International Journal of Global Energy Issues (41 papers in press)
Integrated Model for Energy Consumption Information of Complex Building based on BIM Technology
by Xia Chen, Lin Miao
Abstract: In order to solve the problem of poor accuracy of energy consumption test in traditional complex building energy consumption information synthesis model, a BIM-based complex building energy consumption information synthesis model is proposed. The dynamic visual programming method is used to set and select the parameters of the complex building's peripheral structure. According to the network terminal, the basic data of energy consumption of the comprehensive architecture are obtained. The basic data of cloud computing are simulated, quantitative research and regression analysis are carried out. BIM technology is used to complete the construction of comprehensive model of energy expenditure information for complex buildings. The experimental results show that the root mean square error of the model is small, only 2.5%. The variation range of the measured coefficients is 0.6-0.8, which shows that the model has high test accuracy.
Keywords: BIM Technology; Complex Building; Energy Consumption Information; Integrated Model.
Impact of bank performance on energy consumption: evidence from selected commonwealth member states
by Aliya Zhakanova Isiksal, Foday Joof
Abstract: This paper aims to determine the effect of bank performance, urbanisation, industrialisation and expansion of the economy on the use of energy by using Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square (FMOLS), Dynamic Ordinary Least Square (DOLS) and the Dumitrescu-Hurlin (DH) causality tests, with a panel of 26 nations for the period of 19962017. The outcomes revealed that industrialisation, expansion of the economy and bank performance have a positive correlation with the consumption of energy, which infers that an increase in these variables will rise the demand for per capita use of energy. The outcomes indicate that an upsurge in urbanisation will result in a decrease in energy use. Furthermore, we found that industrialisation, urbanisation, expansion of the economy and bank performance have a two-way causal
association with the consumption of energy. This finding can serve as a guide to policy makers with regard to the use of more sophisticated technology in reducing the effects of bank performance (ROA), industrialisation and other economic activities on energy use; hence, high-energy consumption can lead to increased CO2 emission, which, if not properly managed, can result in environmental degradation and pollution. Thus, urbanisation should be encouraged because increased urban concentration declines energy use, which results in a decrease in the risk of pollution.
Keywords: ROA; energy consumption; industrialisation; urbanisation; commonwealth countries.
Temperature range across Nigeria to the end of 21st century: Prospects for Photovoltaics based on CMIP5 and CORDEX perspectives.
by Ugochukwu Okoro, Chizomam Usoh, Cecily Nwokocha, Wen Chen
Abstract: The horizontal solar radiation (Gh) has been estimated from the temperature range data from the Climate Research Unit (CRU) using the Annandale method. The temperature range is validated by the Nigeria Meteorological Agency observations, whereas, the estimated Gh is validated by the Photovoltaic Geographical Information System (PVGIS) Gh data. Selected CMIP5 and CORDEX-Africa models estimated Gh and Surface Downwelling Shortwave Radiation output are compared with the CRU estimated Gh. The performances of the CRU estimated Gh with the PVGIS presents it as a proxy to Gh in such data-sparse area. The comparative analysis between the historical experiments of the models output for the estimated Gh and the CRU proxy show significant correlation at a 99.9% confidence level from t-test. The trend analysis reveals that the models estimated Gh projections have two epochs, from 2006 to 2038 and from 2039 to 2089. When compared to the historical, the first epoch shows all the models projecting a decrease of the average estimated Gh in the RCP 4.5 (CCCMa = -0.28%, DMI = -0.31%, KNMI = -0.43%), whereas, CCCMa (0.47%) and DMI (0.06%) projects increment in the RCP 8.5. On the other hand, the second epoch reveals a greater projected decrease in the RCP 4.5 from CCCMa (-0.45%) and KNMI (-1.81%), whereas, a greater projected increment from CCCMa (1.40%) and DMI (0.35%) in the RCP 8.5. Our findings are imperative in PV planning, siting and management across Nigeria.
Keywords: Nigeria; temperature range; solar radiation; CMIP5; CORDEX-Africa.
Energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the sugarcane chain in Brazil: An input-output approach (2000-2014)
by Pery Shikida, Marco Montoya, Giovani Pitilin, Bianca Giordani
Abstract: This paper sought to evaluate the sugarcane chain in Brazil using input-output matrices for energy consumption and CO2 emissions from either renewable or non-renewable sources, in the years 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014. For this purpose, energy and emission matrices were harmonised and disaggregated vis-a-vis the country's monetary matrices. As a result, energy consumption by the said chain grew by 6.7 per cent a year, having accounted for nearly 25 per cent of consumption by the Brazilian agribusiness industry in 2014. However, energy consumption from renewable sources not only prevailed but also rose from 73 per cent in 2000 to 88 per cent in 2014. Therefore, emissions from the sugarcane chain are becoming increasingly suitable for preserving the environment.
Keywords: agribusiness; sugarcane agroindustry; renewable sources.
How to promote renewable energies to the public sphere in Eastern Europe
by Gilbert Ahamer
Abstract: In order to identify the most crucial and promising strategies to enhance public information for better renewable energy sources (RS) implementation in an Eastern European country (here: Ukraine), two dozen expert interviews were performed with stakeholders from the so-called quintuple helix of innovation: Research & University, Civil Society & NGOs, Industry & Enterprises, Governance & Administration, and Media.
A gap analysis was performed based on the analyses expressed by the Ukrainian interview partners, and a suggestion for the structural improvement of a public RES-oriented website wss provided. It was suggested to use the structure of the main obstacles perceived and to build onto this structure how to solve these key obstacles for further RES increases, namely:
Financial, e.g. how to obtain suitable and cheap credits
Administrative, e.g. how to master the complex application process
Technological, e.g. types of RES installations and how to choose them
Social, e.g. energy cooperatives
Fact-based information on RES.
