International Journal of Export Marketing (9 papers in press)
GLOBAL FACTORY STRUCTURE: THE ROLE OF LEADERSHIP
by Isaac Akuffo
Abstract: This paper examined the role of leadership in the global factory structure. The review was based on articles published by peer review ranging from 1984 to 2018 accessed from EBSCO Discovery, Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The review was conducted within the context of one key research question. Twenty-eight studies were obtained on the global factory, out of which seven considered leadership in the context of global factory structure. The review indicated that scant empirical studies have been conducted on the global factory structure and most data were gathered from manufacturing firms with little attention on the service firms. Firms from emerging economies find it difficult to break into global factory structure due to insufficient resources, strategy and R&D investments. Firms implement the global factory structure to maximise profit and provide tailor-made services to their customers. Findings and recommendations are discussed.
Keywords: Leadership; global factory; globalisation; internationalisation; multinational enterprise.
Firm Innovation in The Asia and Pacific Region: The Role of Governance Environment, Firm Characteristics, and External Finance
by Ashraf Abumousa
Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of the governance environment, firm characteristics, and external finance on firm innovation. Cross-sectional data from World Bank Enterprise Survey (WBES) for the year 2015 was adopted to examine this influence in 4993 firms across seven countries from East Asia and the Pacific region. While several aspects of innovation have been identified in innovation research, this paper defines firm innovation broadly to comprise the introduction of new production outputs, investment activities, and the effectiveness of innovative outputs. Further, the paper assesses the innovating firms performance based on their prevailed business environment. The results show that firms can innovate even in the weak court system. Firms that pay bribes to public officials are more innovative. The paper also finds a significant association between some firm characteristics and innovation. Findings suggest that external finance promotes innovation better than internal finance.
Keywords: Firm Innovation; Governance; Firm Characteristics; External Finance; Ownership Structure; Legal System.
SME Internationalization and the Role of Global Cities: A Tentative Conceptualization
by Philippe REGNIER, Pascal Wild
Abstract: This article suggests a tentative conceptual framework to study the internationalization of SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises), and the role of global cities as major business hubs providing a wide range of supportive services facilitating market entry. The literature discussing this intermediation role has exclusively covered the use of global cities by multinational corporations and their affiliates, but not by internationalizing SMEs. It is hypothesized that a number of global cities play an important intermediation role for internationalizing SMEs in foreign markets. The spatial concentration of business services, knowledge and talent in a global city meet the internationalizing SMEs demand for functional and social networks. Through access to reliable business information, the SMEs are enabled to reduce distances to the foreign markets. Preliminary empirical evidence is presented with descriptive results of Swiss internationalizing SMEs and their linkages to the 21 major global cities.
Keywords: SME internationalization; global cities’ eco-systems; business development services.
Entrepreneurial marketing of international new ventures: A decision-making perspective and propositions
by Man Yang
Abstract: This conceptual paper studies the entrepreneurial marketing process in international new ventures by focusing on entrepreneurs decision-making. This paper defines the concept of international entrepreneurial marketing and identifies its dimensions: entrepreneurs, international entrepreneurial marketing culture, strategy, and tactics. The paper proposes a model of the international entrepreneurial marketing process and develops propositions from a decision-making perspective based on the effectuation theory. The model suggests that entrepreneurs in international new ventures adopt an effectual decision-making process, utilise international entrepreneurial marketing culture and leverage contingences in the international business environment to create new marketing opportunities. As the outcome of the entrepreneurial decision-making process, international entrepreneurial marketing strategy and tactics shape the international business environment and create new markets. The paper makes theoretical contributions in international marketing and international entrepreneurship, as well as provides managerial implications for entrepreneurs or managers who conduct international marketing activities.
Keywords: international new venture; international marketing; international entrepreneurship; decision-making; effectuation.
Are There Export spillovers in Manufacturing Industry? Evidence from Switzerland
by Lamia Ben Hamida, Patrick Ischer
Abstract: Apart from foreign direct investment (FDI), multinationals (MNCs) export activities are also a valuable source of knowledge for domestic firms (in the home and the host countries). The aim of this paper is to focus in detail on the role of MNCs export activities in improving the export performance of domestic firms through export spillovers. In particular, we test whether export activities of both Swiss and foreign MNCs located in Switzerland may benefit the Swiss economy when the export specific knowledge that are experienced on foreign markets may spill over to domestic firms, raising their export propensity. We argue that export spillovers do not occur automatically. They depend upon the mechanism by which they take place, the absorptive capacity of domestic firms, the export destination, and the geographical proximity. We found that the probability that domestic firms exports is positively and significantly associated with the presence of MNCs exporters in their sector. Demonstration-imitation is the main mechanism for these benefits. These benefits are larger when specific by destination and when domestic firms are in close proximity to foreign and Swiss MNCs. In addition, domestic firms with high technological capacities benefit more from export spillovers.
