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International Journal of Export Marketing (5 papers in press)
Are There Export spillovers in Manufacturing Industry? Evidence from Switzerland by Lamia Ben Hamida, Patrick Ischer Abstract: Apart from foreign direct investment (FDI), multinationals (MNCs) export activities are also a valuable source of knowledge for domestic firms (in the home and the host countries). The aim of this paper is to focus in detail on the role of MNCs export activities in improving the export performance of domestic firms through export spillovers. In particular, we test whether export activities of both Swiss and foreign MNCs located in Switzerland may benefit the Swiss economy when the export specific knowledge that are experienced on foreign markets may spill over to domestic firms, raising their export propensity. We argue that export spillovers do not occur automatically. They depend upon the mechanism by which they take place, the absorptive capacity of domestic firms, the export destination, and the geographical proximity. We found that the probability that domestic firms exports is positively and significantly associated with the presence of MNCs exporters in their sector. Demonstration-imitation is the main mechanism for these benefits. These benefits are larger when specific by destination and when domestic firms are in close proximity to foreign and Swiss MNCs. In addition, domestic firms with high technological capacities benefit more from export spillovers. Keywords: MNCs; export spillovers; regional effect; export destination; spillover mehanisms.
A pilot study on measuring organisational culture in Vietnamese corporations in light of task and relationship orientations by Quan H. N. Tran Abstract: In this global and international world, organisational culture is a topic often inspected. This research attempts to find out what is the main characteristic of organisational culture in Vietnamese corporations. In total, 276 Vietnamese working adults in two regions in Vietnam participated. The findings from the survey data display that while task orientation is the common organisational culture in current Vietnamese companies, negative attitudes are surprising discovered. Implications are explained for further Vietnamese superiors and subordinates so that they might cooperate effectively in the future. Keywords: Task orientation; relationship orientation; culture; organisational culture; negative attitudes; Vietnam.
Analysing the Direct and Indirect Effects of Entrepreneurial Competencies on International Market Diversification and Profitability: A Study of Small Exporting Firms in Ghana by Prince Kwarteng Oppong, Utz Dornberger, Md. Noor Un Nabi Abstract: The study analyses the direct and indirect effects of entrepreneurial competencies (ECs) on the international performance of small exporting firms. Considering the high importance of ECs, it particularly looks at their direct and indirect impacts on international market diversification (IMD) and profitability. We contribute to the growing research in special areas of internationalisation of SMEs and underscored particular competencies for internationalisation, their interactions and relationships as well as implications for small exporting firms in Ghana and their international performance. Primary data was collected through a survey of 134 small exporting firms from different sectors in Ghana and analysed with Structural Equation Modelling, which was made of 9 constructs. The study showed that 5 identified ECs have direct positive effects on IMD, which also leads to a superior rate of profitability. It furthermore highlighted the mediation effect of IMD which caused indirect effects of ECs on profitability. Keywords: Entrepreneurial Competencies; Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs); Internationalisation; International Market Diversification; International Performance.
Internationalisation Strategies of Lusophone African MNEs: A Case-based Analysis by Marcus Goncalves, Erika Smith Abstract: This study investigates the internationalisation strategies of Lusophone Africa multinational enterprises (LAMNEs) from Angola and Mozambique. While previous scholarship examining the investment decisions and actual investment commitments found that MNEs make choices to internationalize incrementally in an effort to reduce uncertainty, this research expands this body of scholarship by identifying Angolan and Mozambican MNEs that were born global or created with the purpose of becoming international new ventures (INV). Using a mixed-methods approach that includes surveys and semi-structured interviews, this research also identified LAMNEs that relied on external resources to launch themselves into international markets, utilizing web-enabled digital and virtual resources, such as the Internet, social media and online professional communities of practice. Most did not enter foreign markets alone and chose to rely on modes of entry that included joint ventures and partnerships, mergers and acquisitions (M&A), and e-commerce and e-business. Keywords: internationalisation process; born global; international new ventures; INV; Africa; Angola MNEs; Mozambique MNEs; Uppsala model; CAGE model; OLI eclectic paradigm.
Does Risk Tolerance Behaviour of Entrepreneur Affect the Growth of Entrepreneurial Firms through the Mediation of Effectuation Decision-making Approach? by Imtiaz Masroor, Md. Nur Alam Abstract: Risk tolerance behaviour is a cognitive variable that helps the entrepreneur to estimate risk which in turn helps to make decisions. This is why risk tolerance behaviour can be helpful to explain decision-making techniques adopted by entrepreneurs. Decision-making approach is a crucial factor as it impacts the growth of entrepreneurial firms. This paper develops and investigates the relationship between five cognitive variables on the firm performance drawing from cognition and entrepreneurship theories. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 158 IT SME decision-makers during April-June, 2016. The relationship between different variables is measured using univariate General Linear Model (GLM). This study found statistically significant relationship amongst entrepreneurial inclination, risk-tolerance behaviour, effectuation and firm performance. However, the mediation effect of effectuation on risk tolerance behaviour and firm performance is found to be statistically insignificant. This study links entrepreneurial cognition with firm performance showing decision-making logic as a mediator. Keywords: Effectuation; Entrepreneurship; Cognitive Variable; Mediation; Growth of SMEs; Risk