Financial, e.g. how to obtain suitable and cheap credits
Administrative, e.g. how to master the complex application process
Technological, e.g. types of RES installations and how to choose them
Social, e.g. energy cooperatives
Fact-based information on RES.
Keywords: Awareness; Renewable Energy Sources; RES; benefits; needs; information; promote RES implementation; assessment; availability of information; public sphere; barriers for RES; five stakeholder groups; quintuple helix; triple helix; innovation; general population.
Major obstacles for implementing renewable energies in Ukraine
by Gilbert Ahamer
Abstract: Within eastern Europe, Ukraine in particular maintains an intense dialogue with the EU and its legal procedures, including the so-called Energy Union.
This article presents an analysis from the viewpoint of two dozen professional Ukrainian interview partners, describing the current situation of implementing renewable energy sources (RES) in Ukraine. This diagnosis hints at the need of all actors for future improvements within all sections and sizes of RES installations, namely small, medium and large installations, and including photovoltaics, wind and biomass. Especially, information on RES in the public domain should be improved.
These diagnoses provide information on how to solve the key obstacles for further RES increase, namely financial, administrative, technological and social obstacles regarding enhanced investment into RES in a former member of the Soviet sphere.
Keywords: energy; energy transition; Ukraine; Energy Union; public information; renewables; RES; renewable energy; Energy Community; NECP; climate targets; efficiency.
Impact of oil price fluctuations on food prices: Fresh insight from Asymmetric ARDL approach of co-integration
by Umair Kashif, Chen Hong, Snovia Naseem, Muhammad Waqar Akram, Muhammad Saeed
Abstract: The current study analyzes the asymmetric effects of oil prices on food prices in Pakistan from 1977- 2017. ADF, PP, and KPSS root unit tests were used to substantiate data stationarity, while nonlinear autoregressive distributed lags (NARDL) were utilized for asymmetry testing. The NARDL results confirm cointegration and show a strong positive impression of oil rise to food prices in the long-run. In the meantime, a decline in oil prices relationship with food prices is absent and inconsequential. Additionally, positive changes in oil prices have a considerable role in food prices only in the short-run. Due to the absence of the significant influence of oil prices reduction at food prices in the short-run and long-run, market strength could be essential for the formation of Pakistan's food value behavior.
Keywords: Oil price; food price behavior; exchange rates; asymmetry; NARDL.
Cheating Behaviour among OPEC Member-States and Oil Price Fairness and Stability: An Empirical Analysis
by Masud Ibrahim, Kamil Omoteso
Abstract: The paper posits that cheating behaviour in OPEC has ethical, auditing and accountability issues that impact on its reputation and ability to achieve main objectives of ensuring stable and fair oil prices in the oil markets within a target price band. Data from 2000-2012 (i.e. production quota era) were analysed based on (VAR/VEC) framework. The results indicate that OPEC cheating, mainly instigated by the amount of spare production capacity available to OPEC members, does not seem to have a significant direct effect on the international oil prices. However, the degree of cheating by OPEC member-states might disrupt its ability to maintain surplus capacity sufficient to reduce price speculation in the oil markets. The potential impact of continued cheating in OPEC could become more worrisome for an effective regulatory framework for energy market transparency as well as OPECs reputation. We conclude by recommending a policy action in OPEC to redesign the existing quota system considered fair and just to the members with a view to addressing cheating behaviour.
Keywords: OPEC cartel; cooperation; cheating; fairness and stable oil prices.
India: nuclear strategy and emerging challenges
by Ashutosh Singh, Anurag Singh, Nitesh Kumar Adhichwal
Abstract: It is the hypothesis of this article that Indias present officially declared nuclear doctrine of No First Use is not viable in face of the military and strategic challenges the country faces and that a revision of the same is in order. This article will examine the various aspects of Indias doctrine including Massive Nuclear Retaliation and its viability in face of the present and emerging strategic threats. The article seeks to examine this in context of the evolution of the nuclear postures of various major nuclear powers since the dawn of the bomb and compare it with Indias nuclear posture. A nuclear policy viability assessment will thus be carried out in this article, assessing various emerging threats to objectively gauge the credibility of the present doctrine to cope with such threats. Based on the comprehensive and analytical evaluation changes in Indias nuclear doctrine will be recommended in the conclusion of this article.
Keywords: nuclear weapons and non-proliferation; strategy; threat assessment.
Special Issue on: Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy and Climate Change
To the question about the origins of oil and oil exploration of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation
by Peter Skuf'in, Vera Samarina, Tatiana Skufina, Maria Tereshina, Tatjana Tambovceva
Abstract: A number of questions concerning origin and production of oil have been considered in the paper. Two alternative approaches to the genesis of oil are scrutinised: the biogenic origin and the abiogenic one; arguments of supporters of the former point of view and its opposite are given, and the authors' standpoint as for the question considered is worded. In this research, they proceeded from the following alternative hypotheses: firstly, oil has the biogenic origin; secondly, oil has the abiogenic origin and it is generated continuously in the process of cyclic endogenic activity in the depths of the Earth. If the second approach is valid, this means the reserves of oil are virtually inexhaustible. The factors confirming abiogenic origin of oil in Kola geological block of the Arctic zone been examined. Some prospects and difficulties of oil extraction are estimated with environmental problems of oil production in the Arctic emphasised.
Keywords: hydrocarbon raw materials; origin of solid oil; abiogenic origin of oil; oil production; the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation.
A review on solar flat plate collectors
by S. Jebaraj, Ali Mubarak Al-Qahtani
Abstract: Every year, energy demands and global warming are increasing due to the use of conventional energy sources. Hence, the need of the hour requires power to be produced by renewable sources, such as solar power. Even though solar collectors are commonly considered for low and medium temperature applications, their efficiency is low. Various research studies have been carried out in the effort to enhance the solar collector's performance. In this paper, an attempt is made to review the various research articles on analysis and optimisation models, nanofluids' usage and the tilt angle of solar collectors. This review will be beneficial for energy planners, academicians, scientists, and policymakers, to promote solar collectors for thermal applications for cleaner production and sustainable development.