Keywords: MNCs; export spillovers; regional effect; export destination; spillover mehanisms.
Special Issue on: Perspectives on International Business and Export Marketing
Uncovering New Value Frontiers: The Role of the Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in Nurturing Born Globals
by Hannes Velt, Lasse Torkkeli, Sami Saarenketo
Abstract: The concept of the entrepreneurial ecosystem has recently started gaining renewed attention among entrepreneurship scholars. However, the research on international business and entrepreneurship has stayed notably silent on the role that entrepreneurial ecosystems can have in driving the growth and internationalisation processes. This is a crucial omission, as all enterprises are part of their local entrepreneurial ecosystem and thus their international growth can also be impacted by the strengths and weaknesses of the local ecosystem.
In this exploratory study, we seek to open up a discussion on the role that the entrepreneurial ecosystem can have in research on international entrepreneurship. We assess the entrepreneurial ecosystems from the point of view of born globals and do so comparatively across two countries: Finland and Estonia. Through a survey and data analysis with STATA and t tests, this study contributes to the literature on international entrepreneurship by 1) outlining the entrepreneurial ecosystem elements that are the most and least critical for the development of born global start-ups and 2) comparing the performance of ecosystems between different countries as seen by born globals. Thus, the study helps in applying a neglected concept and level of analysis to the international entrepreneurship field.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial ecosystems; born globals; start-ups; leadership; bootstrapping; informal debt; credit institutions; venture capital; angel investors; crowdfunding; knowledge; networks; incubators; industry associations; Finland; Estonia.
Measuring market destination effect on export product innovation
by Valeska V. Geldres-Weiss, Joaquin Monreal-Perez, Dirceu Tornavoi-Carvalho
Abstract: In this work, we explore the impact of exporting to highly-developed destinations (the Nordic area) on the product innovative firm performance from a wide open and export-oriented country, Chile. In doing so, we carry out a longitudinal analysis (2006-2017) addressed to Chilean firms belonging to a sector in which Chilean firms are top exporting ones worldwide: the fruit one. From all 177 firms considered, 54 firms exported to Nordic Countries in the period considered. To test our suggested hypothesis, we use the Export Product Innovation Index and a Tobit regression model. The results of the analysis confirm our hypothesis: exporting to advanced countries favour the firm product innovation. This finding underlines the importance of the market destination effect on the firm export product innovation performance, and consequently on the firm
Keywords: Export product innovation; market destination; Export Product Innovation Index; Fruit market; Chile; Nordic markets.
Analysis of the Export Performance of State-Owned Enterprises from Latin American and Caribbean, reviewing corruption and informal economy.
by Gema Sancho Minana Bertomeu
Abstract: State-Owned Enterprises from Emerging Economies have entered into an international expansion wave challenging the common assumption that these firms are limited to their domestic market. Literature however does not capture this new trend and address SOEs activity from a limited viewpoint. Moreover, research on emerging economies and MNEs from these regions is rather general and clearly insufficient on the Latin American and Caribbean region. Following a quantitative strategy, we find that governments are strengthening the position of SOEs for different reasons other than just promoting exports. The institutional environment impacts the export performance of LAC SOEs, with informal economy facilitating the export performance of SOEs. Finally, data on corruption is slightly inadequate due to the sensitive of the topic, therefore a common framework for studying corruption is encouraged as it will both help advance research on the topic and help policy makers and practitioners to tackle corruption.
Keywords: State Owned Enterprises; SOEs; Export Performance; Latin American and the Caribbean; LAC; Informal Economy; Corruption.
Internationalization of Firms Research and Development Activities: The Experience from European Union Framework Programs
by Kadri Ukrainski, Hanna Kanep, Margit Kirs, Erkki Karo
Abstract: This article draws attention to the innovation divide of the firms from EU new and old member states in participating in Framework Programs similarly to the higher education and research actors. The article uses the eCorda database of European Commission with the cut-off date of 28 February 2017 and existing literature to dissect the main issues/debates regarding the participation of countries of EU13 in the 8th Framework Program called Horizon 2020. The article discusses, that the underlying challenges are related to lower competitiveness and strategic focus of firms; lower administrative and project-management capacities of firms; and weaker networking capacities and relational proximity with EU15 actors.
Keywords: R&D; firms; EU framework programs; Horizon 2020; EU13; EU new member states.