiological data such as heart rate, respiration, skin temperature, and eye tracking were used as objective quantitative measures to contextualise performance based on realistic environmental conditions. Results indicated a significant difference in skin temperature (Tskin) when comparing baseline (denoted as normal training conditions in this study) and testing completed after being exposed to passive heating for 90 minutes in 30°C ambient air temperature. Results also indicate that there were significantly higher numbers of fixations and increased index of cognitive activity (ICA) after passive heating. It is recommended that pilots are provided the opportunity to complete flight simulator training/assessment while wearing full flight ensemble (e.g., immersion suit, gloves, life vest, helmet/headset, etc…). Keywords: passive heat exposure; index of cognitive activity; ICA emergency response. DOI: 10.1504/IJHFE.2020.10031703
Understanding drivers' latent hazard anticipation in partially automated vehicle systems by Siby Samuel, Yusuke Yamani, Donald L. Fisher Abstract: Automated driving systems can support driver performance at varying levels (L2 to L5) but potentially impair attentional performance of drivers. The experiment examined drivers' latent hazard anticipation abilities across three levels of automation, L0, L2 and L3. The study was conducted on a driving simulator and data were collected from 36 young licensed drivers. Data indicated that drivers in the L3 condition were less likely to anticipate latent hazards than those in the L0 condition. However, data showed no reliable differences in the latent hazard anticipation for drivers between the L2 and L0 conditions and between L2 and L3 conditions. The results imply that drivers of high-level vehicle automation may display diminished ability to anticipate imminent hazard on the forward roadway. Additional studies need to be conducted to further understand changes in the mechanisms of drivers' latent hazard anticipation ability across different levels of vehicle automation. Better understanding of changes in drivers' latent hazard anticipation can lead to the design of effective countermeasures to support drivers' latent hazard anticipation in automated driving systems. Keywords: vehicle automation; latent hazard anticipation; driving simulation; eye movements; partially automated systems. DOI: 10.1504/IJHFE.2020.10031705