Keywords: flat plate solar collector; performance analysis; optimisation models; tilt angle; collector orientation; nanofluid.
Morphology and surface characteristics of bamboo activated carbon chemically activated under different immersion time
by Made Sucipta, Dewa Ngakan Ketut Putra Negara, Tjokorda Gde Tirta Nindhia, I. Wayan Surata
Abstract: Activated carbons (ACs) have been manufactured from tabah bamboo (Gigantochloc nigrociliata) by carbonisation at 800°C for 1.5 hours and chemically activated. Char powdered with maximum mesh 250 µm was mixed with H3PO4 with impregnation ratio 1:1 and heated at 700°C for 1.5 hours under 100 mL/min N2 flow. ACs produced at immersion time 6, 12, and 24 hours were named AC6, AC12 and AC24, respectively. SEM observation and Pore Size Distribution exhibited that ACs produced have micropores structure. At low relative pressure, the higher the immersion time the lower micropore area and microvolume were obtained. The highest total surface area, micro surface area, and microvolume were obtained at AC6. Type IV appeared at AC24 indicating not highly micropore, indeed mesopore structure, meanwhile Type I adsorption isotherm occurred at AC6 and AC12 indicating high micropore structure. These indicate the chemical activation process can be used to wider application of activated carbon.
Keywords: activated carbon; chemical activation; morphology; surface; immersion time.
Green brand as a marketing instrument: principle, features and parameters
by Serhii Lyeonov, Tetyana Pimonenko, Olena Chygryn, Oleg Reznik, Regina Gaynulina
Abstract: In the paper, the authors analysed the approaches to define a green brand. Using the Google Trends, they proved that the terms 'green brand' is more appropriate than 'sustainable', 'environmental' or 'eco brand'. The purpose of the paper is to analyse the critical components of a green brand and its parameters to develop an effective promotion program. Authors developed an approach to estimate green brand which is based on Mark Fetcher model, content analysis and Fishbourne method. Authors analysed the green brand of three industrial companies. The findings proved that the main factors which influence the green brand are the company's transparency not only in financial but also in non-financial results. Thus, published by the companies on the regular basis the non-financial reports provoke the increase of trust among the leading company's stakeholders. It allows attracting additional financial recourses on the company's green development.
Keywords: brand; investment; stakeholders; green investment; green finance; green product.
Determinants of shadow economy in transition countries: economic and environmental aspects
by Oleksii Lyulyov, Maksym Paliienko, Lesia Prasol, Tetyana Vasylieva, Oleksandra Kubatko, Victoria Kubatko
Abstract: The paper analyses the drivers of shadow economy within the transition economies. It was found that an increase in GDP per capita in a selected group of transition economies by 10% decreases the shadow economy levels by 1.2%; increase in foreign direct investment by 10% shrinks the shadow economy sector by 0.5%; improvements in energy efficiency by 10% are correlated with 2% shadow economy growth. It was also found that an increase in tax level by 10% increases the shadow economy by 1%. The relevant policy implication for transition economies is to stimulate the economic growth supplemented by increase in efficiency of the tax bodies. The separate policy measure for the transition economies is be to reform the structure of the tax system in the direction of higher portion of indirect taxes. The findings suggest that an increase in shadow economy reduces the life expectancy in the selected transition economies.
Keywords: shadow economy; energy efficiency; economic growth; energy prices; institutional changes; post-communist economies.
Factors affecting the electricity transmission and distribution losses: evidences from BRICS countries
by Deepak Kumar, Keya Sengupta
Abstract: This research investigates the effect of sources of production, related trade of goods and investments in forms of mergers and acquisitions on transmission and distribution losses in BRICS countries. The study uses fixed effect regression with Driscoll and Kraay's standard errors to account for cross-sectional dependence and heterogeneity on panel data from 1995 to 2014. The result highlights the impact of electric utility and renewable energy mergers, both domestic and cross-border, in decreasing distribution and transmission losses. The results reveal the strategic importance of mergers and acquisitions in knowledge transfer related to energy efficiency. The encouraging results of a decrease in transmission and distribution losses with increasing mergers and acquisitions in electric utility and renewable energy sectors boost the policy of encouraging investments in the energy sector, leading to improvement in energy efficiency and a decrease in carbon dioxide emissions.
Keywords: energy efficiency; transmission losses; renewable energy; utility; mergers; acquisitions; environmental goods; BRICS; electricity generation.
Simultaneous adsorption of motorcycle emissions through bamboo-activated carbon
by Dewa Ngakan Ketut Putra Negara, Tjokorda Gde Tirta Nindhia, Made Sucipta, I. Wayan Surata, Kadek Sera Astrawan, I. Putu Hari Wangsa
Abstract: The use of fossil fuels in motorcycles causes a rise in the concentration of emissions in the atmosphere. Adsorption using activated carbon is a method that can be applied to reduce emissions. This paper concerns the development of bamboo-activated carbons that are physically activated under different nitrogen flow rates (200, 350, and 500 cm³/min) and applied to the capture of motorcycle emissions (CO2, CO, and HC). An SEM and a Quantachrome Nova machine were applied to characterise the activated carbons. The emission of the motorcycle was measured using a Capalec multi-gas analyser. The results showed that activated carbon produced with a 350 cm³/min nitrogen flow yielded the best characteristics and the highest adsorption capability of the motorcycle emissions. With a surface area of 223.600 m²/g and a pore volume of 0.156 cm³/g, this activated carbon has adsorption efficiencies of 100%, 85.71%, and 83.41% for CO2, CO, and HC, respectively.
Keywords: motorcycle emissions; adsorption efficiency; activated carbon; adsorption capacity; bamboo; surface area; pore volume; nitrogen; fossil fuels; atmosphere.
Managing the key factors of green energy start-ups
by Olena Shkarupa, Victor Eduardo González Hernández, Tetiana Zhukova, Iryna Plikus, John O. Aiyedogbon
Abstract: The article shows different aspects of business model to get success of start-ups. The main purpose of the study was to improve the using key factors of business model and strategic business solutions in energy sector. This paper tries to build up a model between start-up development, business and education level of key-managers. It was discovered the idea of a nexus between education as a key factor of green start-ups by analysing data (it was investigated by econometric model based on MS Excel). The results reveal that there is no direct relationship between the highest level of education and the seed stage of start-up, but at the same time doctoral degree can influence on the steady stage of start-ups in future. This implies education can promote economic development in green energy sector. The study also theoretically proves the importance of marketing strategies in business start-up.
Keywords: start-up; business model; econometric model; green; energy; education.
Role of R&D expenditure, CEO compensation and financial ratios for country's economic sustainability and innovative growth
by Raminta Benetyte, Javier Giner Rubio, Bohdan Kovalov, Nadiya Matviychuk-Soskina, Rytis Krusinskas
Abstract: In this paper, we combine to evaluate interrelation of the financial performance indicators of companies from different European countries, rewards paid to CEO (compensation), companies' research and development (R&D) expenditure, changes in sustainability and innovativeness of country's economy. In this paper, economic sustainability is treated as economic growth in a long-term perspective, based on long-term value-added innovations. In this perspective, companies are one of the main sources in delivering financial/economic value from innovation for the country. That is why there are ongoing discussions to determine the links between companies' R&D, managers making risky decisions and countries economic development. The results of our research reflect the assumptions that companies' efficiently managed financial resources and financially motivated top-level managers targeting to accept the risk for R&D can contribute not only to increasing of company's economic potential, but also to the sustainability of a country's economy. These results reflect the assumptions that companies' efficiently managed financial resources and financially motivated top-level managers targeting to accept the risk for R&D can contribute not only to increasing of company's economic potential, but also to the sustainability of a country's economy.
Keywords: business financial performance; R&D expenditure; economic sustainability; innovation of country.
Experiences in operating a 100 kW rooftop PV plant in an educational institution in India
by M. Gopinath Murali, S. Arul Daniel
Abstract: The performance of a grid-interactive roof-mounted 100 kWp solar photovoltaic power plant at National Institute of Technology, Trichy (NITT) has been analysed. The plant has been operational since June 2013. The climatic, irradiation conditions at the location are accounted, while the system performance is analysed. The output power of the PV array, power quality is assessed after the power conditioning and AC power supplied to the grid, consistency of the system and efficiency of the system have been utilised in the performance analysis attempted. The power quality parameters are Power Factor (PF), RMS Voltage, Total Voltage Harmonic Distortion (THD), Total Current Harmonic distortion has been measured and analysed. In addition, the cost benefits to NIT Trichy for installing the plant have also been analysed.
Keywords: photovoltaic plant; capacity factor performance metrics; performance ratio; power quality.
Environmental determinants of energy-efficient transformation of national economies for sustainable development
by Oleksandra Karintseva, Mykola Kharchenko, Emmanuel Kwesi Boon, Oleksandr Derykolenko, Vladimir Melnyk, Oxana Kobzar
Abstract: Energy-efficient transformations of national economies constitutes a mechanism that will facilitate the creation of an effective national social reproduction system. This paper investigates the national economic structure of Ukraine to determine the level of eco-destructive impacts caused by human and industrial activities at the following four levels: low, average, high and critical. Environmental risk assessment was the methodology adopted for evaluating the impacts of different kinds of economic activities in Ukraine. Three indicators used for determining the impact of eco-destructive activities are environmental costs, environmental cost intensity, and environmental risk. Using Sumy States as a case study, the investigation evaluated relevant ecological and economic indicators and determined the average annual environmental costs of production in Ukraine.
Keywords: environmental costs; environmental cost intensity; environmental risk; eco-destructive activities; environmentally hazardous industries.
Econometric evaluation of large weather events due to climate change: floods in Atlantic Canada
by Yuri Yevdokimov, Stanislav Hetalo, Yuliya Burina
Abstract: Climate change increases frequency of large weather events such as floods, storm surges, cyclones, hurricanes, high-speed winds, thunderstorms, snowstorms, blizzards, extreme temperatures, and others. All these events lead to a significant economic damage to property, infrastructure, and human health. Historically Atlantic Canada has been vulnerable to flooding. Therefore, the goal of this study is to establish a relationship between socio-economic, climatological as well as direct flood factors and economic loss from floods in Atlantic Canada. First, this study evaluates probability of floods in Atlantic Canada due to hydrological as well as climatological factors. Second, it tests the hypothesis of an increasing frequency of floods in the future due to climate change. Coupled with economic losses from floods defined earlier, it will give us a possibility to evaluate the expected damage from floods in Atlantic Canada due to climate change to justify investment into mitigation measures.
Keywords: climate change; extreme weather events; inland floods; econometric analysis; forecast.
Socio-economic and cultural effects of disruptive industrial technologies for sustainable development
by Lina Sineviciene, Luc Hens, Oleksandr Kubatko, Leonid Melnyk, Iryna Dehtyarova, Svitlana Fedyna
Abstract: The size of the business intelligence market and its growth allows to estimate the short-term substitution effect, when the labour is replaced by artificial intelligence. Positive impacts of disruptive technologies include the dematerialisation of the industrial metabolism, and less ecological impact on nature, as prerequisites for the implementation of a circular economy. The negative consequences of disruptive technologies are difficult to predict, and the paper classifies them in eight groups: psychological impact; information vulnerability; increasing information dependence; the risk of creative potential reduction; the increasing cost of waste in the green economy; loss of jobs; privacy decrease; hacking and the loss of human control over cyber systems. The Internet of Things could not appear before the digital technologies (from a personal computer to 'cloud' technologies) reached industrial maturity. Also, societal, legislation and economic challenges raised by disruptive technologies for workers and firms are discussed.
Keywords: job loss; intensity of technology; social effects; economic effects; cultural effects; fourth industrial revolution; artificial intelligence; big data.
Special Issue on: Energy as an Evolutionary Basis for Dialogic International Policies
Asia-Africa energy development cooperation: Double coincidence of interests
by Ahmad Khaleel, Milindo Chakrabarti, Mridul Dharwal
Abstract: The existence of double coincidence of interests between India in particular and Asia in general on one hand and Africa on the other cannot be timelier than now. This is becoming more apparent with the emergence of necessary and needed tools, frameworks and conditions for simultaneously satisfying the interests of both parties. The development challenges and energy resources abundance in Africa can be near-perfectly matched with the emerging excess capacities and energy need in India to create one of the best opportunities that will systematically result in a win-win situation. The potential of Africa's fossil energy resources meeting India's hydrocarbons energy need and hosting additional investment in return for an improvement in Africa's absorption capacities in terms of both finance and technology are some of the costs and benefits ingredients for this greater cooperation. However, there is the need to take into consideration the implicit impact of climate change/action on business and economy, specifically carbon lock-in and carbon bubble in the energy collaboration strategy. The condition is now right to scale-up this kind of cooperation as the world is witnessing the potential attitude of other emerging powers in debt-ridden arrangements towards weaker (African) countries. This will go a long way in saving the reputation and acceptance South-South Cooperation have been building all these years.
Keywords: hydrocarbons; Africa; carbon bubble; carbon lock-in; energy security.
SYNOPTICS, PART IV: Application of the Synoptics Model for the social analysis of territorial and functional compound systems
by Herbert Rauch
Abstract: Compounds are within the ten levels of social systems those interconnected social arrangements where a territorial or a functional realm is circumscribed by a kind of boundaries. As a matter of fact, the application of the 'C'-Theory with respect to compounds was first simply tried out: could it be possible that the power-formula of 'G' and 'A', Alpha-Beta-Gamma-Omega, makes sense also at this level? Surprisingly it does make sense, and more: It can describe and also explain the stability and eventual instability of such social configurations of course, to follow up on this path of social analysis one has to go at least roughly over the introduction of Synoptics as a hermeneutic method, as was outlined in Synoptics PART I Synoptic Social Analysis is a theory and a method to diagnose social systems and social processes aiming to obtain perspectives for therapeutic social action, for instance and especially with respect to processes of conflict work.
The levels and their specific dynamics are described here in several PARTS (articles). Here in PART IV, territorial (settlements) compound systems (such as villages and cities) are outlined, as well as functional-compound systems (with a nation-wide health system as an important example).
Keywords: Synoptics method; social analysis; Raoul Schindler; psychoanalysis; social sciences; social systems; challenge principle; political case studies.
SYNOPTICS, Part III: Application of the Synoptics Model for the social analysis of mass formations and organisations
by Herbert Rauch
Abstract: Synoptics Synoptic Social Analysis is a theory and a method to diagnose social systems and social processes aiming to obtain perspectives for therapeutic social action, here especially aiming for deeper understanding mass formations; diagnosing mass formations in their organisation and preparation can help to set up responding therapeutic actions. The same holds true for organisations of any size (from SME to TNE, with commercial or non-profit goals). Since as mentioned in PART I - Synoptics believes in the (forgotten) unity of all social sciences, here with respect to mass formations and organisations we can see how Depth Psychology (Caruso 1972) /Psychoanalysis (Freud 1967) and Group Dynamics (which works also on large scale assemblies Joussain 1937), and Sociology (Otto 1917) have to be united in one broader perspective (i.e. here called Synoptics). It works with a modified model of Raoul Schindlers' theory of human rank dynamics; and is here addressed as the challenge principle theory (based on the so-called 'C'-hypothesis), dealing especially with the conditions of cooperation and conflict within the human species. This modified and vastly elaborated model works with a horizontal dimension (C-dynamics) and a vertical dimension (ten levels of social systems are conceptualized to frame all so far known social systems. In this so-called vertical dimension, all social systems are distinguished with respect to increasing complexity (these level are: the individual, the dyad, the small group, the large group, the mass formation, the organization, the functional compound system, the territorial compound system, the sovereign social system, the ecumenical system (i.e., today: the global social system). In several PARTS (articles) these social systems are conceptualized and empirically described in more detail. Here in PART III, mass formations and organizations are outlined, giving also the main results of one related comparative study each. As a matter of fact, the zeitgeist since the 1960ies (esp. 1968) is against structure, discipline and authority; however, the empirical data all show that these forms are not to be annihilated by attitudes and will, however, that harder and softer forms of these manifestations are to be observed. The softer they are the more social space they leave for self-realization, which seems still to be a welcomed clou in our time (e.g. observing the guidelines of the newspaper The Guardian, London, 1968-2020).
Keywords: Mass formations; organisations; Raoul Schindler; Institut für Sozialanalyse; companies; social dynamics; social analysis; synoptics model.
The Failure of Deep Decarbonizing of Europe by 2050 in Line with the Paris Agreement: a Losing Player Analysis
by Majid Asadnabizadeh
Abstract: Some international climate change negotiations result in clear successes. Others seem to fail or simply flat line. The 2015 Paris Accord reflects a formal transition in global climate change management to solve a collective issue by promoting and facilitating transformative deep decarbonization pathways. The EU States cannot yet reach the 2050 decarbonization plan which requires cooperation. This paper sets out a structure to help understand the failure and challenges for the EU to develop a deep decarbonized pathway. Existing literatures fails to fully explain this situation. This article develops a frameworkeconomic interest groups--that focuses on winning and losing players. A plausible answer lies in a process of shaping a coalition against the EUs proposed pathway by losing states. I argue that the presence of losing states explains the failure of the current EU deep decarbonization pathway in line with the Paris Agreement
Keywords: Paris agreement; Deep DE carbonization; Interest groups; Losing states.
Contemporary architecture with glass facades facing the energy efficiency of solar materials (VPV-IGU) in the hot climate of the Saharan region A case study in Bechar
by Khadidja KHENCHA, Wided Ratiba BIARA, Hocine BELMILI
Abstract: This paper discusses a comparative study of four types of glazing materials using in contemporary architecture. The first one is the clear and simple glazing, the second is the double glazing, the third one the (STPV) Semi-transparent photovoltaic, and the last one is the (VPV-IGU) Vacuum Photovoltaic Insulated Glass Unit. At first, the paper presents a small historical review concerning the use of glazing in contemporary architecture in the world and in Algeria. The present study is based on developing a building model situated in the south of Algeria characterized by specific meteorological conditions, a very hot climate. With a curtain wall design under TRNSYS to compare in the effect of each type of glazes on thermal performance inside the building and on the human comfort (heat gain, heat losses, thermal load, and lighting energy). In the second time the evaluation of the power generation and the energy efficiency of all types of glass used in this contemporary building.
Keywords: Glazing materials; (STPV) Semi-transparent photovoltaic; (VPV-IGU) Vacuum Photovoltaic Insulated Glass Unit; TRNSYS; energy efficiency; harsh climate; thermal performance; thermal load; heat losses; power generation.
Prospects for employment in renewable energy in Ukraine, 2014-2035
by Galyna Trypolska
Abstract: Renewable energy sources (RES) in Ukraine have begun to play an important role in the energy balance. The power-generating installed capacity grew significantly in 2019. Despite this growth, the social impact of renewables in Ukraine is not yet known. The paper aims to assess the impact of jobs in the power and heat sectors that were already in place in Ukraine in 2014-2019 and those in both renewable and conventional energy in 2020-2035, should Ukraine follow the energy path defined by the Energy Strategy of Ukraine through 2035. The assessment was made using an employment factors approach. The study finds that in 2014-2019, RES supported 157,000 jobs in Ukraine, of which 92,000 were available in 2019. The number of jobs excluding equipment manufacturing amounted to 94,000 as equipment was manufactured primarily abroad. The Energy Strategy of Ukraine through 2035 is heavily coal-oriented, which contradicts the countrys efforts for a greener future.
Keywords: renewable energy; jobs; Ukraine.
Stability, Control and Modeling Analysis of Micro Grid Connected to the Wind Turbine with Optimized Boosted Converter
by Soheil Honarbari, Mohsen Alizadeh Bidgoli
Abstract: Wind turbines as a renewable energy are installed and operated as wind farms in various locations with windy climates. It is important to consider improving the climate and not damaging these wind turbines, because of in these areas apart from being close to the seas, deserts, forests and other environmental areas. Connecting micro grids to wind turbines can lead to improved power generation and transmission to distribution networks. Therefore, formulating and configuring the micro-grid connected to the wind turbine requires accurate examination of the configuration of the micro-grid with wind power generation system along with variable speed with wind energy determination and error estimation for stability analysis and control by means of error detection. The aim of this study is to use fuzzy logic control systems and then identify the faulty areas for stability analysis with the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Simulation results represented improved error estimation and stability analysis and other evaluation criteria.
Keywords: Wind Turbines; Micro-Grid; Stability Analysis; Optimized Controller.
Prospects and Roadmaps for Harvesting Solar Thermal Power in Tropical Brunei Darussalam
by Nur Wardhyana Yahya, Reddy Prasad D.M., Dakshinamoorthy Sathiyamoorthy, Rajashekhar Pendyala
Abstract: The need to augment Brunei Darussalams renewable energy sources for power generation to 10% by 2035 is necessary due to the uncertainty of oil and gas reserves. The increasing demand for electricity and the need to reduce fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions require alternative renewable energy sources. The country should focus on the potential of solar thermal energy in generating power. As the power generated from its solar photovoltaic plant is still significantly low, this paper aims to focus on the prospects of widely used solar thermal power (STP) technologies in Brunei Darussalam. Despite being commercialized in many parts of the world, the primary problem in tropical Southeast Asian regions is due to the fluctuating solar radiation, high humidity and frequent cloud cover. This study identified currently available STP technologies and further suggested approaches for large-scale power generation, and ways to minimize the issues arise from the climate conditions.
Keywords: Solar thermal power; Concentrated solar power; Tropical climate.
Financing Sustainable Development: The Case of Renewable Energies in Tunisia
by Nadia Dridi
Abstract: Investment in renewable energy projects is facing many market barriers and experiencing innumerable obstacles, which has led us to look for new financing methods that are more innovative and more technical in order to overcome the shortcomings of traditional financial intermediation. This suggests to us the importance of financial sector development in promoting the renewable energy sector. For that matter, this paper aims to study the impact of the development of the financial sector on the development of the renewable energy sector in Tunisia. We used annual data from 1980 to 2016. In our empirical study, the variables domestic credit provided to the private sector and financial depth are measures
Keywords: Domestic credit mobilized to the private sector; Financial depth; Production of renewable energies; Cointegration; VECM. rnrn.
Current issues for the Ukrainian power system on its pathway towards energy transition
by Surhii Denysiuk, Yuliia Chernetska
Abstract: Energy systems all over the world are challenged because of the ongoing fundamental transformation driven by the concept of sustainable development; however, policies, societal preferences, emerging and declining technologies, and specifically energy transition pathways differ in each country. The study is dedicated to the energy transition progress in Ukraine with a focus on the relevant power system transformation. It is shown that under the influence of strengthened cooperation with the European Union (EU), Ukraine has made consistent and measurable progress on its energy transition over the past six years. The positive trend in low carbon electricity generation is achieved mainly due to the supporting mechanism of green tariffs; and raising electricity prices as a downside of this process becomes a new pressing issue for the Ukrainian government. Based on a survey of the relevant literature and statistical data, the analysis also uncovers other existing challenges for further progress in the energy transition: (1) understandable but undesirable implementation of the National renewable energy action plan; (2) lack of flexible generation capacities in the Ukrainian power system; (3) availability of massive and expensive infrastructures for traditional energy sources, without enough growing electricity demand; (4) weak competitiveness of electricity produced in Ukraine for complete integration in the EU electricity market. The pointed issues are discussed to help policymakers in updating Ukraines energy transition pathway.
Keywords: energy transition; power system; electricity market; renewables; energy efficiency; greenhouse gas emissions; Ukraine.
Special Issue on: Uncertainties and Risk Management in Competitive Energy Markets
Energy Data Temporal Information Index Algorithm Based on Critical Point Dynamic Adjustment
by Zhongli Shen, Qiyue Xie, Fei Jiang, Yi Zuo
Abstract: In order to improve the scheduling ability of temporal information of energy data, an index algorithm of temporal information of energy data based on dynamic adjustment of critical points is proposed. Using the statistical characteristics analysis method, the energy time information structure is analyzed with big data. The phase space reconstruction method is used to adjust the structure of the time information of the energy data and reconstruct it adaptively, and extract the relevant characteristics of the time information. Using the method of dynamic adjustment of critical points, the paper studies the attribute clustering and feature retrieval in the process of time information index of energy data. The fuzzy autocorrelation feature matching method is used to realize the time information index of energy data. The simulation results show that this method reduces the index time of energy data and improves the anti-jamming ability of energy data temporal information index.
Keywords: Critical point; dynamic adjustment; energy data; temporal information; index.
Research On Financial Stochastic Dynamic Model Of Energy Market Based On Mcmc Simulation
by Guoqi Bi
Abstract: In order to overcome the problem of stochastic dynamic parameters of financial model, a stochastic dynamic model of energy market finance based on MCMC simulation is proposed. In this model, a series of sample values are obtained by Gibbs sampler of MCMC simulation method, and the point estimates of dynamic model are obtained by posterior sample mean. The price data of oilfut and propane futures in the financial market of New York Mercantile Exchange from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2018 are selected to obtain the financial fluctuation through the WinBUGS simulation software. The experimental results show that the time series of oilfut and propane futures have the characteristics of peak and tail, and the characteristics of peak and tail of oilfut are more obvious; the market returns of oilfut and propane futures do not obey the normal distribution; emergencies will cause fluctuations in the energy market.
Keywords: MCMC simulation; Energy market; Finance; Stochastic; Dynamic; Model.
Research On Energy Supply Chain Risk Prediction Based On The Fuzzy C-Means Clustering Algorithm
by Tao Xiao, Tao Zhang, Ning Zhang
Abstract: In order to improve the ability of risk prediction, a risk prediction method of energy supply chain based on fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm is proposed. Based on the regression analysis results of risk data samples, panel data fusion is carried out to extract the correlation feature of risk panel data of energy supply chain. Using the prior information distributed detection method to construct the statistical characteristic quantity of energy supply chain risk prediction. According to the prior sample regression analysis results of risk prediction of energy supply chain, the risk characteristics of energy supply chain are extracted, and the fuzzy c-means clustering method is used to cluster the risk characteristics, and the risk prediction of energy supply chain is carried out. The simulation results show that this method has high accuracy and credibility for energy supply chain risk prediction, and improves the risk management ability of energy supply chain.
Keywords: Fuzzy C-means; clustering; energy supply chain; risk prediction.
Research On Risk Assessment Method Of Energy System Based On Data Mining
by Lei Zhang, Huaxi Chen, Ma-li ZHENG
Abstract: In order to overcome the problem of data index confusion and index weight ambiguity in the traditional energy system risk assessment process, this paper proposes an energy system risk assessment method based on data mining.This method USES data mining technology and quantitative index processing method to select risk assessment index of energy system, construct risk assessment index system of energy system, determine the weight of risk assessment index of energy system, and build risk assessment model of energy system on this basis.The experimental results show that the weighing accuracy and evaluation accuracy of the proposed method are above 90%, and the skewness coefficient is always close to 0.The method has a high degree of rationality in energy risk index selection, high precision in index weight and high accuracy in evaluation results, which can effectively guarantee the safety of urban energy system.
Keywords: Data mining; Energy system; Indicator system; Risk assessment.
Special Issue on: Coal Utilisation and the Environment
Research on the features of particles passing through screen in the three products hydrocyclone screen (TPHS)
by Chuanzhen Wang, Liang Shen, Xiaolu Sun, Jinbo Zhu, Chao Wang
Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the features of particles passing through screen in a new three product hydrocyclone screen (TPHS). The result shows that with the increasing feed concentration, particles reporting to overflow, underflow and screen underflow become coaser, finer and bigger, respectively; as the feed pressure increases, those first increases then decreases, rises and falls, respectively; with the increase of spigto size, those become coaser, bigger and stable, respectively. Further, the optimum feed concentration, feed pressure and spigot size were 120 g/l, 0.07 MPa and 17.50 mm, respectively. Moreover, as the feed concentration, feed pressure or spigot diameter increases, both the average particle size and concentration of fluid permeating screen raises, while the permeating throughput decreases as either the increasing feed concentration or the decreasing feed pressure and spigot diameter. Besides, the deeper axial depth of cylindrical screen, the less particles penetrating screen.
Keywords: Three product hydrocyclone screen; particle passing through screen; particle classification; process feature;.
Motion characteristics of coal-series kaolinite with different particle size influence
by Bing-sheng HU, Hong WANG, Jun-chao SONG, Liang WEI, Shi-song YUE, Jin-xin JIA, Chang-liang SHI
Abstract: The gas-solid fluidization separation of coal-series kaolinite has wide feed size, and the fluidization characteristics of different particle size are different. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element (DEM) coupling technology are proposed. Simulation results show that the pressure and kinetic energy characteristic in the separation area are conducive; the clear movement track mechanism of heavy products and light products of coarse particle size (50mm-75mm), middle particle size (25mm-50mm) and fine particle size (13mm-25mm), are discussed respectively; also, the collection efficiency with different particle size are theoretical studied. It is found that the experimental yield has less error with the theoretical value of 2.5g/cm3 heavy products, and the distribution state of the final heavy products is consistent with the actual separation.
Keywords: coal-series kaolinite; different particle size; flow field; movement track; collection efficiency; DEM simulation.
Construction of engineering bacteria degrading residual polyacrylamide in coal slime water by protoplast fusion technique
by Dongchen Zhang, Fanglue Wang, Chuanzhen Wang, Wen Dai
Abstract: Polyacrylamide(PAM) widely is used as flocculant in coal preparation. But residual PAM in coal slime water is adverse to subsequent flotation process. In addition, the emission of PAM-containing wastewater will damage the environment. A protoplast fusant with enhanced degradation ability of PAM was obtained by intergeneric protoplast fusion between Rhodopseudomonas spheroides(R. spheroides) and Bacillus subtilis(B. subtilis). The protoplast preparation was optimized and inactivation of both parents was performed in different ways. The degradation abilities of domesticated R. spheroides, B. subtilis and mixed bacteria(v/v, 1.00) were compared with protoplast fusant. The results showed that the optimal dosage for R. spheroides protoplast preparation was determined to be 20.00% sucrose, 1.00mg/mL lysozyme, 0.20% EDTA and 60.00min. Under such conditions, the protoplast formation rate and the protoplast regeneration rate were 63.70% and 8.90%, respectively. The optimal dosage for B. subtilis protoplast preparation was determined to be 20.00% sucrose, 1.50mg/mL lysozyme, and 60.00min. Under such conditions, the protoplast formation rate and the protoplast regeneration rate were 58.50% and 9.45%, respectively. The protoplast inactivation of R. spheroides and B. subtilis were optimally conducted by ultraviolet radiation(70.00s) and by heat at 55.00?(50.00min), respectively. The degradation rates by domesticated R. spheroides, B. subtilis, and mixed bacteria were 24.90%, 22.13% and 39.24%, respectively. The degradation rate of protoplast fusant was 53.14%. The degradation ability of protoplast fusant was obviously improved. Furthermore, using microscopic observation, it was found that both parents form protoplasts by the way of apical release and protoplast fusant was successfully obtained.
Keywords: Coal slime water; Rhodopseudomonas spheroides; Bacillus subtilis; polyacrylamide(PAM); protoplast fusant.
Rock strata failure and subsidence characteristics under the mining of short distance thick coal seams a case in west China
by Li Jianghua, Li Hongjie, Li Ling, Wang Donghao
Abstract: Fracture characteristic of rock failure caused by mining is the significant base for prevention and control of mine water disasters and water resource protection. Especially for the western mines in China, it is very important to protect water resources and ecological environment, because of the lack of water. Rock failure characteristic is influenced by rock strength and mining method. In recent years, the working faces of short distance coal seams and mining depth have increased gradually for the mining and reduce of shallow coal reserves. It is of prime importance for the research on the rock failure rule of short distance coal mining. Take the western mine as an example, water consumption and borehole TV observation methods were used to measure the failure of hard rock after the mining of short distance coal seams (#1 and #5) under high-strength mining. Dynamic change progress of rock failure was researched through numerical simulation method. Surface movement and deformation rule for short distance mining was analyzed by probability integral method. The research results were as follows: (1) The closer the rock was to the goaf, the larger the fracture was. The caving zone for mining 9.7m in #5 coal seam had passed through the goaf of #1 coal seam, and the height of caving zone reached to 95.56 m, the height of fissure zone was more than 176.71 m. (2) Numerical simulation results showed that the deformation, movement and failure bands of surrounding rock were enlarged with the working face advance. The height of caving zone was 97.5 m and the fissure zone had reached to the surface after the excavation of two coal seams, which were close to the in-situ observation results. (3) The range of surface subsidence and deformation was enlarged with the mining of #5 working faces. The scope of influence for subsidence was smaller in the shallow area than in the deep area. The maximum subsidence was 11m in the center of mining area. However, the horizontal deformation in shallow area was larger than in deep area. The maximum horizontal deformation and incline deformation were 35 mm/m and 30 mm/m separately.
Keywords: rock failure; short-distance coal seams; high-strength mining; fractures characteristics of rock failure; mining subsidence; surface deformation; caving zone; fissure zone.
Deep Learning-based Image Classification of Gas Coal
by Zelin Zhang
Abstract: Machine vision-based sorting technology is a potential mineral separation method with the merits of high cost performance and security. However, the classification accuracy of common mineral pattern recognition methods is not satisfactory. Therefore, this paper proposes a deep learning-based classification method for the multi-class prediction of gas coal in the machine vision sorting system. The single coal images are obtained by the image segmentation algorithm and taken as the inputs of deep learning model based on the Inception_v3 network with the aid of transfer learning. The cross-entropy loss function and test accuracy are applied as the evaluation indexes of the classification effect. The result derived using the proposed model indicates that the classification accuracies of four-products, three-products and two-products are up to 82.3%, 87.8% and 99.4%, respectively. Additionally, and grad-cam convolution thermal map is used to visualize the differences in the deep learning classification process. Finally, the proposed deep learning model proves its superiority over the traditional models such as Back Propagation Neural Network (BP), Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM).
Keywords: Deep learning; gas coal; image classification; transfer learning.